Events relating to Jewish history and the history of the State of Israel
Also events relating to the Palestinian State
Colour key: Where ancient dates are uncertain a range of possibilities is given. Alternative dates also given.
State of Israel
Six Day War, 1967
Suez Crisis 1956
Anti-Israel non-State activities
Deaths - Jewish non-State acts
Dreyfus Affair (France)
Anti-Semitism (not Nazi)
6/2/2017, The coalition Israeli Government, led by Binyamin Netanyahu, passed a Bill that legalised certain Israeli settlements built on privately-owned Palestinian land.
28/9/2016, Shimon Peres, Labour leader of Israel from 1977, died aged 93.
17/12/2014, The European Parliament voted to recognise the Palestinian State by 498 votes to 88.
13/10/2014, The British Parliament voted by 274 to 12 to recognise the Palestinian State. The vote had little real impact and was essentially symbolic; it followed a similar vote by the Swedish Parliament earlier in October 2014.
3/10/2014, Sweden became the first EU country to recognise the Palestinian State. Israel withdrew its ambassador in protest.
22/7/2014, A Palestinian rocket landed within 2 kilometres of Israel’s Ben Gurion Airport (see 8/7/2014), causing many airlines to cancel flights to Israel.
8/7/2014, Israel launched a major attack on the Gaza Strip, firing in rockets, followed by a ground invasion, following a series of rockets launched into Israel from Gaza.
2/7/2014, In revenge for the killing of three Israeli teenagers on 30/6/2014, a Palestinian youth was murdered by Israeli settlers.
11/1/2014, Former Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon died, aged 85, after eight years in a coma. See 4/1/2006.
29/11/2012, The United Nations granted Palestine non-member observer status.
31/10/2011, UNESCO admitted Palestine as a member; 107 members were in support, and 14 opposed.
31/5/2010, 9 activists died when Israeli naval forces raided a flotilla of ships attempting to break the Gaza blockade.
28/10/2009, UN Secretary Ban Ki Moon stated that Jerusalem must be the capital both of Israel and a Palestinian State if peace were to be achieved in the region.
21/1/2009, Israel completed its withdrawal from the Gaza Strip. Air strikes by both sides continued.
3/1/2009, Israel invaded the Gaza Strip, as Hamas fired rockets into Israel.
27/12/2008, Israel mounted military strikes against the Gaza Strip.
29/2/2008, After Hamas fired rockets into Israel, Israeli troops began a 22-dau assault against Gaza.
23/1/2008, Palestinian militants blew up the border wall between Egypt and Gaza at Rafah; thousands of Palestinians fled into Egypt.
6/9/2007, Israeli warplanes struck a suspected nuclear site in Syria.
28/6/2006, Israel launched an offensive against the Gaza Strip.
4/1/2006, Former Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon suffered a major stroke; after 8 years in a coma he died on 11/1/2013, aged 85.
20/9/2005, The Nazi-hunter, Simon Weisenthal, died.
12/9/2005, Israel withdrew from the Gaza Strip, ending 38 years of occupation.
28/8/2005, A terrorist attack at Beersheba bus station, Israel, injured 52. Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.
23/8/2005, Israel’s unilateral withdrawal from 25 settlements in the West Bank and Gaza Strip (see 17/8/2005) ended.
17/8/2005, The first forced evacuation of Israeli settlers began, as part of a unilateral withdrawal from Arab territories.
21/4/2004, Mordecai Vanunu, who revealed details of the Israeli nuclear programme in the 1980s, was released from an Israeil prison after an 18-year term for treason.
15/11/2003, Two suicide bombings at Istanbul synagogues killed at 25 people, mostly Turks. Islamic fundamentalists claimed responsibility.
28/11/2002, Three suicide bombers blew themselves up outside the Israeli-owned Paradise Hotel in Mombasa. Ten Kenyans and three Israeli tourists died. On the same day a surface-to-air missile narrowly missed an Israeli airliner taking off from Mombasa Airport.
17/11/2002, Abba Eban, Israeli Foreign Affairs Minister (born 1942), died.
11/4/2002, A suicide bomber set off a lorry full of explosives outside an ancient synagogue on the Tunisian island of Djerba, killing 21, mostly German tourists.
29/3/2002, Israeli tanks and bulldozers smashed into the headquarters of the PLO in Ramallah on the West Bank, forcing Yasser Arafat to shelter in a basement with no electricity or communications. This was in retaliation for a suicide bomb attack by Hamas who had walked into a banquet hall in Netanya where some 250 Israelis were celebrating Passover; the explosion killed 22 and injured 130 people. This was the worst attack in 18 months of terrorism and retaliatory attacks by the Israelis that had left a total of 400 Israelis and 1,247 Palestinians dead. Arafat was effectively held prisoner until an agreement brokered by the UK and USA secured an Israeli withdrawal in May 2002. However in June 2002 the Israelis returned to Ramallah and completely demolished the PLO headquarters.
16/9/2001. Israeli tanks and troops entered the Palestinian city of Ramallah as truce talks ended.
1/6/2001, A Hamas suicide bomber killed 21, mainly teenagers, in the Dolphinarium Disco in Tel Aviv.
7/2/2001, Ariel Sharon was elected Prime Minister of Israel.
27/1/2001, The first Holocaust Memorial Day was held in Britain, to mark the anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz on 27/1/1945.
28/9/2000, Start of the Palestinian ‘Intifada’, or uprising. It was triggered by a visit by Ariel Sharon to the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, leading several hundred armed Israelis.
25/5/2000. Israel withdrew the IDF (Israeli Defence Force) troops from Lebanon after 22 years occupation.
17/5/1999, Ehud Barak was elected President of Israel.
19/1/1997, Yasser Arafat returned to Hebron after an absence of over 30 years. There were major celebrations as the Israelis handed over the last Israeli-controlled West Bank city.
20/1/1996, Yasser Arafat was re-elected President of the PLO.
4/11/1995. Yitzhak Rabin, Israeli Prime Minister, was assassinated. Moments after attending a peace rally in the Square of the Kings, he was killed by a 27 year old Jewish law student, Yigal Amir. Mr Rabin had been the target of a hate campaign since he shook hands with Mr Yasser Arafat, PLO leader, on the steps of the White House.
24/9/1995. Israel and the PLO agree to extend self-rule to most of the West Bank.
22/1/1995. 22 Israelis died in Tel Aviv in a suicide bombing by Palestinians.
31/10.1994, The Duke of Edinburgh became the first member of the British Royal Family to visit Israel.
14/10/1994. The Nobel Peace prize was awarded jointly to Yitzhak Rabin, Shimon Peres, and Yasser Arafat.
18/7/1994, A bomb killed 194 at the Jewish Mutual Association, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
25/7/1994, Israel and Jordan signed a peace treaty, formally ending a state of war between them that had existed since 1948.
5/7/1994, Yasser Arafat became the first President of the Palestinian Authority, which had been created under the Cairo Agreement of 1994.
25/2/1994. Kahanist Baruch Goldstein opened fire in the Cave of the Patriarchs in Hebron, killing 29 Muslims, before worshippers overpowered him and beat him to death.
30/12/1993, Israel and The Vatican recognised each other.
13/9/1993, Israel and the PLO signed a peace accord in Washington. Shimon Peres, the Israeli Foreign Minister, shook hands with Mahmoud Abbas, the PLO deputy chief, and Palestinian self-rule was promised. Then the PLO leader, Yassser Arafat, held out his hand to the Israeli PM, Yitzhak Rabin. After a slight hesitation and a nudge from the US President, Bill Clinton, the two shook hands. On 14/9/1993 Israel and Jordan signed an agreement to negotiate a peace treaty.
30/8/1993, The Israeli Government approved the granting of self-rule to Palestinians living on the West Bank and in Jericho. The PLO signed this plan on 9/9/1993.
20/8/1993, Israel and the PLO signed the Oslo Peace Accord.
25/7/1993. Israeli air strikes on pro-Iranian Hizbullah positions in southern Lebanon.
24/6/1993. Israel announced plans to build a US$ 13 million fence around the Occupied Territories.
17/2/1993. Heavy fighting in Lebanon between Israeli forces and pro-Iranian guerrillas.
13/2/1993, A second three-day meeting between the PLO and Israel in Oslo, Norway, concluded with a draft Declaration of Principles. See 23/1/1993 and 20/8/1993.
