Chronography of France & Germany,
from 1 January 1816 ex World War Two
and Germany up to 31 December 1815 click here
See end of page for Monaco
World War Two in Europe, 1939-1945, click here
War Two in the Pacific see China/Japan
World War One 1914-18, click here
modified 17 January 2023
Map of French railways
Click Here for maps of Alencon, 1975 and 2002
(from IGN 1:100,000 maps)
Click Here for maps of Bordeaux, 1935 and 2006
(from Michelin maps)
Here for maps of Cholet 1978 and 2000 (from IGN 1:100,000 maps)
Here for maps of Laval 1978 and 2000 (from IGN 1:100,000 maps)
Here for maps of Metz, 1899 and 1988 (from Encuclopedia Britannica 1910 and
Here for maps of Nantes, 1945 and 2006 (from Michelin maps)
Click Here for maps of Paris NW (Pontoise),
1960 and 2005 (from IGN 1:100,000 maps)
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2003 (from IGN 1:100,000 maps)
Click Here for maps of Periguex, 1977 and
2001 (from IGN 1:100,000 maps)
Click Here for maps of Poitiers, 1958 and 2000
(from Michelin maps)
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2001 (from IGN 1:100,000 maps)
Click Here for maps of Saintes 1976 and 2001
(near La Rochefort) (from IGN 1:100,000 maps)
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2006 (from Michelin maps); 1977 and 2001 (IGN 1:100,000 maps)
Here for maps of Vix (near La Rochelle) � disappearing wetlands and woods) (from
IGN 1:100,000 maps)
France, INSEE, statistics
Heligoland, Mediaeval times.
Maps of France, Germany,
843 � 880.
Maps of Germany at
Treaty of Verdun and under Charlemagne.
Prussia, 1415 � 1914.
For growth of Germany from
Brandenburg 1415 click here.
Click Here for map of Berlin 1910
Click Here for maps of Dresden 1813 and
Click Here for image of Dresden 1945
Click Here for Youtube 54
minute video, Blitz on Dresden
Click Here for image of ElsenStrasse; 1961
(Berlin Wall just erected) and 2008
Click Here for map of Hamburg 1910.
Heligoland, Mediaeval times.
Prussia, 1415 � 1914
Maps of France, Germany,
843 � 880.
Maps of Germany at
Treaty of Verdun and under Charlemagne
For Dreyfus Affair see Jewish history
For ancillary dates of Clergy, Chancellors,
Electors, Jurists, Marshals, Military leaders, Politicians, Statesmnen, click
Index (click below� for quick access to
Gilet Janue (Yellow Vest)
protests across France, 2018-19
18.0, Racial tensions hit France and
17.0, Restoration of Berlin as German
16.0, End of the Red Army Faction 1998
15.0, Racism in Germany 1992/3
14.0, German Reunification, 1989-90
13.0, Klaus Barbie Trial 1987
12.0., Baader Meinhof terrorists captured,
11.0, Normalisation of relations between
East and West Germany, 1970-74
10.0, De Gaulle loses referendum; replaced
by Pompidou, 1969-70
9.0, French Civil unrest, Strikes, De
Gaulle wins power, 1968
8.0, Berlin Wall, construction 1958-61
7.0, French 5th Republic, led by Charles de
Gaulle. Plans for Algerian independence, opposed, 1958-63
6.0, West Germany becomes a regularised
5.0, Soviet crackdown in East Germany
4.0 De Gaulle Presidency 1945-46
3.0 Inception of, and division
between,� post war East and West Germany,
2.0 Soviet blockade of West Berlin,
1.0 Judicial dealings with Nazis, 1945-51
0.0 Post World War Two political
War Two click here
-1.0, Germany prepares to invade Poland;
start of World War Two, with Britain and France involved, 1939
Germany annexes Memel (Lithuania), 1939
Germany annexes the remainder of Czeckoslovakia, 1938-39
from Spanish Civil War flee to France, 1939
prelude to War 1938-39, last attempts to preserve peace in Europe
Germany annexes the Sudetenland (Czeckoslovakia), 1935-38
Germany annexes Austria, 1936-38
of Nazi power in Germany; political, cultural and economic, 1935-39
power of Hitler and the Nazis, 1934-36
-10.0, Chancellor Dollfus of Austria bans Nazis,
assassinated by Nazis, 1933-34
-11.0, Hitler gains absolute power in
Germany, eliminates all opposition, 1933-34
-12.0, Nazis suffer electoral defeat.
Attempt to form non-Nazi Government, but agreement impossible, 1932-33������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
-13.0, Nazi electoral resurgence 1929-33.
Reichstag Fire, Hitler becomes Dictator
-14.0, German banking and unemployment
Crisis 1929-31 (see Hyperinflation 1923-24 below)
-15.0, France evacuates the Rhineland,
Germany makes treaties, tries to join League of Nations, 1925-30
-16.0, Nazis, start of Party, then electoral
decline, 1919-29; but see 1930s
-16.5, Hitler imprisoned, released early, 1923-4
-17.0, German Hyperinflation Economic
-18.0, German Reparations Crises Terms
eased, Allied occupation ended, 1921-34
-19.0, Communist agitation in western
-20.0, International adjustments post
World War One. German War Trials begin, 1918-20
For World War One 1914 � 18
-21.0, Western European nations begin a
military build up, 1905-13
-22.0, Germany backs down over Morocco
rivalry with France, 1911-12
24 April 2022, In the final round of the
French Presidential elections, Emmanuel Macron won by 58.5% to Marine le Pen;s
41.5%; turnout was just 71.9%, the lowest since 1969. The 2017 result was 66.1%
Macron to 33.9% le Pen.
16/10/2020, A teenage Chechen refugee beheaded Samuel Paty,
a French teacher who had shown his class at a school on the edge of Paris
controversial cartoons of the prophet Mohammed from the satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo.
26 September 2019, Jacques Chirac died aged 86. He had twice been
President of France.
15 April 2019, Notre Dame Cathedral in central Paris was very
severely damaged by fire. The fire was believed to have been caused by
renovation works, which, having suffered delays due to lack of funding, had
been going on for years; the blaze started shortly after 6pm local time.
19.0, Gilet Janue (Yellow Vest)
protests across France, 2018-19
20 April 2019, Yellow Vest
protests in Paris for the 23rd consecutive Saturday.
23 March 2019, Yellow Vest
protestors caused disturbances in the Champs-Elys�es area of central Paris for
the 19th consecutive Saturday. The previous Saturday, 16 March 2019,
the level of destruction had ratcheted up with banks, cafes and shops being set
fire to. President
Macron put military soldiers on the streets on the 23 March 2019,
raising fears that a protestor would be shot dead.
8 December 2018, Another
weekend of rioting in Paris saw 1700 arrested and 71 injured. Riots also
occurred in Brussels and Amsterdam.
1 December 2018, Rioting by the
�yellow vests� in France escalated, with major unrest around the Arc de
Triomphe in Paris and in several other cities, also The Netherlands and Belgium
were affected. 412 were arrested and 133 seriously injured, including 23 policemen,
as several cars and other property was torched. The protestors took their name
from the yellow high-visibility jacket that motorists in
France must carry; the unrest was focussed on high fuel taxes. Protestors
called for President
Macron to resign.
24 November 2018, A week of
rioting across France (began 17 November 2018) with 300,000 people protesting
at high petrol taxes. By this date, one protestor had died and over 400 had
29/10/2018, Mrs Angela Merkel announced that she would not
stand in 2021 for re-election as Chancellor of Germany, a post she had held
since 2005. This followed disappointing election results for her Party, the CDU
(Christian Democratic Union), and her coalition partners, the Social Democrats,
in elections in Hesse.
24 September 2017, German elections. Angela Markel�s CDU (Christian
Democratic Union) Party still had the largest number of seats, but lost votes
as her share fell to 33%, from 41.5% in 2013, the lowest since 1949. Meanwhile
the Far Right AfD (Alternative for Germany) Party gained, securing 12.6% of the
vote, especially in the rural east, on the back of concerns about immigration
levels. In Saxony, the AfD got a vote of 27%.
6 July 2017, Anti-G20 Summit protestors in Hamburg blocked
roads and set cars alight.
16/6/2017, German statesman Helmut Kohl died, aged 87.
7 May 2017, In the final round of the French Presidential
Macron of the En Marche Party
won 66.1% of votes cast, against 39.1% for Marine le Pen of the Front National. However Macron was only supported by 43.6% of the
total electorate, le Pen receiving 22.4%, whilst 25.4% of voters
abstained and 8.5% of ballot papers were left blank or spoilt, as a protest
against both the candidates on offer.
17 May 2016, A wave of strikes hit France. Petrol stations ran
dry as strikers picketed refinery gates. Workers were objecting to France
introducing more flexible labour laws.
18.0, Racial tensions hit
France and Germany, 2014-16
19 December 2016, A large lorry
was driven into crowds at a Christmas market in Berlin. The lorry had been
hijacked by an Islamist terrorist who killed the Polish driver and drove it, laden with
25 tonnes of steel, into the market. 12 shoppers were killed and 48 injured.
26/10/2016, Demolition of
the �Jungle� refugee camp at Calais began. Its residents were dispersed to
reception areas across France. However some inhabitants set up their own
unofficial tent cities in central Paris.
22 July 2016, A German-Iranian
gunman opened fire at a shopping mall in Munich, killing 9 and injuring 21. He
later killed himself.
14 July 2016, Islamist
terrorists drove a lorry into crowds celebrating Bastille Day on the Promenade
des Anglais, Nice, France. 84 were killed and 202 injured, 18 critically. The
lorry driver was shot dead by police. The lorry contained guns and explosives,
raising fears that a worse attack could have been possible.
31 December 2015, Some 200 women alleged they had been groped, robbed
and even raped during New Year�s Eve celebrations in Cologne by migrant gangs.
Tensions in Germany over mass immigration increased.
13 November 2015, Multiple
attacks by Islamic gunmen across six sites in Paris, including the Stade de France, the Bataclan
concert hall, and the Cambodge restaurant. 132 dead and 352 injured, 99� critically.
7 January 2015, Ten cartoonists were shot dead at the Paris offices
of Charlie Hebdo, a French satirical
magazine, along with 2 policemen, by Islamists in revenge for perceived
attacks occurred in Paris. A synagogue in Sarcelles, a
working-class suburb of northern Paris with many Sephardic Jews, known as
�Little Jerusalem�, was threatened. Youths from the French Jewish defence
League defended the synagogue so Muslims attacked Kosher shops instead. The
Muslim attacks followed from the ongoing conflict in Gaza.
17-year-old Roma youth was attacked by about 20 men and left in a coma in the
northern Paris suburb of Pierrefitte sur Seine. Many Roma lived in makeshift camps and had been
blamed for rat infestations and burglaries. There was conflict between
Moroccans and Roma in Paris.
5 May 2011, Claude Schoules, the last known combat veteran of World War One,
died in Australia, aged 110.
12 March 2008, Lazare Ponticelli, the last surviving French foot soldier of World
War One, died aged 110.� Born in the
Emilia-Romagna region of Italy, he loved France and joined the French Foreign
legion aged 16.� When Italy joined the
war he was enlisted in the Italian army but returned to France after the war
and became a French citizen in 1939.
24 January 2008, The French bank, Societe General, revealed that a rogue trader, Jerome Kerviel (born 11 January
1977), had cost it 4.9 billion Euros (about US$ 7 billion, or UK� 3.7 billion).
was arrested on charges of breach of trust and falsifying documents, and the
bank was fined 4 million Euros for failing to monitor his trading position. Daniel Bouton
resigned as the banks chief executive. Kerviel was found guilty in October 2010 and
sentenced to prison, but remained free pending an appeal. On 24
October 2012, a Paris appeals court upheld the October 2010 sentence to three
years in prison with another two suspended, and ordered to reimburse 4.9bn
euros to Societe General for its
16 May 2007, Sarkozy
was sworn in as President of France.
4 April 2006, France equalised the permissible age of marriage
between males and females. Formerly, the Civil Code of 1804 had set this age as
15 for females and 18 for males.
2 April 2006, Countess von Stauffenberg, widow
of the officer who tried to assassinate Hitler, died (born 27/8/1913).
22 November 2005, Angela Merkel became Germany�s first female
Merkel became Chancellor of Germany
8 November 2005, French President Chirac declared a State of Emergency, on the 12th day of riots in
6 November 2005, Rioting continued in
France, started by the death of 2 Algerian-origin boys by electrocution as they
hid from police in Paris; by now some 1,300 cars had been torched.
28/10/2005, Eugene K Bird, director of Spandau
27/10/2005, Riots began in Paris after
the deaths of two Algerian-origin teenagers, see 6 November 2005.
29 May 2005, The French, in a
referendum, resoundingly rejected the European Constitution.� The margin was 45% to 55%.� This was effectively a vote against the
unpopular French President Chirac, and against globalisation.
27 January 2005, Nazi concentration camp survivors and world leaders
gathered at the Polish town of Oswiecim, better known as Auschwitz, to
commemorate the 60th anniversary of its liberation by Soviet forces.
29 November 2004, France announced
plans to build� the Louvre II at Lens to
exhibit some 600 artworks currently in storage at the Louvre.
19 September 2004, In regional
elections in the former East German States of Brandenburg and Saxony, neo-Nazi
Parties gained votes, polling at 6% and 7% respectively. The Democratic
Socialists (successors to the East German Communist Party) polled 28% and 23.6%
respectively. The neo-Nazi gains were due to an economic crisis in which� unemployment had exceeded 20%.
23 May 2004, Part of Charles de Gaulle
International Airport Terminal 2E collapsed, killing 5 people and injuring 3.
10 February 2004, The French National
Assembly voted 494 to 36 in favour of banning overt religious symbols,
including Islamic headscarves and Christian crosses, in the country�s State
14 July 2002. A neo-Nazi attempted to assassinate French
Chirac at the Bastille Day parade in Paris.
21 April 2002. In the
French Presidential elections, the National Front candidate, Jean Marie Le
Pen, scored a surprising second place with 17% of the vote to enter
the run-off with the right wing candidate Jacques Chirac. Lionel Jospin, the left wing
candidate, was narrowly beaten into third place. Jospin�s stance as �New
Socialist�, not too far to the left, drove some left wing voters to fringe left
parties, allowing Le Pen in. In the second round of voting on 5
May 2002 Chirac
was unsurprisingly elected with a massive 82% of the vote, against 18% for Le Pen.
3 September 1999, After an
18-month French judicial inquiry, paparazzi press were cleared of
responsibility for the car crash which killed Diana.
10 February 1999, Avalanches in the French Alps killed 10 people.
2 April 1998, In Bordeaux, France, Maurice Papon was convicted of complicity
in Nazi crimes against humanity committed under the Vichy regime. He was
sentenced to 10 years prison.
1/6/1997, The Socialist Party won French elections starting a period of
�cohabitation� (cooperation) between a Left-wing Parliament and a Right-wing
President. Socialist leader Lionel Jospin became Prime Minister.
27 January 1997, It was revealed that French museums contained nearly 2,000 pieces of
artwork looted by Nazis.
3 December 1996, Algerian Islamic Fundamentalists exploded a bomb on the Paris Metro at
Port Royal Station, at 6.05pm in the rush hour, killing 2 and injuring 50
others. Algerian fundamentalists had carried out 7 attacks on the Paris Metro
in 1995. They were protesting at a referendum in Algeria, backing a crackdown
on fundamentalist political Parties.
17 July 1996, In France, convicted war criminal Paul Touvier died in
Fresnes Prison, of prostate cancer, see 17 March 1994.
29 January 1996. France bowed to international pressure and announced it had ended the
current series of atomic tests at Mururoa Atoll in the south Pacific.
8 January 1996. President Mitterrand, (born 1916) died of cancer. He was President of France 1981-95.
25 July 1995. A bomb
exploded on a train at the St Michel Metro station in Paris, killing seven people.
16 May 1995, Jacques Chirac became President of France.
7 May 1995. Jacques Chirac, Gaullist, was elected
President of France. He defeated the Socialist candidate Lionel Jospin. Alain
Juppe became Prime Minister of France.
18 January 1995, In France, a large cave system with many
prehistoric paintings was discovered near Vallon Pont d�Arc.
Chirac became President of France
17.0, Restoration of Berlin as German capital
April 1999, The German Parliament returned to the new Reichstag
buildings in Berlin.
8 September 1994, The last British forces
7 September 1994, The American flag was lowered over the US HQ in Berlin, formally
ending American presence on the city after almost 50 years.
23/6/1993. The US lowered the Stars and Stripes for the
last time at the Tempelhof airbase in Berlin after 48 years of military service
The German Parliament voted to move the
seat of government from Bonn to Berlin.
12 April 1999, Chancellor
Gerhardt Schroder became leader of the German
Social Democratic Party ()SDP)
27 September 1998, In German Parliamentary elections, the governing Centre-Right
CDU/CSU-FDP coalition lost its overall majority. Gerhardt Schroder
became Chancellor at the head of a �red-green� coalition of the Social
Democratic Party (SPD) and the Greens.
7 July 1998, German car manufacturer Volkswagen AG agreed to pay compensation to
those who were used as slave labour during World War Two.
14 April 1997, Former Nazi SS
Captain Eric Priebke was retried; on 22 July 1997 he was sentenced to 5 years
7 July 1996, The German town of Konstanz elected a Green Mayor.
16.0, End of
the Red Army Faction 1998
20 April 1998, In
Germany, the Red Army Faction announced that it was ceasing operations and
winding up, as it no longer had a political reason to exist.
13 February 1991. Germany�s Red Army Faction carried out a gun
attack on the US Embassy in Bonn, claiming a link to the Gulf War.
30 November 1989, The Red Army, a West German terrorist group, blew up Alfred
Herrhausen, head of the Deutschebank in Frankfurt.
15.0, Racism in
30 May 1993. Neo-Nazi skinheads attacked and set fire to a hostel housing Turkish
migrant workers in the German steel town of Solingen. This was the worst of
several such attacks on migrant workers. The German government responded with a
crackdown on Neo-Nazis and more controls on immigration.
29 September 1992. Racism was on the rise in Germany. 28% of Germans aged between 16 and
24 had racist views, compared with 15% in 1990.
wing rioting began in Rostock, Germany.
Hundreds of right wing youths, throwing paving stones and firebombs, attacked
an immigrant hostel, cheered on by local people, in the poor Lichtenhagen area
of the city. Thousands of police were drafted in to restore order, which had
broken down when many Romanian refuges, unable to secure a place in the hostel,
had camped outside it. The asylum seekers were evacuated but fighting between
police and youths continued for days and spread to other German cities. Germany
had seen both a rise in asylum seekers and increased unemployment in the east
since reunification, as eastern industries were exposed to competition from the
more efficient west.
5 April 1992. Germany�s extreme Right gained in elections, over the issue of
immigrants from eastern Europe.
20 April 1994, In France, Paul Touvier was found guilty of ordering the
massacre of 17 Jews whilst serving in the Vichy France Milice.
17 March 1994, In France the trial of Paul Touvier, head of the Vichy
militia during World War Two, began. In April 1994 he was sentenced to life
imprisonment. He died in prison on 17 July 1996.
3 February 1993. Statistics showed French
women had the highest life expectancy in Europe at 81.1 years, 8 years more
than French men.
20 December 1992, The Folies
Bergere, Paris music hall which opened in 1869, closed down.
17 November 1992, In
France, cave paintings were discovered at Cosquer that were estimated to date
from 25,000 BC.
8/10/1992, Willy Brandt,
Chancellor of West Germany, died.
6 July 1992. French
lorry drivers blockaded roads, causing chaos.
1/6/1992, The terrorist Carlos the Jackal was sentenced to life
imprisonment in France.
12 April 1992. Euro-Disney opened just east of Paris.
The $4 billion, 4,800 acre, complex could accommodate up to 60,000 visitors a
day. It had 6 hotels with a total of 5,200 rooms, and a total of 14,000 staff,
or �cast members�. On 4/6/1992 Euro-Disney reported that it had received 1.5
million visitors, or 30,000 per day.
17 December 1990, Lothar de Matziere resigned from the German
government after allegations that he had worked for the Stasi.
29 May 1994, Erich Honecker, leader of East Germany, (born
14 January 1993. Despite calls for his
arrest on manslaughter charges, the former East German leader, Eric Honecker,
80 years old and with terminal liver cancer, was allowed to depart for Chile
because of his failing health.
29 July 1992, Herr Honecker, former leader of
East Germany, was forced to leave the Chilean Embassy in Moscow where he had
taken refuge, to face manslaughter charges over the deaths of people trying to
escape over the Berlin Wall to West Germany.
2 December 1990. Helmut Kohl of the Christian Democrats won the first election
in the reunited Germany.
14 November 1990, Germany and Poland signed
a treaty agreeing their border as the Oder-Neisse line.
and West Germany reunited as the Federal Republic of Germany. The fall of the Berlin Wall in November
1989 was one of the most remarkable events of the 20th century.
However the economy of the East was much poorer than the West and funds were
needed for housing, education, and health. In July 1990 the currency of West
Germany became that of the East. On
reunification on 3/10/1990 Berlin became the capital city.
20 September 1990, The East and West German
Parliaments passed legislation enabling reunification.
1 July 1990, The
Deutschemark became the official currency of both East and West Germany.
18 May 1990. A
treaty was signed in Bonn introducing German economic and monetary union.
The reunification took place on 3/10/1990.
24 April 1990, East and West
Germany agreed to merge their currencies and economies on 1 July 1990.
18 March 1990, East Germany held its first free elections since 1932.
9 March 1990. Talks on German reunification began in Berlin.
15 January 1990, Thousands stormed the Stasi HQ in Berlin in order to see their records.
22 December 1989. Berlin�s Brandenburg Gate reopened, after the
fall of the Berlin Wall.
3 December 1989. The East German leader Egon Krenz
and the politbureau resigned. A USSR-USA summit was held in Malta. The Cold war was declared over at 12.55pm that day.
1 December 1989. The East German Parliament voted to remove the Communist monopoly on
13 November 1989, Hans Modrow was elected Prime
Minister of East Germany.
10 November 1989, Bulldozers began to demolish the Berlin Wall.
9 November 1989. The East German
government lifted the Iron Curtain to allow free travel between East and West
Berlin. Thousands of East Berliners
visited the West. 100,000 East Berliners visited West Berlin. The Berlin Wall originally went up on
7 November 1989, The entire East German Government resigned, replaced the following
day with Hans
Modrow as Prime Minister.
