Chronography of the European Union
See International Union for other
Brexit Polls, https://whatukthinks.org/eu/opinion-polls/uk-poll-results/
Central Bank, https://www.ecb.europa.eu/stats/html/index.en.html
31/12/2020, The UK formally
left the European Union, at 11.00pm UK time.
31/1/2020, The UK began to
leave the European Union. A period of transition, scheduled to end
31/12/2020, began during which trade relations would be sorted out. Many people
suspected this was too little time to complete these negotiations.
20/12/2019, Boris Johnson,
British PM, won a huge majority of 358 to 234 against for his Bill to complete Brexit
on 31/1/2020; larger than his overall Commons majority of 78. From end January,
a transition period is due to begin, for 11 months until 31/12/2020; however
many believed this was too short and might have to be extended.
24/9/2019, Britain�s Supreme
Court ruled that PM Boris Johnson had acted unlawfully when he prorogued
(suspended) Parliament, ostensibly because of upcoming Party Conferences, but
in reality to avert further debate on Brexit. Parliament returned to sitting the next
3/9/2019, UK Prime
Johnson lost significant Parliamentary votes. MPs voted to force him
to ask Brussels for an extension on the Brexit process from 31/10/2019, and not to hold a
General election before this date. 21 Tory MPs rebelled and were expelled from
the Conservative Party by Mr Johnson, who now led a Government with a
minority of 47. Mr
Johnson said if he were compelled by law to ask for an extension
(something he earlier said he would never do), he would also threaten to be so
disruptive to the EU that in fact they would not grant one. Calling an early
General Election in October would, under the Fixed Term Parliaments Act, have
required two thirds of MPs to vote for, which Boris Johnson did not get; it
would also have ensured that Parliament was not operating in full at the end of
October so even if Labour won they could not have voted to extend the Brexit
deadline or avert No Deal. However it was possible that the EU, despairing of
the never-ending Brexit process, would decline to offer an extension anyway,
Macron of France taking this position.
28/8/2019, UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson took the highly
controversial move of announcing that the UK Parliament would be prorogued from
10 September for a crucial 5-week period until 14 October just before the
of 31/10/2019. Opponents of Brexit claimed that this was a move to suppress any
debate in parliament of the Brexit process, and prevent the passing of a Bill
to block a Brexit without a deal being made with the European Union.
24/5/2019, Mrs Theresa May,
UK Prime Minister, announced her resignation, having failed to secure a Brexit
deal that could get through the UK Parliament.
21/3/2019, After lengthy
talks between Mrs May, UK Prime Minister, and the EU, the EU set new dates for
Brexit. If Mrs May managed to get her deal with the EU accepted at a third vote
in Parliament, Brexit would take place on 22 May 2019. This would give the UK
Parliament time to pass the necessary legislation. However it was possible that
the Speaker, Mr Bercow, would debar a 3rd vote unless the proposal
was �significantly different from the proposal that was heavily defeated two
times already; possibly the new schedule would constitute a �difference�. If, however,
Mrs May could not get her Deal passed, the UK was to have until 12 April to
�say what it wanted� � which could be anything from No Deal to postponing or
even cancelling Brexit, revoking Article 50.
11/12/2018, UK Prime
May postponed a Parliamentary vote on her Brexit Deal, which many had derided
as giving up too much to Europe, and quickly met European leaders to try and
renegotiate terms. She failed.
10/12/2018, The European
Court of Justice ruled that a country could unilaterally reverse its exit from
the EU by cancelling its use of Article 50; so long as this had been done
democratically within the country, by a Parliamentary vote or a second
28/3/2017, Late this evening, UK Prime Minister Theresa May
50, triggering the exit process of the UK from the EU. The letter
was delivered to Donald Tusk (Poland), President of the European Council, on 29/3/2017.
The two-year negotiation process was started; however after the inconclusive UK
General Election of 8/6/2017 this timetable was looking tight.