23/1/1993, A three-day secret meeting between representatives of the PLO and Israel concluded in Oslo, Norway. See 13/2/1993.
16/12/1992. Israel ordered the deportation of 415 Palestinians to Lebanon. The intifada, or Palestinian uprising, was now in its sixth year. However Lebanon refused to accept the deportees and they remained stranded in a no-mans-land between Lebanon and the barbed wire border of Israel’s self-declared security zone.
7/12/1992. Three Israeli soldiers were shot by Islamic militants on the Gaza Strip.
25/10/1992. Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin confirmed that Israel did not intend to withdraw from the Golan Heights.
18/10/1992. More violence on the West Bank, as a Palestinian killed an Israeli woman and injured nine other Israelis.
17/3/1992. A suicide bomber with a 200lb bomb destroyed the Israeli Embassy in Buenos Aires. Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility, saying the attack was in revenge for the killing of Sheikh Abbas Mussawi in an Israeli helicopter ambush last month. 29 were killed and 242 injured.
4/1/1991, The UN unanimously voted to condemn Israeli treatment of Palestinians.
8/10/1990. 21 Arabs killed in rioting on the Temple Mount, Jerusalem.
20/5/1990 , Intifada rioting in the Palestinian Territories.
14/5/1990, Anti-Semitism resurfaced in France, with the desecration of a Jewish grave in Carpentras.
14/12/1988, Yasser Arafat, PLO leader, renounced terrorism and accepted Israel’s right to exist within secure borders.
7/12/1988. Yasser Arafat recognised the existence of Israel.
14/11/1988, In Algiers, the Palestine National Council declared a Palestinian State on the West Bank and Gaza.
16/4/1988, The Palestine Liberation Organisation’s chief military commander, Khalil al Wazir, was assassinated at his Tunis home; the PLO blamed an Israeli hit squad. Mr Wazir had organised many attacks from Lebanon into Israel, and orchestrated the Palestinian intifada in the Occupied Territories.
2/4/1988. Israeli troops killed six Palestinians, the highest total in a single day so far. On 6/4/1988 the first Israeli civilian victim of the fighting died, a 15-year old girl.
24/3/1988, In Israel, Mordecai Vanunu was found guilty of revealing Israeli nuclear secrets to the Sunday Times.
4/3/1988. Israel banned all foreign journalists as the Arab unrest continued.
1/2/1988. Two Arab youths were shot dead by Israeli settlers as the violence in Israel continued, from January 1988.
20/1/1988. The Israeli Prime Minister, Yitzhak Rabin, cracked down hard on the Palestinians. Beatings were routine and charity aid to the strike-hit West Bank and Gaza Strip was banned by Israel.
15/1/1988. Arab uprising in Israel began. Sporadic violence had occurred on 8/1/1988.
8/1/1988. Violence in Gaza and Jerusalem as young Palestinians protested after Friday prayers. See 15/1/1988.
3/1/1988. An Israeli air strike in southern Lebanon killed 21 people.
25/12/1987, Israeli security forces cracked down on Arab rioters.
9/12/1987, The Intifada, the popular Palestinian uprising against Israeli authority, began.
16/2/1987, John Demanjuk, also known as Ivan the Terrible, a former car worker who had lived in the US for 40 years, went on trial in Israel accused of murdering hundreds of Jews at Treblinka He was the second war criminal to be tried in Israel after Adolph Eichmann.
9/11/1986, Israel announced that Mordechai Vanunu, 31, was in ‘lawful detention’ in Haifa but denied he was kidnapped from Britain. On 5/10/1986 the Sunday Times had printed Vanunu’s revelations about Israel’s nuclear arsenal at Dimona, backed up with his photographs. He never collected his money, and was probably lured into a honeytrap by a female Mossad agent, then sent in diplomatic baggage to Jerusalem.
6/9/1986. Arab terrorists killed 21 at an Istanbul synagogue.
1/10/1985, The Israeli Air Force bombed the PLO HQ in Tunis.
20/5/1985, Israel freed 1,150 Palestinians in exchange for three Israelis.
16/2/1985, Israel began to withdraw from Lebanon.
3/1/1985, Ethiopian Jews settled in Israel.
20/9/1984, 40 died when a suicide bomber attacked the US Embassy in Beirut.
14/9/1984. Shimon Peres became Prime Minister in Israel.
26/2/1984, US marines pulled out of Beirut.
23/10/1983 A suicide truck bomber destroyed the US Marine Corps barracks at Beirut International Airport, killing 241 US servicemen.
10/10/1983. Shamir became Prime Minister in Israel.
2/9/1983. Israel’s Prime Minister Menachem Begin resigned, and was replaced by Yitzhak Shamir.
26/6/1983. Yasser Arafat was expelled from Syria.
17/5/1983, Israel, Lebanon, and the US signed an agreement on Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon.
26/9/1982, US President Reagan sent marines into Lebanon on a peacekeeping mission; Italian and French troops were also to arrive, and Syrian and Israeli forces would leave Lebanon. In Israel, 300,000 Israelis had demonstrated against their country’s involvement in the massacres (see 17/9/1982).
25/9/1982, 400,000 people marched in Israel demanding the resignation of Prime Minister Menachem Begin.
17/9/1982. Lebanese Christian militia massacred hundreds of Palestinian civilians in the Sabra and Chatila refugee camps in Lebanon. This was in revenge for the assassination of Christian president-elect Bashir Gemayel, replaced by his brother Amin.
16/9/1982, Israeli troops now controlled all of Beirut.
15/9/1982, In response to the assassination of the Lebanese President, Israeli troops fought their way into West Beirut.
14/9/1982, Mr Bachir Gemayel, President-elect of Lebanon, was killed when a terrorist bomb destroyed his party HQ in Christian East Beirut.
2/9/1982, The Israeli Government totally rejected President Reagan’s new Middle East Peace Plan, and on 5/9/1982 announced that 13 new settlements were to be built in Gaza and the West Bank.
31/8/1982. Israel ousted the PLO from Beirut, Lebanon.
20/8/1982, A multinational force landed in Beirut to oversee the PLO withdrawal from Lebanon. French troops arrived on 21st August, and US Marines on the 25th.
12/8/1982. Israeli jets bombed West Beirut. The city was divided by the Green Line.
4/8/1982, The UN censured Israel, as its troops were still in Lebanon.
6/6/1982. Israel invaded Lebanon, eventually penetrating as far north as Beirut. The UN Security Council demanded that Israel withdraw.
3/6/1982, Israeli Ambassador, Argov, was shot by Palestinians.
25/4/1982. Israel withdrew from the Sinai, after 15 years of occupation.
16/10/1981, Moshe Dayan, Israeli military leader, died in Tel Aviv.
17/7/1981, Israeli bombers destroyed the PLO HQ in Beirut.
7/6/1981. Israeli planes bombed an Iraqi nuclear reactor at Osirak, Iraq.
1980, Israel replaced the Pound with a new currency, the Shekel.
3/10/1980. Terrorists bombed a Paris synagogue.
30/7/1980. Israel declared that the undivided city of Jerusalem was its capital.
26/1/1980, Israel and Egypt established diplomatic relations. Other Arab nations strongly objected.
2/4/1979, Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin became the first Israeli leader to make an official visit to Egypt.
10/12/1978. Presidents Menachim Begin of Israel and Anwar Sadat of Egypt shared the Nobel Peace Prize.
8/12/1978. Golda Meir, Prime Minister of Israel 1969-1974, died, aged 80,
27/10/1978, Menachem Begin and Anwar Sadat were joint winners of the Nobel Peace Prize.
18/9/1978. President Menachim Begin of
5/9/1978, The Camp David Accords; Menachim Begin
Sadat began peace talks at the Camp in
20/8/1978. Gunmen opened fire on an El Al airline bus in London.
20/5/1978. 5 terrorists and 2 policemen were killed at Orly Airport, Paris, after terrorists fired at passengers boarding an Israeli plane.
14/3/1978, Israeli forces, under Operation Litani, invaded Lebanon.
24/12/1977, Israeli Prime
Begin began peace discussions with President Sadat of
5/12/1977, Egypt broke with
20/11/1977. President Sadat of Egypt became the first Arab leader to visit
9/11/1977, The Israelis resumed the bombing of Lebanese villages,
after a two-year
26/7/1977, Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin defied a plea from US President Jimmy Carter and ordered more settlements to be built on the West Bank.