5 November 1989. Refugees were reportedly leaving East Germany at the rate of 300 an
4 November 1989, See 7/10/1989.
Pro-democracy rallies sparked by Gorbachev�s visit to East Germany resulted a a
million-strong protest in East Germany.
18/10/1989, Erich Honecker was dismissed as General
Secretary of of the SED (Socialist Unity Party of Germany).
9/10/1989, East Germans in Leipzig demonstrated,
demanding the legalisation of opposition groups and democratic reforms.
7/10/1989. On a visit to East Germany, Soviet President Mikhail
Gorbachev urged the East German government to introduce reforms. See
4 November 1989.
26 September 1989. Over 1,500
East German refugees occupied the West German embassies in Prague and Warsaw
Mikhail Gorbachev and
agreed that East and West Germany should be reunited.
4/10/1989. 10,000 East
Germans left Prague by train for West Germany.
September 1989, The �Democracy
Now� movement was founded in East Germany.
September 1989, The first of a series of �Monday Demonstrations�
calling for democracy were held in ;Leipzig, East Germany.
5/10/1989, In Paris, the Moulin
Rouge celebrated its centenary.
14 July 1989. Margaret Thatcher
upset French festivities on Bastille Day when she denied that the French
Revolution had inspired Human Rights.
13/6/1989, The wreck of the German battleship Bismarck which was sunk in 1941, was
discovered 600 miles west of Brest, France.
29 March 1989, In France, President Mitterrand inaugurated the huge
glass Louvre Pyramid.
24 September 1988, Large and angry protests against the World
Bank and IMF meetings in West Berlin.
10 May 1988. President Mitterand
of France won a second term. The Right was
split, but the far Right Jean Marie Le Pen got 14.38% of the vote, 4
million votes. In Marseilles, Le Pen led with 28% of the vote.
26/8/1987, The funeral and burial of Rudolf Hess.
top Nazi Rudolf Hess, born 1894, committed suicide in
Spandau Prison, Berlin, after 46 years spent there.� He was 93 when he died. He had been the only
inmate, and demolition of the prison began almost immediately.
5/8/1987, Georg Gassman,
German politician, died.
13.0, Klaus Barbie Trial 1987
4 July 1987.
Nazi war criminal Klaus Barbie, 73. was convicted in France, and sentenced to life
6 February 1983, The
trial of Klaus Barbie began in Lyons, France. Known as the �Butcher of Lyons� during World War Two, Barbie deported
hundreds of French Resistance fighters and Jews on
trains to Nazi death camps Barbie was tracked down to Bolivia by
Nazi-hunters Serge and Beatie Klarsfeld in 1971 but not extradited until 1983.
5 February 1983. Klaus Barbie was extradited from Bolivia
to France to face Nazi war crimes charges.
19 January 1983, The Nazi war criminal, Klaus Barbie, was arrested in Bolivia.
25 January 1987, In West German Parliamentary elections, the incumbent CDU//FDP coalition
won a further term.
5 April 1986, The La Belle discotheque in West Berlin, Germany, was bombed by
terrorists. 2 died and over 100 were injured.
20 March 1986, In
France, Jacques Chirac,
Gaullist, was appointed Prime Minister.
16 March 1986, In French
elections, the opposition won a narrow majority ending five years of Socialist
28 December 1985, Fernand Braudel,
French historian, died aged 83.
22 September 1985, French Prime Minister Laurent Fabius admitted that
French agents had sunk the Greenpeace boat Rainbow
Warrior in Auckland, New Zealand, on 10 July 1985. The French Defence Minister was forced to
23/8/1985, Hans Tiedge, Head of West German
counter-intelligence, was discovered to be an East German agent.
15 July 1983. Armenian terrorists set off a bomb at Paris
6 May 1983, West Germany pronounced that the �Hitler Diaries� were a fake, made from paper not available
until at least 1955.� The magazine Stern was swindled out of an undisclosed
sum for the �diaries�. See 23 April 1983.
23 April 1983, The German weekly magazine Stern announced it had possession of hitherto unknown �Hitler Diaries�. See 6 May 1983.
6 March 1983, In West German elections,
the incumbent CDU/FDP coalition won a majority. The Green Party won seats in
Parliament for the first time.
13 January 1980, The Green Party was established in Germany.
18/10/1982, Pierre Mendes France, French politician, died
1/10/1982, In Germany, the Christian Democrat leader Helmut Kohl
was elected, replacing Helmut Schmidt as Chancellor of West Germany.
20 November 1981, The USSR contracted to supply natural gas to West
21/6/1981, In French elections, Socialists won a landslide
victory in the second round of elections to the National Assembly. The new Assembly
included three Communists.
10 May 1981. The Socialist, Francois Mitterand was elected President of
France. He defeated Valery Giscard D�Estaing.
24 December 1980, Death of
German commander Grand Admiral Karl Donitz, who was briefly Fuhrer in 1945.
Germany banned the sport of hang-gliding, in case it was
used to escape to West Germany.
Germany re-elected Chancellor Helmut Schmidt with an increased
26 September 1980. In
Munich, neo-Nazis planted a bomb at
a beer festival killing 12 and injuring 200 people.
13/8/1980, French fishermen blockaded Channel Ports, in a
campaign for government aid.
26/6/1980, French President Giscard D�Estaing disclosed
that France had the capability to produce a neutron bomb.
18 March 1980, Erich Fromm, German sociologist, died aged 79.
3 February 1980. The Communist
leader of East Germany, Mr Honecker,
praised the efforts of East German spies in the West.
people died when a tsunami hit Nice,
16 September 1979, Three
families fled East Germany by balloon.
2 May 1979, Riots in Longwy, France, over the proposed closure
of steel plants.
26/6/1978, A bomb set
off by Breton nationalists damaged
10 September 1977. The last official execution
by guillotine in France; execution
Djandoubi. See 17/6/1939.
4 September 1977, E F Schumacher, German economist, died aged
Meinhof terrorists captured, imprisoned, 1972-77
28 April 1977, In Germany, the Baader Meinhof terrorists, Andreas Baader,
Gudrun Ensslin and Jan Raspe, dedicated to the violent overthrow of capitalism, were jailed for life. The trial
began on 21 May 1975.
7 April 1977, In Germany, terrorists murdered the Attorney-General who
was prosecuting the Baader-Meinhof
12/1976, The French Gaullist Party became the
Rassemblement pour la Republique (Rally for the Republic) Party. Jacques Chirac
became Party leader.
9 May 1976, The terrorist Ulrike Meinhof,
42, hanged herself in her prison cell in Stuttgart. �
21 May 1975, The trial of the Baader
Meinhof terrorist group began. On 284/1977 they were sentenced to
16/6/1972, German police
Meinhof, the last member of the Baader Meinhof
gang still at large.
3/10/1976, In German elections, Helmut Schmidt�s Social-Democrat-led coalition
was returned to power with a reduced majority.
25/8/1976, Jacques Chirac resigned as French Prime Minister and was replaced by
27 May 1975, Jacques Chirac
became Prime Minister of France.
27 February 1975, Peter Lorenz, Chairman of the West Berlin
Christian Democratic Union, was kidnapped by terrorists. He was released on 5
March 1975 after demands that 5 terrorists were released from German jails and
flown out of the country were met.
of relations between East and West Germany, 1970-74
4 September 1974. The USA established diplomatic relations with
and West Germany were accepted into the UN.
21 December 1972,
East and West Germany signed the Grundvertrag
(Basic Treaty), by which the two
States recognised each other�s boundaries and established a reciprocal presence
in each other�s capital cities.
24 November 1972, Finland became
the first western nation to formally recognise East Germany.
19 March 1970,
Prime Minister Willi
Stoph of East Germany met Chancellor Willy Brandt of West Germany.
They discussed how to improve relations between the two countries.
19 May 1974, Valery Giscard
d�Estaing was elected President of France.
16 May 1974, Helmut Schmidt became Chancellor of West
Germany.� Chancellor Brandt had resigned
on 6 May 1974 over a spy scandal.
6 May 1974, Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, was forced to resign after he unwittingly
employed an East German spy as a secretary. There had been warnings fro 4
years that Gunter
Guillaume was a spy.� Brandt
became Foreign Minister in 1966 and West Germany�s first Social Democratic
Chancellor in 1969. In 1971 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Price for his
policies of detente with the Communist bloc.
2 April 1974. Georges Pompidou,
French president from 1969, died in office, from cancer, aged 62.
21 March 1974, France suffered widespread
power cuts as electricity workers went on a 24-hour strike..
24 November 1973, Germany imposed
speed limits on its autobahns in response to the global oil crisis. The limits
were ;lifted 4 months later.
5 September 1973, Jordanian terrorists held 13 hostages in the Saudi Arabian
Embassy in Paris.
12/6/1973, In West Germany, Helmut Kohl
became leader of the right of centre Christian Democratic Union Party (CDU).
9/6/1973, Erich von Manstein, military adviser to Adolf Hitler in World War Two
(born in Berlin, 24 November 1887) died, having been imprisoned by the British
in August 1945. His advice on attacking France through the Ardennes in 1940 was
crucial to Nazi success here.
8 November 1972, East and West Germany signed the Basic Treaty, agreeing to respect each other�s� independence and sovereignty. The East
claimed that this Treaty finalised the division of Germany; the West claimed it
did not preclude the possible later reunification of Germany should the Cold
War come to an end. In any case the Treaty was a political triumph for Chancellor
Willy Brandt and his policy of Ostpolitik,
allowing for personal contact between the leaders of East and West Germany.
11 May 1972, In West Germany, The �Red
Army Faction� set off a bomb at the American 5th Army Corps
5 July 1972, Pierre Mesmer succeeded Jacques Chaban-Delmas as Prime
Minister of France.
23 January 1972, Jerome Guedj, French Socialist Party
politician, was born.
3 September 1971, The
France and the USSR
signed the Berlin Agreement on
communications between West Berlin and West Germany.
3 May 1971, Erich Honecker succeeded Walter Ulbricht as First
Secretary of the Socialist Unity Party of East Germany.
21/10/1969. Willy Brandt was elected Chancellor of West
Germany. He succeeded Kurt Georg Kiesinger.
1968, The Krupp steel business in Germany ceased to be a family business of the
Krupp family. The Krupp family, present in the Essen, Ruhr, region since
the 16th century, had been major arms manufacturers for over 300
years. Under Alfred
Krupp (1812-87) the business became the largest cannon manufacturer
in the world from 1847 onwards, also having ownership of mines and other
neterprises in the Ruhr region. Afred�s son, Friedrich Alfred Krupp
(1854-1902) diversified into shipbuilding and armour plate. Freidrich committed
suicide following accusations of immoral conduct and his daughter, Bertha
(1886-1957) took over the business. In 1902 she married Gustav von Bohlen und Halbach,
and he was allowed to change his name to Gustav Krupp von Bohlen (1869-1950). The Krupp
enterprise manufactured armaments for Gremany and its Allies during both World
wars; between the Wars it made tractors for the Weimar Republic. The Krupp
family, from 1932, vigorously supported
as did their son Alfred Felix Krupp (1906-67). In 1943 Hitler passed a special Lex Krupp to ensure the business would
remain in Krupp
In 1945 Gustav Krupp was indicted at Nuremberg as a
major war criminal, having utilised 130,000 slave labourers at Essen and
Auschwitz, and for inhumane treatment of foreign workers; however he was deemed
too frail to stand trial. Alfred Krupp was conicted and sentenced to 12
years imprisonment in 1947; however he wasd released in 1951 to assist on the
economic recovery of west Germany. By 1963 he was the most powerful
industrialist in the Common Market. Just before his death in 1967 the Krupp
enterprise encountered financial problems and was sold out of the family.
Germany began requiring visas for West Germans to cross its territory.
10.0, De Gaulle loses referendum; replaced by
9 November 1970. Charles De
Gaulle died, aged 79 of a heart attack, in Colombey les Deux
Eglises. See 28 April 1969. He had been President of France between 1944 and
1945, and between 1959 and his resignation on 28 April 1969.
became President of France, see 28 April 1969.
28 April 1969. �General De Gaulle, 79 years old, resigned as Prime Minister of
Pompidou, who became French President on 15/6/1969, succeeded
him.� De Gaulle lost a referendum on
changes to French regional institutions.�
Gaulle was resented for high
taxation to pay for the French military, whilst health, education, and
social services were neglected, leading to French student riots in spring 1968.
�De Gaulle retired to Colombey.� See 9 November 1970.
1 April 1969. France formally left NATO.
9.0, French Civil unrest, Strikes, De Gaulle
wins power, 1968
De Gaulle won massive support in French
The French Government banned demonstrations and dissolved 11 student
30 May 1968, French President De Gaulle announced he would not
resign, and called a General Election.
25 May 1968. Riots continued in Paris. Demonstrators erected barricades and
students stormed the Bourse and set fire to the interior. In London a
demonstration of support for the rioters was made outside the French Embassy;
the police moved in and arrests were made, resulting in fines totalling �145
for 17 people. In north London, students at Hornsey College of Art continued a
sit in of the main building, demanding �a change to the college�s educational
22 May 1968. Striking French workers now
numbered 9 million.
19 May 1968. Two million workers in
France were on strike.
17 May 1968. French President Georges Pompidou appealed to
ordinary Parisians to help stop the anarchy as student riots continued in Paris, with 30,000 people involved in a day and a night of
violence. Students at The Sorbonne were locked out of campus, causing further
unrest; the demonstrations were against the Vietnam War.
The Cannes Film Festival collapsed in chaos
as striking technicians and directors caused film screenings to be cancelled,
and three days later the number of striking
French workers had risen to about six million.
22 March 1968, Student �anarchists� rioted and occupied an administration
building at Nanterre University, France. The riots soon spread to other
20 March 1968, Six French
students were arrested in Paris during an anti-Vietnam War demonstration.
6 April 1968, In East Germany, 94.5% of voters approved the new
2 April 1968, Two West German terrorists, Baader and Ensslin, firebombed a Frankfurt
department store, in protest against the bombs being dropped by the US on
19 April 1967, Konrad Adenauer, West German Chancellor from
1949 to 1963, died.
2/6/1967, Rioting in West Berlin against the visit of the Shah of Iran,
in which Benno
Ohnesorg is killed by a police officer. His death resulted in the
founding of the terrorist group Movement
1/10/1966, Albert Speer, Hitler�s
architect, was released from Spandau prison, West Berlin, along with Nazi Baldur von
Shirach, having completed their 20 year sentences. Rudolf Hess,
serving a life sentence, was now the sole inmate.
1 July 1966, France withdrew its armed forces from NATO.
11 March 1966, De Gaulle announced that France was to
withdraw from NATO and that NATO must remove its bases from France by the end
19 December 1965. De Gaulle
was re-elected president of France.
6 December 1965. General De Gaulle failed to win the French
presidential election outright, necessitating a second ballot between him and
15 February 1964, Willy Brandt, Mayor of West Berlin, became
leader of the West German Social Democratic Party.
23/6/1963, US President Kennedy began a five-day tour of
West Germany, including West Berlin. He promised, �we shall risk our cities to
22 January 1963,
German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer
(1876-1967) signed a Treaty of Friendship with French President Charles de Gaulle, marking �the end of a
century of hostility and suspicion between the two nations�.
13 December 1962, Rudolf Wissell, German politician and former
Minister for Economic Affairs in the Weimar Republic, died aged 93.
11 December 1962,
In West Germany, a coalition government of Christian Democrats, Christian
Socialist and Free Democrats was formed.
8.0, Berlin Wall, construction 1958-61
57 people escaped from East to West Berlin through a 98 metre tunnel under the
17/8/1962, Peter Fechter, 18, became the first person to
be killed whilst trying to cross the Berlin Wall. He was shot dead by border
5 May 1962. Eleven elderly East Berliners escaped to the
West through a tunnel. They had dug the tunnel six feet high so the women
wouldn�t have to crawl.
28/10/1961, The Berlin Crisis, US and Soviet tanks
began a gradual withdrawal from stand-off positions either side of the border.
19/8/1961, US President Johnson visited West Berlin.
17/8/1961, Construction of the Berlin Wall began, see
13/8/1961. The Soviets had hidden building materials close to the site of the
wall, so construction was rapid.� 2,000
people a day had been leaving the east for West Germany.
13/8/1961. East German border guards stopped cars
passing through the Brandenburg Gate, Berlin.�
The border between East and West Berlin was sealed, at first with barbed
wire, later by the Berlin Wall, erected on 17/8/1961. On 22/8/1961 a 100 metre
no-man�s-land was created either side of the Berlin Wall.
The Wall was 96 miles long and 3.6
metres high. It had 302 armed watchtowers and 20 bunkers.� 192 persons were killed at the Wall, and
another 200 wounded by shooting. The East German Government called the barrier
�an anti-fascist protection wall�. A second wall was added in June 1962, and a
third in 1965, reinforced by a fourth in 1975. The Berlin Wall finally came down on 8 November 1989.
4/6/1961, The USSR tried to negotiate for the general
demilitarisation of Berlin. It was
concerned that the joint occupation arrangements were providing an escape route
for many young skilled people to the West. The USA rejected the suggestion.
31/8/1960. East Germany closed the border with West
7 September 1960, Wilhelm Pieck, President of East
Germany since the nation's creation in 1949, died aged 84. The office was
abolished following his death.
1/10/1959, East Germany changed its flag (until now,
the same as West Germany�s) to include worker and rural peasant symbols.
27 November 1958, The Soviet Union demanded
an end to the 4-power occupation arrangements of Berlin and the entire city to
become a demilitarised zone
For Algerian wars of independence see Algeria
7.0, French 5th
Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle. Plans for Algerian independence,
4 September 1963, Robert Schuman, French Prime
6 July 1963, France declared its first National Park,
the Vanoise Park in Savoy.
withdrew its navy from NATO.
22/8/1962, Opponents of Charles de Gaulle�s plan to
grant Algeria independence attempted to assassinate him.
14 April 1962, Georges Pompidou became French
21 January 1962 . In Paris OAS
terrorists opposed to President De Gaulle�s plans for Algeria
planted ten plastic explosives bombs
French police killed over 200 Algerians in Paris. They were demonstrating for
independence from France.
8 January 1961, France held a national
referendum on whether Algeria should be granted independence. The result was in
favour of independence.
29 May 1959, Charles de Gaulle formed a �Government of
National Safety� in France.
8 January 1959, Charles de Gaulle was installed as first President of the 5th
Republic.� See 21 December 1958.
21 December 1958. De Gaulle was elected the first
President of the Fifth Republic, with 78% of the vote.� He now had the strong Presidency he had
desired in 1945 (see 13 November 1945). �See 29 May 1958.
5/10/1958, In France the Fifth Republic was formed.
28 September 1958, In France, a referendum
gave a 4 to 1 majority approval for the institutions of the new 5th
Republic. De Gaulle won the elections of November 1958.
29 May 1958. De Gaulle was voted into power
in France, to deal with the crisis in Algeria. See 21 December 1958.
7 November 1961, Konrad Adenauer was elected Chancellor of
Germany for the fourth time.
29 May 1961, The Western European Union agreed that West
Germany would be allowed to build destroyers equipped to fire nuclear weapons.
16 July 1960, Albert Kesselring, German Air Commander on all fronts during World
War Two, condemned as a war criminal, died.
31 May 1960, Walter Funk, Nazi government official, died aged 69.
14 September 1958, Konrad Adenauer, Chancellor of West Germany,
visited French Prime Minister De Gaulle at his home in Colombey les deux
Eglises to discuss Franco-German relations.
28 May 1958, Pierre Pflimlin resigned as
14 May 1958, In France, Pierre Pflimlin,
Popular Republican, formed a government.
18 April 1958, Maurice Gamelin, French Army
General, died aged 85.
For Algerian wars of independence see Algeria
19/10/1957, West Germany severed
diplomatic relations with Yugoslavia after Yugoslavia recognised East Germany.
3/10/1957, Berlin voted in its youngest ever mayor,
15 September 1957, Konrad Adenauer�s Christian Democratic Union
Party won a massive victory in German general elections.
12/6/1957, In France, Maurice Bourges-Manoury, Radical, formed a
21 May 1957, In France, Guy Mollet, Socialist, resigned as Prime
Minister after a Government defeat in the Assembly.
1 January 1957, The Saar was formally integrated in the
German Federal Republic.
Crisis 1956 see Egypt
16/10/1956, British Prime Minister Anthony Eden and Foreign
Lloyd visited Paris and met with French Minister Guy Mollet
and Foreign Minister Christian Pineau to discuss joint action
30 September 1956, Doenitz (born 1891), German Admiral during World War Two, and
technically head of State of Germany from Hitler�s
suicide on 1 May 1945 until his internment on 23 May 1945, was released from
Spandau Prison.� He had been sentenced to
10 years imprisonment in 1946 by the Allied Military Tribunal at Nuremberg.
5/6/1956, In Luxembourg, Chancellor Adenauer of Germany
Minister Mollet of France agreed that the Saar would have political
union with Germany from 1 January 1957, and economic union after a longer
19 April 1956, Prince Rainier of Monaco married American
actress Grace Kelly.
1 February 1956, Following French elections on 2 January 1956,
formed a Socialist government in France.
23 February 1955, In France, Edgar Faure formed a Radical
5 February 1955, The Algerian crisis caused the fall of the
French Government under Pierre Mendes-France.. Former French Minister
of Finance and economoic affairs, Edgar Faure, formed a new Government.
18/6/1954, Pierre Mendes-France became Prime Minister of
France. He promised to end the war in Indo-China, after the humiliation of
France at Dien ben Phu. He initiated decolonisation in Tunsia and Morocco as
well as Indo-China.
Germany becomes a regularised State 1953-56
1 May 1956. Germans demonstrated in favour of reunification.
8 March 1956, West Germany amended its
Constitution to allow for the use of conscription for the military.
6/10/1955, The first group of German PoW�s released
War Two captivity in Russia were brought to the Russian-Polish
border at Bialystok, to be taken on to West Germany. By the end of 1955, over
9,000 such PoWs had been repatriated,
9 September 1955, The West German
Adenauer, went to Moscow as a guest of the Soviet Government. At a
dinner with Marshall
Bulganin, they agreed to the final release of German prisoners of
war from World
War Two back to West Germany, after more than a decade in captivity.
9 May 1955. West
Germany became a member of NATO.