3/11/2016, Britain�s High Court ruled that the Prime Minister, Theresa May,
could not trigger Article 50 to leave the EU without Parliamentary
approval. This ruling was later upheld by the Supreme Court. This opened up the
possibility of Parliament severely delaying or even thwarting the Brexit
26/6/2016 The fallout from the Brexit vote continued. David Cameron
delayed invoking Chapter 50, which would kickstart a 2-year procedure to
negotiate the UK�s withdrawal from the EU. Cameron expressed a preference for
his successor as Tory leader to undertake these negotiations. Meanwhile EU
leaders were pressuring the UK to invoke Chapter 50 soon. The EU leaders feared
further �Exit� referenda in countries like France, The Netherlands, Denmark,
possibly Sweden, in Spain, Greece, and even Germany and the Czech republic. The
Labour leader, Jeremy
Corbyn�s, position seemed precarious as ten of his Cabinet resigned,
over his lacklustre support for the Remain campaign. There was debate within
the UK as to whether the Referendum result was actually binding, especially if
a UK General Election ensued within a few months, which itself would require
legislation to amend the five year rule for such elections. Also by this afternoon,
nearly 3.4 million people had signed a petition asking for a second Brexit
Referendum; some signatures were suspected of coming from outside the UK.
23/6/2016 The UK voted 51.9% to leave the European Union in the
referendum. David Cameron resigned as Conservative Prime Minister. The actual
figures were, OUT, 17,410,742, IN, 16,141,241, Turnout = 72.2%.
19/2/2016, UK Prime Minister David Cameron concluded
negotiations for a deal redefining the relationship between the UK and the EU.
This was a preliminary move before a UK referendum to be held on whether the UK
should leave the EU. On 20/2/2016 the date for this referendum was set for
European refugee crisis �
the Schengen borderless concept begins to unravel
4/1/2016, Sweden introduced border controls on the Oresund Bridge border with Denmark to try
and slow the influx of migrants. In response Denmark introduced border controls on its German border.
The Schengen ideal appeared to be unravelling.
30/6/2015, Europe�s refugee crisis continued To this day,
illegal arrivals from 1/1/2015 totalled over 340,000. 102,342 refugees from the
Middle East and Kosovo had arrived via Hungary; 132,340 from the Middle East,
Pakistan and Afghanistan areas had arrived via Turkey and Greece; 91,302 from
Africa had arrived via Libya and Italy, and 6,698 from Syria and west Africa
had arrived via Spain.
19/4/2015, The heaviest casualty incident to date of the
ongoing unofficial migrant sailings across the Mediterranean to Europe occurred
this day, when 770 drowned as their boat sank off the Libyan coast. In
September 2014 500 drowned off Malta, on 12/4/2015 400 died as their boat
capsized off Libya and on 3/10/2013 368 migrants drowned off Lampedusa. Between
January and end-July 2015 187,000 migrants had arrived in the EU; 96,971
arrived in Italy, 88,695 to Greece and 1,674 had arrived in Spain.
The European Union loses
voter popularity, especially in the UK
23/1/2013, In the UK, David Cameron,
Conservative Party Leader, promised to hold a Referendum on Britain�s continued
membership of the European Union if he won the next General Election.
14/11/2012, Protests in Greece, Portugal and Spain against
The Caribbean island of Saint Barthelemy seceded from
Guadeloupe; thereby leaving the European Union.
29/10/2004, EU heads of State in Rome signed the Treaty and
Final Act establishing a European
Constitution. However referendums on this
Constitution would be necessary in at least 9 EU States, including the UK.
Results came in for elections to the European Parliament. Turnout was
disappointing, averaging just 44.2%, and just 28.7% for the 10 new (mainly
eastern European) States. In the UK UKIP doubled its share to 7%. Established
Governments did badly, especially in France and Germany.
Geographical enlargement of
the European Union
Estonia became the 17th country to adopt the Euro currency.