Begin became President of
Israel after his centre-right Likud
party coalition won elections, ending 29 years of Labour rule in
8/5/1977, Dutch art dealer Peter Menten went on trial, charged with murdering Polish Jews in 1941 for financial gain.
3/7/1976. Israeli commando raid at Entebbe Airport, Uganda, freed 103 hostages from a hijacked aircraft. An Air France airbus had been hijacked there by Palestinian guerrillas, on 27/6/1976, from Athens, on a flight to Paris, with 246 passengers and 12 crew. The Israeli commandos flew 2,500 miles and landed in three large transport aircraft in the dark. In just 35 minutes they had killed all the hijackers and the 20 Ugandan troops guarding them as hostages. 31 lives were lost; 3 hostages, 1 Israeli, 20 Ugandan soldiers, and 7 hijackers. 11 Ugandan aircraft, Russian-made Migs, were destroyed, as the Israelis and the 103 rescued hostages made for Nairobi, where they refuelled and flew to Tel Aviv. In response the Ugandans murdered Dora Bloch, a hostage who had been removed to a Kampala hospital after choking whilst on board the aircraft.
29/7/1976, The hijackers (see 27/6/1976 and 3/7/1976) demanded the release of 53 Palestinian prisoners in exchange for the 98 Jewish hostages they were holding in Entebbe.
27/6/1976, An Air France airbus on a flight from Athens to Tel Aviv was hijacked by terrorists from the ‘Popular Front For The Liberation Of Palestine’ and forced to fly to Libya, where all non-Jewish passengers were released. The hijackers then flew to Entebbe, Uganda, see 29/7/1976 and 3/7/1976.
1/9/1975, Kissinger arranged an accord between
5/3/1975. Palestinian guerrillas raided a hotel at Tel Aviv, taking 30 hostages. Israeli troops stormed the hotel, killing 7 of the 8 terrorists, and 11 other lives were lost.
3/6/1974, Yitzhak Rabin became Prime Minister of Israel.
31/5/1974, Israel signed a
12/4/1974. Israeli soldiers
destroyed several houses in
10/4/1974. Golda Meir resigned as Israeli Prime Minister. Yitzhak Rabin of the Labour party replaced her on 22/4/1974.
21/2/1974, The last Israeli military units left the west bank of the Suez Canal.
15/2/1974, Fierce fighting on the Golan Heights between Israel and |Syria.
1/1/1974, Golda Meir was re-elected Prime Minister of Israel.
30/12/1973, In London, Joseph Seiff, Jewish head of Marks and Spencer, was shot and injured by an Arab terrorist.
17/12/1973. 31 people died after Arab guerrillas hijacked a West German airliner at Rome Airport.
1/12/1973. Death of the Israeli statesman David Ben Gurion. Born in 1886 he was one of the founders of the State of Israel and its first President from 1948 to 1963.
11/11/1973. Egypt and
15/10/1973, Moscow announced it would give all help possible to Arab nations to assist them to recover territory lost to Israel in the Six Day War.
12/10/1973. Israeli forces advanced to within 29 km of Damascus.
6/10/1973.Egypt launched the Yom Kippur War. Syria also attacked Israel on a second front. Israeli civilians had to be mobilised before the Syrians could be halted. Israel was heavily outgunned on the Golan, with its 2 brigades, 11 artillery batteries and 180 tanks facing a Syrian force of 5 divisions, 188 artillery batteries and 1,300 tanks. Only with mass mobilisation of its reserve forces did Israel tuen the tide on 8/3/1973, forcing Syrians back beyond their initial positions by 10/10/1073. Meanwhile on the Egyptian front, Arab forces possessed state of the art SAM missiles that were highly effective at destroying Israeli fighter planes, in contrast to 1967. The Egyptians captured the Israeli / Sinai town of Qantara on 8/10/1973; they actually advanced too far, beyond air defence range, enabling Israeli aircraft to destroy their ground forces. On 15/10/1773 the Israeli General Sharon crossed on to the Egyptian side of the Suez Canal and cut off the Egyptian 100,000 – strong Third Army. Fighting ceased on 23/10/1973. This war strained relations between the USA and the USSR, who backed Israel and the Arabs respectively. The USSR was forced to threaten ‘unilateral military action’ if the USA did not enforce a ceasefire, when it was clear the Israelis were winning.
20/7/1973. A Japanese Boeing 747 with 123 passengers and 22 crew was hijacked over Holland and forced to fly to Dubai. Later, at Benghazi, the aircraft was blown up by the hijackers. A girl hijacker was killed by a grenade explosion, but all passengers and crew escaped.
7/6/1973, The West German Chancellor
Willy Brandt visited
3/6/1973, Israel freed 96 Arab prisoners in exchange for 3 pilots.
9/4/1973. Arab terrorists attempted to hijack an Israeli plane at
14/2/1973, An Israeli fighter jet shot down a Libyan passenger plane over the Sinai Desert, killing 74 passengers and crew.
12/1/1973. Yasser Arafat was re-elected leader of the PLO.
29/10/1972, Black September terrorists hijacked a Lufthansa aircraft and successfully negotiated the release of the three terrorists being held in Germany for the Munich bombing.
8/9/1972. In retaliation
5/9/1972. Arab terrorists from the Black September terrorist group massacred 11 Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympics. Initially 2 athletes were killed and 9 taken hostage as the terrorists broke into dormitory, and after negotiations with the German Chancellor, Willy Brandt, the kidnappers and their hostages were flown to Furstenfeld military airfield, 25 miles from Munich. Later the terrorists were stormed by German police, and all 9 hostages were killed plus a German policeman and 5 terrorists. 3 terrorists were captured; one terrorist escaped. Police had stormed the kidnappers as they attempted to board a waiting aircraft. The Munich Olympic Games continued.
30/5/1972, Terrorists opened fire on passengers at Lod Airport, Israel, killing 26 and injuring hundreds. Two of the terrorists were shot dead by security guards, and the third was arrested. 116 passengers had just arrived on the Air France plane and filed into the airport baggage area; amongst them were three Japanese belonging to the ‘Red Army’, a terrorist organisation with links to the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP). They opened their luggage which contained submachine guns, ammunition and grenades and proceeded to sweep the airport with gunfire, throwing grenades into huddled groups of passengers, as security guards struggled to respond. The massacre lasted four minutes. Two terrorists died in the baggage hall, one killed by his own grenade. The third ran out onto the runway, discarding his weapon, but was caught by an El-Al mechanic.
9/5/1972, Israeli troops stormed a hijacked jet at Jerusalem, freeing 92 passengers held hostage by Black September Palestinian terrorists.
17/1/1972, 350 Soviet Jews
7/10/1971, Israel refused entry to 21 Jewish Black Americans.
1/2/1971. Israeli troops made a raid into
5/10/1970. Anwar Sadat became president of
30/9/1970, Britain swapped hijack hostages seized by the PLO for the Palestinian terrorist Leila Khaled.
28/9/1970. President Gamal Abdel
Nasser, President of Egypt
since 1954, died of a heart attack aged 52, after mediating in the
27/9/1970, PLO leader Yasser Arafat signed a truce with King Hussein of Jordan after the PLO had been ejected from Jordan in a 10-day fight known to the PLO as Black September.
12/9/1970. Palestinians blew up three hijacked planes. The hijacked British, Swiss, and American planes were taken by the PFLP (Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine) and flown to Dawson’s Field, a remote desert airstrip outside Amman, Jordan. After days of negotiation, the 300 passengers were released in exchange for 7 Arab detainees. In response King Hussein of Jordan declared martial law and ordered the Palestinian Liberation Organisation to be ejected from his country.
6/9/1970. In one day, 4 aircraft were hijacked in Europe by Arabs. A Swissair DC-8 and a Trans-World 707 were forced to fly to Jordan; a Pan-Am jumbo was blown up in Cairo; and am El-Al 707 hijacking failed after a terrorist was shot dead. On 9/9/1970 a BOAC VC-10 was hijacked en route from Bombay to London. It was forced to land and refuel at Beirut and then fly to Jordan to join the other 2 planes held hostage there.
2/3/1970. Israel and
9/2/1970, The PLO leader Yasser Arafat visited
29/8/1969. Arab guerrillas hijacked a TWA aircraft en route from Rome to Tel Aviv and force it to land in Damascus.
