Chronography of Peru (also Inca) (Chavin) (Moche)
For far south American indigenous peoples (Mapuche, Yaghan), see Chile
Page last modified 17 September 2023
17 April 2019, Former President of Peru, Alan Garcia, 69, shot himself dead as police arrived to arrest him on corruption charges, connected with the construction of the Lime metro system. The Brazilian construction company Odebrecht had admitted paying government officials across 12 countries a total of almost US$800 million to obtain contracts. Garcia had been President 1985-90 and 2006-11.
13 July 2005, Thousands protested in Lima, Peru, against a US trade pact that could lead to increase in the cost of medicines.
2003, Beatriz Merino was appointed Peru�s first woman Prime Minister.
2001, Presidential elections were won by Alejandro Toledo, of the Peru Possible Party. Toledo was the country�s first Amerindian President.
11 June 1990, Right wing politician Mario Vargas Llosa lost the second round of the Peruvian elections.
6/1988, By this time some 9,000 people had died due to the Senderoso Luminoso insurgency. About half were guerrillas.
1987, Peru went bankrupt; plans to nationalise the plans by President Garcia were blocked by the new Libertad Movement, led by novelist Mario Vargas Llosa.
28 July 1985, In Peru there was a democratic transfer of power from Fernando Belaunde Terry to Alan Garcia Perez. Social Democrat Party. However Peru was far from stable, with the Marxist rebel organisation Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path) controlling large areas of the country.
1982, The Peruvian Army stepped up an anti-drugs campaign, cracking down on guerrillas; dxeaths and �disappearances� escalated.
1981, Peru fought a border war (until 1990) with Ecuador over the El Oro region, an Amazonian region given to Peru by a 1942 treaty,which Ecuador wanted as it would give it access to the Amazon basin. For more details see Ecuador.
17 May 1980, The Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) Maoist rebel group, founded by Abimael Guzman in the 1970s, began an armed uprising in Peru.
27 July 1980, President Fernando Belaunde Terry of Peru was inaugurated, ending 12 years of military rule.
1975, A new right-wing military junta took control of government. Velasco was replaced, in a bloodless coup, by General Morales Bermudez.
19 March 1971, An avalanche triggered by a earthquake killed some 700 people at a mining camp at Chungar, Peru.
1968, A left-wing military junta took over government, and started a programme of widespread nationalisation.
October 1968, President Belaunde�s government resigned after his decision to pay Standard Oil compensation for handing their installations over to Peru. Juan Velasco Alvarado seized power in a military coup, and nationalised entire industries, including fishing, mining, power and telecommunications. He also instituted extensive land reform, redistributing some 100,000 square kilometres; about 72% of Peru�s arable land. He held power until 1975; his economic reforms suffered from the oil price rise in 1973/4.
1963, Fernando Belaunde Terry, a moderate Conservative, was elected President, He began a programme of land reform, redistriubuting land to peassants, but also used the military to suppress a Communist-backed insurgency.
18 July 1962, A military coup in Peru; President Prado was arrested by the Army. There was a further coup in 1963.
1956, Civilian Government returned to Chile.
22 February 1952, The USA signed a military assistance pact with Peru.
2 July 1950, Manuel Odria was legally elected President of Peru.
27 October 1048, General Manuel Odria (1897-1974), Conservative Peruvian Army Chief of Staff,, took power, and APRA was banned again. Haya de la Torre took refuge in the Colombian Embassy in Lima, as many APRA members were jailed or exiled
1942, Under the Rio Protocol, Ecuador ceded the mineral-rich el Oro region to Peru, ca. 200,000 square kilometres, after a period of border warfare. Ecuador� had invaded this region in 1941. For more details see Ecuador.
1939-45, A moderate pro-US government ruled Peru.
1931, APRA was banned, until 1945.
1930, Salcedo was ousted from power, and the APRA came to Peru as its first political Party.
25 August 1930, Augusto Legula, President of Peru, resigtned and fled the country after a coup by Colonel Luis Sanchez Carro.
1924, Peruvian Dr Victor Raul Haya de la Torre (1895-1979) founded the nationalist and radical American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA) whiulst in exile in Mexico.
21 August 1916, Peru declared neutrality during World War One.
18 February 1914, British explorer Captain Campbell Besley announced the discovery of three Inca cities in Peru.
8 August 1912, The Pope issued an encyclical about abuse of the indigenous tribes in the Putumayo region of Peru.
24 July 1911, The lost city of Machu Picchu, Peru, was rediscovered by Hiram Bingham.
20 January 1911, Ecuador refused to allow the Hague Tribunal to arbitrate in its boundary dispute with Peru.
3 June 1910, Ecuador and Peru withdrew their troops from the border between the two nations as the first step in the mediation of their dispute.