Slovakia adopted the Euro, replacing the Koruna.
Bulgaria and Romania joined the European Union.
The accession of Bulgaria and Romania to the EU on 1/1/2007 was formally
1/5/2004. Ten more countries joined the existing 15 EU members. These
ten were Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Malta, Cyprus, Slovakia, The Czech
Republic, Hungary, and Slovenia.
14/9/2003, In a
referendum, Estonia approved joining the EU.
Austria, Finland, and Sweden joined the European Union.
The EC began formal talks on admitting Austria, Sweden, and Finland by 1995.
Further deepening of the
integration of the European Union
majority of countries within the EU abolished their national currencies in
favour of the Euro. Only Britain,
Denmark, and Sweden retained the Pound Sterling and Kroner.
26/2/2001, The Treaty of
Nice was signed by the 15 members of the EU, to enable the bloc to function
smoothly after the 2004 enlargement to 25 member states. The scope of the national veto was reduced, and Parliamentary seat
allocation for a 25-member bloc was agreed.
25/3/1999, The European Union adopted the Common Agricultural Policy,
at a meeting in Berlin.
1998, The European
Central Bank was founded.
European Court of Human Rights was instituted.
3/5/1998, The EU confirmed that the
new Eurozone, or European Monetary Union, would start from 1/1/1999. 11 countries,
all the EU members except Britain, Denmark, Sweden and Greece, would be part of
2/10/1997, The Treaty of
Amsterdam was signed, further integrating the European Union.
26/3/1995, In Europe, the Schengen Convention
came into force, allowing free movement between countries,
European Union (formerly EC) came into existence as the Maastricht Treaty came
into effect for its 12 members.
2/8/1993. The UK
ratified the Maastricht Treaty.
18/6/1993, In a second referendum, Denmark
narrowly approved the Maastricht Treaty.
European Single Market came into operation. Apart from the UK, Ireland, Denmark, and Greece, passports would not be
needed at frontiers within the EU. British shoppers began to take advantage of
more much relaxed limits on the amount of alcohol and tobacco they could bring
back from France.
11/12/1992, An Edinburgh Summit of EC heads of State
discussed Denmark�s� rejection of the Maastricht Treaty.
20/9/1992. The Maastricht issue split the EC, with France
voting narrowly for it but Denmark voting narrowly against it. The idea was to
further integrate Europe. British politics was also split with �Euro-sceptics�
on the Conservative back benches harassing John Major, Prime Minister.
7/2/1992, The Maastricht Treaty was signed, founding
the European Union.
18/12/1989, The EC signed a
10-year trade pact with the USSR.
2/3/1989, All 12 EC nations
agreed to ban the production of CFCs
1/7/1987, The EC passed the Single
26/5/1986, The EC adopted
a starred flag.
1/1/1986. Spain and Portugal became the 11th
and 12th members of the EC.
19/7/1984, Jacques Delors was nominated as President of
the European Commission from January 1985.
4/1983, The start of the European Round Table (ERT). The Chief executive of Volvo organised
a meeting with the heads of 15 other large European corporations, including
ICI, Fiat, Nestle, Philips and Unilever, to seek ways to �harmonise trade rules
in Europe�. This was to enable these companies to reach the economies of scale
necessary to compete with non-European companies. The ERT presented its
proposals to the European Commission in January 1985. The ERT�s proposals
included the Channel Tunnel and the Denmark-Sweden Bridge, and a Europe-wide
system of high speed trains and road highways. The ERT also wanted, and got, monetary
integration and enlargement of the European Union.
a Danish territory, with home rule, voted to leave the EC.
1/1/1981, Greece joined the EC.
30/5/1980, EC Foreign
Ministers agreed to reduce Britain�s annual contribution to the EC by around
7/6/1979, First direct elections to the European
1/1/1979. The European Monetary System (EMS) was formed.
6/12/1978, James Callaghan announced that Britain
would not be joining the new European Monetary System (EMS).