11/3/1969. Golda Meir, aged 70, became Prime Minister of Israel after the death of Levi Eshkol. Mrs Meir remained Prime Minister until her resignation in 1974.
26/2/1969, Levi Eshkol, Prime Minister of Israel, died.
28/12/1968. Israeli commandos in helicopters raided
26/12/1968. Two Arab gunmen attacked an Israeli Boeing 707 in Athens, killing one passenger
23/7/1968. An Israeli Boeing 707, flying from Rome to Tel Aviv, was hijacked and flown to Algeria.
22/11/1967. The UN passed the famous Resolution 242. It promised secure Israeli borders in exchange for an Israeli withdrawal from the occupied territories, and stated the need for a solution to the Palestinian refugee problem. However no timetable was given for achieving these aims.
24/10/1967. Israeli artillery destroyed a petrol refinery at Port Suez.
21/10/1967, The Israeli destroyer Eilat was sunk by Egyptian missiles
15/7/1967, Israel said it would not comply with the UN request to withdraw from East Jerusalem (4/7/1967) and also would not give up the strategically-important Golan Heights.
28/6/1967, Israel declared the annexation of East Jerusalem.
4/7/1967, The United Nations asked Israel to withdraw from Arab East Jerusalem.
10/6/1967, The White House, Washington, received a threat from the USSR over the ‘hotline’ that Russia would get involved in the Israel-Arab conflict to prevent a total Israeli victory. Moscow, ally of Egypt, had moved naval forces from the Black Sea into the Mediterranean and was planning an invasion of Israel from the coast. The world was in danger of a new World War between the USSR and USA, Israel’s ally. Russia’s ultimate failure to intervene caused it to lose some credibility with its other allies such as Cuba. This daya Moscow severed diplomatic relations with Israel.
7/6/1967, Israeli forces captured Arab East Jerusalem.
8/6/1967, The Israeli Air Force, during the Six-Day War, attacked and severely damaged a US research ship, the USS Liberty. Israel maintained that the attack was an accident, the ship having been mistaken for an Egyptian one.
5/6/1967. The Six Day War began between
1/6/1967. Moshe Dayan appointed the Israeli Defence Minister.
31/5/1967. The President of Iraq stated, “The existence of Israel is an error that must be rectified. This is our opportunity to wipe out the ignominy that has been with us since 1948. Our goal is clear – to wipe Israel off the map”.
27/5/1967. President Nasser, nine days before the Six Day War began, declared, “Our objective will be the destruction of Israel”.
13/6/1965, Martin Buber, Austrian-born Israeli Jewish philosopher, died aged 87.
12/5/1965. West Germany established
diplomatic relations with
2/6/1964. The PLO was created in
31/5/1962, Adolf Eichmann was executed inside Ramleh Prison, Tel Aviv, for his part in the mass killing of millions of Jews during World War Two.
1961, The authoriries closed Moscow’s synagogues.
15/12/1961, Adolf Eichmann, Nazi official responsible for the execution of millions of Jews, was sentenced to death after a four-month trial in Jerusalem.
11/4/1961, The trial of the Nazi war criminal, Adolf Eichmann, opened in Jerusalem.
7/2/1960, Israeli archaeologists announced the discovery of scrolls from the Dead Sea area.
23/5/1960. The Israelis announced the capture of the war criminal Adolf Eichmann. Israeli Mossad agents snatched Eichmann on 11/5/1960 as he returned home after work, and he was taken to a secret hiding place outside Buenos Aires. He was living under the name Ricardo Klement. On 21/5/1960 he was disguised in the uniform of an El Al flight attendant and bundled on board a flight to Tel Aviv. Eichmann was found guilty of war crimes by a court in Jerusalem, on 15/12/1961, and hanged on 31/5/1962 at Ramleh Prison, Jerusalem. He remains the only person ever executed by due legal process in Israel, after a trial involving 210 witnesses over 14 weeks. His last words were ‘long live Germany, long live Argentina, long live Austria, I shall not forget them’.
26/7/1959. President Nasser of
22/7/1957. Shell and BP announced they would pull out of Israel to pacify some Arab nations, who refused to accept the very existence of Israel.
21/2/1957. The 70 year old Israeli president, David Ben Gurion, defied US and UN calls to leave the Gaza Strip. In Jerusalem, thousands of Israelis protested on the streets against the UN’s call for withdrawal. On 22/1/1957 Israeli troops left the Sinai Peninsula, and on 6/3/1957 handed the Gaza Strip over to the UN.
25/1/1957, The UN ordered Israel to quit Aqaba and Gaza.
6/11/1956, Israeli forces reached Sharm El Sheikh.
29/10/1956. 5.pm. Israeli troops invaded the Sinai Peninsula
and troops pushed on towards the
This was part of the Suez Crisis in which President Nasser nationalised the
canal. See 16/11/1869, 26/7/1956, and 23/6/1956. On 30/10/1956
Because of the fighting, backed
See Egypt for more events of Suez Crisis 1950s
10/10/1956, Two Israeli regiments bombarded a Jordanian police barracks for three hours.
11/9/1956. After sporadic attacks by
2/11/1955, Ben Gurion formed the new government in
28/3/1955. Israeli made raids on the Gaza Strip.
20/7/1953, The USSR and
9/11/1952, Chaim Weitzmann, first President of Israel, died.
10/9/1952, West Germany offered Israel US$ 540 million in compensation for Nazi atrocities.
13/9/1951. UN peace talks between
27/4/1950. Britain recognised the State of Israel
24/4/1950. King Abdullah of
5/12/1949, David Ben Gurion, Israel’s first prime minister, proclaimed Jerusalem as Israel’s capital.
20/7/1949, Syria signed an armistice with
11/5/1949. Israel was voted into the UN.
3/4/1949, Jordan signed an
23/3/1949, Lebanon and
16/2/1949, Chaim Weizmann was sworn in as first President of Israel.
14/2/1949, Egypt and
25/1/1949. Ben Gurion's Mapai Party won the Israeli elections.
17/9/1948. Jewish terrorists assassinated Count Folke Bernadotte, Swedish UN mediator, in Jerusalem.
15/7/1948. The UN ordered a ceasefire in
30/6/1948, The last British troops left Palestine.
25/5/1948, Moshe Dayan assisted Israeli General Yigael Yadin mount a counter offensive against Arab troops, checking their invasion.
21/5/1948, Egyptian forces were reported to be only 4 miles from Bethlehem.
20/5/1948, Egyptian forces captured Beersheba.
17/5/1948, The USSR recognised the State of Israel.
16/5/1948. Chaim Weitzmann was named first President of Israel.
15/5/1948, Egyptian forces invaded Israel.
14/5/1948. The State of
11/3/1948. The offices of the Jewish Agency in Jerusalem were blown up.
5/1/1948, In Jerusalem, the Arab-owned Semiramis Hotel was destroyed by a bomb explosion; 20 people were killed.
29/11/1947, The United Nations voted to partition
15/5/1947 The United Nations set up a special committee to decide the future of
2/4/1947. Britain passed the
7/2/1947. Britain proposed dividing
2/2/1947. The RAF began
evacuating Britons from
20/12/1946, Uri Geller was born in Tel Aviv.
22/7/1946. The King David Hotel, Jerusalem, HQ of the British Palestine Army, was destroyed by a Zionist bomb planted by Irgun, killing 91 and injuring 45. Many Jews wanted Britain to withdraw so a Jewish State could be established.
2/12/1945, The Arab world began a general boycott of Israel, to geographically isolate the country. The boycott was to cover not just companies trading with Israel or with Israeli companies but also companies doing business with these companies. In 1977 the US, under President Carter, declared it illegal for US companies to participate in this boycott. In the 1990s Israel insisted upon the dismantling of the boycott, which was estimated to have cost the country some US$ 40 billion, as part of the Peace Process. In 2001, however, the Arab League’s Boycott Office resumed activities as part of its support for the Palestinians during the Intifada.
13/11/1945. Britain and the
28/4/1945, US General George Patton ordered that German civilians be taken to see the Dachau concentration camp.
18/4/1945, Dachau concentration camp was liberated by the Allies
15/4/1945. The Allies captured the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp.
11/4/1945, Buchenwald concentration camp, near Weimar, was liberated by US forces.
12/3/1945. The young Jewish diarist Anne Frank died in the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp.