5 May 1955. West Germany became a
sovereign state (see 26 May 1952); the Allied occupation by France, UK and USA
25 January 1955. The USSR officially ended the war with Germany.
23/10/1954. NATO voted to end the occupation of West
Germany and to form the Western European
Union. West Germany became a member of NATO.
17 July 1954, In West Germany, Theodor Heuss
was elected President.
6 April 1953, German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer
visited New York; on 14 May 1953 he visited London.
crackdown in East Germany 1952-53
17/6/1953. In East Berlin, Soviet tanks crushed an
anti-Soviet uprising. Hundreds of East Germans took to the streets in a
protest that began over increased work quotas and food shortages caused by the
collectivisation of agriculture (see 12 July 1952).� The protests escalated to demands for free
elections. The first people to protest were construction workers on
Stalinallee, a new highway slicing through east Berlin. After Stalin�s
death in March 1953 some liberation was hoped for, but instead work quotas were
raised by 10%. Churches were also to be abolished. Food prices were high, there
was little meat and no fruit at all. Red Army tanks were brought in and the
Soviet military commander proclaimed a state of emergency. 50 people were killed by Soviet forces, at
least 20 of whom were summarily executed, and over 1,000 were convicted of
taking part in the �attempted fascist coup�. Churchill and the other
western powers were reluctant to intervene because they feared a reunited
Germany. In a memo of 22/6/1953 Churchill felt a divided Germany was safer at
present, but feared to say so in public for fear of German public opinion.
31/8/1952, During the past month, 16,000 people had
escaped from east to West Berlin,
Soviet Iron Curtain isolated West Berlin.
20/8/1952, Kurt Schumacher, German politician, died aged
28 May 1952, Communist demonstrations in Paris, France.
1 April 1952, Vincent Bollore, French industrialist, was
29 March 1952, In France, the government of Edgar Faure fell after failing
to get the National Assembly to approve tax increases. Antoine Pinay, Conservative,
formed a government with Gaullist support.
29 February 1952, In France, Prime Minister Edgar Faure
resigned after 40 days in office. He was succeeded by Paul Reynaud.
11 January 1952, French General de Lattre de Tassigny died of cancer
in Paris. He was the chief architect of the French defence plan in World War
13 December 1951, The French National Assembly ratified the Schuman Plan. This placed French and
German steel iron and coal industries under one common authority, to which
other countries could also accede.
17/6/1951, Elections for the French Assembly gave 107 seats
to the Gaullists; 97 to the Communists; 94 to the Socialists; 87 to the
Conservatives; 82 to the Popular Republicans; and 77 to the Radical Socialists.
10 March 1951, In France, political deadlock was resolved when Henry Queuille
formed a government.
28 February 1951, In France, the government of Rene Pleven
fell over issues of electoral reform.
26 January 1951, Gilles Lemaire: French politician, was born.
24/6/1950, Georges Bidault, French Prime Minister,
resigned after his government was defeated in a vote on a technical issue.
30 March 1950, Leon Blum, French statesman, died
3 March 1950. France granted the Saar autonomy.
5 September 1948, In France, Robert Schuman became President
of the Council while being Foreign Minister, As such, he was the negotiator of
the major treaties of the end of World War II.
30/8/1947, About 90 people were killed and 60 injured in a
cinema fire in the Rueil district of Paris, France. Police said the blaze was
caused by a wire in the second balcony that short-circuited
14 April 1947, In France, De Gaulle organised the RPF (Rassemblement
du Peuple Francais) Party, also known as �Gaullists�, to unite and reform
16 January 1947, In France, Vincent Auriol was elected
16 December 1946, In France, Leon Blum formed a Socialist
10 November 1946, In France, elections to the National
Assembly produced 166 seats for the Communists, 158 for the Popular Republican
Movement, 90 for the Socialists, 55 for the Radical Socialists, 70 for the
Conservatives and 5 for the Gaullists. There was political deadlock.
17 May 1946. France nationalised its coal mines.
4.0 De Gaulle
20 January 1946. De
Gaulle resigned.� Goiun
became President of France.
21 December 1945, France appointed Jean Monnet
as head of a commission to repair and develop French industry.� He evolved the Monnet Plan which with 5 years enabled French industry to surpass
its per-war output level.
13 November 1945. De Gaulle was elected President
of France by the unanimous vote of all 555 deputies.� However he resigned within ten weeks when the
Fourth Republic disagreed with his idea for a strong US-style Presidency.� See 21 December 1958.
in France provided gains for the Left. The Communists won 148 seats, the
Socialists 134, Radical Socialists 35 (the Popular Republican Movement won 141
seats), Conservatives 62 seats, others 2 seats.
3.0 Inception of, and division
between,� post war East and West Germany,
26 May 1952, A treaty was concluded for West
Germany to be a sovereign state (see 5 May 1955), so long as Germany
contributed to Western defence.� Fears of
the Soviet Union overrode fears of German aggression.
15/10/1950, In East German elections, a vote of 99.7%
was recorded for the Communist-dominated National Front Party.
15/6/1950. West Germany admitted to the Council of
8 February 1950, The Stasi was founded in East Germany.
7/10/1949. The German
Democratic Republic was set up in East Germany.
15 September 1949, Konrad Adenauer
was elected Chancellor of Germany.
September 1949, Theodor Heuss was elected first President of
the Federal Republic of Germany.
20/6/1949, The USA, the USSR, France, and the UK
signed a Four-Power agreement on Berlin, including a clause ensuring the
freedom of movement within the entire city.
23 May 1949. The Federal Republic of
Germany (West Germany) was formally
established, with its capital at Bonn.
28 April 1949, The Allies set up the International Authority for the Ruhr, or
IAR.� This was dissolved on 10/8/1952
when the European Coal and Steel
Community (ECSC) came into force.
1/8/1948, The French zone of occupation was merged
with the �bizone� (see 27 May 1947) to form the �trizone�. The �trizone� later
became West Germany (see 23 May 1949).
18/6/1948, Germany replaced the old Reichsmark with
27 May 1947, The US and British zones of occupation were
merged to form the �bizone�.
blockade of West Berlin, 1948-49
6/10/1949, The Berlin airlift ended.� It had carried on from 12 May 1949 despite
the Soviet lifting of the land blockade.
12 May 1949. The
Soviet blockade of West Berlin was called off after 11 months, it began 28
June 1948. It had cost the Allies �200 million to fly in food and essential
supplies, with up to 200 flights a day.
9 May 1949. Prince Ranier III became Head of State of Monaco, succeeding his grandfather Prince Louis II.
5 May 1949, The USSR announced it would lift the
blockade of Berlin on 12 May 1949.
16 April 1949, 16,000 tons of supplies
were airlifted to West berlin in just 24 hours.
28/6/1948. The Anglo-US airlift to Berlin began;
see 12 May 1949.
Russians began a blockade of West Berlin.� The Berlin Airlift began
on 28/6/1948 and delivered some 7,000 tons of food supplies to the city over a
period of three months by British and American aircraft, defying the Soviet
land blockade. The airlift continued until 30 September 1949, although the
Soviet blockade was lifted on 12 May 1949. See 30 March 1948.
18 April 1948, All roads
between Berlin and West Germany were now blocked by the Soviets.
1 April 1948. The Soviets
suspended all rail services between Berlin and West Germany.
30 March 1948, The Russians imposed restrictions on
Western traffic into West Berlin. See 26 April 1948. The West feared that
the USSR was trying to absorb West Berlin; Moscow said it was responding to the
West creating West Germany out of the three western occupation zones.
dealings with Nazis, 1945-51
July 1951, Marshal Petain, Head
of Vichy France between 1940 and 1944, died in prison in the Ile d�Yeu, aged
95, serving a life sentence for collaboration, having been reprieved from a
death sentence in 1945.
9/6/1951. In West Germany, the last Nazis convicted of war
crimes were hanged.
January 1951, Ilse Koch, the �Bitch of Buchenwald�, wife of the Commandant of Buchenwald
concentration camp. was sentenced to life imprisonment in a Court in West
6 January 1948, The
Ministries Trial began in Nuremberg. Twenty-one officials of various ministries
of the Third Reich went on trial, facing charges for their roles in atrocities
committed by the Nazis.
May 1947, The war crimes trial of Albert Kesselring ended in his
19 April 1947, The
Flick Trial began in Nuremberg. Friedrich Flick
and five other leading Nazi industrialists were put on trial for using slave
labour, among other crimes.
March 1946, Rudolf Hoss, the Nazi Commandant of the
Auschwitz concentration camp, was located and arrested by British military
police near the northern German town of Flensburg, where he had been working on
a farm under the alias "Franz Lang".
who confessed to overseeing the murder of millions of prisoners, mostly Jewish,
was himself executed at Auschwitz on April 16, 1947.
26/10/1946, Otto Thierack,
German Reich Minister of Justice 1942-45, hanged himself in Neumunster
internment camp to avoid being brought to trial.
16/10/1946. After 216 meetings of the Nuremberg Tribunal, from 20 November 1945,
the verdicts on 24 top Nazis charged with war crimes were delivered on 30
September 1945. 3 Nazis were acquitted; Hjalmar Schacht,
Franz von Papen and Hans Fritzsche. A fourth defendant, Robert Ley, had committed suicide in prison
before the trials were completed. The industrialist Gustav
Krupp was judged to be unfit to stand trial through senile dementia.
The remaining 19 defendants were found guilty. Four of them, Karl Donitz, Baldur
von Shirach, Albert Speer
and Konstantin von Neurath, received
sentences of between 10 and 20 years. Three defendants, Rudolf Hess, Walther
Funk and Erich Raeder, received life sentences. Rudolf Hess was detained at Spandau Prison,
Berlin, until his death in 1987. The remaining 12 defendants were sentenced to
death. Martin Bormann was not
executed as he had been tried in absentia having escaped the Allied
authorities. Hermann Goering committed
suicide in prison a few hours before he was due to be hanged. The remaining
ten, Hans Frank, Willhelm Frick, Julius
Streicher, Alfred Rosenberg,
Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Fritz Sauckel, Alfred
Jodl, Wilhelm Keitel and Arthur Seiss-Inquart, were hanged on
regards lesser Nazis, the problem facing the Allies was that millions of
Germans had joined the Nazi Party, some merely for reasons of
self-preservation, so it was impractical to prosecute all those who had served
Hitler. Ultimately, out of a population of 44.5 million Germans in West
Germany,� 209,000 were prosecuted. In
East Germany the Soviets prosecuted a much smaller number, just over 17,000.
This was because many Nazis were executed by the Soviets without a formal legal
September 1946, Former Nazi leader Hermann Goering committed suicide, the night
before he was due to be executed.
September 1946, Captain Amon
Goth, 37, Nazi SS officer who had
carried out the mass executions of more than 13,000 Jews in Krakow and Tarnow,
and the Szebnia concentration camp, was hanged, along with Dr. Leon Gross, a Jew who had collaborated
with him at the Plaszow concentration camp.
17/6/1946, The Allied decided not to try Hirohito
as a war criminal.
22 May 1946, Karl Hermann Frank, the Nazi ruler in Czechoslovakia who ordered the massacre
at Lidice, was hanged in Prague.
21 March 1946. Goering denied he knew
anything of the �final solution�.
7 February 1946. Hess was on trial at Nuremberg for war
8 January 1946. The trial of Goering and Von Ribbentrop began.
3 January 1946. Nazi
Joyce, the notorious Lord Haw Haw, was hanged in London for treason. He was known as Lord Haw Haw for the falsely
posh nasal tones of his radio broadcasts telling of German military �successes�
(often false). He had been convicted on 19 September 1945.
20 November 1945. The Nuremberg Trials began.
Setting up a war crimes tribunal was unprecedented and an act of doubtful
legality, but the world had a keen desire to see revenge for the atrocities the
Nazis had committees, especially in their concentration camps. 24 Nazi leaders
were on trial. Defendants included Goering,
On 16/10/1946 the executions of the guilty began. These included Von Ribbentrop,
2 November 1945, 42 staff members of Dachau
concentration camp were indicted at Nuremberg.
24/10/1945. Vidkun Quisling was hanged as a war criminal, at Askerhus Fortress, Oslo. He had joined the
Norwegian Fascist Party (Nasjonal Samlung) in 1933, and had encouraged Hitler
to invade Norway. He was also held responsible for sending nearly 1,000
Norwegian Jews to Nazi concentration camps. See 10 September 1945.
15/10/1945, Pierre Laval, leader of the French Vichy
government, was executed for treason for collaboration with the Nazis.
9/10/1945. Pierre Laval, Prime Minister of Vichy France, was
sentenced to death.
10 September 1945. Vidkun
Quisling was sentenced to
death at Oslo for collaborating with the Nazis. He had been puppet Prime Minister during the Nazi
occupation of Norway. He was executed on 24/10/1945, by firing squad, at
Akershus Fortress, Oslo.
15/8/1945, Marshal Petain was
convicted of treason (see 23 July 1945) and sentenced to death. Like all death
sentences on minors and women, this was commuted by President De Gaulle to life and
the 90-year-old Marshal was confined to the Ile de Yeu off the Vendee coast. In
June 1951 Petain,
feeble and devoid of mental faculties, was released; he died less than a month
later. Overall in France the purge of collaborators, known as l�epuration (the
purification) lasted from September 1944 to the end of 1949. Just over 2,000
death sentences were handed down, of which 768 were carried out. Even the
Chevalier, who had merely entertained French PoWs in Germany,
narrowly escaped a firing squad. Some 12x this number of those officially
executed were summarily shot by firing squad immediately after liberation.
International Military Tribunal that was set up to try major war criminals
named by the major four powers agreed the London Charter. War criminals would
be tried for a) crimes against peace, waging a war of aggression, b) war
crimes, violating the laws and customs of war, and c) crimes against humanity,
inhumane treatment� and persecution of
civilians/ Those who participated on formulating or executing a common plan or
conspiracy to commit these crimes would also be tried.
23 July 1945, Marshal Petain was
charged with treason, see 15/8/1945.
14/6/1945, Joachim von
Ribbentrop was captured in Hamburg.
28 May 1945, Lord Haw Haw,
William Joyce, was arrested, see 3 January 1946. William Joyce, known as Lord Haw Haw for his falsely posh tones in his
pro-Nazi radio broadcasts, was arrested in Denmark and charged with treason.
23 May 1945. Heinrich Himmler, former Nazi Chief of Police, killed
himself whilst in British custody.
He had joined the waves of German
civilian refugees unnoticed after VE Day and wandered aimlessly until he
encountered a British checkpoint at Bremervorde, where his true identity was
uncovered. As he was being searched he bit into a cyanide capsule and died.
10 May 1945, Vidkun Quisling was captured by Resistance fighters in Norway.
3 May 1945, At a three-Power UK-USA-USSR Foreign
Minister�s meeting in San Francisco, the UK dropped its summary execution
stance for war criminals.
9 February 1945, War crimes policy was
briefly discussed at Yalta. Stalin wanted trials, provided they were �not too judicial�, whilst Churchill
still wanted summary shootings. No agreement was reached here.
22 January 1945, Roosevelt agreed to proposals
for international trials of WW2 war criminals.
15 September 1944, Roosevelt and Churchill
approved a plan to shoot Nazi war criminals without trail, drawn up by Viscount Simon.
This was put to Stalin,
with a list of names, but he insisted on holding trials first.
16/6/1944, British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden
drew up a list of top German war criminals, from Hitler down.
30/10/1943, The Big Three Allied powers, the UK, USA
and USSR, warned Germany of their intention to hold War Crimes trials after the
Judicial dealings with Nazis
10 February 1947. A Peace Treaty concluded in Paris between Italy, Romania, and Bulgaria
made the following provisions. a) Most of the Italian province of Venezia
Giulia, with its predominantly Slovene and Croat population, as well as the
enclave of Zadar (Zara) and all the Adriatic Islands were ceded to Yugoslavia.
b) A Free Territory of Trieste, demilitarised and neutral, was to be formed.
However this was impractical and on 5/10/1954 the British, US, Italian, and
Yugoslav governments agreed to divide the territory between Italy and
Yugoslavia. c) Romania ceded Northern Bukovina and Bessarabia to the USSR. The
Russian occupation of these areas had been by aggression on 27/6/1940; the
population of Bessarabia was however mainly Romanian.
1 January 1947. The USA and British zones
in West Germany were merged.� Russia objected, and so did France, who
wanted a divided Germany, and had annexed the Saar from French-occupied Germany.
20/8/1946, The German Army was officially dissolved by the Allied
29 July 1946, The
Paris Peace Conference began.
30 March 1946, Some
800 Germans were arrested in US and British controlled zones of Germany and
Austria, to thwart a possible revival of the Nazi Party.
26 March 1946, Allied
Control Commission set limits on the level of German industrial production.
20 March 1946,
Starving Germans in Hamburg started food riots, then looted food shops and
31 December 1945, Most
Berliners were subsisting on just 800 calories a day; in 1946 in the British
sector rations dropped on occasion to a slow as 400 calories a day, less than
was received by the inmates at Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. Not only was
food desperately short but numbers to be fed were swollen by huge numbers of
German refugees from eastern Europe. Medical supplies were also virtually
non-existent, and 43 of Berlin�s 44 hospitals had been destroyed or badly
damaged. Typhoid spread due to broken water mains and damaged sewers. Then
mosquitoes and other insects feeding on corpses spread disease, and dysentery
killed 6 out of 10 babies born in Berlin in July 1945. Another lethal hazard
was unexploded ordnance, shells, mines and grenades. In 1945 Berlin women
outnumbered men by 3 to 1.
23 January 1946, Felix Goulin
became Head of the Provisional French Government.
12 September 1945, An estimate of War casualties reckoned
that Britain had lost 420,000 members of the armed forces; the US had lost
292,000, and the USSR, 13 million. German loss of military men was put at 3.9
million, Japan�s at 2.6 million. British civilian casualties from air raids
were set at 60,000, with 860,000 severely injured.
7 September 1945, Berlin
Victory Parade of 1945: The Allies held a victory parade in Berlin. The Soviet
JS-3 heavy tank was displayed in public for the first time.
2/8/1945, The Potsdam Conference (began 16 July 1945)
ended without agreement on the future of Europe. The Soviets would not
agree to free elections in Eastern Europe.
26 July 1945. In the
Soviet-occupied zone of Germany, the banks were closed and citizens ordered to
hand over all their gold, silver, foreign currency and other valuables to the
Russians, who were also dismantling factories and taking them to Russia as
17 July 1945, The
Potsdam Conference began, attended by Allied leaders Truman, Stalin, and Churchill
(later replaced by Attlee).
6 July 1945, US
Chiefs of Staff plan the evacuation of 400 top German scientists.
established Soviet Military occupation in Germany (SMAD), in Berlin.
commanders signed a pact for the occupation of Germany; it was t be divided
into 4 zones, British, French, USA, and USSR.
14 May 1945, The
last of Germany�s U-Boats in the Atlantic surrendered at Londonderry.
11 May 1945. Prague,
the last European capital, was liberated.
Post World War Two political developments (see
above for judicial dealings with Nazis)
8 May 1945. VE Day. The Second World War officially ended in
Europe, at one minute past midnight. Field
Marshall Keitel signed the final capitulation. The
Channel Islands remained under Nazi occupation till the following day, 9 May 1945.
Street parties were held all over Britain.
UK Bomber Command has calculated the following statistics
relating to the Second World War. 55,573 aircrew were killed, of whom 47,130
died on operations, 138 died as PoWs, and 8,090 were killed in �mon-operational
incidents� (mostly flying accidents). Of those killed, 38,462 were British,
9,980 were Canadian, 4,050 were Australian and 1,703 were New Zealanders. 530
RAF groundcrew were killed, and 759 injured, in incidents such as bombs
detonating when being loaded onto aircraft or being jammed in the bomb bay.
Total bombs dropped on Axis countries amounted to 955,044 tons, of which
657,674 tons was dropped on Germany itself. 336,037 bombing raids were carried
out by the RAF. 8,655 aircraft were reported as missing (failed to return). By
the end of 1944 Allied raids had reduced German oil production by 40%, so that
many German tanks and aircraft became unuseable due to lack of fuel, even if
they were serviceable.
German civilian casualties have been estimated at between
350,000 and 600,000.
Some 3.4 million German houses and flats had been destroyed out of a
total of 17.1 million; a further 30% of homes had been severely damaged by
bombing. The desperate housing shortage was exacerbated by an influx of some 10
million refugees from eastern Europe. Many Germans lived 5 or 6 to a room, or
existed in makeshift shelters. Some, as at Dachau near Munich, lived in former
In Greater Manchester 684 people died in the bombing, and
an additional 2,364 were injured.
For Chronography of World War Two in Europe
and North Africa, from the invasion of Poland 1939 to VE Day 1945, click here
The start of major fighting in World War Two. Hostilities
began between Germany and Poland, and Germany and France.
prepares to invade Poland; start of World War Two, with Britain and France
31/8/1939, In Gleiwitz, a small German town close to
the border with Poland, a small force of Nazi agents, dressed in Polish Army
uniforms, took over the local radio station and broadcast anti-German
propaganda in Polish. They then took bodies from Dachau concentration camp,
dressed these in Polish Army uniforms, and mutilated the corpses to make
identification impossible. Within a few
hours Adolf Hitler was denouncing the
�Gleiwitz Incident� in the German Reichstag and using it as a pretext to invade
attempted to negotiate with Hitler, but nothing was achieved.
25/8/1939, Britain signed an assistance pact with
Poland, the Anglo-Polish Alliance. Britain had seen Hitler seize Czechoslovakia, in
breach of the Munich Agreement; Hitler was now demanding the return of Gdansk
(Danzig) and the coastal strip of land linking Germany to East Prussia
(depriving Poland of its Baltic coast).�
Britain therefore abandoned its policy of appeasement with Germany.
and the USSR concluded a 20 year non-aggression pact, the Molotov-Ribbentrop
Pact. This left Hitler free to invade
Poland.� Hitler believed the
German-Soviet pact would lead France and Britain to withdraw their guarantees
of assistance to Poland.� When instead
Britain reaffirmed its support for Poland on 25/8/1939, Hitler postponed the attack on
Poland, originally scheduled for the night of 25-26/8/1939.�� Diplomatic moves with Britain failed to
dislodge UK support for Poland, and Hitler invaded on 1 September 1939.
gave the Obersalzberg Speech to
commanders of the Wehrmacht, detailing
the pending invasion of Poland and plans for extermination of the Poles.
