Chronography of Inequality, various measures

Page last modified 1/10/2022

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Income_inequality_metrics, measuring inequality

 

Note 1) Within countries and percentiles, different years are from different sources and the methodologies of calculation may not be totally compatible.

2) Short-run, annual budget tax rate changes, currency fluctuations, property and shares price shifts, can produce volatility in shares.

 

Measures of inequality

1)     Gini Coefficient. 0 = total equality, 100 = total inequality

2)     The fraction percent of wealth owned by the top 10%, 1%, 0.1% etc.

3)     The multiple, average incomes / wealth of top 10%, 1%, 0.1% etc. As a multiple of average income for that year.

4)     The (smaller) fraction of the population that owns half the wealth. Half = total equality, 0.000000�.1 = total inequality. The Balance Point.

5)     The hinge point where 1/x of the population owns 1 -1/x of the wealth. If x = 2, we have total equality. If x is very large, we have total inequality, e.g. x = 100, then 1/100, 1%, of the population, own 1 � 1/100, or 99%, or the wealth.

6)     Selected Bibliography

 

ROMAN EMPIRE etc.

Athens, 330s BCE, Gini = 38.0 (Scheidel) � but may have risen as high as 85 in some late-Mediaeval cities, just before Black Death.

Top 1.5% = 20.0 - 30.0% total wealth (150 CE). Gini = �high 30s� (Scheidel)

AUSTRALIA

Gini


1977 = 40.0

1997 = 35.0

BRAZIL

Gini


1981 = 58.0

1989 = 67.0

2002 = 63.0

2005 = 60.0

2008 = 58.0

2017 = 53.0


CANADA

Gini


1977 = 37.0

1980 = 36.0

1990 = 36.0

1997 = 32.0

1998 = 37.0


EU

Gini


2017 = 30.0

FRANCE

Gini


1984 = 30.0

1990 = 29.0

2000 = 27.0

2010 = 28.0


GERMANY

Gini


1984 = 25.0

1990 = 25.0

2000 = 26.0

2010 = 29.0


ITALY

Gini


1997=27.0

2010 = 34.0

2019 = 35.0

2020 = 37.0


JAPAN

Gini


1997 = 25.0

2010 = 31.0

NETHERLANDS

Gini


1977 = 28.5

1980 = 28.5

1990 = 31.5

1998 = 32.0


OECD-30

Gini

2010 = 31.0

RUSSIA

Gini


1991 = 26.0

1992 = 28.9

1993 = 39.8

1994 = 40.9

1995 = 38.1

1996 = 37.5

1997 = 37.4


SWEDEN

Gini


1997 = 25.0

2010 = 23.0

UK

Gini


1949 =personal income41.1 (35.5 post tax)

1954 =personal income40.3 (35.8 post tax)

1961 = 26.0

1964 = personal income 39.9 (36.6 post tax)

1965 = 27.0

1970 = 26.0

1970 = 38.5 personal income (33.9 post tax)

1975 = 36.6 personal income (31.5 post tax)

1977 = 29.0 personal income (29.0 post tax)

1980 = 25.0

1985 = 27.9

1990 = 33.0

1997 = 36.0

2000 = 34.0

2005 = 33.0

2008 = 37.0 (peak of financial crisis)

2010 = 33.0

2015 = 35.5

2017 = 34.0


 


USA

Gini


1970 = 40.0

1980 = 41.0

1985 = 41.7

1990 = 43.0

1993 = 44.7

1997 = 41.0

1998 = 45.5

2010 = 38.0

2017 = 39.0


Fraction WEALTH percent, excluding housing wealth

WORLD

Fraction percent,

Top 0.7%

44.0% total wealth (2015)

46.0% total wealth (2017)

Top 1.0%

42.5% total wealth (2008)

44.0% total wealth (2009)

48.0% total wealth (2014)

50.1% total wealth (2017)

Top 15.0%

85.0% total income (1991)

Top 20.0%

82.7% total income (1992)

Top 40.0%

94.4% total income (1992)

Top 60.0%

96.7% total income (1992)

Top 80.0%

97.7% total income (1989)

98.6% total income (1992)

98.6% total income (1986)

98.9% total income (2010)

AUSTRALIA

Fraction WEALTH percent,= excluding housing wealth

Top 0.1%

16.0% property (1911)

6.0% income pre-tax (1920)

Top 1.0%

39.0% property (1911)

14.0% income pre-tax (1920)

4.8% income (1980)

9.2% income (2010)

Top 5.0%

65.0% property (1911)

26.0% income pre-tax (1920)

Top 10.0%

79.0% property (1911)

33.0% income pre-tax (1920)

Top 20.0%

45.0% income pre-tax (1920)

BRAZIL

Fraction percent.

