Chronography of Spain, Andorra, Gibraltar

Page last modified 22 October 2023


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See also South-Central America for Spanish colonial history in South America


Demography of Spain


Andorra � see Appendix 1

Gibraltar � see Appendix 2


Box index:-

6.0, Catalonia Independence Campaign, 2010-17

5.0, End of ETA bombing campaign, 1980-2011

4.0, Spain liberalises post-Franco, 1975-80

3.0, Death of General Franco, 1975

2.0, Development of the Spanish economy 1957-73

1.0, ETA activity 1959-75

0.0, Spain in World War Two, 1939-45

-1.0, Spanish Civil War 1936-39

-2.0, Civil conflict in Spain 1930-34

-3.0, Civil conflict in Spain 1917-23

-4.0, Civil conflict in Spain 1909-13

-5.0, Civil conflict in Spain 1900-03

-6.0, Second Carlist War 1870-76

-7.0, First Carlist War 1833-1839

-8.0, King Ferdinand VII 1814-33

-9.0, French occupation of Spain � evicted by Wellington, Peninsular War, 1808-13

-10.0, King CharlesIV � deposed by the French 1808; 1796-1806

-11.0, King Charles III, 1759-1788

-12.0, King Ferdinand IV, 1746-59

-13.0, War of the Spanish Succession, 1700-15

-14.0, King Philip III, 1598-1621


24 October 2019, Settling a long-standing controversy, the remains of General Franco were exhumed from the mausoleum of the Valley of the Fallen and reinterred in the family crypt at the Mingorrubio-El Pardo cemetery near Madrid.

24 September 2019, Spain�s Supreme Court ruled that Franco�s remains could be exhumed from the Valley of the Fallen to a municipal cemetery.

13 September 2018, The Spanish Parliament voted to exhume Franco�s remains from the Valley of te Fallen.


6.0, Catalonia Independence Campaign, 2010-17

21 December 2017, In a referendum sanctioned by Madrid, the two pro-independence parties of Catalonia won a small total majority in the 135-seat Catalan Parliament; however the biggest single party was for union with Spain.

27 October 2017, Catalonia formally declared independence from Spain, just as Spain invoked Article 155 of its Constitution, never before used, to enable it to take direct control of Catalonia and suspend its regional government.

1 October 2017, Catalonia held a referendum, which was strongly opposed by the Spanish Government, on independence. Madrid took down web-based polling sites, and 4,000 police occupied and closed down over half the polling stations. Pro-independence Catalans occupied, from Friday night, the schools which were to be used as polling stations. There were riots in Barcelona, with over 800 injured as police fired rubber bullets, which are illegal in Catalonia but not in the rest of Spain. In the event 2.26 million managed to vote, out of an electorate of just over 5 million. Of this turnout of 43.6%, 92% voted Yes to independence. Catalonia reasserted on 2 October 2017 that it would declare independence: Spain said it would invoke Article 155 of its Constitution to suspend and take over the regional government of Catalonia.

20 September 2017, Police in Catalonia arrested 14 Catalan government officials suspected of organising the referendum, and seized 10 million ballot papers. 40,000 people protested in Barcelona against the police actions.

6 September 2017, The Catalan Parliament approved the independence referendum legislation after a heated 11-hour session in which 52 opposition MPs walked out. The legislation was declared illegal by Madrid the following day, but Catalonia vowed to go ahead with the poll.

9 June 2017, Carles Puigdemont, recent successor to Mas as regional President of Catalonia, announced he would hold an independence referendum on 1 October 2017. Madrid denounced the referendum as illegal and said it would block the poll by any means it could, legal and political.