28 April 1939, Hitler
denounced his earlier non-aggression pact with Poland, and demanded the
incorporation of Danzig with Germany.
3 April 1939, Hitler
ordered his generals to prepare plans for invading Poland.
31 March 1939. The British Prime Minister, Neville
Chamberlain, pledged to defend Poland, if attacked by Germany; so
28 March 1939. Hitler�s
Ribbentrop signed an agreement with the USSR that they would both invade
Poland. See 31 March 1939 and 1 September 1939.
27 March 1939, Nazi
Germany began an anti-Polish propaganda campaign against �oppression of Germans
in German lands now controlled by Poles�.
Germany annexes Memel (Lithuania), 1939
23 March 1939, Between 5 and 7 a.m. German troops crossed into Memel. 31 ships of the
German fleet arrived at the port at 10:20 a.m. Aboard the Deutschland, Hitler signed the decree formally turning the
Territory over to Germany.
22 March 1939. Memel, part of Lithuania, was ceded to Germany, see 20 March 1939.
20 March 1939, Germany issued an ultimatum to Lithuania demanding the return of
Memel, ceded by Germany in 1919.
16 January 1939, Lithuania and Germany signed a non-aggression pact. However in March
1939 Germany seized the Lithuanian territory of Memel-Klaipeda, where many
ethnic Germans lived.
Germany annexes the remainder of Czeckoslovakia, 1938-39
16 March 1939, Slovakia became a German protectorate.�
Hungary annexed Ruthenia, another part of Czechoslovakia.
15 March 1939. Germany occupied the remainder of
Czechoslovakia (Bohemia and Moravia).
The Sudetenland had already been occupied by Germany. Hitler described this as his last
territorial claim in Europe. See 6/6/1938.
9 March 1939. President Hacha of Czechoslovakia sacked his pro-German prime
Minister. Germany invaded a week later.
20 September 1938, The
Hungarian leaders, Imredy and Kanya, were summoned to Germany.
told them he had no objections to Hungary�s desires to regain Slovakia and
Ruthenis, so long as Hungary actively took part in the destruction of
from Spanish Civil War flee to France, 1939
13 February 1939, France closed its border
9 February 1939, In Spain, Franco�s
army, pursuing the fleeing Republicans north from Barcelona, reached the French
border. France had given refuge to the Republican forces, having confiscated
their vehicles and weapons.
30 January 1939, France opened refugee camps
for Republican women and children fleeing Barcelona after the defeat of the Republicans there
on 26 January 1939. By March 1939, these camps at Argeles and other locations
in SE France housed 250,000 refugees. This population movement was known as the
prelude to War 1938-39, last attempts to preserve peace in Europe
22 May 1939. Hitler and Mussolini
signed the 'Pact of Steel' in Berlin.
15 April 1939, US President Roosevelt asked Hitler and Mussolini for assurances that
they would not attack 31 named States.
13 April 1939, Britain and France guaranteed the independence of Romania and Greece.
17 March 1939, The French Parliament granted Edouard Daladier extensive powers to
14 February 1939 �The German
battleship Bismarck was launched.
27 January 1939, Hitler approved Plan Z, an ambitious naval construction
program that would give the Kriegsmarine some 800 ships by 1948.
1 November 1938, In Britain, Balloon Command was formed, under Fighter Command, to establish
barrage balloon protection for 12 cities including Bristol and Cardiff.
Experiments with barrage balloons had been carried out by the Germans back in
1917; the Allies also used them to protect Venice in 1918. The idea was
to hoist a �barrage� of cables to prevent bomber aircraft diving low, so their
accuracy was impaired. With the balloons, they could still dive but could not
pull out afterwards without hitting a cable and crashing. The balloon wincher
faced danger from lightning bolts, and from the static electric charge built up
on the wincher, especially in wet weather. An operator had to jump away from
the winch when leaving to avoid electrical conductance between his body and the
winch and earth.
24/10/1938, Hitler demanded the return from Poland to Germany of
Danzig.� Poland refused.
-6.0, Nazi Germany annexes the Sudetenland
Benes of Czechoslovakia resigned.
annexed the Sudetenland, see 6/6/1938.
September 1939, Chamberlain told a crowd �I believe it is
peace in our time� and waved the agreement he had made with Hitler
at Munich, bearing Hitler�s
signature.� Chamberlain said �How horrible,
fantastic, incredible, it is that we should be digging trenches and trying on
gas masks here because of a quarrel in a far-away country between people of
whom we know nothing�.
September 1938. In Munich, Chamberlain
appeased Hitler over Sudetenland.� Under the Munich Agreement, an agreement between Germany, Britain, France,
and Italy, the Sudetenland was surrendered to Nazi Germany.� No Czech representative was present.
15 September 1938. Neville Chamberlain visited Hitler at the Berchtesgarten, over the Czech crisis. Hitler declared
he only wanted the Sudetenland.
12 September 1938, Hitler made a bombastic speech in Nuremberg demandningt an end to the
oppression of Sudeten Germans. The British Cabinet held a meeting after Hitler had finished speaking. They were relieved
that Hitler had only demanded
�justice� for Sudeten Germans and had not committed himself to war.
7 September 1938. Sudetenland gained autonomy from
Czechoslovakia, see 6/6/1938.
15/8/1938. Chamberlain visited Hitler for crisis talks.
mobilised its forces.
6/6/1938. President Benes of Czechoslovakia offered self-government to the Sudetenland. However on 27 September 1938
Hitler stated his intention to annex the
Sudetenland. On 21 September 1938 Prague agreed to Anglo-French proposals to
cede the Sudetenland to Germany.
Czechs protested. German troops entered
the Sudetenland on 1/10/1938, as Teschen, in Czech Silesia, was annexed by
Poland. On 5/10/1938 President Benes of Czechoslovakia resigned.
20 May 1938.
Czechoslovakia ordered 400,000 troops to the Austro-German border.
28 April 1938.
Anglo-French talks on the Sudeten question. President Benes was urged to
24 April 1938, Sudeten
German leader Konrad
Henlein presented a list of demands in a speech in Karlsbad. The
principal demand was the creation of an autonomous German state within
Czechoslovakia. Though left unsaid, it
was readily inferred that this state could then vote to secede and join Germany.
23 April 1938. Sudeten Germans in Czechoslovakia demanded total
24 March 1938. The
British Prime Minister, Chamberlain,
announced that Britain would not oppose the German occupation of
Czechoslovakia, in the interests of peace. However Britain would fight for
France and Belgium.
29 November 1937, Sudeten
Germans walked out of the Czech Parliament following a ban on political
17 November 1937, Lord Halifax
arrived in Berlin for talks with Hitler on the Sudetenland; this was the first
step in the process of appeasement.
Nazis rioted in Czechoslovakia.
19 May 1935. The Nazi Party made gains in elections in
Germany annexes Austria, 1936-38
13 March 1938 Austria was declared to be part of the German Third Reich (the
Anschluss, or �joining�); a
province of Germany called Ostmark.� A
Nazi-controlled referendum gave a �vote� of 99.75% in favour of unification. The Anschluss had been expressly forbidden by the
Treaties of Versailles and St Germain, 1919, and a proposed customs union
between the two countries in 1931 had been vetoed by France and Czechoslovakia.
However after Austrian
Chancellor von Schuschnigg was forced to resign in early 1938, the
Germans occupied Austria and formally declared a union anyway.
12 March 1938. Germany invaded Austria.� This was 24 hours before an Austrian
plebiscite was to have been held concerning closer relations with Germany.� At 10.00 am German troops crossed into
Austria, thereby tearing up Article 88 of the Treaty of Versailles, which
forbade union of Germany and Austria.
11 March 1938, Hitler
demanded the resignation of Austrian Chancellor Kurt von Schusnigg, after Schusnigg
tried to forestall Hitler�s demands for unification with Germany
by a referendum.
9 March 1938,
Austrian Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg announced a referendum for March 13 to
determine the question of unification with Germany.
1 March 1938, Field
Goering was named Chief of Staff of Germany�s Luftwaffe.
February 1938. Hitler insisted that Austria released Nazi
January 1937. Austria announced an amnesty for Nazis.
July 1936, Austria and Germany entered closer relations.� Hitler forbade the Austrian Nazis from
mounting another uprising to preserve a face of legality.
19 July 1938, King George VI of Britain visited Paris.
10 March 1938, In France, the Chautemps Government collapsed,
weakening the French administration.
20 December 1937, Erich Ludendorff, German general who helped formulate strategy in
World War One, died.
24 November 1937, In Germany, Walter Funk replaced Dr Schacht
as Minister of Economics.
18 November 1937, A Fascist plot was discovered in Paris.
22/10/1937. The Duke and Duchess of Windsor arrived in Berlin
to meet Hitler,
study housing conditions, and hear a concert by the Nazi District Orchestra.
The Duke had been advised not to go to Germany, but, having abdicated as King,
he wanted to show he still had influence.
12 July 1937, Lionel Jospin,
Prime Minister of France, was born.
4 February 1937, The German
Ambassador gave King George VI a Nazi salute.
of Nazi power in Germany; political, cultural
and economic, 1935-39
March 1939, The Nazis burnt �degenerate�
art works in Berlin.
April 1938, Nazi Germany decreed that Jewish-owned businesses
were forbidden from changing their names.
4 February 1938. Hitler took over as War Minister in Germany.
Ribbentrop became Foreign Minister.
5 September 1937. A huge rally marked the
start of the Nazi congress in Nuremberg.
19 July 1937, In Berlin, the Germans staged an
exhibition, intended as mocking, of �degenerate
art�; art condemned by the Nazis.
16 July 1937, The Buchenwald concentration camp opened in
Germany, on a plateau overlooking Weimar. The first inmates were mainly
political prisoners, but most of the 238,980 prisoners ultimately sent there
of whom 56,545 died in the gas chambers.
For details of Nazi
anti-Semitism, see Judaism, history
War Minister Werner
von Blomberg began a three-day visit to Italy to discuss
German-Italian military ties.
schools in Bavaria were closed by the Nazis.
30 January 1937, Hitler made a speech on the 4th
anniversary of the beginning of the Nazi Revolution.� He spoke of having friendly relations with
other European powers but also spoke of the need for �lebensraum� �
living space � stating that Germany needed colonies for economic expansion. He
also promised to respect the neutrality of Belgium and The Netherlands.
16 January 1937, The Kiel Canal was supposed to be open without restriction for all
shipping. This day Germany abrogated a condition of the Treaty of Versailles by
requiring that ships now obtain permission for transit from their naval
5 January 1937, Nazi Germany recommended
its artists depict at least four children in illustrations of German families.
1 December 1936. In Germany the Hitler Youth Law was ratified, making membership of the
Hitler Youth compulsory for children aged 10 to 18.
25 November 1936. Germany and Japan agreed to protect world civilization
from the Bolshevik menace, and signed the Anti-Comintern
Pact, organised by Ribbentrop.�
Germany recognised the Japanese puppet state in Manchuria.� See 6 November 1937.
14 November 1936, Germany denounced the
clauses of the Versailles Treaty internationalising its waterways.
1 November 1936. Mussolini announced an anti-Communist �axis� with Germany, and urged France and
Britain to join.
20/10/1936, Hitler established closer relations with Mussolini,
using the Spanish Civil war as a pretext.
19/10/1936, Germany began a Four Year Plan for Economic
Growth. This was intended to prepare the
nation for war by late 1940.
24/8/1936, Germany extended conscription from one year to two.
16/8/1936. Hitler�s dreams of the
proof of Aryan supremacy at the Berlin Olympics were shattered when the Black
Owens, won four gold medals in the 100 metres, 200 metres, 400
metres relay, and the long jump. After Owens�s
of the stadium in disgust.
11/8/1936, Joachim von Ribbentrop was appointed German
Ambassador to London.
1/8/1936. Adolf Hitler opened the 11th
Olympic Games in
The Olympic flame was carried to the venue from Greece for the first
time.� See 16/8/1936.
1 May 1936, Starting on this day, every newlywed couple in Nazi
Germany was to receive a copy of Mein Kampf from the registrar.
18 February 1936, Charlie Chaplin�s film, Modern Times, was banned in
Nazi Germany because it had �Communist tendencies�. Many suspected the real
reason for the ban was the resemblance of Charlie Chaplin to Hitler in the film.
15 February 1936, Hitler announced that every
German household would have a Volkswagen car.
6 February 1936. Hitler opened the Winter
Olympic Games in Germany.
30 November 1935. Non-belief in Nazism was made legal grounds
for divorce in Germany.
12/10/1935, Hitler banned American jazz from
German radio, calling it decadent. Music of Jewish
or Black origin was also banned.
4 January 1937, Paul Behncke, German admiral, died aged 67.
2/10/1936, France devalued the Franc
(27 September 1936, France left the Gold Standard). Inflation began to rise,
obliterating the gains made by the French working class, causing bitter
political divisions later on.
17 July 1936, France nationalised its munitions industry.
30/6/1936, The Fascist Party in France was suppressed.
12/6/1936, France instituted a 40-hour working week.
4/6/1936, In France, Leon Blum formed a Leftist Popular Front
8 May 1936, Oswald Spengler, German historian, died aged
3 May 1936, The Left won in French elections.
23 January 1936, In France, Prime Minister Pierre Laval
resigned after criticism of the Hoare-Laval pact. This was a secret pact
between the British Foreign Secretary, Samuel Hoare, and the French Prime
Minister, Pierre Laval, to allow Italy to retain its conquest of Abyssinia, so
as not to drive Italy closer to Germany.
4/6/1935, In France, Pierre Laval formed a government.
31 May 1935, In France, politician Pierre Flandin lost power.
2 May 1935. France and the USSR signed a mutual defence pact in
case of attack.� See 7 March 1936.
14 April 1935. Britain, France, and Italy agreed to form a united
front against German re-armament.
15/10/1934, Raymond Poincare, French statesman, died aged
(1888 � 1934), King of Yugoslavia since 1921, was assassinated by Croatian
terrorists from the Ustase Movement in Marseilles. The French Foreign Minister,
Barthou, was also killed. Alexander I was succeeded by his 11-year old
son Peter II
(1893-1976) acted as Regent until 27 March 1941; however
just a fortnight after this, Peter II was forced into exile by invading
power of Hitler and the Nazis, 1934-36
29 March 1936. Hitler won 99% of the vote in German 'elections'.
12 March 1936, Germany threatened to enter a state of
"honourable isolation" and increase its military presence in the
Rhineland if France and Belgium continued to mass troops on their eastern
7 March 1936. The German Army re-entered the Rhineland,
supposedly a demilitarised area. A token force of 22,000 troops marched into
the 50-kilometre wide strip of territory bordering the Rhine, goose-stepping
through Essen, Dusseldorf, Frankfurt and Cologne. France wanted action but
Britain did not object. This was in breach of the Treaties of Versailles
and Locarno. Germany justified its move by saying the French-Soviet pact,
concluded in 1934 and ratified by the French government in early 1936, was
against the Locarno Treaty.
7 November 1935, Germany introduced a new Reichskriegsflagge
(Reich war flag). It resembled the national swastika flag, with elements of the
old Imperial war flag included.
15 September 1935. The Swastika was made the official flag of
15/8/1935. Hitler decreed that the Swastika was to be Germany�s
national flag, and banned German-Jewish marriages.
18/6/1935. France was angry at an Anglo-German naval deal that
allowed Germany to build up its naval strength, albeit to only 35% of the Royal
Navy. This was in contravention of
the Treaty of Versailles.
8 May 1935, The UK Cabinet heard that it was
estimated that the RAF was inferior to the Luftwaffe by 370 aircraft and that
in order to reach parity the RAF must have 3,800 aircraft by April 1937�an
extra 1,400 on the existing air programme. It was learnt that Germany was
easily able to outbuild this revised programme as well. On 21 May 1935, the Cabinet agreed to expanding the
home defence force of the RAF to 1,512 aircraft (840 bombers and 420 fighters).
7 April 1935. In the free city of Danzig, the
Nazis won 60% of the vote.
March 1935, Stalin
and Eden met in Moscow to discuss German
16 March 1935, Germany announced it was reintroducing conscription, for one year (see 24/8/1936), with a view to
building a peacetime army of 35 divisions.�
This was in defiance of the Treaty of Versailles; other European� powers protested but did nothing else.
15 March 1935. France extended
compulsory military service to two years.
11 March 1935. In
Germany, Hermann Goering announced
the creation of the Luftwaffe, or German air force.
13 January 1935. A plebiscite in the Saar indicated a desire to
return to Germany.� The vote was 90.36% in favour of joining
Germany, with an almost-100% turnout.�
The Saar rejoined Germany on 1 March 1935.� 2,000
refugees fled the Saar for France.
1934, Nazi Germany
began the Erzengungsslacht program to
make the country self-sufficient in food. By 1937 Germany was producing 90% of the food
28 November 1934. Churchill warned of growing German air strength.
24/10/1934. Nazi labour movement formed.
18 September 1934. Britons first heard Lord Haw Haw (Irishman William Joyce)
make a pro-Nazi broadcast.
4 September 1934. In
Germany, 750,000 attended the opening of the Nazi Party Conference.
19/8/1934. A plebiscite in Germany gave sole power to the
Fuhrer; agreeing to his merging the offices of President and Chancellor, Adolf Hitler.
Of 45.5 million voters, 38m voted for Hitler, 4.25m voted against him, and
870,000 spoilt their ballot papers.
3/8/1934, Following the death of Hindenberg,
the German Cabinet merged the offices of President and Chancellor, and made Hitler �Der Fuhrer�.
4 May 1936, Ludwig von Falkenhausen, German General, died
2/8/1934. Paul von Hindenburg, German military leader
and President from 1925, died aged 86.
27 July 1934, Louis HG Lyautey, French Minister of Defence
1916-17, died aged 79
-10.0, Chancellor Dollfus of Austria bans Nazis,
assassinated by Nazis, 1933-34
31 July 1934, The murderers
Dolfuss were executed.
30 July 1934, Kurt von
Schuschnigg was appointed Chancellor of Austria.
26 July 1934. Following the murder of Chancellor Dollfus in Austria,
on 25 July 1934 in a failed Nazi coup, the Austrian government ordered the
round up of all Nazis. Over 150 Austrian Nazis were arrested. The Nazis in
Austria had attempted an unsuccessful coup against the Dollfus administration; Dollfus
was a devout Catholic
and violently anti-Socialist. He had used the army to crush the schutzbund, the
big socialist defence force established in the housing estates outside Vienna. The
workers held out against the army for five days. A Nazi gang broke into the
Austrian Chancellery; Dollfus was shot in the throat and left to
bleed to death for four hours. When it was clear the Nazi coup was going to
fail the gang took other government ministers hostage and negotiated a promise
of safe conduct to the German border. This promise was withdrawn when it was
discovered that Dollfus
was dead. Three police and two Nazis died in a three hour battle for the radio
25 July 1934, Engelbert
Dolfuss (1892-1934), Chancellor of
Austria, was assassinated in Vienna by rebel Austrian Nazis.� Otto Planetta was convicted of the crime and
The Prime Minister of Austria, Engelbert Dollfuss, banned all Nazi
29 March 1933,
Austrian Nazis staged a large demonstration, in defiance of Chancellor
Dollfuss. Meanwhile Germany instituted a punitive 1,000 Mark tourist
tax on any German visiting Austria, which severely damaged the Austrian tourist
3 May 1934. The author H G Wells predicted there would be a major
world war by 1940.
23 April 1934, Berlin police prohibited fortune-telling.
12 February 1934, General
Strike in France began (until 13 February 1934) in protest at the dangers of
6 February 1934, Riots in Paris between far Right and Communist factions. These riots continued until 9
February 1934. They had been sparked by the suicide, on 3 January 1934, of the Russian-born
Stavisky, a dubious speculator who had been protected from
prosecution by corrupt government officials. There were allegations that he had
in fact been killed to protect these officials, and both Far Right and
Communist factions protested over the inefficiency and corruption of the French
administration. Civil war loomed in France, until the establishment of a group
of new government officials who were innocent of any corruption allegations.
23/10/1933, Albert Sarraut became Prime Minister of
21 May 1933. Britain signed a ten-year non-aggression pact with
Italy, France, and Germany.
gains absolute power in Germany, eliminates all opposition, 1933-34
20 July 1934, In Germany, the SS was constituted an independent
organisation within the Nazi Party.
13 July 1934.
(33) was put in charge of
Germany�s concentration camps.
3 July 1934. German
30/6/1934. Hitler�s rival Ernst Rohm and hundreds of
influential Nazis were murdered by the SS in the �night of the
long knives�. Hitler justified this by
claiming the SS were planning to overthrow him. The Army probably also
threatened to take over unless Hitler got rid of the brownshirt thugs and
stopped talk of socialist revolution. So they were crushed and the blackshirts,
or SS, emerged triumphant.
29 March 1934, Germany published its defence estimates' which showed a total increase
of one-third and an increase of 250% in its air force
26 January 1934. Germany signed a non-aggression pact with Poland.
30 January 1934. In Germany the regional Lander Diets
were abolished and power centralised.
1 January 1934. Sterilisation became
law in Germany.
23 December 1933, In Germany, the sentences were announced at the Reichstag Fire Trial.
12 December 1933. In Germany, the new Reichstag met but adjourned indefinitely.
30 November 1933, Hermann Goering created the Gestapo (Geheime Staatspolizei, or secret
state police), as an instrument of terror and repression.
12 November 1933. In a plebiscite in Germany, the
Nazis won 92% of the vote.
14/10/1933. Germany withdrew from the League of Nations.
27 September 1933, In Germany the National Synod elected the pro-Nazi Ludwig Muller
as Reichs-Bishop. Opponents rallied round Pastor Neimoller and formed the anti-Nazi
21 September 1933,The Reichstag Fire trial began.
2 September 1933, Adolf Hitler addressed a huge crowd at Zeppelin Field, promising that the Nazi Party would meet in
Nuremberg for the next 1,000 years.