30/10/1976, The EEC agreed to
introduce a 200-mile fishing zone from 1/1/1977.
13/7/1976, Roy Jenkins became President of the European Commission.
12/3/1974, The EEC Parliament elected its first Communist
1/2/1973, The Common
Agricultural Policy of the EEC came into operation.
1/1/1973. Britain, Denmark, and
Ireland joined the EEC, enlarging
it from 6 to 9 countries.
21/10/1972, An EC Summit in Paris approved the principle of
economic and monetary union by 1980.
17/10/1972. European Communities Bill received Royal Assent.
died, aged 73. He had been one of the chief architects of the European Community (EC).
23/4/1972, In a referendum in France, voters
approved the treaty adding Britain, Ireland and Denmark into the Common Market,
with more than 68% in favour.
22/1/1972. Britain, Denmark, Norway,
and Ireland signed the EEC Treaty � to join January 1973. Norway
later withdrew after a referendum showed a majority of Norwegians were against
membership. See 1/1/1973. As the British Conservative Prime Minister Edward Heath
signed the Treaty of Brussels, he had ink thrown over him by protestors against
the redevelopment of Covent Garden Market.
23/7/1970. Membership negotiations opened in
Brussels between the EEC and the UK, Denmark,
Ireland, and Norway. See
vetoed from EEC by De Gaulle; finally accepted, 1962-71
21/5/1971. French President Pompidou said the UK could join the EEC.
See also Great Britain for events relating to UK-Europe
began negotiations to join the EEC, following De
Gaulle�s resignation in May 1969.
Ireland, Denmark and Norway also began negotiations to join.
19/12/1967. Second French veto by De
Gaulle on British
membership of the E.E.C. The pound was devalued, and Harold Wilson made his �pound in
your pocket� television speech.
27/11/1967, De Gaulle vetoed Britain�s entry into the EEC.
6/10/1966, The EEC
published an adverse report on the UK
economy; the UK
was trying to join the EEC.
10/11/1966, The UK held discussions about entry to the EEC.
Gaulle vetoed Britain�s
membership of the EEC. He said the UK was too close to the Commonwealth and
the USA, and not �sufficiently European�.
18/12/1962, PM Harold
MacMillan of the UK
Kennedy of the USA concluded the Nassau Agreement, at Nassau,
Bahamas.� This allowed the US navy to provide Polaris missiles
for the Royal Navy, normally operating under
NATO command.� This Anglo-US collaboration was resented by General
De Gaulle of France, who saw it as proof that Britain was not
sufficiently European.� Within a month De Gaulle had vetoed UK membership of the EEC, see
14/11/1962. Britain resumed negotiations to join the EEC. Macmillan and De Gaulle talked at Rambouillet
on 15-16/12/1962. However De Gaulle was
intransigent, fearing the UK would import US influence into Europe. De Gaulle
resigned in May 1969.
2/3/1962. The UK applied to
join the European Coal and Steel
Community. On 5/3/1962 the UK
applied to join the European Atomic
31/12/1965, The executives of the European Economic Community,
and the European Coal and Steel Community were merged into one executive
8/4/1965, Members of the European Coal and Steel Community,
the Economic Community and Euratom signed a treaty providing for the merger of
these institutions� functions into a single Commission and Council of
3/7/1962. France recognised
Algerian independence, after a
referendum; this also entailed the departure of Algeria from the EU.�
14/1/1962. The European
Economic Community agreed on a Common Agricultural Policy.
8/11/1961. Negotiations with Britain began in Brussels to join
the Common Market.
10/8/1961. Britain first applied for membership of the EEC.
18/7/1961. The six Common
Market countries issued the Bonn
Declaration aimed at political union.
3/5/1960, The European Free Trade Association (EFTA)
was founded in Geneva.
It had seven members; Norway, Sweden, Denmark, the UK, Switzerland, Austria,
23/2/1959. The European Court of Human Rights sat for
the first time.