27/1/1945. The Red Army
captured Auschwitz. They
found 8,000 prisoners remaining there; a further 80,000 had been forced to
leave on a death march. However, of the 1.3 million who had entered
See France-Germany for main European events of World War Two
27/11/1944, The crematoria at Auschwitz were blown up by retreating Nazi forces.
3/9/1944. Anne Frank and her family were transported to the Auschwitz death camp in Poland, see 14/6/1943.
27/8/1944. Polish and Russian officials showed the news media the Maidenek concentration camp.
4/8/1944, Anne Frank and her family, who had gone into hiding from the Nazis on 6/7/1942 (see also 14/6/1943) were discovered by the Nazis, see 3/9/1944.
31/7/1944. The last scheduled deportation of Parisian Jews from Drancy. By now gunfire could be heard in Paris and liberation seemed very close. Nazi Army commanders wanted to requisition the deportation trains for moving their own troops back to safer positions.
9/7/1944. The last train carrying Jews to the concentration camps left from Budapest
5/4/1944. The Germans began deporting Jews from Hungary.
2/9/1943. Inmates of the concentration camps in Poland were being used for medical experiments.
16/8/1943. Jews in the ghetto at
19/6/1943. Goebbels declared
14/6/1943, Anne Frank (born 12/6/1929) began to write her famous diary. She was born in Frankfurt, Germany, to Otto and Edith Frank; Otto was a German Army officer in World War One. Anne had a sister called Margot. In 1933, as the Nazis came to power, the Frank family moved to Amsterdam where they hoped to be safe from Hitler’s anti-Semitic policies. However Germany invaded The Netherlands in May 1940.
19/4/1943. Polish Jews in
17/4/1943, Hitler and Ribbentrop demanded that Hungary round up its Jews for extermination in concentration camps; part of the ‘final solution’. Hungary initially delayed but Germany exercised considerable political influence within Hungary.
2/9/1942. German SS troops deported and murdered 50,000 Jews from the ghetto in Warsaw.
17/7/1942, Operation Spring Wind in Paris came to a conclusion, with the roundup of some 7,000 Jews, almost all of those remaining in the city. Some Jews escaped, others committed suicide; in fact Spring Wind, which intended to capture 28,000 Jews, in fact seized just 12,884. The detainees were initially sent to Drancy or the Velodrome D’Hiver. Nazi action against the French Resistance also intensified at this time. Non-Jewish Parisians were not without sympathy for the Jews, especially the children.
6/7/1942, Anne Frank and her family went into hiding from the Nazis (see 14/6/1943).
29/5/1942. Jews in Paris were ordered to wear the Yellow Star of David. The Nazis ordered 5,000 metres of yellow material from a French company so the requisite number of stars, some 400,000, could be produced. However some Parisian non-Jews disliked this order, and many made a point of respecting the star, giving up their seats on the Metro for wearers for example. Additionally, some French Catholics wore the star also. French university students wore a badge reading ‘JUIF’, said to stand for Jeunesse Universitaire Intellectuelle Francaise..
27/3/1942, 1,112 Jews were deported from Drancy, Paris, to an undisclosed destination.
26/3/1942. Germany began deporting Jews to
20/1/1942. Reihard Heydrich proposed his ‘final solution’ – to exterminate all of
12/12/1941. More Jews were arrested in Paris. This time it was the professional members of the community – doctors, academics, scientists and writers – who were detained and sent to Drancy.
2/10/1941. The Nazi occupiers of Paris blew up Jewish synagogues across the city. Six were destroyed, a seventh explosive failed to detonate but the building was destroyed anyway the next day.
29/9/1941. A Nazi death squad murdered 30,000 Russian Jews in Kiev, following the fall of Kiev to the Nazis on 19/9/1941.
15/9/1941, The Nazis began testing the gas chambers at
31/8/1941, Nazi persecution of the Jews in Paris intensified. On this day all radios belonging to Jews were confiscated. Then their bicycles were taken. The Post Office was ordered to disconnect all phones belonging to Jewish households, and Jews were forbidden to use public phone boxes. Jerws were barred from cinemas, Jewish lawyers were forbidden to practise, and it was made illegal for Jews to change address. Jews could only use the last carriage of the Paris Metro trains.
20/8/1941, A further mass arrest of Parisian Jews took place, this time mainly affecting the artisan Jews of the 11th Arrondissement. These detainess were held at a large unfinished public housing complex at Drancy on the outskirts of Paris.
31/7/1941. Goering issued an order to Heydrich, a
subordinate of Himmler, to draw up a plan
for the total extinction of all non-Russian Jews. Heydrich called a conference on
20/1/1942 at Wannsee, a picnic area
14/5/1941. The first of a series of mass arrests of Parisian Jews took place, affecting 4,000 non-French Jews. SS officer Dannecker, who had arrived in Paris in September 1941 to oversee the ‘Jewish Question’, sent these detainees to the prisons at Pithiviers and Beaune la Rolande..
7/3/1941. Compulsory labour for German Jews began.
15/11/1940. Warsaw’s 35,000 Jews were confined to the ghetto.
22/10/1940, German Jews were deported from the regions of Baden, Saar, and Alsace-Lorraine.
18/10/1940, A Second Nazi Ordinance was issued in Paris relating to the city’s Jews (see 27/9/1940). Jews were now excluded from a number of occupations, including banking.
27/9/1940. The Nazi Governor of Paris, Helmut Knochen, issued an Ordinance relating to the city’s Jews. A census of Jews was to be taken, all Jewish households had to report to the Prefecture of Police by 20/10/1940 (149,734 Jews registered) and all Jewish owned businesses had to put up a sign indicating Jewish ownership, in both French and German; Enterprise Juif and Judisches Geschaft. See 18/10.1940.
began the invasion of
Danish resistance continued until Allied forces liberated Denmark on 5/5/1945.
12/2/1940, Deportation of Jews from Germany began, mainly from the Pomerania region.
26/1/1940, Germany ordered that Polish Jews remain in their place of residence and could not travel. This created the ‘ghettos’ which were in effect temporary concentration camps.
See France-Germany for main European events of World War Two
30/10/1939. London published the horrors of the German concentration camps.
28/10/1939. All German Jews had to wear a yellow Star of David.
10/10/1939. Nazis deported Polish Jews to the
23/9/1939. All wireless sets owned by Jews in Germany were confiscated.
1/9/1939. In Germany, Jews were put under a curfew from 8pm in winter and 9pm in summer.
23/5/1939. The British
Parliament agreed a plan for the independence of
17/5/1939. In the UK government, MacDonald attempted to limit
Jewish migration to
23/2/1939. The Nazis confiscated jewels and precious metals from the Jews.
17/1/1939. In Germany, Jews were banned from driving.
2/12/1938, 206 German-Jewish schoolchildren arrived in Britain as refugees. This was the so-called Kindertransport: by the end of August 1939 9,354 such children had arrived by boat-train at Harwich from Germany and Austria. For many, their adult families remained.probably to die in the concentration camps. A few adults did manage to obtain visas for England or the USA.
12/11/1938, The Jewish community was ordered to pay a collective fine of 1,250 million Marks, and in addition pay for all the damage resulting from the Kristallnacht of a few days earlier.
10/11/1938. Anti Semitic laws passed in Italy.
9/11/1938, The British
Government called a conference on the future of
8/11/1938, Kristallnacht in Germany, when the Nazis burned 267 synagogues and destroyed 7,000 Jewish homes and businesses. 35,000 Jews were arrested throughout Germany, and 36 people killed. The Nazis prohibited insurance payments to the affected premises; however the glass had to be repaired, and much was sourced from abroad, draining German foreign currency reserves.
7/11/1938, A half-crazed young Jew whose parents of Polish origin had just been deported from Germany fatally shot the Third Secretary of the German Embassy in Paris. This provided Germany with a pretext to further mistreat the Jews.
28/10/1938. 17,000 Polish Jews domiciled in Germany were expelled.
19/10/1938, British troops stormed Old Jerusalem, evicting the Arabs who had been occupying it. The UK abandoned plans to partition Palestine between Jews and Arabs.
18/10/1938, As terrorist violence escalated in
5/10/1938, In Germany, passports held by Jews had to have the letter J stamped in them.
10/8/1938, The synagogue in Nuremberg was destroyed.
14/7/1938. Italy officially adopted anti-Semitism.