25/8/1933, The Haavara (�transfer�) Agreement was
signed between the Nazi German Government and Zionist Jews. It provided for
the relocation of Jews from hostile Germany to what was then British Mandated
Palestine, and for these Jews to take some assets that would otherwise have
been confiscated by Germany. Advantages to Nazi Germany included the removal of
Jews from their territory and a possible easing of sanctions on the country
which had been imposed by Jews in the rest of Europe, which were a threat to
the still-fragile German economy. The Agreement was cancelled in 1939 after Hitler
invaded Poland. Hitler
inititally opposed the Haavara Agreement, but supported it in the period
25 July 1933. Hitler�s Cabinet
announced that disabled people would be
14 July 1933. Nazis banned all other political parties in Germany.
4 July 1933. The Deutsche
Volkspartei (DVP) was dissolved. The DVP had been formed in December 1918
as a moderate right-wing Party representing liberalism and industry. Its
served as German Foreign Minister from 1923 until his death in 1929; he did
much to alleviate the harsher provisions of the Treaty of Versailles. However
from 1930 the DVP lost most of its electoral support.
Germany, the Social Democrat Party was
30 May 1932, German
Briening (1885-1970) was ousted from office by the pro-Nazi Franz von Papen.� Breining had been appointed as Chancellor by President
Hindenburg on 28 March 1930, as a counterweight to Nazi influence.� Breining escaped from Germany to Holland in
1934 and went on to lecture at Harvard.
28 May 1933. The Nazis won elections in the free city of Danzig.
17 May 1933, Hitler made the first of his �Peace� speeches.
16 May 1933, Hitler gave a secret instruction to begin mass production
of weaponry for the German Army.
9 May 1933. Hitler ordered the burning of more than 25,000 books.
�Un-German� volumes were thrown onto a huge bonfire outside Berlin University.
Other similar fires took place in other German cities and over 1 million books
may have been burned altogether.
6 May 1933, In a
prelude to mass book burnings in Germany, a gang of students destroyed the work
Hirschfeld, burning the contents of the Institut f�r
Sexualwissenschaft (Institute of Sex Research) in Berlin. Hirschfeld was out of the
country at the time and never returned to Germany. He died in 1935 aged 67.
2 May 1933, Trades Unions were forbidden in Germany.
�ADGD (Allgemeiner Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund)
had been formed in 1919, as a federation of German Trades Unions, and had
gained a total membership of 5 million workers. On this day it was banned by the Nazi Party.
26 April 1933, The Gestapo German secret police force was
23 March 1933. Germany passed 'Enabling Laws' giving Hitler
21 March 1933, The first meeting of the German Reichstag, after the fire of 27
February 1933.� The Reichstag met in the
garrison church in Potsdam, a historical site of Prussian military
See Jewish History 1930s for anti-Semitism in Nazi Germany
14 March 1933. Goebbels
was appointed as Nazi Minister of
Propaganda and Public Enlightenment.
banned Kosher meat.�
5 March 1933. The Nazis won almost half the seats in
the German elections (43.9% of the
vote). The Communists won 12.3% of the vote.�
Hitler capitalised on the
Reichstag Fire (27 February 1933) to raise the spectre of a Bolshevist takeover
of Germany. The result was, Nazis 288 seats, Social Democrats 120 seats,
Communists 81 seats, Centre 74 seats, National People�s Party 52 seats, Others
4 January 1933, Adolf Hitler and Franz von Papen
met to conspire to oust Kurt von Schleicher as German Chancellor.
1 March 1933. The Nazis began mass arrests of all political opponents.
28 February 1933, In Germany, the Reichstag Fire
Decree banned the Communist Party.
26 February 1933, James Goildsmith, financier, was born in
31 January 1933, Edouard Daladier became Prime Minister of
18 December 1932, In France, Edouard Herriot resigned after defeat
over proposal to pay War Debt to the USA, and Joseph Boncour formed a
29 November 1932. (1) Jacques Chirac, French Prime Minister
1995-2007, was born in Paris.
(2) The USSR and France signed
a non-aggression pact.
4/6/1932, Second Government of Edouard Herriot began in France.
10 May 1932, Albert Lebrun succeeded Doumier as French
8 May 1932, The Left gained around 100 seats in French
7 May 1932, Albert Thomas, French socialist politician
(Minister of Armament in WW1), died aged 53
6 May 1932, President Doumer of France was assassinated.
6 January 1932, Andre Maginot, French
suffer electoral defeat. Attempt to form non-Nazi Government, but agreement
28 January 1933, In Germany, Kurt von Schleicher�s
Government fell, after the Left and Centre failed to reach agreement.
4 December 1932, In Germany, Kurt von
Schleicher attempted to form a coalition with a majority in the
German Parliament, but failed.
20 July 1932, As law and order deteriorated in Prussia, Chancellor Franz von Papen
dismissed the Prussian Social Democrat Prime Minister (Otto Braun) and the Prussian
Minister of the Interior (Severing).
2/6/1932, In Germany, Franz von Papen, having been
repudiated by the Centre Party, formed a non-party �Cabinet of Barons�.
13 April 1932. The Nazi paramilitary SA and SS were banned in Germany.
10 April 1932. Paul
Von Hindenburg won the German Presidency against Adolf Hitler after a second ballot to secure a majority. See 31
May 1932. Paul
von Hindenburg received 19.5 million votes, 53%, against Hitler,
13.4 million votes, 36.8%. Thalmann received 3.7 million, 10.2%.
13 March 1932. Hindenburg defeated Hitler
in the German presidential elections.�
von Hindenbiurg received 18.6 million votes (49.6%); Adolf Hitler
received 11.3 million votes (30.1%), and the Communist Ernst Thalmann received 4.9
million votes (13.2%). Because Hindenburg was o.4% below an absolute majority,
a second round was held on 10 April 1932.
10 March 1932, Paul von
Hindenburg gave a radio address in his one and only public speech of
the German presidential campaign, emphasizing his non-party status and pledging
to "oppose those who merely stand for party interests"
-13.0, Nazi electoral resurgence 1929-33. Reichstag Fire, Hitler becomes Dictator
27 February 1933. The German Reichstag
burned down. The fire was
blamed on a simple-minded Dutch Communist, Marinus Van Der Lubbe, who police found in the
Reichstag grounds. Marinus Van Der Lubbe was guillotined on 10 January 1934. However many suspect the Nazis. Hitler now pressed for, and succeeded in getting, dictatorial
powers from President Hindenburg, and the lack of a majority in the
Reichstag was no longer a hindrance to the Nazis.
10 February 1933. Hitler made a
speech in Berlin attacking democracy.
30 January 1933. Adolf Hitler,
43 years old, was appointed Chancellor of Germany by 85-year old President Paul Von Hindenburg. Hitler�s Cabinet included only two Nazis; Hermann Goering
(Minister without Portfolio) and Wilhelm Frick (Minister of the Interior). Franz von Papen
was vice-Chancellor, and Constantin von Neurath was Foreign Minister.
19 November 1932, At President
Hindenburg�s invitation, Adolf Hitler attempted to form a coalition
with a majority in the German Parliament, but failed.
17 November 1932. In Germany, Prime Minister Von Papen resigned after failing to form a
refused the Chancellorship, if it meant
a coalition with other parties, as Hindenburg wanted.
6 November 1932, In Germany�s last elections before Hitler assumed absolute power,
the Nazi Party lost 34 Reichstag seats, with gains for the Communists. The
Nazis won 192 seats, Social Democrats 121 seats, Centre Party 70 seats,
Communists 100 seats, National People�s Party 52 seats, Others 45 seats.
2 November 1932, In Germany 12 died in
clashes between Communists and Nazis.
14 September 1932, Germany
withdrew from the Geneva Disarmament Conference (until December 1932),
demanding to be allowed to possess armaments equal to the other powers.
12 September 1932. Von Papen dissolved the
30/8/1932. Herman Goering, Nazi Party, was elected President of the Reichstag.
13/8/1932. Hitler refused to serve as Chancellor under Von Papen.
4/8/1932. Nazi versus
Communist riots in Berlin.
31 July 1932. The Nazis were now the biggest party
in the Reichstag, with 230 seats,
but without an overall majority.
26 July 1932. The War Minister of Germany, Kurt Von Scheidler, said that Germany was ready to re-arm.
16/6/1932, In Germany, a ban on Nazi storm troopers, in place
since April, was lifted.
31 May 1932. (see 10 April 1932) President
Hindenburg invited Franz Von Papen
to form a government. On 1/6/1932 Von Papen formed one that excluded the Nazis. However on 14/6/1932 Hitler promised to co-operate with Von Papen. On 16/6/1932 the ban on Nazi storm troopers in Germany was lifted.
24 April 1932. The Nazis led in four state elections
(Prussia, Bavaria, Wurttemberg and Hamburg; in Prussia they were the largest
single Party in Parliament). In the
Prussian state Parliament, their share of the seats rose from 6 to 162.
25 February 1932. Adolf Hitler was granted German citizenship. He had
been technically stateless since renouncing Austrian citizenship in 1925.
22 February 1932. The Nazis choose Hitler
as presidential candidate.
30 December 1931. The Nazi Party was formed in Holland.
15 November 1931. The
Nazi Party won elections in the state of Hesse.
17/10/1931, 100 were
injured in fighting between Nazis and Communists in Braunschweig, Germany.
9 July 1931, In
Germany, Nazi leader Adolf Hitler and German Nationalist leader Alfred
Hugenberg agreed to cooperate.
5 April 1931, Germany formed a customs union with Austria. See 25 March 1931.
25 March 1931. Germany announced plans for a customs union with Austria, in defiance
of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles.� France and Britain strongly
objected. See 5 April 1931.
2 February 1931. The Nazis demanded that Germany withdraw from the League
23 September 1930, Three
Reichswehr artillery officers went on trial before the Leipzig Supreme Court in
Germany, charged with high treason for conspiring with the Nazis to overthrow the
15 September 1930. Adolf Hitler, because he was an Austrian citizen, was barred
from taking his seat at the Reichstag. There was further trouble at the
Reichstag when Nazi deputies turned up, on 13/10/1930, wearing uniform; this
was illegal for civilians.
14 September 1930, The Berlin stock market fell 20 points
as news that the Nazis (denouncing the
Versailles Treaty) had gained 107 seats
to become the second largest party after the Socialists.� Before the elections they had only 12 seats. Their vote rose from 800,000 in 1928 to 6.409,000,
only 2,000,000 behind the Socialists. Adolf Hitler played on voter�s fears of
economic chaos and social disorder. He blamed Jews and Bolsheviks as the cause
of the nation�s problems and promised to make Germany great again.
30 March 1930, In Germany Heinrich
Bruning became Federal Chancellor of a minority right-of-centre
Government. However without a clear majority he had to increasingly rely on
23 February 1930, Nazi thug Horst Wessel died in a Berlin hospital of
blood poisoning, aged 22. He had been shot in a street brawl 14 January 1930.
The Nazis made him a martyr, and used his �Horst-Wessel-song�, with anti-Semitic
lyrics and a tune plagiarised from older Hamburg sailor�s ballads.
23 January 1930, In Germany, Wilhelm Frick was appointed Minister for
Education and the Interior in Thuringia, the
first Nazi party member to become a Minister in State Government.
8 December 1929. Hitler�s Nazi Party won municipal elections in Bavaria.
7 November 1931, French police launched large raids against
13 May 1931, In France, Paul Doumier was elected President.
banking and unemployment Crisis 1929-31 (see Hyperinflation 1923-24 below)
22 July 1931. Britain, France, and the USA renewed credits for Germany to help it
through financial problems.
13 July 1931. All German banks closed till 5/8/1931 following the
collapse of Danatbank.
bank failure (Danatbank) caused the closure of all German banks.
11 May 1931. In
Austria, the bankruptcy of
Credit-Anstalt began Europe�s financial collapse.
24 February 1931. German unemployment reached almost 5 million.
16 September 1930, The Berlin city council
met for the first time since summer recess, but broke up in turmoil after the
Communists and Nazis introduced a motion demanding that the council dissolve.
The motion was defeated.
27 March 1930, In Germany, Hermann
Muller�s Government resigned because of Social Democrat opposition
to planned cuts in Unemployment Benefits.
22 September 1929. Communists and Nazis
fought on the streets of Berlin.
3 May 1929. Severe civil unrest in Berlin.
1 May 1929, Communists in Berlin attacked policemen.
Three days of clashes ensued, with 15 dead.
15 February 1929. German
unemployment was over 3 million. In 1926 it had been 2 million,
falling to around 1.3 million in 1927 and 1928.
27 January 1931, Pierre Laval became Prime Minister in France.
7 January 1931, State funeral of MarshaL Joffre in Paris.
3 January 1931, Joseph Joffre, French marshal and commander in chief of the
French armies on the Western Front, died.
15 July 1930, Jacques Derrida, French philosopher, was born (died
3 April 1930. Helmut Kohl, German Chancellor, was born.
6 March 1930, Alfred von Tirpitz, German Admiral, died.
22 January 1930, Old imperial fortifications near Kehl in
Germany were blown up. Until recently they had been occupied by the French, but
it was agreed at the second Hague conference that the French would evacuate the
forts and the Germans would raze them afterward.
24 November 1929, Georges Clemenceau, Prime Minister of France,
27 September 1929, In France, Raymond Poincare resigned due to
ill health. Aristide
Briand became Prime Minister.
20 March 1929. The French military commander Marshal Ferdinand Foch died aged
6 February 1929, Germany ratified the Kellogg-Briand anti war pact.
15 January 1929 The USA ratified the Kellogg-Briand anti war pact.
1928. Jean Marie Le Pen, French Far
Right Wing politician was born, son of a Breton fisherman. He formed the
National Front Party in 1972.
27/8/1928. In Paris, 15 nations signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact,
outlawing war. The USSR signed the pact on 6 September 1928.
28/6/1928, In Germany,
Muller, Social Democrat, was appointed Chancellor following the
resignation of Wilhelm
Marx on 13/6/1928.
devalued the Franc against the US Dollar.
Wilhelm Marx resigned.
22 April 1928. In French elections Right-wing Parties won 325 out of the 610 seats.
28 March 1928. France shortened its term of compulsory
military service to one year.
24 July 1927, The Menin Gate, a
memorial at Ypres to the soldiers of the British Empire, was unveiled by Lord Plumer.
7 February 1927, Emile Coue, French psychotherapist, died at
evacuates the Rhineland, Germany makes treaties, tries to join League of
17 May 1930, French Prime Minister Andr� Tardieu decided to
withdraw the last French troops from the Rhineland (they departed by
16 September 1927. President Von Hindenburg repudiated German
responsibility for the Great War (World War One).
8 September 1926. The League of Nations
voted to admit Germany as a member. On 11 September 1926 Spain left the League
in protest at Germany joining.
24 April 1926. Germany signed a friendship
treaty with the USSR.
13 March 1926. Germany was refused a
place on the League of Nations Council.
8 February 1926. Germany applied to join
the League of Nations.
1 December 1925, The Peace of Locarno
was signed (by UK, France, Italy, and Germany), guaranteeing peace and
existing national frontiers in Europe.
16/10/1925, France and Germany concluded the Locarno Treaty, guaranteeing their
mutual frontier. Italy and Britain also signed.�
Germany reaffirmed its renunciation of Alsace-Lorraine and guaranteed
not to attack France or Belgium.� Russia feared the Locarno Treaty meant an
alliance of western powers against it, see 24 April 1926.
12/10/1925, Germany and the USSR signed a commercial
5/10/1925, The Locarno Conference opened, to
decide the German border and future of the Rhineland.
13 July 1925. French troops begin to withdraw from the Rhineland.
2 February 1926, Giscard D�Estang, French President, was born.
27 November 1925, Aristide Briand formed a Government in France.
22 November 1925, Paul Painleve resigned as French Prime
Minister when a credit moratorium article in his financial plan was defeated in
the Chamber of Deputies by three votes.
10 April 1925, In France, Paul Painleve became Prime Minister after the
defeat of Edouard
26 March 1925, Hindenburg was elected President of Germany.
15 January 1925, After a month of intense political
negotiations in Germany, Hans Luther (Independent) succeeded Wilhelm Marx
as Chancellor, and Gustav Stresemann became Foreign Minister.
start of Party, then electoral decline, 1919-29; but see 1930s
20 May 1928, In Germany, Socialists won the elections.
The result was, Social Democrats rose from 131 seats to 153, to become the
largest party but without an overall majority. Centre Party, 62 seats.
Communists, 54 seats. German National People�s Party, 73 seats. German People�s
Party, 45 seats. Nazis, 12 seats.
29/8/1926. A Nazi
Party rally was held at Nuremberg.
9 November 1925. The
German Schutzstaffel, or Protection Squad (SS), was formed.
accepted German proposals for a security pact. Hitler�s Mein Kampf was
25 April 1925. Hindenburg
became President of Germany. He won 48.5% of the popular vote, against 42.5% for Wilhelm Marx of
the Centre Party.
28 February 1925, Friedrich Ebert,
Social Democrat President of the German Republic, died. He had been pilloried
buy the extreme Right in Germany who had accused him of treason since he was
appointed in 1919. He was replaced by war hero Hindenburg (see 25 April 1925).
27 February 1925, Hitler
spoke at a Nazi meeting at a Munich beer hall.
14 February 1925. The
ban on the Nazi Party in Bavaria was lifted.
imprisoned, released early, 1923-4
20 December 1924. Adolf Hitler was freed from prison on
parole after serving just 8 months of his jail term for high treason.
7 December 1924, In
German elections, the Communists (45 seats) lost ground to the Social
Democrats (131 seats). The Conservative Nationalists also gained (103 seats) whilst the Nazis slumped to 14 seats.
The Centre Party won 69 seats.
8 July 1924, Adolf Hitler
resumed leadership of the Nazi Party.
4 May 1924, In
elections to the German Parliament (Reichstag), the Nationalists made gains,
winning 95 seats, as did the Communists with 62 seats. The Social Democrats won
100 seats and the Centre Party had 65 seats. For the first time the National Socialist (Nazi) Party entered
Parliament, with 32 seats.
1 April 1924. Adolf Hitler was jailed for 5 years for his part
in the abortive Munich beer hall putsch.
26 February 1924, Adolf Hitler
was charged with treason for his part
in the abortive Munich beer hall putsch.
9 January 1924, In
Germany, Rhineland secessionist leader Heinz was assassinated.
9 November 1923. The
Munich beer hall putsch marked the start of Hitler�s
rise to power in Germany. This putsch against the Bavarian Government
failed and Hitler
was arrested on 11 November 1923 in a village outside Munich and
imprisoned.� Hitler then spent several months
in prison in Landsberg Am Lech, Bavaria, where he dictated part of his Mein
Kampf to Rudolf
Hitler imprisoned, released early, 1923-4
2 September 1923, Hitler
fiercely denounced the Weimar Republic.
became German Chancellor.
27 January 1923. The German Nazi Party held its first rally,
20 January 1923, All US
troops withdrawn from Germany.
29 July 1921 Hitler became President of the National
1 April 1920, The
Nazi Party was officially founded in Germany.
24 February 1920. The National Socialist Workers (Nazi) party,
led by Adolf Hitler, published a programme for a Third Reich.
5 January 1919.� The
Nazi (National Socialist) Party was founded in Germany. Adolf Hitler,
a soldier in World War One who was awarded the Iron Cross for bravery, and who
was angry at the armistice terms imposed on Germany by the Treaty of
Versailles, and extremely opposed to Communism, headed the new Party. Hitler
was a poor student in the Austrian secondary school system. He became an artist
but failed to gain entry to the Academy of Fine Arts; Hitler was a melancholic
character, obsessed by fears that Jews, linked to communists, would take over
2 December 1924, The UK and Germany signed a trade pact.
13/6/1924, Gaston Doumergue became the 13th President of
11/6/1924, The French President, Millerand, resigned. He had been
accused by the radoical Socialist Party ;leader Edouard Herriot of being too
Right-wing, when the President should be neutral. On 13/6/1924 Gaston
Doumergue became the new French President and on 14/6/1924 Herriot
became the new Prime Minister.
1/6/1924, Raymond Poincare resigned as Prime Minister of
11 May 1924, In French elections the Left bloc emerged with the
largest number of seats, 287 out of 581.
28 December 1923. Alexandre Gustave Eiffel, who designed the 300
metre Eiffel Tower, Paris, died aged 91.
-17.0, German Hyperinflation Economic Crisis
1923-24 (See banking failures and unemployment 1929-31 above) (see also Reparations 1921-32 below)
7 November 1924, Germany announced its
first balanced budget since the war.
1 September 1924, The Dawes Plan was implemented in Germany. It was drafted by Charles G Dawes,
a Chicago banker. Under it, a new Reichsmark was issued at one billion old
marks. The Reichsbank was now under Allied control. German reparations were
rescheduled, and the Allied loaned Germany 800 million gold Marks. Ne wtaxes
were introduced, and inflation began to subside. Political stability followed,
and support for extremist Parties declined.
30/8/1924, The German
Reichsbank was made independent of the government.� It issued a new currency, the ReichsMark, at 1,000,000 million old Marks to the new
6/6/1924, The German Reichstag approved the Dawes
Plan by a 247�183 vote.
15 November 1923. Rampant German inflation
peaked with the Mark worth 4,200,000 Million to the US Dollar, and 10,000,000
Million to the UK Pound � if you could find anyone willing to change your marks
for dollars. It had been 4.2 to the Dollar in 1914, 350,000 to the pound (1
pound was 5 dollars) on 1/6/1923, and 622,000 to the pound on 22/6/1923. A loaf
of bread cost 63 pfennigs in 1918, and 250 pfennigs in January 1923. But by
July 1923 a loaf cost 3,465 pfennigs, and by November 1923, 201,000 million
marks. Workers were paid twice a day and by the evening a loaf of bread would
cost what a house was worth in the morning.
Money had effectively become worthless; trade was done by
barter. Middle class families with cash in the bank had been ruined. The
problem had been that, after French troops occupied the Ruhr to enforce war
reparations, the German Government began to print marks in huge numbers. German
industry was unable to produce the goods�
to match the vast increase in money supply. On 15 November 1923 Germany
introduced the Rentemark, tied to the country�s real estate. Each rentemark was
worth 1,000 million old marks.
11/10/1923, The German Mark reached 10,000 million to the UK
1/10/1923, The German mark reached 242,000,000 to the US$
27 September 1923. Martial law was proclaimed in Germany, under Article 48 of the
15 September 1923, As the German economy deteriorated, the German Bank Rate was raised to
11/8/1923, The Cuno
strikes broke out across Germany as opposition to Wilhelm Cuno hardened. 35
workers were killed and 100 wounded around the country.
unrest began in Germany; strikes and riots, until 13/8/1923.
7/8/1923, German Chancellor Wilhelm Cuno called a conference
of the six top party leaders where it was decided to put the country back on a
1 July 1923, The German Mark reached 160,000 to the US$.� Pre 1914 it had been 4.20; during 1922 the
rate fell from 162 to over 7,000 to the US$.
