Chronography of the Philippines
10/5/2016, Duterte (born 28/3/1945) was elected President
of the Philippines.
30/12/2015, The Philippines said it will join the Asian
Infrastructure Investment Bank despite disputes between it and the bank's
2005, Peace talks between the
government and Islamic
25/2/2004, A ferry in the Philippines was bombed by terrorists,
killing 116 of the 900 passengers.
4/3/2003, A terrorist bomb exploded at Davao City
International Airport on Mindanao, Philippines. The Islamic Abu Sayyaf group
2002, Bomb attacks blamed on
19/1/2001, Gloria Arroyo became President of the
2000, President Joseph Estrada
was impeached for corruption. His deputy, Gloria Arroyo, became President.
10/7/2000, A large landslide in Manila killed 200 people.
1998, Joseph Estrada became President.
2/9/1996, President Ramos of the Philippines signed a
peace deal with the Moro national Liberation Front (MNLF), a Muslim separatist
group. This ended� a 26 year rebellion by
the Moro people of southern Philippines islands.
24/9/1993. In the Philippines, Imelda Marcos
was jailed for 18 years for corruption.
30/6/1992, Fidel Ramos became President of the
Philippines. The USA withdrew from Subic Bay base.
16/6/1992, In the Philippines, Cory Aquino was defeated in
elections by General
9/6/1991. Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines erupted.
500,000 people had to be evacuated as the USA�s biggest overseas air base,
Clark Naval Base, was threatened. Manila was covered 30 cm deep in volcanic
1990, Cory Aquino survived a 7th
in the Philippines attacked Cory
Aquino�s palace and three military bases.
Marcos of the Philippines died in Honolulu.
1988, Land Reform Act, favourable compensation terms
granted to large landowners.
21/12/1987, 2,000 killed
in a ferry disaster in The Philippines.
29/1/1987, President Corazon Aquino of
the Philippines put down a second attempted coup against her two-year-old
administration; she was assiated by the USA. Rebels supporting ex-dictator Ferdinand
Marcos and his wife Imelda abandoned the TV station in Manila they
had occupied on 27/1/1987. Loyalist
troops had thwarted the rebels by cutting power to the TV station.
13/9/1986, The Mount Data Peace Accord was signed
between the Government of the Philippines and the Cordillera People's
Liberation Army ending the latter's campaign for greater autonomy for the
22/6/1986, In the Philippines, Defence Minister Juan Ponce
Enrile and Deputy Chief of Staff Fidel Ramos took over the HQ of
the Philippines Defence Ministry and declared opposition to President Marcos and
support for Corazon Aquino.
25/2/1986. Right-wing President Marcos, who had ruled since 1965, was forced
to flee the Philippines, after defeat by Corazon Aquino (born 1933).
Mrs Aquino�s husband had been shot by Marcos�
troops in 1983. President Marcos
fled to the roof of the palace and were whisked away by US helicopters.
15/2/1986, In the Philippines, President Marcos
declared himself the victor in elections. Opposition members walked out in
21/8/1984, Half a million
people in Manila demonstrated against the rule of Ferdinand Marcos,
on the first anniversary of the assassination of Benigno Aquino.
Marcos had ruled since 1972.
21/8/1983, The Philippines
opposition leader, Benigno Aquino, was shot dead minutes after
returning home from exile. Born in 1932, Benigno became a Senator at 35 and was the
leader of the opposition to Philippines leader Ferdinand Marcos during the
period of martial law from 1972. Had martial law not been declared and the
Presidential elections due for 1973 been run, it is generally accepted that Benigno Aquino
would have won. In fact Aquino was arrested in November 1977 on
charges of murder sand subversion. In 1980, suffering from a heart condition, Aquino
was allowed to leave for exile and treatment in the USA. His assassination was widely
believed to be on the orders of Marcos, and it unleashed protests that led to
the collapse of the Marcos Presidency; in February 1986, Benigno�s
Aquino, became President of the Philippines.
1974, Militant rebel
activity in The Philippines was increasing, with the Sulu city of Jolo severely
attacked by the Moro,
who were co-operating with the Huks.
Ferdinand Marcos suspended martial law (see 17/1/1973) in The Philippines
and was �e;ected� as President for another 6 byears. The elections however were
17/1/1973. President Marcos of the
Philippines extended his term indefinitely. He was barred by law from a third
term which would have started in 9/1972, so he declared martial law.
1972, Severe flooding in Luzon
caused by a typhoon caused martial law to be declared. The presence of the
military exacerbated guerrilla activity.
30/12/1965, In the
Philippines, Ferdinand E Marcos (1917-1989)
President. He was elected on a promise to solve the chronic economic and social
problems facing the Philippines, and succeeded in winning a second term in
1969. However by then problems with corruption were starting, and the rich-poor
gap was still wide. A Communist
�Huk� (Hukbalathap, see 1954) insurgency was, by 1969,
gathering strength in the remoter rural areas. Also in Mindanao there
was a bloody Islamic
uprising, the Moro Rebellion.
10/8/1965, The agreement between the United States and the Philippines on U.S.
military bases was formally amended, returning exclusive jurisdiction over the
Port of Manila and the city of Olongapo to the Philippines, and ceding more
than 1,200 km2 of territory back to the Philippine government.
Corazon married Benigno Aquino.
rebellion in central Luzon, Philippines, the Hukbalahap Rebellion (later, �Huk�,
see 1969) , was suppressed.