9 November 2014, In Catalonia a poll was held by the regional government on independence from Spain. The national government had already declared it would not consider the poll result binding, and anti-separatists boycotted the poll. 2.3 million voted out of an electorate of 5.4 million. Of these, 1.6 million answered �yes� to both questions, �Do you think Catalonia should be a State�, and �If so, should it be independent from Spain�. Artur Mas, leader of the independence campaign, claimed a success. Catalonia complained that as Spain�s wealthiest region, it contributed more to the State than it received in return. The Spanish Prime Minister, Mr Mariano Rajoy of the Popular Party, replied that money was short and Catalonia must wait until the general economy improved.

11 September 2012, Over a million people peacefully protested on the streets of Barcelona on Catalonia�s National Day, demanding independence from Spain. This demonstration was to become an annual event.

28 October 2010, The Spanish Constitutional Court struck out parts of a 2006 Charter on Catalan autonomy which increased the territory�s fiscal and judicial powers, and described it as a �nation�. The Court ruled that the word �nation� had no meaning and rejected the preferential use of Catalan over Spanish in municipal services. Two weeks later hundreds of thousands protested on the streets of Barcelona, chanting �We are a nation; we decide�.


17 August 2017, An Islamist terror attack killed 13 and injured over 100 in Barcelona. A vehicle was driven into pedestrians in Las Ramblas. In a related incident, a car was intercepted by police in the resort of Cambrils; several injuries occurred and the car occupants were killed.

27 October 2012, Large protests in Madrid against austerity cuts.

18 September 2012, Santiago Jos� Carrillo Solares, Spanish Communist Party politician, died.

2007, Spain received over 22,000 migrants from north Africa, and sought international aid to cope with them.

11 March 2004 Terrorist bombs killed 191 and injured 1200 more at Madrid�s main Atocha railway station and on trains outside the station in the morning rush hour. Ten bombs in all exploded on four separate trains. ETA, the Basque independence group, was blamed at first but later blame shifted to a Moroccan group with links to Al Quaeda.

2002, Spain adopted the Euro.

2001, Spain abolished conscription into the army.


5.0, End of ETA bombing campaign, 1980-2011

20 October 2011, Basque separatist militant organisation ETA declared an end to its 43-year campaign of political violence, which had killed over 800 people since 1968.

30 December 2006, The Basque Nationalist group ETA detonated a bomb at Madrid-Barajas Airport, ending a 9-month ceasefire.

22 March 2006, The Basque terrorist group ETA announced a permanent ceasefire in Spain.

16 September 1998, The Basque guerrilla group ETA announced a �total and indefinite ceasefire� to take effect from 18 September 1998.

19 February 1996, In Madrid, Spain, one million people demonstrated against violence by the Basque separatist group ETA.

21 June 1993. Basque separatists set off a car bomb in Madrid, killing 5 senior military officers in a minibus. Two others were also killed, and 24 injured.

6 February 1992. The Basque separatist group ETA set off a bomb in the centre of Madrid.

19 June 1987. 21 died and 45 were injured in a Basque separatist car bomb in an underground car park in Barcelona. Amongst the dead were several young children. The atrocity alienated all but the most militant ETA supporters; with Franco gone, the organisation now lacked any real purpose.

25 June 1980, Basque terrorists exploded bombs on the Costa Blanca, to disrupt the tourist trade.


March 1996, In Spanish general elections, the ruling Socialist Party lost its overall majority, ending 13 years of power. The conservative Popular Party (PP) won, led by Jose Maria Aznar, who formed a minority Government.

14 January 1990, 43 died in a fire in a disco in Saragosa, Spain.

14 December 1988, In Spain, 8 million workers went on strike against government economic policies.

1986, Spain joined the EU.

28 October 1982, The Socialist Party won Spanish elections, and Felipe Gonzalez was elected Prime Minister.

30 May 1982. Spain joined NATO.She became the 16th member and the first to join NATO since West Germany was admitted in 1955.