1 February 1923. Inflation in Germany continued; �1 was
now worth 220,000 Marks. On 2 January 1922�
�1 had been worth 30,000 Marks.
12 January 1923 �Germany
protested at the occupation of the Ruhr (see 11 January 1923) and ceased all
coal reparations shipments to France.�
The French erected customs posts and economically divided the region
from the rest of Germany.� This was a
serious blow to the German economy, especially after the loss of the industrial
Upper Silesia to Poland.� The resultant economic disruption hit the German
economy and its currency began to collapse.� See 31 July 1925.
2 January 1922. As inflation soared in Germany, �1 bought over 30,000 German Marks.
See 1 February 1923.
4 November 1921. The German currency began to collapse.
6/8/1923, In Germany, Gustav Stresemann was appointed Chancellor following
the sudden resignation of Wilhelm Cuno. Stresemann formed a coalition
23 December 1922, Birth of Helmut Schmidt, German
22 November 1922, Wilhelm Cuno succeeded Wirth as German Chancellor.
4 September 1922, Silesia voted to remain with Prussia.
14 July 1922, French President Millerand escaped an assassination
24/6/1922, German Foreign Minister Walter Rathenau, aged 54, was
murdered by anti-Semitic
16 April 1922. Germany restored relations with the USSR,
signing the Second Treaty of Rapallo. Secretly, the USSR agreed to let Germany build and
test weapons in Soviet territory that were forbidden within Germany under the
Treaty of Versailles.
26 February 1922, Britain
and France concluded a 20-year alliance.
25 February 1922, The
French murderer Henri
Landru, known as Bluebeard, was guillotined. He had killed 10 women after
luring them to his flat by dating adverts in newspapers.
31 January 1922, In
Rathenau was appointed Foreign Minister.
15 January 1922, In
Poincare formed a Government in France, following Aristide
Briand�s resignation on 12/ January 1903.
17/10/1921, Ludwig III, King of Bavaria, died.
12/10/1921, The Council of the League of Nations awarded
the upper two thirds of Silesia to Poland (along with most of its coal mines and
steelworks). Germany reluctantly accepted the decision.
21 September 1921, Large explosion at German factory near
Mannheim; 2,000 killed or injured.
26/8/1921, The former German Finance Minister, Mathias
Erzberger, was assassinated by a pro=Nazi nationalist gang.
25/8/1921. Peace treaty (Treaty
of Berlin) signed between Germany and the USA.
24/6/1921, Weimar Germany Government Foreign Minister Walter Rathenau
28 May 1921, In Germany, Chancellor Wirth appointed industrialist Walter� Rathenau as Minister for
Reconstruction, including responsibility for reparations.
20 May 1921, Germany and China resumed diplomatic relations.
6 May 1921, Germany and Russia signed a peace treaty.
3 May 1921, Polish irregular forces attempted to seize Upper
Silesia. Under the Versailles Agreement this region was supposed to go to
Poland but in the face of German objections the Allies agreed to a plebiscite.
The result was 60% in favour of remaining German. France refused to allow the
German Army to oust the Poles, and the pro-Nazi Freikorps did this instead.
However the antipathy between the Freikorps and the Weimar German Government
Reparations Crises Terms eased, Allied occupation ended, 1921-34
27 April 1934, Britain and France warned
Germany not to default on reparations payments.
9 July 1932. In Switzerland, the Allies voted to ease Germany�s economic crisis by
suspending the repayment of war debts.
January 1932, German Chancellor Heinrich Bruning declared that
Germany could not, and would not, resume Reparations payments.
pulled the last of its troops out of the Rhineland, 5 years before the
date set by the Versailles Treaty.
12/10/1929, The last
British troops left the Rhineland, moving out of their base in Wiesbaden.
8/6/1929. At The
Hague, Germany�s war debts were
rescheduled. Germany was no longer required to pay for the reconstruction
of France�s war-damaged provinces. The Young Plan, named after its American
author Owen Young, removed controls on the German economy. However Germany must
still repay �1.65 billion over the next 40 years, including �2 million a year
that Britain insists upon to cover its American debt. Militant Germans,
including the Nazis, demonstrated
against these payments. The Plan
was intended to strengthen the position of the Weimar Government but instead
undermined it further.
30 January 1926. British troops ended a 7-year occupation of the
30 November 1924, The last
French and Belgian troops left the Ruhr.
17/8/1924. French and
Belgian troops agreed to withdraw from the Ruhr within 1 year following
Germany�s agreement on war reparations.
Allies and Germany accepted the Dawes Plan, for a revised timetable of
ten-nation summit agreed a plan drawn up by US banker Charles Dawes, designed to
assist Germany�s economy and fulfil reparation payments.
troops occupied Bonn and Wiesbaden.
September 1923, A German uprising in Dusseldorf
against French occupation of The Ruhr.
31 March 1923, Rioting
German workers at the Krupps works in Essen in French-occupied Ruhr were shot
by French troops.
12 January 1923 �Germany protested at the occupation of the
Ruhr (see 11 January 1923) and ceased all coal reparations shipments to
France.� The French erected customs posts
and economically divided the region from the rest of Germany.� This was a serious blow to the German
economy, especially after the loss of the industrial Upper Silesia to
Poland.� The resultant economic
disruption hit the German economy and its currency began to collapse.� See 31 July 1925.
11 January 1923, Germany
defaulted on reparations payments (see 26 December 1922), and French and Belgian
troops occupied Essen and The Ruhr.
16 December 1922, The
Reparation Commission accused Germany of intentional shortfalls in wood and
coal deliveries to France.� See 11
2 November 1922, Economic
experts opened a conference in Berlin on the German financial crisis
13 January 1922, At a
conference at Cannes, the Allies agreed to postpone Germany�s reparation
15 December 1921. Germany
sought a moratorium on reparations.
Demolition of the great fortress of Heligoland was completed.
30 September 1921. French
troops pulled out of the Ruhr.
4 May 1921. France
invaded the Ruhr to enforce reparations.
2 May 1921, France
mobilised its troops in preparation for an invasion of the Ruhr.
27 April 1921, The
Allies claimed �6,650 million (132,000 million gold Marks) compensation from
Germany. Germany reluctantly agreed, but it would put a great strain on the
German economy.� The Fehrenbach German
government at once resigned.� The Allies
threatened that if Germany did not agree, they would occupy the Ruhr.
24 April 1921. Germany
pleaded in vain to the USA for aid on reparations. On 27 April 1921
reparations were set at �6.65 billion.in 42 annual instalments.
23 March 1921. Germany
defaulted on reparations.
20 March 1921, A
plebiscite in Upper Silesia resulted in a majority vote for remaining with
Germany.� Germany tried to claim that the
whole territory should therefore remain as German, no part passing to Poland.� The resultant crisis, with France supporting
Poland, was passed to the League of Nations, see 20/10/1921.
8 March 1921. Because
of Germany�s failure to give a satisfactory response to demands for war
reparations, Allied troops occupied the Ruhr towns. Germany agreed to pay
war reparations on 11 May 1921. These consisted of �10 billion in gold over the
next 42 years plus a 12.5% tax on Germany�s exports.
1 March 1921, Allied
troops entered Germany to enforce war reparations payments.
29 January 1921, A new sum
for German Reparations was set at US$ 31 billion.
24 January 1921, The Reparations Conference in Paris fixed
German War Reparations at US$ 56 billion, to
be paid over 42 years; of this sum, France would get 52%. German politician
reacted with outrage, seeing this as �enslavement of the German economy�, and
defaulted on repayments on 23 March 1921. Under pressure from the US, the
Allies reduced their claim but when Germany defaulted on this, too, they
reoccupied the Rhineland.
agitation in western Europe, 1918-23
23/10/1923, A Communist
uprising occurred in Hamburg.
in Hamburg led by Ernst Th�lmann were secretly called on to
24 March 1921, Pro-Communist riots in Hamburg,
30 December 1920, The
Party was founded at Tours.
2 May 1919. German
troops entered Munich to crush the fledgling Soviet Republic in Bavaria.
22 February 1919. After the
murder of the Bavarian Prime Minister, Kurt Eisner, a Soviet Republic was declared in Bavaria.
4 February 1919, The �Soviet Republic of
Bremen� was suppressed.
11 January 1919. The
Spartacus League initiated a week of revolt in Berlin. Led by Rosa Luxembburg
Leibknecht, they wanted a Communist workers State�
10 January 1919, Bremen declared
itself a Soviet Republic; this was crushed on 4 February 1919,
30 December 1918, The German Communist Party was
founded.� However within a fortnight,
irregular German troops had murdered its leaders.
28 January 1921, In Paris,
a symbolic Tomb of the Unknown nSoldier was installed below the Arc de Triomphe
to commemorate the dead of World War One.
21 January 1921, The
French Chamber of Deputies approved Aristide Briand as the new Premier, along with
his government, with a vote of 475 to 68 of confidence in his more moderate
policy regarding German reparations due to France.
16 January 1921, In
Briand formed a Government.
10 December 1920, Woodrow Wilson
Bourgeois were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
23 September 1920, Alexandre
Millerande was elected President of France, succeeding Paul Deschanel
who had resigned due to ill-health.
-20.0, International adjustments post World
War One. German War Trials begin, 1918-20
10 January 1921, In
Leipzig, war trials began at the German Supreme Court.
post-war provisions included the
creation of Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia,�
Galicia was given to Poland, Transylvania to Romania, and Istria,
Trentino, and South Tyrol to Italy. Greece and Yugoslavia acquired parts of
Bulgaria.� German East Africa went to
Britain, the Samoan Islands to New Zealand, and South West Africa to South
Africa.� Germany itself lost territory to
Poland, France, Denmark, and Lithuania.
19 April 1920, The Conference of San Remo
opened.� Following on from the London
Conference (see 12 January 2920), post World War One frontiers in Europe were
11 July 1920, The result of a plebiscite
in East and West Prussia was a 97% vote to remain with Germany.
14 March 1920, A plebiscite in the middle
zone of Schleswig favoured integration with Germany.
6 February 1920, The League of Nations took
over administration of Saarland from
5 February 1920, Germany refused to hand over alleged war criminals to the Allies.
23 January 1920, The Netherlands refused to
Wilhelm II, as demanded by the Suprme Allied War Council.
20 January 1920, Peace Talks in Paris concluded, see 18 January 1919.
31 July 1919. Germany adopted the Weimar Constitution, named after the
town where the constitution was drafted.
12 July 1919, Britain and France
authorised the resumption of commercial relations with Germany.
4 July 1919. France demobilised its troops.
28/6/1919. The Treaty of Versailles was signed. This
peace treaty between the Allies and the Germans was signed at Versailles and officially
ended World War One, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke
Ferdinand started it. Alsace Lorraine was returned to France, German
colonies were under mandate, German East Africa went to Britain and German
South West Africa (Namibia) to South Africa.�
The west bank of the Rhine and a zone 30 miles deep on its east bank was
demilitarised. See 7 May 1919.
22/6/1919, The German
National Assembly at Weimar authorised the signing of the Peace Treaty.
20/6/1919, The German
fell due to his opposition to the Paris Peace Plan. On 21/6/1919 Gustave Bauer
formed a Cabinet comprising Social Democrats, Centre, and Democrats.
29 May 1919, German
delegates made counter-proposals to the Paris Peace conference,
7 May 1919, Peace terms were dictated to Germany.� Germany had
to ceded Alsace-Loraine to France; Upper Silesia, most of Poznan, and West
Prussia went to Poland.� This separated
East Prussia from the rest of Germany as Poland gained a corridor to the sea at
Danzig.� North Schleswig went to Germany
and Memel went to Lithuania. See 28/6/1919.
6 May 1919. Peace
conference shared out former German colonies.
28 April 1919, German delegates arrived
at the Paris Peace Conference.
4 April 1919. At Versailles, the Germans agreed to make Danzig a �free city�.
11 March 1919. The Allies agreed to supply famine-hit Germany with food.
18 January 1919, Peace talks opened at Versailles.� See 20 January 1920. 27 nations attended;
Germany was excluded
12 January 1919, Delegates arrived in Paris for the Peace talks, see 18 January 1919.
6 December 1918. Allied troops occupied Cologne.
5 December 1918, The British Prime Minister demanded that the ex-German Kaiser be
prosecuted by an International Court.
2 December 1918, One of the last acts of the British War Cabinet; it demanded the
extradition of the German Kaiser Wilhelm.
1 December 1918. The British Second Army entered Germany.
30 November 1918. German
occupation of Bucharest, capital of Rumania, ended, see 6 December 1916.
25 November 1918, French troops entered Strasbourg.
23 November 1918, Mutinous German sailors occupied the Chancellery and took Ebert
hostage; he was rescued on 24 November 1918 by soldiers from Potsdam.
21 November 1918. Surrender
of the German Fleet to the Allies at Scapa Flow, for internment. On 21/6/1919 it was scuttled at Scapa Flow, in the
18 November 1918. The German occupation
of Brussels ended, see 20/8/1914.
21/6/1920, In Germany, Konstantin Fehrenbach of the Centre Party
became Chancellor. His coalition Government of Social Democrats and Centre
Party was joined by the People�s Party.
14/6/1920, Max Weber, German sociologist died aged 56.
6/6/1920, In Germany, the first elections held after the
Treaty of Versailles showed a shift away from the Social Democrats and Centre, towards extremist
19 March 1920. In Germany, Socialists rebelled and captured
13 March 1920. A pro-Royalist coup was attempted in Berlin,
led by Dr
Wolfgang Kapp. The German Government had to retreat to Stuttgart but
the German workers opposed the coup and began a general strike; the coup
plotters had to flee.
17 January 1920, Paul Deschanel was elected President of
Clemenceau was rejected because the Treaty of Versailles was
regarded as too lenient o n Germany.
19 February 1919, French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau was shot by an
23 January 1919. The Socialists won the German elections.
23 December 1918, Helmut Schmidt, German leader, was born (died
For World War One
1914 � 18 click here
27 February 1915, In Paris, the Moulin Rouge burnt down.
16 March 1914, Madame Caillaux, wife of the French Finance
Minister, shot dead the editor of Le Figaro to protect her husband against
18 December 1913, Willy Brandt, German Chancellor, was born in Lubeck as Karl
20 November 1913,
The Zabern Incident. A German officer insulted Alsatian recruits, causing
friction between France and Germany.
7 April 1913, Jean Constans, French politician, died in
Paris (born 3 May 1833 in Beziers).
24 February 1913, Jules Gabriel Compayre, French educationalist,
died in Paris (born 2 January 1843 in Albi).
21 January 1913, In France, Aristide Briand succeeded Poincare
as Prime Minister.
5 January 1913, Gottlieb von Jagow became German Foreign
18 February 1912, The German Kaiser, Wilhelm, declined to meet the
Socialist winners of the General Election.
6 February 1912, Eva Braun, mistress of Adolf Hitler, was born.
-21.0, Western European
nations begin a military build up, 1905-13
passed an Army Bill, imposing three year�s compulsory military service.
5 March 1913, 71 sailors drowned when
the German destroyer S-178 was accidentally rammed by the German cruiser Yorck
in the North Sea off of Helgoland.
passed a Bill for a large increase in its army.
8 December 1912, The German Kaiser held a secret meeting with his military
chiefs. It was agreed that the
Schlieffen Plan, to quickly conquer France before turning east on Russia,
should not be delayed much beyond 1914 because after that swifter Russian
mobilisation would cause a collapse of the German Eastern Front before France
fell. The Schlieffen Plan, named
Schlieffen, Chief of the German General Staff 1890-1905, was to
attack France through Belgium, by-passing the heavily-fortified Franco-German
frontier. German troops defending this frontier were to be reduced, possibly
even allowing for French advances into Germany here. However the German advance
through Belgium would then swing eastwards to the south west of Paris and come
round to hit the French Army in the rear. Schlieffen allowed for ten German
divisions to hold the Russian front until France could be crushed (six weeks
allowed for this task); also for a British Expeditionary Force of 100,000 to
assist the French.
27/8/1911. At Hamburg
the German Kaiser
made his �place in the sun� speech,
foreshadowing a large increase in the German navy. Britain responded by
increasing its navy, although Anglo-German relations remained friendly.
began to fortify Heligoland, a small island in the North Sea.
21 July 1911, Lloyd George, Chancellor of the Exchequer, warned Germany not to
threaten British interests in the western Mediterranean, or Gibraltar.� See 1 July 1911.� Germany denied such ambitions, but Britain
began preparing for war with Germany.
8 March 1911, Britain stated it would
not assist France if it was attacked by Germany.
24 February 1911, The Reichstag voted to increase the German Army by half a million men.
joined the arms race by announcing it was to spend �120 million on new naval
27/10/1908, Emperor William II made comments that the
German people were hostile to Britain; the Daily Telegraph published these
comments, worsening German-UK relationships.
6/8/1908, The British
Admiralty stated that the new battleships being built by the Germans would be
the most heavily armed in the world.
8 July 1908. The German Navy was catching up in strength with the British,
according to the 'World Navy List'.
14/6/1908, A fourth German naval Bill authorised
expenditure on four more large naval vessels.
decided to build more battleships.
10 February 1906, Britain launched the revolutionary new battleship Dreadnought.� She made every
other warship obsolete, outgunning and outranging them all. Her new steam
turbine propulsion made her much faster than older ships. This marked the
start of a keen naval arms race between Britain and Germany. Germany now realised that the latest class
of battleships were too big to pass through the Kiel Canal. The
Russo-Japanese War demonstrated the need for such battleship innovation, as naval battles were now fought at long
range, using torpedoes, and torpedo boats therefore had to be destroyed at a
distance with accurate long-range artillery.
19 September 1905, Britain and Germany held simultaneous war manoeuvres.
backs down over Morocco rivalry with France, 1911-12
27 November 1912. France and Spain agreed
on their respective spheres of influence in Morocco.
4 November 1911, Germany settled the Morocco crisis with France.
Germany agreed to allow France a free hand in Morocco, in exchange for
territory in the Congo.
10 July 1911, Russia warned Germany that it supported France in
the Morocco crisis.
1 July 1911, Germany sent the gunboat Panther to Agadir, Morocco, to protect
German commercial interests there from French expansion in Morocco.� Britain was concerned about Germany�s ambitions in Africa so
close to Gibraltar.� See 21
31/8/1911, The Director of the Louvre art gallery, Paris, was
sacked following the theft of the Mona Lisa (22/8/1911). The painting was not
recovered until two years later.
16/8/1911, E F Schumacher, German economist and
statistician, was born (died 1977).
11 July 1911, In Paris, 60,000 stonemasons went on strike.
5 July 1911. Birth of Georges Pompidou, in Montboudif, Auvergne. He
was French President from 1969 until his death in 1974.
26 May 1911, The German Reichstag granted the former French
territory of Alsace-Lorraine its own legislature and a large measure of
15 May 1911, �King George V
and his cousin the Kaiser reasserted their friendship.
10 March 1911. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time as
standard time across the country.
17 January 1911, An attempt was made on the life of the
French Prime Minister, Aristide Briand.
24 July 1909, Aristide Briand became French PM.
14 July 1909, In Germany, Berhard von Bulow resigned as
Chancellor and was replaced by Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg.
8 July 1909, Gaston Galliffet, French General, died (born
23 January 1830).
18/6/1909, Joan of Arc was beatified by the Pope, 478
years after the English burnt her at the stake in Rouen.
8 May 1909, Friedrich von Holstein, German statesman, died
13/9.1908, In Germany the Social Democrats staged a rally at
31/8/1907, The UK and Russia agreed an entente, defining
spheres of influence in Persia, Tibet, and Afghanistan.� There was an implicit agreement that Britain
would not allow Russia to control the Bosporus, and the entente opened up the
London money markets to Russia, allowing it to recover from the Japanese defeat
of 1904/5. France was also part of this agreement, forming a Triple Entente to contain the newly
unified Prussian-dominated Germany.
3/8/1907, Kaiser Wilhelm II and Tsar Nicholas II met at
Swinemunde to discuss the Baghdad Railway.
7 July 1907, Germany, Austro-Hungary and Italy renewed their
Triple Alliance for another 6 years.
2 May 1907, King Edward VII of Britain met the French
President in Paris.
12 March 1907, The French battleship Jena exploded at Toulon, killing 118.
11 January 1907, Pierre Mendes-France, French politician, was
born (died 1982)
9 January 1907, Marie of Saxe-Altenburg, Queen of Hanover,
died aged 88.
13 December 1906, A revolt of the Centre Party in the German
Reichstag opposed spending on colonial wars. Von Bulow dissolved the
Reichstag; in subsequent elections the Socialists lost ground.
25/10/1906, Georges Clemenceau became PM in France.
5 April 1906,
Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany dismissed Count Friedrich Holstein, a key advisor in the
Foreign Department, ending
fears of a German war with France over Morocco.
15 February 1906, Yvette Labrousse, winner of Miss France 1930,
4 February 1906, Dietrich Bonhoeffer, German theologian who was part of the group who
tried to assassinate Adolf Hitler, was born.
17 January 1906, In France, Clement Fallieres was elected
president, through the influence of Georges Clemenceau.
1 January 1906, General Von Moltke was made head of the German
29 November 1905, Marcel Lefebvre, French Roman Catholic Bishop,
was born (died 1991)
25 September 1905, Jacques Cavaignac, French politician, died
(born 21 May 1853).
13 September 1905, Rene Goblet, French politician, died (born 26
24 July 1905, Kaiser William of Germany and Czar Nicholas
of Russia signed the Treaty of Bjorko at a meeting in Finland. This proposed a
mutual defence pact between the two countries if either was attacked by another
European power. However the Russian Foreign Office opposed the Treaty because
it threatened Russia�s relationship with France, upon whom Russia was dependent
for aid. The German Chancellor, Von Bulow also opposed the Treaty, and
Franco-German tension over the Morocco crisis left the Treaty dead in the
6/6/1905, Theophile Delcasse, French Foreign Minister
since 1898, resigned under pressure from Germany.
1 May 1905, In talks lasting until the 5th May, Paul Rouvier,
French Prime Minister, failed to settle the Moroccan Question with Germany.