Middle Fifth


4.8% (1989)

4.4% (1999)


Top 50%

97.5% net worth (2004)

Top 25%

87.1% net worth (2004)

Top 10%

69.5% net worth (2004)

Top 5%

Top 5% = 35% income (1929) (Andre Maurois, 1963: 182),

Top 5% = 27% income (1939) (Andre Maurois, 1963: 182),

Top 5% = 16% income (1952) (Andre Maurois, 1963: 182),

Top 1%

Top 1% = 20% total income (2015)

CANADA

Fraction percent

Top 10%

24.0% (1976)

30.0% (2000)

29.0% (2017)

Top 60%

84.0% (1976)

87.5% (2000)

87.7% (2017)

EUROPE

Top 10.0%

year

Income pre tax

1900

46.0%

1910

46.0%

1920

39.0%

1930

40.0%

1940

33.0%

1950

31.5%

1960

31.5%

1970

30.0%

1980

29.5%

1990

32.5%

2000

34.0%

2010

35.0%

 

FRANCE

Fraction WEALTH percent,= excluding housing wealth

Top 0.1%

26.0% property (1911)

Top 1.0%

57.0% property (1911)

26.0% (1983)

Top 5.0%

75.0% property (1911)

Top 10.0%

83.0% property (1911)

GERMANY/PRUSSIA

Fraction WEALTH (income) percent,= excluding housing wealth

Top 0.1%

25.0% property (1908)

8.0% income pre-tax (1913)

Top 1.0%

50.0% property (1908)

18.0% income pre-tax (1913)

Top 5.0%

75.0% property (1908)

31.0% income pre-tax (1913)

Top 10.0%

84.0% property (1908)

40.0% income pre-tax (1913)

Top 20.0%

52.0% income pre-tax (1913)

GUATEMALA

Top 20.0%

57.0% income (1987)

Top 80.0%

95.0% income (1987)

JAPAN

Top 1.0%

19.9% income pre-tax (1938)

RUSSIA

Fraction WEALTH percent,= excluding housing wealth

Top 11.5%


50% national income (1939)

Top 20%


30.7% (1991)

38.3% (1992)

41.6% (1993)

46.3% (1994)

46.9% (1995)

44.7% (1996)

46.9% (1997)


Top 80%


82.1% (1991)

94.0% (1992)

94.2% (1993)

94.7% (1994)

94.5% (1995)

93.5% (1996)

93.8% (1997)


UK

Fraction WEALTH (income) percent

Top 0.1%


10.0% income pre-tax (1910)

34.0% property, England (1912)

4.5% (1984)

7.0% (1986)

5.0% income (2005)

9.0% (2013)

Top 0.5%


65.0% capital (1914)

Top 1%


Year

Income pre tax

Income post tax

Housing wealth

Ex Housing Wealth

Wealth

Capital

Income

Land

Shares

1910

29.0%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1912

 

 

 

 

68.0%

 

 

 

1913

 

 

 

 

65.4%

 

 

 

1918

19.1%

17.1%

 

 

 

 

 

 

1922

18.2%

16.3%

 

 

 

 

 

 

1923

18.8%

16.8%

 

 

60.9%

 

 

 

1924

18.0%

16.1%

 

 

59.9%

 

 

 

1925

 

 

 

 

61.0%

 

 

 

1926

 

 

 

 

57.3%

 

 

 

1927

 

 

 

 

59.8%

 

 

 

1928

 

 

 

 

57.0%

 

 

 

1929

17.0%

15.2%

 

 

55.5%

 

 

 

1930

 

 

 

 

57.9%

 

 

 

1931

16.0%

14.3%

 

 

 

 

 

 

1936

 

 

 

 

54.2%

 

 

 

1938

16.2%

11.7%

 

 

55.0%

 

 

 

1945

13.0%

9.5%

 

 

 

 

 

 

1949

11.2%

6.4%

 

 

 

 

 

 

1950

12.0%

6.5%

 

 

47.2%

 

 

 

1951

11.5%

6.2%

 

 

45.8%

 

 

 

1952

 

 

 

 

43.0%

 

 

 