1908, Augusto Leguia y Salcedo became dictator, ruling until 1912, and again from 1919-30.
31 December 1886, Mariano Felipe Paz Soldan, Peruvian geographer and historian, died (born in Arequipa 22 August 1821)
1872, Manuel Pardo became Peru�s first democratically-elected President.
2 May 1866, Spain bombarded the Peruvian port of Callao. A week later Spain ceased hostilities.
31 March 1866, A Spanish fleet under Admiral Casto Mendez Nunez bombarded the port of Valparaiso, Chile. Peru allied with Chile.
14 January 1866, Resentment in Peru at the terms of the treaty woth Spain (see 27 January 1865) allowed General Mariano Ignacio Prado (1826-1901) to take control of government. He then made defensive alliances with Bolivia and Ecuadoir, then declared war on Spain.
27 January 1865, Spain and Peru agreed a treaty where Spain recognised Peruvian independence and Peru would pay a 3 million peso indemnity for losses suffered by Spanish subjects at Talambo, and for the return of the Chincha Islands.
14 April 1864, Spain occupied the guano-rich Peruvian Chincha Islands, 12 miles off the Peruvian coast.
1849, Large inflow of Chinese labourers, mostly to do low-paid jobs such as collecting guano. Inflow lasted until 1872.
1864, Spain occupied the Peruvian island of Central Chinch, rich in guano, in an attempt to regain Peru.
1844, General Ramon Castilla became President, serving until 1851, and again from1855-62. Under his administration, Peru enjoyed stability and economic prosperity. Its guanoi and niyrate deposits were mined for the first time, and transport links improved.
20 November 1841, Peru attempted an invasion of Bolivia but was defeated. The Peruvian President, Augustin Gamarra, was killed this day in the fighting, aged 56. His death started a civil war in Peru that continued until 1845.
26 January 1827 Peru ended its union with Chile and declared independence.
9 December 1824, Battle of Ayacucho. Further Spanish defeat in the war to retain Peru as a colony. Peru and Bolivia would have been united at this point but Sucre had already agreed with the leaders of Upper Peru (Bolivia) to cteate a separate State there.
6 August 1824, Spain finally lost Peru after the Battle of Junin, led by Simon Bolivar and Antonio Jose de Sucre.
10 September 1823. Simon Bolivar became dictator of Peru.
26 July 1822, San Martin and Simon Bolivar met at Guayaquil. San Martin turned over control of the anti-Spanish independence struggle to Bolivar and retired from further revolutionary action.
22 August 1821, Mariano Felipe Paz Soldan, Peruvian geographer and historian, was born in Arequipa (died 31 December 1886)
28 July 1821, Peru proclaimed its independence from Spain, after the capoital Lima was captured by Argentine liberator Jose de San Martin, who had also liberated Chile from the Spanish.
1780, Tupac Amaru II led an unscusseful revolt against Spanish rule.
1543, A South American Indian, Diego Gualpa, discovered a rich seam of silver ore in the mountains of Peru. This gave rise to the silver boom town of Potosi and ultimately had a major impact on world finances. Between 1556 and 1783 the mountain of Cerro Rico, or �rich hill�, yielded 45,000 tons of pure silver.
1542, The Vice-Royalty of Peru was established.
1000, Decline of Wari culture.
800 AD, The Chachapoya culture began in Peru�s northern highlands. It was invaded by the Incas around 1475. The Inca conquerors then dispewrsed most of the Chachapoya people to distant parts of the Inca Empire, to avoid any insurrection. The few Chachapoya who remained in situ sided with the Spanish when they arrived, but new European doiseases and harsh treatment by the Spanish colonisers ensured that by .the early 1600s the Chachapoya culture had virtually disappeared.
700, The city / state of Wari became dominant and its influence began to spread beyond the Ayacucho Valley.
100 AD, The Moche culture began in what is now northern coastal Peru. It lasted until ca. 700.
200 BCE, End of Chavin culture
350 BCE, Emergence of the Nazca Culture in Peru. Huge line drawings were made in the desert, too large to appreciate except from the air. They developed large-scale irrigation systems.
850 BCE, Peak of Chavin culture in Peru.
800 BCE, The Chavin city of Chavin de Huantar was founded. It was primarily a religious centre.
1200 BCE, Emergence of the Chavin culture in Peru.