25 February 1981, Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo was elected Spanish PM.

23 February 1981, In Spain, Fascist army officers loyal to the memory of dictator Francisco Franco stormed the Cortes (Parliament) ands held hundreds hostage. The rebel leader, Colonel Tejero de Molina, took the podium, gun in hand, to announce a coup. Meanwhile the Francoist General Jaime del Bosch, the man behind the coup, declared a state of emergency in eastern Spain and mobilised his troops. King Juan Carlos, that evening, made a TV broadcast saying he had ordered the army to suppress the revolt. King Carlos was counting on the support of the people and most of the army. The return of the Spanish monarchy after Franco�s death in 1975 had brought the first free elections in Spain for 40 years. The Fascist rebels hesitated, and Spanish democracy was saved.

29 January 1981, Adolfo Suarez resigned as Spanish Prime Minister; succeeded 10 February 1980 by Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo.


4.0, Spain liberalises post-Franco, 1975-80

31 March 1980, In Spain a devolved Basque Parliament opened at Guernica.

25 October 1979, Referendums in Spain approved devolution of power to Catalonia and Euzkadi (Basque region).

27 December 1978. Spain became a democracy as a new Constitution was approved, after 40 years of dictatorship. See 8 January 1982.

20 November 1978. An attempted military coup in Spain failed.

28 July 1977, Spain formally applied to join the EC.

15 June 1977, Spain held its first democratic elections, after 41 years of dictatorship under Franco.

29 April 1977, Trades Unions were legalised in Spain for the first time since 1936.

9 April 1977. Spain legalised the Communist Party after a 38-year ban.

22 November 1975. The Spanish monarchy was restored following the death of General Franco. King Juan Carlos II became King of Spain on 27 November 1975. See 30 October 1975.


3.0, Death of General Franco, 1975

20 November 1975. General Franco, Spanish Head of State from 1936, died aged 82. He became leader of Spain following the Spanish Civil War (1935-39), due to lack of intervention by other European countries and the backing of Fascist Italy and Germany. Franco stayed out of World War Two because Adolf Hitler would not agree to cede France�s North African territories to Spain. In 1949 Franco declared Spain to be a monarchy, although there was no monarch until, in 1954, he declared that his heir would be Juan Carlos, grandson of the last Spanish King. Carlos took Spain in a different political direction from Franco, adopting a democratic constitution in 1978 afterreferendum showed 90% of Spaniards in favour of this.

30 October 1975. Prince Juan Carlos became acting Head of State in Spain after dictator Franco became ill. See 20 November 1975.

21 October 1975. Spain�s 82 year old General Franco suffered his third heart attack in five days. He died on 20 November 1975. See 22 November 1975.


2.0, Development of the Spanish economy 1957-73

1973, Tourist arrivals in Spain numbered nearly 35 million, against just over 4 million in 1959. Tourist income in 1973 wsas US$ 3,1 billion, against US$ 125 million in 1959. The 1959 toursists came to see Spain�s culture and history, the Prado and Alhambra. The 1973 tourists came for the sun, sand and sea.

1970, 90% of Spanish homes had a TV set, up from just 1% in 1960.

7 June 1957. A travel report published in London said a small fishing village called Benidorm was the place for summer holidays, with guaranteed sun and low prices. Tourist development in Benidorm had just begun, with a German company building bed and breakfast accommodation there. There were warnings that the bathrooms may be spartan, with some taps only giving salt water.

1957, After two decades of failed autarky, Franco brought in technocrats who reformed the Spanish economy, creating a new middle class.


1.0, ETA activity 1959-75

28 September 1975, Spanish dictator General Franco executed five Basque terrorists.

20 December 1973, The Spanish Prime Minister, Luis Carrero Blanca, was killed in Madrid by a Basque ETA bomb which blew his car up. Every day Blanca attended Mass at the same church at the same time then took the same route beck to his office. This predictability enabled a group of five young ETA men, pretending to be arts students, to rent a ground floor flat on his route then dig a tunnel out under the road and detonate 80 kg of explosives as his car passed overhead. The car seemed to have completely disappeared; it had in fact been blasted over a four-storey building to land in the internal courtyard. Luis Blanca had been chosen by General Franco as his successor, and had promised to continue Franco�s policies. Many Spaniards disliked this, not just the Basques, and after the event jokes circulated about �Spain�s first astronaut� and a folk song went �Whoops, there he goes�.