1953

 

 

 

 

43.6%

 

 

 

1954

9.3%

5.3%

 

 

45.3%

54.0%

 

 

1955

9.0%

5.7%

 

 

44.5%

44.5%

 

 

1956

 

 

 

 

44.5%

 

 

 

1957

8.0%

4.9%

 

 

43.4%

 

 

 

1958

 

 

 

 

41.4%

 

 

 

1959

9.0%

5.5%

 

 

41.4%

 

 

 

1960

 

 

 

 

37.0%

38.0%

 

 

1961

 

4.6%

 

 

36.5%

 

 

 

1962

 

 

 

 

31.4%

 

 

 

1963

 

5.2%

 

 

na

 

 

 

1964

8.2%

5.5%

 

 

34.5%

 

 

 

1965

 

4.8%

 

 

33.0%

33.0%

 

 

1966

8.5%

5.5%

 

 

30.6%

 

 

 

1967

8.0%

4.9%

 

 

31.4%

 

 

 

1968

 

5.0%

 

 

33.6%

 

 

 

1969

 

 

 

 

31.1%

 

 

 

1970

7.1%

5.0%

 

 

29.7%

29.7%

 

 

1971

6.6%

4.4%

 

 

28.4%

 

 

 

1972

 

3.8%

 

 

31.7%

 

 

 

1974

6.5%

4.2%

 

 

31.7%

 

 

 

1975

5.6%

3.6%

 

 

 

25.0%

 

 

1976

 

 

 

 

25.0%

 

52%

 

1978

 

 

 

 

23.0%

 

 

 

1979

6.0%

4.1%

 

 

22.0%

 

 

 

1980

 

 

 

 

23.0%

21.0%

 

 

1981

 

 

 

 

22.0%

 

 

 

1982

 

 

 

 

20.0%

 

 

 

1983

7.0%

5.3%

 

 

20.0%

 

 

 

1984

 

 

 

 

21.0%

 

64%

53%

1985

 

 

 

 

20.0%

18.0%

 

 

1987

7.5%

6.0%

 

 

 

 

 

 

1992

10.0%

8.0%

 

 

 

 

 

 

1995

 

 

 

 

 

19.0%

 

 

1996

 

9.5%

 

 

 

 

 

 

1997

12.0%

9.7%

 

 

 

 

 

 

1998

 

 

 

27.0%

 

 

 

 

2000

 

 

 

 

 

22.0%

 

 

2001

13.0%

10.3%

 

 

 

 

 

 

2003

 

 

 

33.0%

 

23.0%

 

 

2005

16.3%

12.9%

 

 

 

 

 

 

2007

 

12.6%

 

 

 

 

 

 

2010

16.8%

12.6%

 

 

23.0%

 

 

 

2016

 

 

 

 

 

27.0%

 

 

Year

Income pre tax

Income post tax

Housing wealth

Ex Housing Wealth

Wealth

Capital

Income

Land*

Shares

Land* But much of the largest landownings are moorland, or large farms that are �efficient� for farming.

Shares � but another argument that many of us own shares, as private pensions. Or should the State be universal pension provider for all?

Top 2% Wealth


42.0% (1966)

39.0% (1971)

32.0% (1976)

28.0% (1979)

28.0% (1980)

28.0% (1981)

28.0% (1982)

27.0% (1982)

27.0% (1983)


Top 2.9%

34.2% income (1903)

Top 5%

Year

Income pre tax

Income post tax

% tax taken

Housing wealth

Ex Housing Wealth

Wealth

Capital

Income

Land

Shares

1912

 

 

 

 

 

87.0%

 

 

 

1923

 

 

 

 

 

82.0%

 

 

 

1924

 

 

 

 

 

81.5%

 

 

 

1925

 

 

 

 

 

82.1%

 

 

 

1926

 

 

 

 

 

79.9%

 

 

 

1927

 

 

 

 

 

81.3%

 

 

 

1928

 

 

 

 

 

79.6%

 

 

 

1929

 

 

 

 

 

78.9%

 

 

 

1930

 

 

 

 

 

79.2%

 

 

 

1936

 

 

 

 

 

77.4%

 

 

 

1938

29.0%

24.1%

 

 

 

76.9%

 

 

 

1949

25.5%

17.6%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1950

 

 

 

 

 

74.3%

 

 

 

1951

 

 

 

 

 

73.6%

 

 

 

1952

 

 

 

 

 

70.2%

 