27/6/1938. All Austrian-Jewish employees given 2 weeks notice to quit by their employers.
9/6/1938, The synagogue in Munich was destroyed.
7/4/1938. The Nazis seized Baron Rothschild’s bank, and arrested him.
6/4/1938. Leading Jewish figures in Austria were sent to Dachau concentration camp.
4/1/1938. Britain postponed
plans to partition
20/10/1937. The British tried
to limit Jewish migration into
26/9/1937. The British
8/9/1937. A Pan-Arab
conference rejected the British Peel plan to partition
2/8/1937. The Zionists
endorsed the British Peel plan to partition
1/8/1937. Germany opened a new concentration camp at Buchenwald. Over the next 8 years, 56,500 were to die there.
7/7/1937. Britain published a plan issued by the Peel
Commission to partition Palestine between Jews and Arabs. Two-thirds was to be Arab, the rest Jewish, but the
15/9/1935. Germany passed the Nuremberg Laws, depriving Jews of German citizenship.
12/7/1935, Alfred Dreyfus, French Army Officer who was accused of selling military secrets to Germany, then imprisoned and later pardoned, died aged 75.
24/12/1933, The Codex
Siniaticus arrived in
15/11/1933. Germany’s new Reichstag opened. Women and Jewish members were excluded.
29/8/1933. It was officially confirmed that German Jews were being sent to concentration camps.
25/8/1933, The Haavara (‘transfer’) Agreement was signed between the Nazi German Government and Zionist Jews. It provided for the relocation of Jews from hostile Germany to what was then British Mandated Palestine, and for these Jews to take some assets that would otherwise have been confiscated by Germany. Advantages to Nazi Germany included the removal of Jews from their territory and a possible easing of sanctions on the country which had been imposed by Jews in the rest of Europe, which were a threat to the still-fragile German economy. The Agreement was cancelled in 1939 after Hitler invaded Poland. Hitler inititally opposed the Haavara Agreement, but supported it in the period 1937-9.
23/7/1933. Germany decreed that importing banned books was punishable with death.
9/5/1933. Hitler ordered the burning of more than 25,000 books. ‘Un-German’ volumes were thrown onto a huge bonfire outside Berlin University. Other similar fires took place in other German cities and over 1 million books may have been burned altogether.
7/5/1933. Jews and Fascists fought in the East End of London.
5/5/1933. Hitler proposed a ban on mixed marriages between Jews and Aryans, and to begin sterilisations.
7/4/1933, Germany banned Jews from government employment.
1/4/1933. Nazis seized Jewish bank accounts.
28/3/1933. Hitler ordered a boycott of Jews and Jewish shops. Jewish-owned shops were closed, Jewish professors thrown out of universities, and school textbooks re-written to include ‘racial science’. Officials of trades unions and employer’s organisations were sacked and replaced by Nazis. The boy scouts were dissolved and replaced by the Hitler Youth organisation, run by the anti-Semitic Baldur Von Schirach.
20/7/1933, 20,000 Jews protested in Hyde Park,
15/3/1933. Hitler proclaimed the Third Reich, which he said would last for a thousand years. Many Jews fled Germany, as Kosher food and left-wing newspapers were banned.
14/3/1933. The Nazis banned Kosher meat.
4/10/1932. Hungary formed a Nationalist and anti-Semitic government.
20/10/1930. Zionist leaders
protested against a British plan to partition
25/8/1929. Britain declared martial law in Jerusalem as Arabs
and Jews continued fighting. Arabs
killed 8 Jews and then burned whole streets of houses; the rioting was sparked
by Arab hostility to Jewish access to the Wailing Wall, situated in the heart
of Arab east
12/6/1929. Birth of Anne Frank, Dutch Jewish schoolgirl who wrote her famous dairies before going to her death in a Nazi concentration camp.
1/4/1925, The Hebrew University at Mount Scopus,
29/9/1923. The British Mandate in
16/8/1923, Shimon Peres, Prime Minister of Israel 1984-86, was born in Poland.
24/8/1922. Arabs at
16/8/1921. The Times exposed as a fake the “Protocols of the Elders of Zion”, which purported to be a manifesto for a Jewish conspiracy for world domination.
25/4/1920, The UN conformed the British mandate to control Palestine and Mesopotamia.
1/7/1920, The British civil administration of
4/4/1920, Rioting broke out in
25/8/1918. The Hungarian government expelled the Jews and confiscated their assets.
9/11/1917. Arthur Balfour, the British Foreign Secretary, unveiled plans for a Jewish national homeland in
2/11/1917. UK foreign
Balfour stated British support for a Jewish homeland in
10/2/1917. Weizmann and the British Government discussed plans for a Jewish homeland.
See France-Germany for main European events of World War One
20/5/1915, Moshe Dayan, Israeli military commander and politician, was born in Deganya.
16/8/1913, Menachem Begin, Prime Minister of Israel 1977-83, was born in Russia.
23/8/1911, Violent anti-Semitic riots in Wales.
28/7/1911, The French Chief of Staff resigned over the Dreyfus Affair.
31/12/1908, Simon Weisenthal, noted hunter of Nazi war criminals, was born; he died in 2005.
4/6/1908. An attempt was made to assassinate Major Alfred Dreyfus.
13/2/1908, Tsar Nicholas II of Russia was encouraging anti-Semitism.
9/9/1906. 100 Jews massacred in Siedlce, Poland.
8/11/1905. In Odessa, Russia, 1,000 Jews were killed when a mob of 50,000 went on the rampage stabbing Jewish men, women, and children.
12/8/1905, Under Russian direction a pogrom of Jews occurred in Bialystock, Poland; 38 were killed and over 200 wounded.
24/5/1905. Anti Semitic riots in Warsaw, many Jews killed.
24/10/1904, Four French officers were charged with lying in the Dreyfus case.
3/7/1904. The Hungarian-born
Herzl (1860-1904) died in
5/3/1904, A new enquiry
into the Dreyfus
case began in
11/9/1903, A pogrom at Czetochowa, Poland, many Jews were killed.
4/6/1903. A Russian decree restricted Jewish ownership of property.
19/4/1903, A pogrom began in Kishinev, in which 50 Jews were killed.
6/4/1903. The Dreyfus documents were proved to be forgeries by the army, in
29/9/1902. The writer Emile Zola, and valiant champion of Captain Dreyfus, died, accidentally gassed by charcoal fumes.
1901, Jewish Progressive (Liberal) Movement began.
19/12/1900, France granted an amnesty to all those involved in the Dreyfus Affair.
7/10/1900. Nazi leader Heinrich Himmler was born in Munich. He controlled the concentration camps in which millions of Jews, communists, trade unionists, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and others, died.
13/8/1900, The Fourth Zionist Congress was held in London. Concerns included a rise in antisemitism in Europe in the 1890s, and financing the settlement of Jews in Palestine, an aim for which money was short.
2/6/1900, The French Senate voted an amnesty for Alfred Dreyfus, who had been pardoned earlier (September 18, 1899) by President Loubet. Not until July 19, 1906, was the verdict against Dreyfus set aside.
19/9/1899. France finally granted a pardon to Alfred Dreyfus in an attempt to end the controversy over anti-Semitic allegations that threatened the political stability of France. Dreyfus insisted on a total clearing of his name.
7/8/1899. The guilt of Captain Alfred Dreyfus, condemned and deported for treason in 1894, was confirmed by a court-martial at Rennes.
3/5/1898, Golda Meir, Prime Minister of Israel 1969-74, was born.
23/2/1898, Emile Zola was imprisoned for the publication of his letter, ‘J’Accuse’, which accused the French Government of anti-Semitism and of wrongly imprisoning Captain Dreyfus.
13/1/1898. The Dreyfus affair in France escalated with the famous novelist Emile Zola accusing the French war office of judicial crime in an open letter on the front page of L’Aurore newspaper. Commandant Ferdinand Esterhazy had been acquitted of betrayal of France’s military secrets to Germany even though his handwriting had been identified as that on a note in the German embassy. Moreover, Georges Picquart, the intelligence chief who made the Esterhazy connection, was reposted to Africa.
11/1/1898, In Paris, Major Esterhazy was wrongly acquitted of forging documents used to establish the guilt of French Army Officer Captain Alfred Dreyfus.
31/8/1897. World Jewish leaders met in Basle, Switzerland to discuss their hopes for a Jewish homeland in Palestine. 200 delegates from all branches of Judaism came, mainly from east and Central Europe.