1959, ETA was set up to secure the independence of the Basque Country, by violence if necessary.


3 July 1974, In Spain, 15 were killed at an explosion at a munitions works in Bilbao.

7 December 1971, Fernando Quiroga y Palacios, Archbishop of Santiago de Compostela, died aged 71.

22 July 1969, Spanish dictator General Franco named Juan Carlos, grandson of King Alfonso XIII, as his heir apparent.

24 January 1969, General Franco imposed martial law in Spain.

20 December 1968. Franco banished Prince Carlos from Spain.

24 July 1968, A conference of Spanish bishops asserted the right of Spanish workers right to strike and form independent trades unions.

17 January 1966, A US bomber aircraft on exercises was attempting to refuel mid-air over Spain when an error resulted in the fuel boom from the other aircraft clipping the bomber�s wing. The bomber crashed in flames; its crew parachuted to safety. However the bomber was carrying four Hydrogen Bombs. The Bombs were not armed so the electrical sequence necessary to detonate the fission bomb that would have set off the Hydrogen bomb never initiated. In other fortunate events, the parachutes on the bombs failed so they buried themselves deep in the soil, limiting radiation dispersal, and a breeze carried much of the radiation out to see as flaming bits of aircraft rained down in the area.

15 July 1957, General Franco announced that the Spanish monarchy would be restored on his death or retirement.

1955, Spain joined the United Nations.

24 September 1953, Jacobo Fitz-James Stuart, 17th Duke of Alba, Spanish aristocrat, died aged 74

27 December 1950. US and Spain resumed diplomatic relations.

1949, Alejandro Lerroux, Populist leader of Barcelona, died (born 1864). He founded the Radical Republican Party in 1908.

6 July 1947. Spain voted to have a King when Franco died.

29 May 1946, Fernando Buesa, Spanish politician, was born.

4 March 1946, The USA, Britain and France appealed to the Spanish to depose General Franco.


0.0, Spain in World War Two, 1939-45

8 December 1945, At the Nuremberg Trials it emerged that Hitler had expected the Spanish General Franco to seize Gibraltar from Britain.

3 May 1944, Spain agreed to cut tungsten supplies to Germany in return for US oil supplies.

9 May 1943, Franco, Fascist dictator of Spain, which remained neutral during World War II, spoke in favour of world peace, declaring that �neither the Axis nor the Allies could destroy the other�. Franco, who had won the Spanish Civil War with assistance from both Germany and Italy, spoke in the city of Almer�a as the Axis powers were surrendering to the Allies in North Africa.

28 February 1941, Alfonso I, former King of Spain, who had been forced into exile when Spain became a Republic in 1931, died in Rome.

6 February 1941. Hitler made one last appeal to Franco to enter the War. Franco declined, as Spain had not fully recovered from the Civil War. Franco therefore remained neutral and did not attack Gibraltar, but he did send volunteers, the Spanish Blue Division, to the eastern front.

12 February 1941, General Franco travelled to Bordighera, Italy, to meet Mussolini.Again Franco avoided any significant commitment to the Axis cause.

For main events of World War Two in Europe see France-Germany

23 October 1940, General Franco travelled to Hendaye, France, to meet with Hitler.Franco avoided making a serious commitment to the Axis cause.