31 March 1905, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany arrived in Tangier,
Morocco, to give a speech in favour of Moroccan independence. This was intended to humiliate France, who
saw Morocco as their own protectorate, and to test the closeness of the
Franco-British entente. Germany intended to subsequently �grant France
limited control in Morocco�, a move supposed to bring France closer to Germany
and away from Britain. However Germany
was surprised by the forcefulness with which British Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey backed France; Germany was further
isolated from France, Britain and hence Russia too. This event paved the
way for the Agadir crisis of 1911.
10 January 1905, Clemence Michel,
French anarchist, died.
King of Saxony, died.
12 July 1904, Britain and Germany signed a five-year treaty, to
resolve disputes through arbitration rather than by military means.
28/8/1904. A treaty was concluded in London whereby France
would allow the British freedom of action in Egypt in return for the British
allowing the French a free hand in Morocco. For many years the nominally
independent Sultanate of Morocco had been losing power as it became
increasingly dependent on French, Spanish, and German business and subsidies
for financial security. In October 1904 the French also concluded a secret
treaty with the Spanish. This disturbed Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany who saw his
country being squeezed out of North Africa. Wilhelm II therefore landed at
Tangier on 31 March 1905. The sultan sided with the Germans and serious
friction with the French resulted. On 161/1906 the Algecieras Conference was held. German claims were backed by
Austria whilst French claims were backed by Britain. Germany failed to curb
France�s privileged position in Morocco. See 8 April 1904.
8 April 1904. Entente
Cordiale set up between Britain and France. Each country recognised the
other�s colonial interests.� France
agreed not to interfere in Egypt and England agreed not to interfere in
Morocco. Germany, which also wanted
control in Morocco, felt threatened
by this entente. Britain had become unpopular with many countries after the
Boer War, and needed friends; relations with France had been strained since the
Fashoda incident in 1898. Now both
Britain and France felt anxious over the rise of the German economy and
military might, especially its navy. The entente meant Britain�s navy could
concentrate on defending the North Sea whilst France�s monitored the
Mediterranean. See 28/8/2904.
1 February 1904, Britain agreed with France to remain neutral if
there was war between Russia and Japan.
6 July 1903, French President Emile Loubet, and Theophile
Delcasse, visited London to begin the Entente Cordiale.
4 March 1903, King Edward VII of Britain concluded a visit
to Paris, during which Anglo-French relations were strengthened.
1 February 1903, Martin Delbruck, Prussian statesman, died
(born 16 April 1817).
22 November 1902, In Germany, the steel magnate Friedrich Krupp
(1854-1902), head of Germany�s largest manufacturing firm and the richest man
in the country, died unexpectedly of a stroke.�
He was aged 48.� Friedrich�s
had founded the Krupp Company but Freidrich
had been in charge since the age of 33 when his father died.
8 November 1902, The
Kaiser arrived in London on a 12-day State Visit to try and improve Anglo-German
1 November 1902, France signed the Franco-Italian
entente with Italy. Italy assured France it would remain neutral if France was
7/8/1902, Rudolf Bennigsen, German politician, died
(born in Luneburg 10 July 1824).
10/6/1902, Frederick Augustus, King of Saxony from 1873
(born 23 April 1828) died.
3/6/1902, In France, Rene Waldbeck-Rousseau resigned, despite
having a majority on the Chamber, over disputes with extremists. He was
succeeded by Emile
Combes, who pursued a strongly anti-clerical policy.
27/10/1901, Negotiations on an Anglo-German alliance broke down, after the British
Colonial Secretary, Joseph Chamberlain, made an anti-German speech
5/8/1901, Victoria, Empress of Germany, 60, daughter of Queen Victoria
of the UK, sister of King Edward VII, wife of Kaiser Friedrich III, and mother
Wilhelm II of Germany, died aged 60.
1 July 1901, France enacted its anti-clerical Association Law,
which outlawed all religious institutions not formally registered with the
29 May 1901, Lord Salisbury, in a confidential memo,
decided against developing an alliance between Britain and Germany.
24 April 1901, 200 were killed in an explosion at a chemical
factory in Griesheim, Germany.
6 March 1901, Anarchists attempted to assassinate Kaiser Wilhelm,
who escaped with face wounds.
21 December 1900, Leonhard Blumenthal, Prussian Field-Marshal,
died in Quellendorf (born in Schwedt on Oder 30 July 1810).
16 December 1900,
France and Italy agreed to respect each
other�s sphere of influence in North Africa.
16 November 1900,
In Germany, a woman hurled an axe at Kaiser
Wilhelm, but failed to kill him.
10 November 1900,
The first World Fair closed in Paris; it had been open since 14 April 1900. It
had included over 70,000 exhibitors, and co-run with the Olympic Games also in Paris this year. The
scale of the event meant that, despite huge numbers of visitors, it was a
financial loss, covered by the French Government, Culturally however the event
was good for France, promoting art-nouveau, and precipitating a rash of
construction projects in France including new boulevards, new Paris rail
termini, and the Paris Metro.
29 April 1900, A footbridge collapsed at the Great World
Exhibition, Paris, killing 10 people.
14 April 1900, The World Exhibition opened in Paris. See 10
In Germany, Chlodwig von Hohenlohe
resigned as Chancellor, and was replaced by his Foreign Minister,� the Nationalist Prince
2/8/1900, In Paris, anarchist Francois Salsou attempted to
assassinate the Shah of Persia, but he survived.
16/6/1900, Francois Joinville, French statesman, died
12/6/1900, A second German
Naval Act proposed a fleet of 38 battleships
within the next 20 years.
23 March 1900, Erich Fromm, German social psychologist, was
born (died 1980).
1899, The Right-wing French
movement Action Francaise was founded
by the poet and political journalist Charles Maurras (1868-1952). It sought to
rally the defeated opponents of Dreyfus, and was anti-Semitic, nationalistic and
royalist. Its influence peaked in the 1920s. Supporting the Vichy Government of 1940-44, the movement became
indistinguishable from fascism.
2 May 1899, Martin Simson, German politician, died (born
16 February 1899, Francois Faure, President of France, died
(born 30 January 1841).
6 February 1899, Georg Caprivi, German statesman (born 24
February 1831) died.
28 July 1898,Bismarck died,
three years after his wife, at Friedrichsruh.�
He was a Prussian politician and founder
of the modern state of Germany.
28 March 1898, Germany passed
an Act allowing for substantial expansion of its navy.
13 February 1898, August Potthast, German historian (born
was appointed German Naval Secretary.
7 May 1897, Henri Aumale,
French statesman, died in Zucco, Sicily (born 16 January 1822 in Paris).
19 February 1897, French tightrope walker Charles Blondin
died. He was born on 28 February 1824.
8 December 1896, Ernst Engel, German political economist, died
(born 21 March 1821).
26/10/1896, Paul Challemel-Lacour, French politician, died
(born 19 May 1827).
18/8/1896, Richard Avenarius, German philosopher, died in
Zurich (born 19 November 1834 in Paris).
20 January 1896, Henry Prince of Battenberg died (born
1895, In France the CGT
(Confederation Generale du Travail) was formed, a Trades Union organisation.
29 December 1895, Leander Starr Jameson, an agent of the British South
Africa Company, invaded the Boer Republic of Transvaal with 470 men. On 2
January 1896 Jameson
surrendered At Doorn Kop after a defeat at Krugersdorp. On 3 January 1896 Kaiser William
II sent a telegram to Paul Kruger
congratulating him on the defeat of Jameson.
This caused outrage in Britain, which saw the telegram as an attempt by Germany
to expand its influence in Africa. Britain mocked the German Navy, saying
it would be �child�s play� for the British Navy to wipe it out. Wilhelm I
now decided on a course of massive expansion of the German Navy, seeing Britain
no longer as an ally but a potential threat.
24 November 1895, Saint Hilaire
Barthelemy, French politician, was born in Paris (died 24 November 1895).
22 July 1895, Heinrich Gneist,
German politician, died (born 13/8/1816)
28 January 1895, Francois Canrobert, French military leader (born
17 January 1895, Francois Felix Faure became President of
13 January 1895, President Jean Casimir Perier of France
12 December 1894, Auguste Burdeau, French politician, died (born
26/10/1894, Prince Chlodwig Hohenlohe succeeded Leo von Caprivi
as Imperial German Chancellor.
President of France, Marie Francois Carnot, was stabbed to death at
Lyons by an Italian anarchist.
15 March 1894, Germany and France signed a treaty outlining their
spheres of influence in tropical Africa
10 February 1894, Germany signed a commercial treaty with Russia.
4 January 1894, Russia and France signed a treaty of mutual
defence. Despite huge differences between their political systems, both
countries felt threatened by encirclement. France felt threatened by a rare
entente between Germany and Britain. Russia saw itself threatened to the south
and east by the British Empire in central and eastern Asia.
17/10/1893, Marie MacMahon, French President, died (born
13 July 1808).
22/8/1893, Ernst II, Duke of Saxe Coburg Gotha, died
13 July 1893, Germany passed a bill to substantially increase the
size of its army.
17 March 1893, Jules Ferry, French politician, died (born 5
17/8/1892, Russia and France signed a military convention.
2 May 1892, Baron Mandred von Richtofen, German air ace of World War One, known as the �Red Baron� because he flew a red
Fokker, was born in Schweidnitz in Prussia, to aristocratic parents.
4 March 1892, Jean Jurian de la Graviere, French Admiral,
24 January 1892, Henri Baudrillart, French economist, died in
Paris (born in Paris 28 November 1821).
30 December 1891, Antoine Pinay, French statesman, was born
12 December 1891, Charles Freppel, French politician and Bishop,
died (born 1/6/1827).
30 September 1891, George Boulanger, French General, committed
suicide in Brussels (born in Rennes 29 April 1837).
16 September 1891, Karl Doenitz, German Admiral, was born in
9 September 1891, Francois Grevy, French President 1879-87, died
(born 15 January 1813)
1 May 1891, In a violent clash between striking French workers
and French troops, nine workers, including two children, were killed as troops
opened fire. 60 more workers were injured. The workers were campaigning for an
8 hour day.
24 April 1891, Helmuth von Moltke, Prussian general, died.
22 November 1890, Charles de Gaulle, French President, was born
in Lille (died 1970).
28/10/1890, The German East Africa Company ceded all its
powers and assets to the German government.
17 September 1890, Jules Joffrin, French politician, died (born
16 March 1846).
was formally transferred from Britain to Germany.
1 July 1890, Britain and Germany signed the Heligoland Treaty, by which Germany
gave up claims in East Africa, including Zanzibar, in return for the British
island of Heligoland in the Elbe estuary. Germany
soon made Helogoland a major naval base for the defence of the newly
constructed Kiel Canal.
6 May 1889, The
official opening of the Eiffel Tower, Paris, to the public. It was only
intended to stand for 20 years, but soon acquired iconic status.
24 April 1906, The Nazi
collaborator William Joyce, or �Lord Haw Haw�, was born in Brooklyn, New York
19 March 1906, Adolf Eichmann, German Nazi responsible for
the execution of millions of European Jews during World War II, was born in
Solingen. See Jewish
19 March 1905, Albert Speer,
architect for the Nazis, was born.
leader Heinrich Himmler was born in Munich.
He was leader of the Nazi SS, second in command to Hitler from 1929, and gained
notoriety in 1934 when he masterminded the assassination of several Nazis whose
loyalty to Hitler was in question. He controlled the concentration camps in
which millions of Jews, communists, trade unionists, Jehovah�s Witnesses, and
29/10/1897, Joseph Goebbels, Nazi political leader and
propagandist, was born in
Rheydt, son of a factory foreman.
26 April 1894, Rudolf Hess, Adolf Hitler�s deputy, was born
in Alexandria, Egypt.
30 April 1893, Joachim von
Ribbentrop, Hitler�s foreign minister, was born
12 January 1893, Hermann Goering, German Nazi leader and
founder of the Luftwaffe, was born
in Rosenbaum, Bavaria.
15 November 1891, Birth
of German Field
Marshal Erwin Rommel,
commander of the Afrika Corps, in Heidenheim, Germany.
20 April 1889. Birth of Adolf
Hitler, in Braunau, Austria (died 1945). His father was a customs
official who changed his name from Schicklgruber.
17/6/1888, Heinz Guderian,
German World War Two General, was born.
24 November 1887, Erich von
Manstein, military adviser to Adolf Hitler in World War Two, was
born in Berlin� He died on 9/6/1973,
having been imprisoned by the British in August 1945. His advice on attacking
France through the Ardennes in 1940 was crucial to Nazi success here.
18 July 1887, Vidkun Quisling,
Norwegian diplomat who turned traitor, was born in Fyresdal, Telemark province,
20 November 1885, Albert
Kesselring, German Air Force Commander, was born in Markstedt.
15/6/1888, Frederick III, Emperor of Germany, died. He was succeeded by his 29-year son, Wilhelm II,
who was the last German monarch.
15 April 1888, In
Boulanger, having retired from the army and now elected to the Chamber
of Deputies, started plotting to overthrow the Third Republic and become
dictator; he failed.
9 March 1888, Death of Kaiser Wilhelm I of Prussia, aged 90. He was succeeded by his 57-year old son, Friedrich
Wilhelm, but he died of cancer later in the year, on 15/6/1888.
27 February 1888, As Italian-French
relations deteriorated, France imposed selective duties against Italian
products. Italy retaliated in kind on 1 March 1888.
2 December 1887, Francois Grevy,
President of France from 30 January 1879, resigned after a scandal involving
his son in law Daniel Wilson, involving the sale of Legion d�Honneur medals.
The scandal; boosted the popularity of the nationalist Boulanger.
14 July 1887, Alfred Krupp, German manufacturer of arms in
Essen, the Ruhr, died.
23 May 1887. The French crown jewels went on sale and raised
six million francs.
18 May 1887, In France the Right-wing Georges Boulanger
was excluded from a new administration formed by Maurice Rouvier. As war
minister, Boulanger had led a nationalist campaign for
revenge (revanche) against Germany.
20 February 1887, The Triple Alliance between Germany,
Austria and Italy was renewed for a further 5 years.
29 January 1887,
Construction work began on the Eiffel Tower, Paris.
18 March 1890, Prince Otto von Bismarck was dismissed from the German
Chancellorship by Kaiser Wilhelm II, after 29 years as Germany�s
first Chancellor. Bismarck�s foremost achievement had been the
unification of Germany under Prussian leadership. He had held Germany back from
a damaging competitive rush for colonies that would cause conflict with other
European powers, and he negotiated the Reinsurance
Treaty with Russia that limited the possibility for conflict between them.
However when Wilhelm
II succeeded his father Kaiser Frederick III, German policy changed. Bismarck
was replaced by Leo
von Caprivi, who allowed the Reinsurance
Treaty with Russia to lapse. This pushed Russia into closer relations with
France, Germany�s enemy. Meanwhile Germany pursued a fruitless attempt to make
a friendship treaty with Britain.
14 January 1887. Bismarck dissolved the Reichstag
because it refused to vote for the military budget.
11 January 1887, Bismarck proposed an expansion
of the German Army.
18/6/1881, Bismarck of Germany instituted the
Dreikaiserbund (Three Emperor�s League), an informal agreement between Germany,
Austro-Hungary and Russia.
19/10/1878, Bismarck passed an anti-Socialist law, placing
many restraints on socialist meetings and banning trade union activities.
29/6/1886, Robert Schuman,
French politician and Prime Minister, was born in Luxembourg.
13/6/1886, Ludwig II, King of Bavaria, drowned, probably
16 January 1886, Frederic
Falloux, French politician died (born 11 May 1811). He organised the
Loi Falloux (Education-Schools, France, 15 March 1850).
French governance post Franco-Prussian war, 1872-86
4 January 1886, In
Boulanger was appointed Minister for War. His anti-German speeches
came close to provoking war with Germany, and he had ambitions to overthrow the
French Third Republic.
24/8/1883, Henri Chambord, contender for the French
throne, died (born 29 September 1820).
12 May 1881, Tunisia became a French Protectorate. The
French invaded in April 1881 when the Tunisian first minister made various
reforms taking away French economic privileges. This French move was disturbing to Italy, who had believed that Britain
would never permit an extension of French power in North Africa.
2/6/1879, Louis, Prince Imperial of France and
prospective Napoleon IV, was killed by a Zulu assegai. The French suspected British
30 January 1879, Royalist support was
declining in France, and the position of President MacMahon became untenable (see 5
January 1879). He resigned this day, and was succeeded by the conservative
Paul Jules Grevy.
5 January 1879, In French Senate
elections, the Republicans gained seats but the majority was still Royalist,
MacMahon. However see 30 January 1879.
16 May 1877, In the Seize
Mai crisis, French President MacMahon forced the resignation of
Prime Minister Jules
Simon. Simon appeared half-hearted in his opposition
to the anti-clericalism movement that had become powerful in France. Some now
feared a return to autocratic military rule, but Republicanism reasserted
16 July 1875, France ratified its new
Constitution. This provided for a Chamber of Deputies and a Senate, with a
President serving a seven-year term. Marie Edme Patrice Maurice de MacMahon
continued as President.
15 September 1874, The Prince of Wales
visited France. This was the first visit there by a member of the British Royal
Family since the French revolution.
16 September 1873, The last German troops
left France. An economic recovery of France had taken place, which was to
enable it to build up its military forces.�
However a recession began in France from 1873 onwards.
24 May 1873, M Thiers ceased to be President of France.
9 January 1873,
Napoleon III of France, nephew of Bonaparte,
died in exile at Chislehurst, Kent, to where he had withdrawn following his
defeat by the Prussians and his imprisonment at Wilhelshohe Castle.
30 September 1872, The last date for the
inhabitants of Alsace, conquered by Germany in 1870, to opt for either German
nationality and remain or French nationality and leave for France. Around
45,000 opted to leave for France.
9 September 1884, The foundation stone for the new German
Reichstag Parliament building was laid (see 19 April 1871). The building opened
29 April 1883, Franz Schulze-Delitzsch, German economist,
died in Potsdam (born 29/8/1808 in Delitzsch).
29/10/1879, Franz von Papen, German politician and ambassador, was born in Werl,
20/10/1879, Bernhardt von
Bulow, German statesman, died (born 2/8/1815).
1/10/1879, An Austro-German alliance was signed.
19 November 1878, Theresa Essler, wife of Prince Adalbert of
Prussia, died (widowed 1873).
7/8/1876, Dutch spy, Mata Hari
Gertrude Zelle), who passed secrets to the Germans in World War One,
was born in Leeuwarden. The French arrested her in 1917 and she was executed by
5 January 1876, Konrad Adenauer, West German Chancellor, was
born in Cologne.
29/10/1873, John, King of Saxony, died (born 12 December 1801).
of Saxony succeeded his father to the throne. He was born on 23
April 1828, and died on 10/6/1902.
7 April 1870, Gustav Landauer, German anarchist, was born.
the unified German State, centred on Berlin
19 April 1871,� The new German Parliament, the Reichstag,
began planning for a permamnent home. This was not started until 9/6/1884.
3 March 1871, The first all-German
elections were held, and returned a Parliament dominated by the National Liberal Party. The German
Union was changed by this Parliament from a Bund (Federation, as proposed by Bismarck,
to reassure states reluctant to join a Prussian-dominated union such as Baden
and Wurttemberg that their autonomy would not be lost), to the more
centralist term Reich, organised
from Berlin. This was the Second Reich,
(First Reich = Holy Roman Empire)
which fell in 1918. The red-black-white colours of its flag inspired the
colours of the Nazi Third Reich.
18 January 1871, William I, King of Prussia,
was declared Emperor of Germany at Versailles. Within
Germany, William I had created a united State out of what was formerly Prussia,
Saxony, Bavaria and Wurttemberg, also 5 Grand Duchies, 13 Duchies and
Principalities, and the Free Cities of Hamburg, Bremen and Lubeck.
Paris Commune set up, suppressed.
28 May 1871, The Paris Commune, set up on 28 March 1871, was brutally
suppressed by French government troops. Urban warfare in Paris had killed
33,000 and left sections of the city in ruins. Other Communes in Lyons and
Marseilles had also collapsed. The Paris Communards had failed to adequately
man a fort defending the west of Paris.
21 May 1871, The Treaty
of Frankfurt was ratified.
10 May 1871, Germany and France signed a peace treaty at
Frankfurt. France surrendered
all of Alsace and most of Lorraine to Germany. France also had to pay an
indemnity of 5 billion francs to Germany, the equivalent amount that Napoleon I
imposed on Prussia in 1807; a German army was to remain in France till this is
paid. The British Prime Minister, Gladstone, protested that Alsace and Lorraine
should not be handed over without a vote by the people living there. Prussia�s
Prime Minister, Bismarck,
placed no limit in the treaty on the size of France�s future army, gambling
that France was already isolated and humbled by her defeat at Sedan.
28 March 1871, French proletarian
radicals proclaimed a �Paris Commune�, backed by intellectuals and
workers, hoping to exploit popular discontent at France�s humiliating loss of
Alsace-Lorraine to Germany. The French
Government fled to Versailles. See 28 May 1871.
18 March 1871, The Commune
insurrection against the French Government began in Paris.
1 March 1871, In
III was deposed and the Paris Commune set up.
End of Franco-Prussian War; France totally
26 February 1871. Prussia and France signed a preliminary
peace treaty at Versailles.
17 February 1871, The
Pact of Bordeaux was signed.
16 February 1871The French
fortress of Belfort capitulated to the Germans.
28 January 1871. Starving and surrounded by
Prussian troops, Paris surrendered to Germany. During the 5-month siege,
balloons were used to maintain contact with the rest of France. Finally, a
3-week artillery bombardment destroyed all resistance. All the animals at Paris Zoo had been eaten (which one was eaten
Seige of Paris, 9/1870 � 1/1871. Defeat of France
27 January 1871, German
forces grew impatient with the length of the siege of Belfort and on this day
General von Tresckow launched an attack on the city which was repulsed and the
siege operations resumed.
22 January 1871, The
Moselle railway bridge at Fontenoy was blown up.
19 January 1871, Germany defeated the French at the Battle of St Quentin.
15 January 1871, Battle of Lisaine, near Belfort; Germany defeated France.
10 January 1871, The Battle of Le Mans began; Germany defeated France.
9 January 1871, The Battle of Beaugency, near Orleans; Germany defeated
France. Germany advanced towards Tours.
8 January 1871. Prussian troops
2 January 1871, Germany defeated France at the Battle of Baupame.
23 December 1870, Germany defeated France at the Battle of Hallue, near
Amiens. German forces now advanced south west towards Rouen.
2 December 1870,� Germany defeated
France at the Battle of Loigny, near Orleans.