23/10/1953, TV broadcasting began in
The Philippines. In 1972, when President Marcos instituted martial law, he
closed down all TV stations except one, which he strictly controlled. When a
Filipino actress made a call on TV for�
money to help pay for the education of poor children, she was banished
from the air �because there are no poor people in the Philippines�.
30/8/1951, The US and The Philippines concluded a mutual
14/3/1947, The Philippines granted
the US use of naval and military bases.
4/7/1946. The Philippines was granted independence from
the USA.� Manual Roxas was elected as
the first President.
1944, US troops landed in the Philippines, liberating it from the Japanese.
1942, The Hukbalahap (Huks) was
formed, a peasant guerrilla army to fight the Japanese. After World War Two,
the US and the Philippine Government made efforts to suppress the Hukbalahap.
For main events of World War Two in the
Pacific see China/Japan
1941, Japan invaded the
US rule of
the Philippines. See also USA for more details of the
2/5/1935, In the Philippines, the Sakdalista Movement began, to combat
unequal land distribution and heavy taxes. The movement was quickly suppressed.
1935, The Philippines became a Commonwealth under an
elected President. By 1941, under US President Taft, the Philippines enjoyed a
democratically-elected Senate, an indepenedent judiciary and an indigenous
civil service. The US promised full independence for 1945, but the Japanese
invasion interrupted this.
11/9/1917, Ferdinand Marcos, President
of the Philippines, was born.
warfare by Philippines independence fighters had now ended, and the US set up a
civilian Government under US control.
4/7/1901, The US
was appointed Governor of the Philippines, replacing a former military
government with civilian rule. He announced an amnesty for all former rebels
who took an oath of allegiance to the USA.
19/4/1901, In the
Aguinaldo, now a prisoner of the Americans, issued a call to his
country to end the armed rebellion and use peaceful means to gain independence.
Philippines independence fighter Aguinaldo was captiured by US General
Frederick Funston (1865-1917).
Philippine rebels surrendered to US forces.
Battle of Makahambus Hill took place near Cagayan de Oro City in the
Philippines. This was the first victory of the Filipino soldiers against the
American occupation forces.
31/3/1899, US forces
captured the capital of the Philippines independence fighters, Malolos.
Philippines independence fighters under General Antonio Luna (1866-99) attacked US
forces at Manila, but were repulsed by US General Arthur MacArthur (1845-1912). Aguinaldo
fled to the hills and began guerrilla warfare.
rebellion against US rule broke out on the Philippines. The US had backed General Emilio
Aguinaldo against Spanish colonial rule (see 10/12/1898), but
instead of independence the Philippines came under US rule. Hostilities began
between US troops in The Philippines and loyalists to Aguinaldo, see 20/1/1899/.
set up the Philippine Republic, under the Malolos
Constitution, with himself as President. See 2/4/1899.
Aguinaldo set up a Revolutionary Government of the Philippines, with
himself as President.
12/6/1898, The Philippines
declared independence from Spain. However Spain ceded the Philippines to the
USA in return for a payment of US$ 20 million by the Treaty of Paris. Aguinaldo however refused to recognise this
Treaty, wanting full independence for The Philippines.
returned to the Philippines and organised resistance forces against the
1898, The USA seized control of the Philippines from
Spain, and destroyed the Spanish fleet there.
15/12/1897, A peace
settlement, the Pact of Biak-na-bato,
was agreed between the Spanish colonisers of The Philippines and the
independence movement. Aguinaldo was exiled to Hong Kong, having
accepted payment of 400,000 Spanish Pesos and promises by Spain to introduce
democratic reforms. However Spain reneged on the payment and the promised
reforms, see 19/5/1898.
Early independence movements
1897, Andres Bonifacio, Philippines independence
fighter, was executed on the orders of a court set up by a rival rebel leader, Emilio
Aguinaldo. This stiffened the resolve of the independence movement
17/2/1897, In the
Aguinaldo�s forces defeated the Spanish under General Camilo at the Battle of
Philippines independence fighter Jose Rizal was executed by the Spanish
launched a revolution against Spanish rule. The pro independence writer, Jose Rizal,
was executed by the Spanish,
1892, The Katipunan
(Sons of the People) movement began in the Phulippines, led by Andres Bonifacio.
26/8/1889, In The Philippines,
issued a call to fight against the Spanish colonial rulers.
20/1/1872, The Cavite Mutiny. Some 200 Filipino
soldiers in the Spanish Army in the fort of San Felipe in the Philippines
mutinied. They were swiftly repressed and later heavily punished. The incident
was used by Spain as an excuse to crack down heavily on the fledgling
Philippine independence movement, with intellectuals and priests being
executed. However this simply created martyrs for the movement.
22/3/1869, Emilio Aguinaldo,
fighter for independence of the Philippines, was born (died 6/2/1964).
5/10/1762, The British
captured Manila, Philippines, from Spain,
14/4/1617, At the Second Battle of Playa Honda, the Spanish
navy defeated the Dutch in the Philippines.
1594, Lisbon closed its spice
market to Dutch and English traders; at this time Portugal was in personal
union with Spain, both being ruled by Philip II, and England was helping the
Dutch to gain independecnce from Spain. This forced traders from those
countries to get their spices directly from India, and the creation of the Dutch East India Company followed.
19/5/1571, Manila was founded by Miguel Lopez de Legazpe.
1565, The city of Cebu was
founded; originally known as San Miguel.
13/2/1565, Spain began
the colonisation of the Philippines, initially claiming the central island
of Cebu. However they shifted focus to Luzon, making Manila the capital in
Magellan arrived at Cebu.
Magellan sighted the Philippine Islands.
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