16/4/1958. The EEC, the European Economic Community,
was set up. The original six countries were France,
Italy, West Germany, Holland,
1/1/1958. The European Economic Community came into effect. It then comprised 6 countries; France, West
Germany, Italy, and the Benelux countries.
25/3/1957. Six nations signed the Treaty of Rome to create the Common Market (EEC) and
Euratom. These were Italy,
West Germany, France, and the three Benelux
countries. The founding nations foresaw a union of some 160 million people, to
be developed over 15 years. There was also a shared atomic energy programme,
Euratom. Britain was notably absent,
preferring to create a wider but looser trading network involving the Common Market,
the Commonwealth, and others. Britain feared a supra-national authority
that would erode its sovereignty over domestic affairs. However the PM, Harold
MacMillan, privately believed that the UK should have sought Common
market membership and now began to create the European Free trading Area, EFTA, which included all of western
Europe, and involved less loss of sovereignty for the participating nations. A
faced greater threats to its trade and industry from a developing Common Market.
inaugural meeting of the Western
European Union Council.
5/8/1955, European Monetary Agreement signed.
5/7/1955, The first meeting
of the Assembly of the Western European Union, at Strasbourg, France.
1954, The European Labour Card was instituted.
This enabled any citizen of the six participating nations to work anywhere
within the Community.
31/5/1954, The first Bilderberg Group meeting concluded
(opened 29/5/1954). The group, of politicians, royalty and industrialists, was
named after the hotel where this initial meeting, now held annually, first met;
the Hotel Bilderberg, Oosterbeek,
23/4/1954, The US made a
loan of US$ 100 million to the European
Coal and Steel Community to modernise its collieries and power stations. A
smaller loan by the French Government facilitated the relocation
of miners to the most productive pits.
10/1/1953. First meeting of
the European Coal and Steel Community.
10/8/1952. Inauguration of
the European Coal and Steel Community. See
28/4/1949 and 16/4/1958.
25/7/1952, The European Coal and Steel Community came
5/7/1952, The Court of
Justice of the European Coal and Steel
Community became operational.
17/5/1952, The Treaty of Paris was signed by the 6 original
EEC members setting up the European
Defence Community. However the French Parliament subsequently declined to
ratify this move, voting against it by 319 to 264.
13/12/1951, The French
National Assembly ratified the Schuman
Plan. This placed French and German steel iron and coal industries under
one common authority, to which other countries could also accede.
18/4/1951. The European Coal and Steel Treaty was
signed in Paris.
France, West Germany, Italy,
and the Benelux countries signed up.
18/11/1950, At a meeting of the Consultative Assembly of the
Council of Europe, Robert Schuman, French foreign Minister, made
a speech supporting the Pleven Plan
for establishing a European Army.
19/9/1950, The European Payments Union was established.
11/8/1950, In Strasbourg,
France, at the meeting of the Consultative Assembly of the Council of Europe, Winston
Churchill called for the creation of a European Army. The motion was
passed by 89 votes to 5.
2/6/1950, The UK declined to take part in any European
grouping that would entail a loss of its national sovereignty.
9/5/1950. The Schuman Plan
lead to the establishment of the European
Coal and Steel Community.
7/11/1949, The first meeting
of the Council of Europe; Spaak
was the Chairman.
3/8/1949, The Council of Europe came into being.
3/5/1949. The Council of Europe was established,
after a ten-state conference in London.
16/4/1948. The Organisation
for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC) was set up, see 14/12/1960.
17/3/1948. Britain, France, and the Benelux
countries signed the Brussels Treaty, a pact of economic, military,
political, and cultural alliance. The Treaty came into effect on 25/7/1948.
19/9/1946. Winston Churchill, in Zurich, urged Franco-German reconciliation
and a �kind of United States of Europe�.
5/9/1929. Aristide Briand, the French Prime Minister, proposed a United
States of Europe.
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