24 January 1940, Spain banned the Freemansons.

8 May 1939. Spain left the League of Nations.


-1.0, Spanish Civil War 1936-39 (Nationalist) (Republican)

1 April 1939. The US recognised Franco�s government in Spain.

29 March 1939, Franco was named �Caudillo�, or �Leader of the Nation�.

28 March 1939. Spanish Civil War ended. Franco entered Madrid, after a siege of almost three years.

26 March 1939, The Nationalists launched the Final offensive of the Spanish Civil War.

4 March 1939, The Cartagena Uprising (Spanish Civil War) began.

28 February 1939. Britain and France recognised Franco�s regime in Spain.

26 February 1939, 1,000 demonstrators marched from Trafalgar Square to Downing Street to protest at the British government's imminent recognition of Franco�s regime in Spain.

27 February 1939, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain recognised the Franco Government in Spain.

22 February 1939, The Netherlands recognised Franco�s Government in Spain.

13 February 1939, France closed its border with Spain.

9 February 1939, In Spain, Franco�s army, pursuing the fleeing Republicans north from Barcelona, reached the French border. France had given refuge to the Republican forces, having confiscated their vehicles and weapons.

5 February 1939, Large numbers of Spanish Republican refugees started crossing the border into France.

30 January 1939, France opened refugee camps for Republican women and children fleeing Barcelona after the defeat of the Republicans there on 26 January 1939. By March 1939, these camps at Argeles and other locations in SE France housed 250,000 refugees. This population movement was known as the Retirada (withdrawal).

26 January 1939. Barcelona fell without resistance to the Nationalists under Franco, with help from Italy. This doomed the Republican cause, which finally surrendered on 28 March 1939. Barcelona had been the seat of an autonomous Catalan government, established on 2 August 1936.

25 January 1939, The Juan Negr�n government fled Barcelona. Another capital was set up in Figueres the following day.

13 January 1939, The Belgian Prime Minister signed a trade deal with Franco�s Spain (Burgos Treaty).

3 January 1939, The Battle of the Segre ended in Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War.

23 December 1938, Spanish Nationalist forces launched the Catalonia Offensive.

16 November 1938, In Spain the Republicans were defeated at the Battle of the Ebro.

5 July 1938, Spanish Republican supporters agreed to the non-intervention plan and withdrew their forces from Spain; however the Nationalist supports did not agree or withdraw. Defeat for the Republicans was now only a matter of time.

25 May 1938, Alicante was bombed by General Franco�s aircraft in the Spanish Civil War.

3 May 1938, The Vatican recognised Franco�s Government in Spain.

15 April 1938, In Spain, Nationalist forces took the Mediterranean coastal town of Vinaroz, splitting the Republican forces in Catalonia from those in south east Spain. See 22 February 1938.

3 April 1938. Franco took Lerida, a key town in Catalonia.

16 March 1938, The Aviazione Legionaria began bombing Barcelona.

Click here for Spanish Civil War map, war situation 1938, just before capture of Vinaroz.

22 February 1938, In Spain, Nationalist forces recaptured Teruel. From here they drove to the sea, cutting Republican territory in half, see 15 April 1938.

21 December 1937. Republicans captured Franco�s stronghold of Teruel.

15 December 1937, In Spain, Republican forces began an attack on Teruel.

5 December 1937, Spanish Republican forces launched a major attack on Aragon.

1 December 1937, Japan recognised Franco�s government in Spain.

28 November 1937. Franco ordered the Spanish Republican government forces to surrender by 12 December 1937 or face a massive offensive.