 

 

1953

 

 

 

 

 

71.1%

 

 

 

1954

20.5%

15.4%

 

 

 

71.8%

 

 

 

1955

 

 

 

 

 

71.1%

 

 

 

1956

 

 

 

 

 

71.3%

 

 

 

1957

18.2%

14.4%

 

 

 

68.7%

 

 

 

1958

 

 

 

 

 

67.8%

 

 

 

1959

 

15.8%

 

 

 

67.6%

 

 

 

1960

 

 

 

 

 

59.4%

 

 

 

1961

 

14.4%

 

 

 

60.6%

 

 

 

1962

 

 

 

 

 

54.8%

 

 

 

1963

 

15.7%

 

 

 

na

 

 

 

1964

 

16.0%

 

 

 

58.6%

 

 

 

1965

 

14.2%

 

 

 

58.1%

 

 

 

1966

 

 

 

 

 

55.5%

 

 

 

1967

 

14.8%

 

 

 

56.0%

 

 

 

1968

 

15.3%

 

 

 

58.3%

 

 

 

1969

 

 

 

 

 

56.1%

 

 

 

1970

 

 

 

 

 

53.6%

 

 

 

1971

 

15.1%

 

 

 

52.5%

 

 

 

1972

 

13.5%

 

 

 

56.0%

 

 

 

1973

 

14.2%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1976

46.0%

 

 

 

 

45.0%

 

 

 

1978

 

 

 

 

 

44.0%

 

 

 

1979

40.0%

 

 

 

 

40.0%

 

 

 

1980

38.0%

 

 

 

 

39.0%

 

 

 

1981

 

 

 

 

 

42.0%

 

 

 

1982

 

 

 

 

 

40.0%

 

 

 

1983

 

 

 

 

 

40.0%

 

 

 

1986

36.0%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1995

38.0%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2000

42.0%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year

Income pre tax

Income post tax

% tax taken

Housing wealth

Ex Housing Wealth

Wealth

Capital

Income

Land*

Shares

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Top 10%


Year

Income pre tax

Income post tax

Housing wealth

Wealth

1910

52.0%

 

91.0%(1)

 

1914

 

 

 

92.0%

1923

 

 

 

89.1%

1924

 

 

 

88.1%

1925

 

 

 

88.4%

1926

 

 

 

87.4%

1927

 

 

 

88.3%

1928

 

 

 

87.2%

1929

 

 

 

86.3%

1930

 

 

 

86.6%

1931

 

 

 

 

1936

 

 

 

85.7%

1938

38.0%

33.6%

 

85.0%

1949

33.2%

27.1%

 

 

1954

29.8%

25.3%

 

79.0%

1957

28.0%

23.7%

 

 

1959

29.4%

25.2%

 

 

1960

 

 

 

71.5%

1961

 

23.5%

 

71.7%

1962

 

 

 

67.3%

1963

 

25.2%

 

 

1964

29.0%

25.9%

 

71.4%

1965

 

23.4%

 

71.7%

1966

 

 

 

69.2%

1967

28.0%

24.3%

 

70.0%

1968

 

24.0%

 

71.6%

1969

 

 

 

67.7%

1970

27.5%

23.9%

 

68.7%

1971

 

23.7%

 

67.6%

1972

 

22.9%

 

70.4%

1974

26.8%

23.2%

 

 

1976

25.8%

22.3%

 

61.0%

1977

 

21.2%

 

 

1978

 

 

 

58.0%

1979

26.1%

23.4%

 

54.0%

1980

 

 

 

52.0%

1981

 

 

 

56.0%

1982

 

 

 

55.0%

1983

 

23.7%

 

54.0%

1985

 

 

 

50.0%

1995

 

 

 

51.0%

2000

 

 

 

54.0%

2014

 

 

 

45.0%

2018

 

 

 

45.0%

Year

Income pre tax

Income post tax

Housing wealth

Wealth

Notes

(1)= % property, for England only


Top 11.6%

48.5% income (1903)

Top 12.6%


91.5% capital (1913)

Top 20%


Year

Income pre tax

Income post tax

Wealth

1923

 

 

94.2%

1924

 

 

93.8%

1925

 

 

93.8%

1926

 

 

93.2%

1927

 

 

93.8%

1928

 

 

93.1%

1929

 

 

92.6%

1930

 

 

92.6%

1931

 

 

 

1936

 

 