1896, Theodor Herzl published ‘Der Judenstaat’, the start of the Zionist movement.
22/12/1894. The Dreyfus case opened. Alfred Dreyfus, French artillery officer, was convicted of selling army secrets to Germany, and imprisoned on Devil’s Island. Later he was pardoned and completely exonerated
15/10/1894. Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish army officer, was arrested for betraying military secrets to Germany. A French agent had discovered evidence of betrayal of French secrets in the German embassy. Suspicion fell on Dreyfus; he was ordered to take a handwriting test, his hand shook, and he was arrested. He was sentenced to life imprisonment on Devils Island.
Aged 34 Dreyfus was an unlikely spy. Cold, serious, punctilious in his duties, he had no money problems because his father was a wealthy textile manufacturer. He was however Jewish and so was disliked by the militant Catholics who dominated the officer corps. Anti-Semitism was growing in France. At his court-martial evidence was thin and his lawyers were barred from court.
3/5/1893, Golda Meir, Israeli Prime Minister, was born in Kiev, Russia, as Golda Mabovitch, daughter of a carpenter.
1892, Increasing restrictions on the civil rights of Jews in Russia led many to emigrate to Argentina; Baron Hirsch facilitated their resettlement.
16/10/1886, David Ben Gurion, the first Prime Minister of Israeli in 1948, was born in Plonsk, Poland, as David Green. He changed his name to Ben Gurion because of its Biblical connotations.
13/2/1883. German composer Wilhelm Richard Wagner died in Venice aged 69, from a heart complaint. He was infamous for his anti-Semitism.
13/4/1882, The Anti-Semitic League was founded in Prussia.
1881, Persecution of the Jews in Russia.
1880, Revival of antisemitism in Prussia. The Judenhetze (hounding of the Jews) began.
1875, Extremely traditional Orthodox Jews founded the Mea Sharim (‘Hundred Gates’) district just outside Jerusalem. They do not recognise the State of Israel as it is secular rather than religious, so refuse to pay taxes or do military service, and have their own schools rather than State schools. Rules on dress are strict and only Yiddish is spoken as Hebrew, the language of prayer, is deemed too sacred to use in ordinary speech.
1860, Norway allowed Jews to settle there.
2/5/1860, Theodor Herzl, Hungarian Jew who was the founder of Zionism and first President of the World Zionist Organisation in 1897, was born in Budapest.
9/10/1859, Alfred Dreyfus, French army office noted for the ‘Dreyfus Treason Affair’, was born in Alsace to Jewish parents.
1858, Lionel de Rothschild became the first Jewish MP in British Parliament.
23/7/1858, In Britain, the Oath of Allegiance was modified so as to allow Jews to sit in Parliament.
12/10/1843, Twelve Jewish men met in a New York cafe to establish the B’Nai Brith, or ‘Sons of the Covenant’, to provide assistance to Jewish widows, the elderly, orphans, and victims of persecution.
1840, The Jewish Reform movement began.
1837, Spain granted civil rights to the Jews.
1814, Denmark granted equality of citizenship to Jews.
1812, Jews in Prussia gained civil rights. By 1848 Prussian Jews had gained full civil rights.
1806, In France, Emperor Napoleon summoned a Jewish ‘Sanhedrin’, in order to ascertain the suitability of Jews for full French citizenship.
27/9/1791. France granted citizenship to its Jews.
1782, Emperor Joseph II of Austria gave civic rights to the Jews. However they could not own land in Austria until 1860, with all restructions removed by 1868.
1760, The Board of Deputies of British Jews was established.
1746, Sweden allowed Jews to settle there – so long as they were wealthy.
1743, The Jews were expelled from Russia, by Empress Elizabeth. Later readmitted to Russia by Emperor Alexander I, who extended their civil rights in 1805 and 1809 however see 1892.
14/6/1711, The Jewish quarter of Frankfurt was destroyed in what was one of the largest fires in Germany before the 20th century.
4/3/1699, The Jews were expelled from Lubeck, Germany.
21/2/1677, Benedict Spinoza, Jewish philosopher, died.
27/7/1656, Jewish religious authorities in Amsterdam excommunicated 24 year student Benedict Spinoza for maintaining that the Bible did not support the idea of an immortal soul, or that God has no body, or that angels exist. The secular authorities also banished Spinoza from Amsterdam for a short period. The Jewish community was concerned as Jews still did not have full citizenship rights in Amsterdam.
24/4/1656, The Jews petitioned Cromwell to be allowed to live and trade in England. This was permitted, although they were denied legal toleration by the Puritan clergy of England. Jewish civil rights increased only gradually in England. In 1723 they were able to give evidence in Court, when the words ‘on the true faith of a Christian’ were dropped from the oath. In 1753 they were awarded full rights of naturalisation but under popular protest this was speedily revoked. Until 1828 the maximum number of Jewish brokers in the City of London was limited to 12, and these were heavily taxed. From 1833 an English Jew could become a barrister, and from 1847 Jewish marriages gained the same legal recognition as Christian ones. From 1853 they could become Alderman and Lord Mayor. In 1846 Jewish schools gaimned the same legal standing as dissenting Protestant schools, and in 1871 the University Test Act allowed Jews to graduate at British universities. In 1858 the British Parliamentary Oath was modified to allow Jews to become MPs. In 1885 the first Jew became a member of the House of Lords, when Baron Rothschild became a peer.
1655, The last Auto-da-Fe in Portugal, a burning alove of supposedly converted Jews (to Christianity) who were suspected of still being secret Jews.
1654, The colony of Martinique gave sanctuary to 300 Jews who had been expelled from Brazil.
24/11/1632, Benedict Spinoza, Jewish philosopher, was born in Amsterdam.
1603, The Jews were permitted to settle in Holland; however they did not acquire full citizenship rights until 1796.
1588, Pope Sixtus V allowed the Jews to settle in the Papal States.
1573, The Jews were expelled from Brandenberg.
1553, The Jews were expelled from Bavaria.
1550, The Jews were allowed to settle in Bayonne and Bordeaux.
27/11/1518, Daniel Bomberg completed the Rabbinical Bible.
1516, In Venice, the city established a special area for Jews to live. Built on the site of a former ironworks, it was called the ghetto nuovo, the Italian for ‘casting’ being getto. Jews specialised in finance, and were a useful source of tax revenue.
1506, In riots in Lisbon, almost 4,000 Jews were massacred.
5/12/1497, King Manuel I of Portugal proclaimed an edict in which he demanded that Jews convert to Christianity or leave the country.
31/12/1492, About 100,000 Jews were expelled from Sicily.
30/3/1492. The Jews were expelled from Spain by edict of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella unless they agreed to convert to Roman Catholicism. Under the Moslem rule, the Jews had benefited from tolerant Arab rulers. But the last Moslem state was conquered by Christian Spain on 2/1/1492 when Granada fell. On 30/3/1492 the 150,000 strong Jewish community was ordered out by Queen Isabella and her husband Ferdinand. Urban anti-Semitism in Spain had been growing for years, and the Spanish Inquisition, founded in 1487, made things worse. See 12/2/1502.
1/1/1483, Jews were expelled from Andalusia.
1476, The Jews were expelled from Ratisbon.
5/10/1450, Jews were expelled from Lower Bavaria by order of Ludwig IX.
17/9/1394, King Charles VI of France ordered the expulsion of all Jews from France.
1391, The Jews were expelled from Prague.
5/8/1391, Anti-Jewish riots spread to Toledo, Spain and Barcelona. Many Jews left Barcelona after the following massacres, though many remained in the city.
6/6/1391, Anti-Jewish riots broke out in Seville, Spain. Many thousands of Jews were massacred and the violence spread throughout Spain and Portugal. Some 200,000 Spanish Jews were forcibly ‘converted’ to Chrstianity. Many others were burnt alive.
1390, The Jews were expelled from Nuremburg.
5/11/1370. King Casimir III of Poland died in a hunting accident, aged 60, after a 30 year reign. He had repulsed a Mongol invasion, annexed Galicia, and encouraged the immigration of Jews to serve as bankers and tax collectors. He founded the University of Cracow, and codified the law and administration.
21/3/1349, Many of the 900 strong Jewish community of Erfurt (Germany) were murdered by the rest of the population which accused them of causing of the Black Death.
