Chronography of Argentina
Page last modified 9/6/2022
See also Central & South America
See also Falklands Islands
Click here for map of Buenos Aires urban growth, 1913 - 1975
25/5/2003, Nestor Kirchner became President of Argentina, defeating Carlos Menem.
12/1/2003, Leopoldo Galtieri, President of Argentina, died.
1/12/2001, The Argentine Government froze all bank accounts; depositors were only allowed to withdraw 250 Pesos a week (later raised to 300 pesos). US Dollar accounts were totally frozen, unless the depositor agreed to take Pesos. The Argentine Peso was nominally at par with the US$ but a devaluation was widely anticipated as the Peso was grossly overvalued. Then the Peso was devalued to 4 to the US$, and Dollar depositors had to accept the conversion of their Dollars to Pesos at the old 1:1 rate, effectively losing three quarters of their savings.
14/5/1995, Carlos Menem was elected as President of Argentina.
18/4/1995, Artuto Frondizi, former President of Argentina, died.
7/1/1993. The British Foreign Secretary, Douglas Hurd, became the first Cabinet Minister to visit Argentina since the Falklands War of 1982. He met Argentine President Carlos Menem, and the still disputed question of ownership of the Falkland Islands was avoided. Oil exploration and fishing issues were discussed,
3/12/1990, Argentinean President Carlos Menem foiled an attempted coup.
1989, Argentina suffered an economic crisis through the 1980s, with income per capita shrinking 1% each year 1976-89, culminating in inflation peaking at 7.000% per annum end 1989.
30/5/1989. Food riots in Argentina threatened the economic reforms of the new President, Carlos Menem.
15/5/1989, Carlos Menem won the presidential elections in Argentina.
6/6/1985, A skeleton, conformed on 21/6/1985 as that of Nazi Josef Mengele, was unearthed in Argentina,
22/4/1985, In Argentina, the trial began of nine former military leaders, including Galtieri.
30/10/1983, The first democratic elections were held in Argentina after 7 years of military rule. Peron ceded power to a new civilian government led by Raul Alfonsin. Alfonsin commenced prosecutions against senior army personnel� who had committeed atrocities. He succeeded in getting 50 Generals to retire, but revolts in the army forced him to halt ;egal proceedings and declare an amnesty.
26/8/1982, Argentina lifted the ban on political parties.
18/6/1982. Fourteen Argentinean Army Generals at an army base decided unanimously to depose General Galtieri, who had taken on the UK to claim the Falklands Islands. By declaring an end to all hostilities, the 10,600 Argentinean PoWs still held on the Falklands could be repatriated.
See Falkland Islands for Falklands War 1982
22/12/1981, General Leopoldo Galtieri became President of Argentina.
15/4/1977, In Argentina, Jacobo Timerman, publisher of a newspaper called La Opinion, was arrested and tortured as part of a campaign against dissidents.
1976, A harsh campaign now began in Argentina against the Left. Those suspected of Liberal tendencies could be simply snatched off the street, with no semblance of a legal trial; some 11,000 Argentineans disappeared trhis way between 1976 and 1982. Concerned at breaches of Human Rights, the USA under President Carter stopped supplying military aid to Argentina. See 20/10/1983.
14/6/1956, Peronist revolt in the Argentine provinces of Santa Fe, La Pampa and Buenos Aires. The Argentine Government declared martial law and sent in troops to restore order. Many were killed and 2,000 arrests were made, of whom 38 were later executed. Peronists later stagesd numerous strikes, causing economic disruption.
13/11/1955, In Argentina, General Lonardi, who had succeeded Peron, resigned. He had been accused of being too lenient on the Peronistas, also on the trades unions who had been Peron main supporters. Lonardi was succeeded by General Pedro Aramburu. Persecution of the Peronistas intensified; the unions called a general strike, and Aramburu sent troops against them. Peronistas were imprisoned, along with some Catholics (despite these being anti- Peron). Many were internally exiled to the harsh terrain of south-eastern Argentina.
26/1/1944, Argentina, under pressure from the United States, severed diplomatic relations with Germany.
5/10/1941, Eduardo Duhalde, President of Argentina, was born in Lomas de Zamora, Argentina
6/9/1930, In Argentina, demonstrations by the people and an army rebellion forced President Hipolito Irigoyen to resign. General Jose Uriburu was appointed President.