92.0%

1938

50.0%

46.3%

91.2%

1949

49.5%

39.7%

 

1954

46.0%

41.9%

 

1957

41.5%

38.0%

 

1959

 

 

 

1960

 

 

83.1%

1961

 

 

83.3%

1962

 

 

80.2%

1963

 

 

na

1964

 

 

84.3%

1965

 

 

85.5%

1966

 

 

83.8%

1967

 

 

84.5%

1968

 

 

85.1%

1969

 

 

83.3%

1970

 

 

84.5%

1971

 

 

84.2%

1972

 

 

84.9%

1974

44.0%

39.0%

 

1976

44.4%

37.9%

77.0%

1979

 

40.0%

 

1981

46.4%

38.6%

 

1982

47.1%

39.4%

 

1983

48.0%

39.3%

 

1986

 

41.7%

 

1987

51.0%

45.0%

 

Year

Income pre tax

Income post tax

Wealth


Top 25%


Year

Income pre tax

Income post tax

Wealth

1966

87.0%

 

86.9%

1971

87.0%

 

86.0%

1976

84.0%

 

84.0%

1978

 

 

83.0%

1979

77.0%

 

77.0%

1980

76.0%

 

75.0%

1981

79.0%

 

80.0%

1982

 

 

78.0%

1983

 

 

78.0%

1986

73.0%

 

 

1995

73.0%

 

 

2000

74.0%

 

 

Top 40%

Year

Income pre tax

Income post tax

Wealth

1949

 

64.1%

 

1957

 

62.5%

 

1963

 

64.7%

 

1967

 

63.5%

 

1976

71.0%

61.9%

 

1981

73.3%

62.6%

 

1982

74.3%

63.5%

 

1983

75.2%

63.3%

 

1992

 

 

94.0%

Year

Income pre tax

Income post tax

Wealth

Top 50%


Year

Income pre tax

Income post tax

Ex Housing Wealth

Wealth

1949

76.3%

73.5%

 

 

1954

78.0%

73.7%

 

 

1959

77.9%

 

 

 

1964

77.3%

74.8%

 

 

1966

 

 

 

97.0%

1971

76.5%

73.9%

 

97.0%

1974

 

73.0%

 

 

1976

75.7%

72.6%

 

95.0%

1977

99.4%

93.6%

 

 

1078

 

 

 

95.0%

1979

99.5%

93.9%

 

95.0%

1980

 

 

 

94.0%

1981

 

 

 

96.0%

1982

 

 

 

96.0%

1983

 

 

 

96.0%

1984

77.3%

 

 

 

1986

 

 

 

94.0%

1987

99.7%

94.9%

 

 

1995

 

 

 

93.0%

1998

 

 

94.9%

 

2000

 

 

 

94.0%

2003

 

 

97.0%

95.0%

2010

 

 

 

94.0%

2014

 

 

 

92.0%

2016

 

 

 

88.0%

Year

Income pre tax

Income post tax

Ex Housing Wealth

Wealth


Top 60%

Year

Income pre tax

Income post tax

Wealth

1976

89.8%

79.9%

 

1981

91.3%

80.5%

 

1982

92.5%

81.1%

 

1983

92.9%

80.9%

 

Year

Income pre tax

Income post tax

Wealth

Top 70%

Year

Income pre tax

Income post tax

Wealth

1949

 

85.4%

 

1957

 

86.5%

 

1963

 

88.2%

 

1967

 

88.0%

 

Top 80%

Year

Income pre tax

Income post tax

Wealth

1976

98.2%

92.6%

 

1981

99.4%

92.9%

 

1982

99.6%

93.1%

 

1983

99.6%

93.1%

 

Year

Income pre tax

Income post tax

Wealth

Top 90%


96.8% income (1977)

95.8% (1979)

96.9% income (1983)

97.3% (2002)

97.0% income (2005)

98.0% wealth (2018)

Bottom 30%

Year

Income pre tax

Income post tax

redistribution gain

Wealth

1949

 

14.6%

 

 

1957

 

13.4%

 

 

1963

 

11.8%

 

 

1967

 

12.0%

 

 

Bottom 20%

Year

Income pre tax

Income post tax

redistribution gain

Wealth

1976

0.8%

7.4%

9.25 x

 

1981

0.6%

7.1%

11.8 x

 

1982

0.4%

6.9%

17.3 x

 

1983

0.3%

6.9%

32.0 x

 

Year

Income pre tax

Income post tax

% tax taken