14/2/1349, 2,000 Jews were burned to death in Strasbourg.
24/6/1322, Jews were expelled from France for third time.
1306, Jews were expelled from France by King Philip IV.
1301, In Valencia, Spain, 11,000 Jews were compelled to become baptised as Christians on pain of death. Elswehere in Spain, the entire Jewish population of towns were massacred.
20/4/1298, Beginning of the Rintfleisch-Pogrom, the Jews of Röttingen were burned en masse, other Jewish communities were destroyed later in the year.
1293, Jewish communities in southern Italy had almost been destroyed after three years of persecution.
18/7/1290, King Edward I of England ordered all Jews (then numbering around 16,000) to leave England by November 1 (All Saints Day). This enabled him to seize their assets, and not repay debts owed to them.
1275, King Edawrd I of England ordered that all Jews above the age of 7 wear a yellow patch on their clothes 6 inches by 3 inches.
19/6/1269, King Louis IX of France ordered all Jews found in public without an identifying yellow badge to be fined ten livres of silver.
1243, The Jews were expelled from Brandenburg.
1241, The Jews were expelled from Frankfurt.
1225, The Jews were expelled from Mecklenburg.
13/12/1204. The Jewish rabbi, lawyer, and philosopher Maimonides died, aged 69 (born 1135), in Cairo.
1196, The Jews were expelled from Vienna.
8/5/1190. After some six months of increasing persecution, 500 Jews were massacred in York after they had taken refuge in the Castle there. The Jews were killed by groups of young men after a three day siege before these men were due to depart on a Crusade, backed by people who were deeply in debt to Jewish moneylenders. King Richard I, crowned on 2/9/189, showed his dislike of the Jews by forbidding any to attend his coronation feast, and anti-Semitism was on the rise in England from then.
The persecution of the Jews across Europe coincided with the start of the climatic cooling known as the Little |Ice Age, ca. 1200 – 1800, see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_Ice_Age
30/3/1135, The great Jewish teacher Moses ben Maimon (Maimonedes) was born in Cordoba. See 13/12/1204.
850, German Jews began to develop a new language, Yiddish.
9/11/694, Hispano-Visigothic King Egica accused the Jews of aiding the Muslims, and sentenced all Jews to slavery. From 711 these Spanish Jews were freed by the Arabs.
499, Rabbi Abina II, head of the Sora Academy 437-499, died.
427, Rabbi Ashe (375 – 427), head of the Jewish Academy of Sora in Babylonia, died.
279, The Jewish Rabbi (teacher) Johanan died in Tiberias.
135, A Jewish uprising under Bar Kokhba ended (began in 122). After this was suppressed by the Romans, Judea was deliberately razed, with almost all former Jewish/Judean towns and villages, some 985 places altogether, flattened and the countryside depopulated. The city of Jerusalem was changed to the pagan city of Aelia Capitolina, and no Jew permitted to enter there.
8/9/70. Jerusalem was stormed by the Romans after a two year siege. This ended a revolt by the Jews that began in 66. Only in Masada did the Jews still hold out for a while. See Roman Empire
37, Josephus, Jewish historian, was born.
For Roman conquest of Palestine see Roman Empire
63 BCE, The Romans conquered Jerusalem.
69 BCE, King Hyrcanus II deposed; the Antipater family gains control.
110 BCE, The Jewish military leader John Hrycanus conquered Samaria.
112 BCE, Emergence of the Sadducees and Pharisees in Palestine.
135 BCE, Simon Maccabbeus, successor to Jonathan Maccabbeus, expelled the Syrians from Jerusalem again.
144 BCE, Judas Maccabbeus’s successor, Jonathan Maccabbeus, was assassinated.
165 BCE, Judas Maccabbeus reconsecrated the Temple at Jerusalem after expelling the Syrians.
168 BCE, King Antiochus IV, whilst persecuting the Jews, destroyed the Temple at Jerusalem.
198 BCE, Antiochus III, King of Syria, took Palestine from Egypt.
255 BCE, The Septuagint, the Greek version of the Old Testament, was written.
307 BCE, Antigonus I was killed at the Battle of the Kings at Ipsus. Palestine reverted to Egyptian rule.
312 BCE, Antigonus I became King of Judea.
314 BCE, Palestine came under the rule of the Seleucids of Syria.
350 BCE, Revolt by Persian Jews against the rule of King Artaxerxes III.
409 BCE, Renegade Jews (Samaritans) built a rival Temple to Jehovah on Mount Gerizim, to rival the one in Jerusalem.
440 BCE, Judean Law forbade intermarriage beteeen Jews and non-Jews.
445 BCE, Nehemiah.
458 / 457 BCE, The Jewish prophet Ezra travelled to Jerusalem to restore the Law of Moses.
455 BCE, The command to restore and rebuild Jerusalem, issued by Nehemiah and Ezra.
537 / 536. BCE. The Jews returned to Israel, Media and Persia having conquered Babylon in 539. BC. They were allowed to return by Cyrus the Great of Persia (553 – 529 BCE)
5/10/539 BCE. Persian soldiers were encamped outside Babylon. Late in the night they invaded Babylon across the partly-dried up bed of the river; the city’s gates had been left open.
555 BCE, Accerssion of Nabonidus, last King of Babylon (to 539 BCE)
585 BCE, Death of the prophet Jeremiah.
Ca. 582 BCE, King Nebuchadnezzar died.
607. BC. Jerusalem was conquered by Babylon and the Jews began a 70 year exile. Some sources put the Exilic date some 20 years later around 588 BCE.
608 BCE, End of Josiah’s rule as King of Judah. Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon took control of Judah.
Ca. 617 BCE, Daniel and Ezekiel taken to Babylon.
Ca. 625 BCE, Nebuchadnezzar became King of Babylon
Ca. 632 BCE, Babylon conquered Assyria
Ca. 641 BCE, Josiah became King of Judah.
642 BCE, King Manasseh of Judah died.
Ca. 647 BCE, Jeremiah commissioned as a prophet.
681 BCE, Sennacheriob was assassinated by his two sons, Adrammalech and Sharezer; they in turn were defeated by their brother Esar-Haddon, who then became King of Assyria. Esar-Haddon conquered Egypt, driving out its Ethiopian ruler, Tirhakah.
697 BCE, Manasseh (born 709) became King of Judah.
705 BCE, Sennacherib became King of Assyria. He had to deal with rebellions in Syria. It was one of these expeditions that is referred to in the Bible at 2 Kings 19:35 where it says ‘The Angel of Jehovah killed 185,000 Assyrians overnight’.
722 BCE, Sargon became King of Assyria (to 705 BCE). He defeated a combined Egyptian-Gazan force in 719 BCE.
727 BCE, King Shalmaneser IV became King of Assyria. He blockaded Tyre for five years and invaded Israel. He also attacked Samaria, but died before they surrendered.
859 BCE, The death of King Assur-Nazir-Pal of Assyria. Under his rule, Assyria had become the principal world power. He was succeeded by his son, Shalmaneser II, who conquered Babyon. He also exzacted tribute from Damascus and Israel (Kings Ahab and Jehu).
Ca. 907 BCE, Jeroboam I, first King of Israel, died.
Ca. 917 BCE, Rehoboam I, first King of Judah, died.
Ca. 933 BCE Solomon died. Israel split into kingdoms of Israel and Judah.
?? BCE, King Solomon began construction of the Temple in Jerusalem
Ca. 960 BCE King Solomon began ruling.
Ca. 1000 BCE. King David began reigning in Jerusalem.
Ca.1010 BCE, King David born
Ca. 1080 BCE, Samuel anointed Saul as first King of Israel.
Ca. 1120 BCE, King Tiglath Pileser I of Assyria enlarged his Empire to extend from the Mediterraneam to the Persian Gulf and the Caspian.
(1254?? BCE) Joshua died.
Ca. 1473 (1200??) BCE, Moses died
Ca. 1513 (1446, 1320??) BCE. The Jews left Egypt after the 10 Plagues.
Ca. 1593 (Jerome) (1392-1271 lifespan, Rabbinical) BCE, Moses born
Dates for Moses and Joshua, and the Exodus, are highly uncertain. There is a possibility-range of some 200 years either way.
Ca. 1711 BCE, Jacob died
Ca. 1728 BCE, Jacob moved his family to Egypt. See also Egypt.
Ca. 1843 BCE Abraham died.