14/6/1928. Birth of the Argentine revolutionary, Che Guevara, at Rosario, Argentina.
9/6/1921, Maria Luis Drago, Argentine statesman (born 6/5/1859 in Buenos Aires) died in Buenos Aires.
1910, Railway workers strike in Argentina. Ths led to riots in Buenos Aires, which precipitated a verystrong military crackdown in the city.
13/11/1901, Arturo Jauretche, Argentine politician, was born in Lincoln, Argentina (died 1974).
1881, Argentina and Chile agreed in a treaty that their mutual border should be �The line of highest peaks which divides the waters�. However subsequent exploration revealed that faster flowing westwards streams had, by headwaters erosion, established a watershead many miles east of the line of highest peaks of the Andes. The two countries asked Queen Victoria of Britain to arbitrate a border, which was done at the Courth of Arbitration in 1902, by best available mapping. Subsequently, improved mapping rendered that border ambiguous, and in 1965 the British Government was again asked to arbitrate. On 9/12/1966 the British Government set a new border, which was marked on the ground in early 1967. Argentina extended its political control southwards down to eastern Tierra del Fuego.
1878, Argentina began a campaign of mass slaughter against the pampas Amerindians, almost killing them all by 1883.
1877, Refrigerated ships enabled a meat trade from Argentina to Europe.
6/11/1874, Argentine troops under Sarmiento defeated an insurrection by Bartolome Mitre, who believed he had been deprived of victory in the 1874 Presidential elections by fraud.
1862, The short-lived Mapuche �Kingdom of Araucania and Patagonia� was suppressed, see Chile for more details.
17/9/1861,� In 1860, Buenos Aires had again decided to secede. At the Battle of Pavon this day the forces of Bartolme Mitre, leader of Buenos Aires, won an unexpected victory against Federal forces under Justo Jose de Urquiza (who had become Governor of Entre Rios Province after retiring from the Argentine Presidency in 1860). Mitre bow formed a new national Govermment and in 1852 was elected President of a united Argentina.
25/9/1860, The new Constitution of Argentina came intio force.
11/11/1859. The city of Buenos Aires, which broke away from the Argentine Federation in 1853, was compelled to rejoin today.
23/10/1859, President Justo Jose de Urquiza decided to use force against Bartolome Mitre, leader of independent Buenos Aires (see 1854). This day Urquiza was victorious at the Battle of Cepeda, against Mitre.
1857, Mass European immigration began, with 6 million arriving by 1930. Most went into farming and cattle ranching on the pampas.
1854, President Justo Jose de Urquiza became President of Argentina. With Buenos Aires remaining indpendent, his capital was at Parana, Entre Rios Province. However the independence of Buenos Aires was a hindranbce to Argentine trade, and the city retained tariff money on imported goods. See 23/10/1859.
1852, Dictator Juan Manuel de Rosas was overthrown.
1835, Start of the Rosas dictatorship, lasting until 1852. Citizens were even required to wear red, to show support for the regime.
8/12/1829, De Rosas made himself Governor of Buenos Aires.
26/2/1824, Carlos Calvi, Argentine historian (died 1906) was born in Buenos Aires.
9/7/1816. Argentina, as the �United Provinces of the River Plate�, formally declared independence from Spain. In practice independent government had been run since 25/5/1816.
9/7/1815, At the Congress of Tucuman, Argentina declared independence from Spain, after a long campaign by Jose de San Martin.
25/5/1810, Argentina formed a revolutionary government under General Manuel Belgrano, that was only nominally dependent on Spain.
25/2/1778, Jose San Marti, Argentine revolutionary who fought against Spanish rule, was born in Yapeyu (died 1850).
1776, Buenos Aires was separated from the Viceroyalty of Peru, and became the viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata, an entity that included Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and part of Bolivia.
1/3/1565. The Portuguese established a colony at Rio de Janeiro.
1536, Buenos Aires was first founded by the Spanish.
1526, Sebastian Cabot sailed up the River Plate, to see if Spanish settlements could be founded there. He founded a fort at the Plate Estuary.
1516, Juan de Solis was killed by the indigenous inhabitants of Argentina after landing there.