28 November 1870. The Germans in the Franco-Prussian War took Amiens.
9 November 1870, The Battle of Coulmiers, near Orleans; France defeated
3 November 1870. The
Prussians besieged Belfort, 275 miles ESE of Paris. The siege
continued until the armistice of 15 February 1871.
27/10/1870. The French at Metz, 140,000 troops, surrendered to
Prussia after a two-month seige. In November 1870 the southern
German states of Wurttemberg and Bavaria joined with the North German
Confederation, ensuring Prussian political hegemony. Francois-Achille
Bazaine (1811-88), Marshall
of France and commander of the 180,000 men besieged at Metz, was accused of
treachery and after a court martial at Versdailles in 1873 was sentenced to
death. This was commuted by President Macmahon to 20 years imprisonment. In
August 1874 Bazaine escaped from the island fortress of Ste Narguerite and fled
to Madrid. His supporters maintained that Bazaine was a scapegoat for general
French military inefficiency and for the failures of other Field Commmanders
from more distinguished families.
7/10/1870, Gambetta, French Minister of the Interior,
escaped the siege of Paris in a
balloon.� Reaching the safety of Tours,
he encouraged the French troops.
28 September 1870. Strasbourg, under siege by Prussia
since August 1870, was surrendered by the French.
19 September 1870. Siege of Paris by the Germans
Franco-Prussian War, 7/1870 � 2/1871. Prussia
4 September 1870. France formed a Republic
(The Third Republic) and a government of national defence was formed.�
2 September 1870. Napoleon III of France
capitulated to Prussia at Sedan. Fighting had lasted 44 days, and
the 380,000 strong Prussian army had triumphed over the 235,0000 strong French
army. Only a hastily assembled French National Guard stood between the
Prussians and Paris. Empress Eugenie and the prince imperial fled
to England. Napoleon
III was held as prisoner in the comfortable royal apartments of
Wilhelmshohe Castle. The French had sent a force to relieve their main Army
besieged at Metz but this army, 84,000 men, 2,700 officers, 39 generals,
surrendered to Prussia.
1 September 1870, (1) The Battle of Sedan; the Germans defeated the French.
(2) The siege of Metz began.�
30/8/1870, Battle of
Beaumont; Germany defeated France.
18/8/1870. Prussian forces defeated the French at the Battle of
16/8/1870,The French lost to the Prussians at the Battle of Vionville.
13/8/1870, Germany defeated France at the Battle of Noisseville.
6/8/1870, Battle of Froeschwiller, in NE France; Germany defeated
4/8/1870. Germany defeated
France at the Battle of Wissembourg, in NE France.
had mobilised rapidly and now had 380,000 troops on the French border.
19 July 1870, France declared war on Prussia. The origins of this war lay
in the vacancy of the Spanish throne, which the French regarded as their sphere
of influence. There was a Hohenzollern (German) candidate for the Spanish
throne, and Napoleon III demanded, not only the withdrawal of the Hozenhollern
claim to the Spanish throne, but the guarantee from Germany never again to
claim this position. In the Ems telegram of 13 July 1870 the Prussian King, in Ems,
wrote to Bismarck declining to give such a guarantee.
unprepared for war and its army disorganised,�
and within a month the main French Army was besieged at Metz. See 2 September 1870. See also French
12 July 1870, Prince Leopold, the Hohenzollern
candidate for the Spanish throne, withdrew, not keen on such an insecure
position as Spanish monarch. France rejoiced, but Bismarck of Prussia felt
humiliated; he wanted war with France. Bismarck received news of Leopold�s withdrawal by telegram
at Ems on 13 July 1870. Benedetti of France had sought assurances from
of Prussia of Leopold�s withdrawal, which until now William
had refused to give.� When Leopold
himself withdrew, William regarded the affair as closed and saw
no further need for meetings with Benedetti. It was this news that was in the
telegram to Bismarck.
edited the telegram to a shorter version that made it appear as if King William
had declined to meet with Benedetti, not due to Leopold�s withdrawal, but due to
the demands made by Benedetti. This was the version of the
telegram released to the media. It now looked as if Benedetti had been discourteous
had curtly rebuffed the French. Once this version was reported by the press,
both the French and German peoples wanted war.
6 July 1870, The French Foreign Minister stated that
unless Prince Leopold, the Hohenzollern candidate for the Spanish throne, was
withdrawn, France would treat it as a cause for war. The King of Prussia was part
of the Hohenzollern family, and France feared encirclement by pro-German
1 May 1869, The Folies-Bergere music hall opened in Paris.
29 February 1868, Ex-King Louis of Bavaria died in Munich, aged 81.
was a patron of the arts and his capital, Munich, was a centre of culture. Louis
had an affair with an Irish dancer, Marie Gilbert (stage name Lola Montez). This affair
provoked a revolution; Louis had to abdicate in 1848, and Marie
died destitute in New York in 1861, aged 43.
of Prussia 1861-69
Germany�s first military port, was officially inaugurated.
3 February 1868, Karl Mathy,
Baden statesman who worked for German unity, and who helped found the newspaper
Deutsche Zeitung, which promoted the
unification of the German states, died (born 17 March 1807).
1 July 1867. The German Federal
Constitution came into force.
17 April 1867, The North German Reichstag
adopted the new federal Constitution.�
Four years later all of the German Empire had adopted it.
16 April 1867, The North German
confederation was formed, under the leadership of Prussia.
8 February 1867, As Prussia became
increasingly powerful under Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck and King Wilhelm I,
political differences between Germany and the Hapsburgs of Austria, who had
ruled Austria since 1278. This weakened
Austria to the point where Hungary threatened to break away, and to save the
unity of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austria was forced to agree to a Dual
Monarchy, where each State had a separate government and a convoluted system of
joint Ministers to oversee the Empire. However this in turn alienated ethnic minorities within
Austro-Hungary, ultimately sparking off demands for Serbian independence and
the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand that led to World War One.
The states north of the Mainz joined a
new North German Confederation under Prussian leadership.� Austria
was finally excluded from the German Confederation.� The formerly independent duchy of Nassau,
Germany, 1,830 square miles, was incorporated with the Kingdom of Prussia.
Prussia annexed Schleswig-Holstein, Hanover, Hesse-Cassel, and Frankfurt Am
Main.� The southern German states agreed that their troops should come under
the command of Prussia in the event of war.�
(Seven Weeks) War, 1866
23/8/1866, The Treaty of Prague was signed, ending the
war between Austria and Prussia. Austria
agreed to withdraw from the German Confederation, renounced its claim on
Schleswig-Holstein, and ceded Venetia to Italy.
26 July 1866, The
preliminary Peace Treaty of Nikolsburg was signed between Austria and Prussia.
July 1866, In northern Czechoslovakia, the Austrian army was routed by Prussian forces at the Battle of
Sadowa (Koniggratz). The victory by Bismarck was sealed at the Treaty of Prague, by which Austria
renounced her claim to Schleswig-Holstein, where Germany would later build a
great naval base at Kiel and build
the Kiel Canal linking the Baltic
and North Seas.
29/6/1866, The Hanoverian army was forced to capitulate to the Prussians
after a defeat in the Battle of Lasngensalza. King George V of Hanover had refused, contrary to the wishes of his
Parliament, to agree to Prussian demands that the Kingdom of Hanover remain
neutral in the war between Prussia and Austria. In 9/1866 Hanover
was formally annexed by Prussia.
Prussian troops crossed the frontiers of Hanover, Saxony, and
brief Austro-Prussian War began,
over a dispute between Prussia and Austria over the Duchies of Schleswig and
Prussian troops entered Holstein.� This
was the start of the Austro-Prussian War.
21 April 1866, Austria
mobilised, before it was ready for war, against Prussia.
8 April 1866. Bismarck
arranged an alliance between Italy and Germany.
Italy promised to join Germany against Austria if war broke out in the next
12 May 1863,
The German Socialist Party was founded.
28 September 1862, Bismarck
made his �blood and iron� speech.
23 September 1862. Bismarck arrived in Berlin and was
made Prime Minister of Prussia.
30/10/1864. By the Peace of Vienna, Denmark gave up
Schleswig, Holstein, and Lauenberg.�
These provinces came under Austrian and Prussian rule.
21 April 1864, Max Weber,
German political economist, was born.
10 March 1864, Maximilian II,
King of Bavaria, died.
1 February 1864, Austrian and
Prussian troops under the command of Friedrich von Wangle invaded Schleswig,
Denmark. Although the British monarch, Queen Victoria, was pro-German, the British Prince Edward,
the future King
Edward VII � who had only months earlier married Alexandra of
Denmark � was shocked; they supported Denmark. The Second Schleswig
War began. This event ensured that under King Edward VII�s reign, British foreign policy
was pro-Danish, anti-German, and Britain
formed a triple entente with France and Russia against Germany.
2 January 1861, Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia
died aged 65. He was succeeded by his brother and Regent, Wilhelm I.
23 January 1860, Britain and France signed a Treaty of
Reciprocity, establishing free trade between them.
5/10/1859, Henry Prince of Battenberg was born (died 20
10 July 1859, The Treaty of Villafranca was signed.
27 January 1859,
Kaiser Willhelm II was born in Potsdam, near Berlin. He was the son of the German Emperor
and the grandson of Queen Victoria.
7/10/1858, Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia was certified
insane, and his brother, 61-year-old Wilhelm, was made Regent.
10 July 1858, Napoleon III of France secretly met Count Cavour at Plombieres. The two
agreed to jointly attack Austria.
For more on Austro-Piedmont War 1859 see Italy
20 March 1858, Johannes Gossner, German preacher and
philanthropist, died (born 14 December 1773).
assassination attempt on Napoleon
13 March 1858, Felice Orsini, Italian revolutionary, was
executed for his part in the assassination attempt on Napoleon III in Paris.
14 January 1858, An Italian assassin threw a bomb at French Emperor
Napoleon III and Empress Eugenie as they drove to the Paris
Opera. The bomb, thrown by Felici Orsini, missed its target but killed
eight bystanders and injured 100. Orsini planned the attack in London, causing
anti-British sentiment in France.
24 April 1856, Philippe Petain, French Army Marshall, was
born in Cuchy a la Tour.
30 July 1855, Georg Wilhelm von Seimens, German
industrialist, was born.
For Crimean War see Russia 1850s
4 April 1853, The customs
union signed by various German states was extended for another 12 years;
Austria remained excluded.
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte seizes more power
29 January 1853, Napoleon III of France married Eugenie de Montijo in Paris.
1852, Napoleon III gave the Bois de
Bolougne to Paris for a public
park. It had been a royal hunting
ground since the 1600s.
2 December 1852, Louis Napoleon was proclaimed Emperor of
France as Napoleon III.� The Second
French Empire was proclaimed.
2 December 1851, In France, President Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
extended his term in office and ended the Second Republic. He ordered troops to
occupy Paris, arrest Parliamentary Deputies, and to fire on unarmed protestors.
9/6/1850, The French administration of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte banned
many clubs and meeting places, to counter a surge in political support for
31 May 1850, France
passed a law requiring voters to be resident in the same place for three years
before qualifying for a vote.� This was
to exclude migratory workers, who tended to be radical.
20 December 1848, Louis Napoleon
Bonaparte was proclaimed President of France.
11 December 1848. Louis
Napoleon Bonaparte was elected President of the French Republic by a
12 January 1852, Joseph Joffre, French Army Marshall and
Commander in Chief on the Western Front, was born in Rivesaltes.
18 November 1851, Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, died (born 5/6/1771).
2/10/1851, Marshal Ferdinand Foch, French General who led
the counteroffensive that defeated Germany in 1918, was born in Tarbes, France.
24 December 1850, Frederic Bastiat, French economist, died in
Rome (born in Bayonne 29/6/1801).
26/8/1850, Death of Louis Philippe, the �citizen king�, who
abdicated rather than face a middle-class revolt.
25 July 1850, Battle of Idstedt; Denmark defeated Germany.
16 April 1850, Swiss waxworks show proprietor Madame Marie Tussaud died. She was born on 11 December 1761 in Strasbourg. She
learnt the art of wax modelling from her uncle, Philippe Curtius. Before the
French Revolution Mme Tussaud was art tutor at Versailles to Louis XVI�s
After a period in prison she was tasked with making death masks from the heads
of those guillotined, some of whom she recognised as friends. She left Paris in
1802, along with her waxwork models, and two sons from a failed marriage to a
French engineer, Francois Tussaud. She spent 33 years touring Britain before
opening a permanent display in London.
3 May 1849, Bernhard, Prince von Bulow, German Chancellor
and Prime Minister of Prussia (1900-09) was born.
19 March 1849, Alfred von Tirpitz, German
Admiral, was born in Kustrin, Brandenburg, Prussia.
1848-49 Schleswig conflict see Denmark.
9 November 1848, Robert Blum, German politician, was
20 March 1848, Ludwig I, King of Bavaria, abdicated.
17 March 1848, Protests in Berlin against the conservatism of
Prussian ruler Frederick
Political, economic, unrest in France 1847 - 48
in Paris from the 23rd to the 26th June.
10 May 1848, The French
Assembly spurned the proposal of Louis Blanc to establish a Ministry of Labour
and Progress, a bold measure to implement Blanc's socialist agenda.
3 March 1848, Louis-Philippe of France arrived
in England, following his abdication. Meanwhile
economic depression and hunger, and discontent amongst the growing middle
classes, was spurring revolution across Europe. Demonstrations occurred in
Vienna and across Hungarian cities; ethnic minorities within the
Austro-Hungarian Empire were demanding self-rule. Venice proclaimed
independence from Austria.
2 March 1848, Universal male suffrage
was enacted in France, giving the country nine million new voters.
28 February 1848, French workers
demonstrated in the Place de l'H�tel-de-Ville, Paris, to demand a Ministry of
Labour and the 10-hour day.
26 February 1848, The Second French Republic was proclaimed. See 24 February 1848.
25 February 1848, Lamartine rejected the proposed
Socialist Red Flag as the new French flag, preferring the �liberal democratic�
Tricolour to the �Blood Flag of anarchy�.
24 February 1848, The French monarchy fell as King Louis
Philippe fled to exile in England. See 26 February 1848.
22 February 1848, In France a socialist
�banquet�, or political meeting, to commemorate the birthday of George
Washington was banned. This ban caused major unrest and riots in the
12 February 1848, In France, the Liberal
Opposition to the Conservative Guizot Government in France reduced Guizot�s
majority to 43 in the Chamber of Deputies.
28 January 1847. Severe depression,
unemployment, and food shortages provoked rioting amongst
agricultural workers in central France. See 27 February 1848.
18 December 1847, Marie Louise, 2nd wife of Napoleon I, died (born 12
15 January 1846, In France, Angelique Cottin, aged 14, of La
Perriere, began to experience frightening paranormal phenomena in which objects
including furniture violently retreated at her touch. Many witnessed these
events, which lasted for some 10 weeks.
25/8/1845, Ludwig II, King of
Bavaria, was born.
18 December 1844, Ludwig Brentano,
German economist, was born.
18/8/1842, Louis Freycinet,
French navigator, died (born 7/8/1779).
8 May 1842, Jules Dumont,
French navigator, died (born 23 May 1790).
7 May 1842, A large fire ended in Hamburg, Germany (began 5/5). It had destroyed
4,219 buildings including 2,000 homes, leaving a fifth of the city homeless.
28 September 1841, Georges Clemenceau, French Prime Minister
1917-20, was born.
30 January 1841, Francois Faure, President of France, was born
(died 16 February 1899).
15 December 1840, Napoleon�s body was interred in Les Invalides,
7/6/1840, Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia died at 69
after a reign of over 42 years. He was succeeded by his 44-year-old son, Friedrich
Wilhelm IV, who ruled until 1861.
30 December 1838, Emile Loubet, 7th President of the French
Republic 1899-1906, was born.
11/8/1837, Marie Carnot, 4th President of the Third
French Republic, was born (died 24/6/1894).
30 July 1836, The Arc de
Triomphe, Paris, was completed (commissioned in 1806 by Napoleon
to commemorate his victories from 1790 onwards). It is Europe�s largest
triumphal arch, 50 meres high and 45 metres wide.
6 November 1836, Charles X, King of France, died (born 1757).
19 February 1836, Guiseppe Fieschi, conspirator to assassinate Louis Philippe,� was guillotined.
2 March 1835, Francis II, last Holy Roman Emperor, died. He was succeeded, as Emperor of Austria only, by his 4-year-old
20 May 1834, Marquis de Lafayette, Frenchman who fought
with the American colonists for independence from Britain and was a key figure
in the French Revolution, died..
7/8/1834, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, French inventor, died.
of Germany 1828 - 34
1 January 1834, The German zollervein
(customs union) now extended to all German states except Austria and the
22 March 1833, A customs union, or
zollverein, was signed between Bavaria, Wurttemberg, Prussia, and
Hesse-Darmstadt. Austria was excluded. This zollverein covered 17 states
with a total population of 20 million. Until now, 67 different tariffs and
13 non-Prussian enclaves, each with a different fiscal system, had hampered
economic development. The zollverein was the idea of the economist Friedrich List, who returned to Prussia from
the USA in 1832. Germany was also being united by the spread of the
railways out from Berlin.
24 September 1828, Several German states
founded the Commercial Union of Central Germany, signing a customs agreement
11 January 1828, The Prussian zollervein,
or customs union, was extended to Hesse Darmstadt.� From 1825 a new Prussian finance minister, Friedrich von
Motz, had begun to extend the Prussian customs union or
zollervein.� Independent enclaves or city
states had previously served as smuggling centres, hindering tax collection.� In May 1829 Bavaria, whose ruler Louis I
was keen on the zollervein, joined.� See
1 January 1834.
1832, France ceased to brand its
galley slaves with the letters TF (Travaux Forces).
insisted on the German Confederation�s acceptance of the Six Articles. This
uniformised the behaviour of sovereigns across German States, forbade public
meetings, and introduced surveillance of suspicious characters.
18/10/1831, Frederick III, Emperor of Germany, was born.
9 March 1831, King Louis-Philippe founded the French Foreign Legion. Its headquarters
was at Sidi-bel-Abbes in Algeria. In 1962 the headquarters was moved to Aubagne, France. See 5 July 1830.
15 December 1830, Karl August Ferdinand von Borcke (born 18
February 1776) a Prussian general and the first recipient of the Iron Cross,
7/8/1830, Louis Philippe accepted the Crown of France.
Charles X 1824-30, deposed after harsh rule, revolution
2/8/1830, The July
Revolution in France ended. Charles X abdicated.
29 July 1830, French liberals opposed to
27 July 1830, Revolutionary riots in
Paris, The July Revolution, sparked
by the harsh policies of King Charles X.
14/6/1828, Augustus Charles died (born 3 September 1757).
23 April 1828, Frederick Augustus, King of
Saxony from 1873 (died 10/6/1902) was born.
26/6/1826, Adolf Bastian, German ethnologist, was born in
5 May 1826, Eugenie, wife of Napoleon III, was born in
13/10/1825, Maximilian I, King of Bavaria, died.
20 June 1825, Coronation of King Charles
X of France.
16 September 1824, Louis XVIII, King of France, died
aged 68, leaving a strong and prosperous
country, in contrast to its defeat under Napoleon. However his attempts at
constitutional reform were thwarted by the ultra-royalists. He was succeeded by
his brother, Charles
28 February 1824, Charles
Blondin, French tightrope walker famous for his crossings of Niagara
Falls, was born in Hesdin near Calais, as Jean Francois Gravelet.
1 April 1822, Louis Bertillon, French anthropologist, was
born in Paris (died in Neuilly 28 February 1883).
28 November 1821, Henri Baudrillart, French economist, was born
in Paris (died in Paris 24 January 1892).
5 May 1821, Napoleon Bonaparte died, in exile on St Helena, in the Atlantic
(born 15/8/1769).� The cause may have
been arsenic poisoning, or it may have been stomach cancer, which also killed Napoleon�s
21 March 1821, Ernst Engel, German political economist, was
born (died 8 December 1896).
29 December 1820, Antoine Montyon, French philanthropist, died
(born 23 December 1733).
29 September 1820, Henri Chambord, contender for the French
throne, was born (died 24/8/1883).
12 September 1819, Gebhard von Blucher, Prussian Field Marshall
who helped the Allies to victory against Napoleon, died in Silesia.
27 May 1819, George V, King of Hanover, was born.
21 November 1818, France was admitted to the Quadruple
alliance, now the Quintuple alliance (see 20 November 1815).� France�s war indemnity was cut.
29 September 1818, The Congress of Aix La Chapelle began.
26 May 1818, A Bill presented by the economist and councillor Karl Maaseen
was adopted. It abolished customs procedures within Prussia and lifted
12 July 2005, Prince Albert II became ruler of
Monaco after the 3-month period of mourning for the death of his father had
ended. A week earlier he had acknowledged his illegitmate son.
14 March 1959, Prince Albert II of Monaco was
19 November 1949. Prince
Ranier III was sworn in as the 30th ruling Prince of Monaco.
31 May 1923, Prince Ranier III, prince of the House of Grimaldi, was born in Monaco.
28 January 1911, The first Monte Carlo car rally was run.
29 March 1910, The world�s largest
oceanographic museum opened in Monaco.
1862, The first gambling casino
opened in Monte Carlo.
2 February 1862, Monaco sold the towns of Menton and
Roquebrune to France.
2 February 1861, The Franco-Monagesque Treaty restored
independence to Monaco. Under this Treaty, the towns of Mentone and Roccabruna
(now, Roquebrune), were ceded to france in return for a payment of 4 million
1860, Nice was transferred to
France, which thereby brought Monaco under French protection.
1856, Earliest record of
gambling tables at Monaco.
1848, Sardinia took advantage of
civil disturbances in Mentone and Roccabruna to annex those towns to Monaco.
1815, The Kingdom of Sardinia,
which then also included Nice, took possession of Monaco.
1814, The Treaty of Paris
restored Monaco to the Goyon Grimaldi family.
1800, Up till now, Monaco
exercised the right to exact dues from passing ships.
1793, Under the National
Convention, France annexed Monaco.
1641, Honore II reverted from Spanish
to French allegiance.
1524, The rulers of Monaco
switched allegiance from France to Spain.
1300, Monaco was infamous as a
1000, Monaco was owned by the
powerful Grimaldi family of Genoa.
The Phoenicians, then the Greeks, had a Temple to
Heracles here, who was also known as Monoikpon, hence the name Monaco
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