Chronography of Angola

Page last modified 6/8/2022


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8/2016, Continued separatist clashes in Cabinda between the Angolan Government and FLEC.

11/2010, Cabinda separatist group FLEC claimed responsibility for an attack on a bus carrying Chinese mine workers.

1/2010, Separatist violence in Cabinda restarted; a bus carrying the Togo football team was attacked there during the Africa Nations Cup.

9/2008, Angola held its first Parliamentary elections since 1992.

6/2006, The Angolan Government signed a peace deal with separatists in the Cabinda enclave.

6/2005, The Chinese Prime Minister, Wen Jiabao, visited Angola, and arranged new Chinese investment in the country.

4/2004, The Angolan Government expelled 300,000 illegal diamond traffickers. Oil production reached 1 million barrels per day.

6/2003, UNITA, now a recognised opposition Party, appointed Isaias Samakuva as leader.

8/2002, UNITA formally disbanded its military forces.

6/2002, Food aid appeal for Angola as thousands of refugees began returning home as the civil war ended. 500,000 Angolans were facing starvation.


Angolan civil war, 1975-2002

5/2002, UNITA claimed that 95% of its fighters had reported to demobilisation camps, but there were fears that a foiod shortage at these camps could derail the peace process.

4/4/2002, A truce was signed between the Angolan government and UNITA, who became the official opposition party of Angola.

22/2/2002. Jonas Savimbi, leader of the UNITA opposition to the Angola Government in a protracted civil war since 1975, was killed by Angolan Government troops, aged 67 (born 1934).

1998. The Angolan civil war restarted, and persisted until 2002. Angolan forces under Dos Santos also intervened in the Congo civil was, in support of President :Laurent Desire Kabila. UN peacekeepers pulled out in 1999.

4/1997, Savimbi spurned participation in the new Government of National Unity. Only a few UNITA fighters joined the Angolan Army, and civil war looked likely again.

1996, Dos Santos (MPLA) and Savimbi (UNITA) agreed to form a national government of unity.

1995, A 7,000-strong contingent of UN peacekeepers began arriving in Angola.

20/11/1994, The Angolan Government and UNITA signed the Lusaka Protocol. However fighting restarted in 1998.

19/6/1993, The US recognised the Government in Angola.

15/9/1993. The USA, Britain, and other Western countries agreed to sanctions on Jonas Savimbi�s UNITA forces fighting the Angolan government.

20/1/1993. Jonas Savimbi�s UNITA rebels took the important Angolan oil refining town of Sayo.

6/10/1992. A truce in the 16-year-old civil war in Angola looked fragile after UNITA disputed election results giving the MPLA government, under President Jose Eduardo Dos Santos a 51% to 39% lead over Jonas Savimbi.

30/9/1992. In Angola�s first democratically-held elections, Jose Eduardo dos Santos defeated Jonas Savimbi.

31/5/1991, The 17-year civil war in Angola ended. A peace deal was signed in Lisbon.

4/1991, The MPLA dropped its Marxist-Leninist stance in favour of �social democracy�.

10/1/1989, Cuban troops began withdrawing from Angola. There was a brief ceasefire agreed by UNITA leader Dos Santos, but civil warfare soon resumed.

22/12/1988. The withdrawal of Cuban troops from Angola was announced. In return South Africa agreed to independence for Namibia.

8/8/1988. Angola, South Africa, and Cuba agreed a ceasefire in the Angolan Civil War.

1/3/1984, A joint South African-Angolan monitoring commission began monitoring South African troop withdrawal from Angola.

26/8/1981, President P W Botha confirmed that South African troops were fighting alongside guerrillas in Angola, suppoting UNITA.

1979, MPLA leader Agostinho Neto died.

4/5/1978. South Africa raided SWAPO (South West African People�s Organisation) bases in Angola.

4/4/1978. The Angolan government began an offensive against UNITA forces.

19/2/1976. The Cuban backed MPLA won the Angolan civil war, and was recognised by most other countries.See 10/11/1975.

24/11/1975. Civil war began in Angola.

11/11/1975. Angola became independent from Portugal, but three different liberation factions were fighting for control.320 years of Portuguese occupation ended. Civil was began between the Cuban-backed MPLA (People�s Movement for the Liberation of Angola) and the Western backed UNITA (National Union for the Total Independence of Angola) and the South African backed FNLA (National Front for the Liberation of Angola).See 19/2/1976.

4/11/1975, Cuba's leader Fidel Castro ordered 650 troops to Angola to support the Marxist MPLA government against UNITA and South Africa.


Struggle for independence 1956-75

10/1/1975, The Portuguese Government agreed on independence for Angola.

1974, Military coup in Portugal led to a decolonisation intitiative. Portuguese army officers in Angola resented the incompetence of the Lisbon administration at running the conflict in Anbgola, also they had grown weary of the continual guerrilla warfare they faced.

23/5/1970, Portuguese forces attacked guerrilla bases in Angola.

1966, UNITA (Uniao Nacional para a Independencia Total de Angola, National Union for the Total Independence of Angola) was founded by Jonas Savimbi.

1962, The northern-based FNLA began an insurgency led by Holden Roberto.

1961, Forced labour on the Angolan coffee plantations ceased after riots left 50,000 dead.

9/6/1961, The UN called on Portugal to cease repressive measures in Angola.

4/2/1961, The MPLA began its fight against the Angolan Government at Luanda.

1956, The MPLA (Movement fot the Popular Liberation of Angola) was formed, across the border in Congo.


1951, Portugal declared Angola to be an �overseas province�, making it politically an integral part of Portugal.

1945, Considerable post-War Portuguese emigration to Angola.

1836, Slave trade abolished in Angola by the Portuguese Government.

1680, Over the previous century, from 1580, the Portuguese had shipped over a million Angolans as slaves to Brazil.

1648, The Portuguese recovered Luanda.

1640, Luanda was occupied by the Dutch.

1617, The Portuguese founded the settlement of Benguela, Angola.

1575, The Portuguese founded the settlement of Luanda, Angola.

1571, Portuguese colonisation of Angola began.

1482, Portuguese explorer Diego Cao explored what is now the Angolan coastline.

1300s, Kongo Kingdom ruled what is now northern Angola.

200s CE, Bantu speaking peoples migrated to the Angola region.


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