28 October 1937. The Spanish Government moved from Valencia to Barcelona.

21 October 1937. Gijon, the last Republican stronghold in northern Spain, fell to Franco�s forces.

28 August 1937, The Vatican declared support for the Franco regime in Spain

25 August 1937, Franco�s forces captured Santander.

10 August 1937, In the Spanish Civil War, the Regional Defence Council of Aragon was dissolved.

6 August 1937, In Spain, Madrid came under fire from Franco�s artillery.

26 July 1937, Spanish Republican forces were defeated at the Battle of Brunete.

5 July 1937, Spanish Civil War, the Battle of Albarrac�n began.

1 July 1937, Spanish Bishops declared support for Franco�s Fascists.

29 June 1937, Italy and Germany opposed Anglo-French patrols around the coast of Spain.

19 June 1937. Franco�s forces captured Bilbao.

13 June 1937, The Nationalists came within two miles of Bilbao, capturing a range of hills east of the city.

6 June 1937, In the Spanish Civil War, the Segovia Offensive ended in Republican failure.

31 May 1937. The German fleet bombarded the Spanish port of Almeria.

17 May 1937, In Spain the Popular Front Government of Largo Caballero was replaced by one headed by Socialist Juan Negrin. Winning the civil war was prioritised over social reform.

26 April 1937. The German air force destroyed the Basque city and cultural centre of Guernica, Spain. Thousands of civilians died. It was market day in Guernica when the Germans raided, in support of Franco�s Nationalists. The town was a communications centre with a munitions factory, but the bombing with incendiaries was random; aircraft also raked the town with machine gun fire. 1,000, mainly civilians, died.43 aircraft from the German Condor Legion, under Colonel Wolfgang von Richtofen, carried out the raid.This became the scene of one of Picasso�s most famous paintings.

20 March 1937, In Spain, General Franco�s forces began an offensive at Guadalajara.

19 April 1937, Major European powers agreed again in principle to a non-intervention policy in Spain, with all foreign troops supposed to be withdrawn from there. However Germany and Italy were determined not to withdraw their troops until Franco�s victory was certain.

18 March 1937, Spanish Republican forces defeated the Italians at Brihuega.

8 March 1937, Battle of Guadalajara, Spanish Civil War. The Republicans defeated the Nationalists under Franco and the Italian Fascists under General Roatta.

8 February 1937. Malaga fell to Franco�s forces, helped by 15,000 Italians.

17 January 1937. The USSR refused to stop helping the Republican forces in Spain.

1 December 1936. German forces landed at Cadiz to help Franco�s nationalist rebels.

18 November 1936, Hitler and Mussolini recognised Franco�s provisional government in Burgos.

7 November 1936. The Spanish Government fled to Valencia.

6 November 1936, Franco�s forces were besieging Madrid.

4 November 1936, In the Spanish Civil War, the Nationalists captured Getafe, near Madrid.

29 October 1936. Republican troops south of Madrid were holding back Franco�s Nationalist forces.

28 October 1936, In the Republican-controlled areas of Spain, agriculture was nationalised and Christian worship banned.

23 October 1936, Germany sent the �Condor� legion to Spain to assist Franco�s forces.

9 October 1936, In the Spanish Civil War, 650 fighters of the International Brigades arrived at Alicante.

28 September 1936. General Franco, 44, was made head of the rebel Nationalist forces in Spain.

27 September 1936, In Spain, General Franco�s troops captured Toledo.

17 September 1936. Franco�s troops took Maqueda, between Madrid and Toledo.

4 September 1936, In Spain, General Franco�s troops captured Irun and Talavera de la Reina.


Democracy fails to halt the advance of European Fascism

9 September 1936, In London the first meeting of a non-Intervention Committee, regarding the Spanish Civil War, was held. Germany, Italy and Portugal agreed in principle to Anglo-French proposals for non-intervention. However in fact German and Italy continued to supply the Nationalists.

15 August 1936, Britain instituted an embargo on arms exports to Spain.

7 August 1936, The US issued a proclamation of non-interference in the Spanish Civil War. This was yet another signal to Hitler and Mussolini that the world�s democracies would not oppose theadvance of Fascism.


6 August 1936, General Franco flew to Seville. Hitler assisted Franco by providing transport to fly 1,500 men of the Veteran Army of Africa to Seville, on 29 July, and the Italians had sent fighter planes to cover merchant ships carrying a further 2,500 men and their equipment from Morocco to Spain. Meanwhile the USSR was sending its most modern bomber and fighter planes to assist the Republicans.

4 August 1936. Badajoz was captured by the Spanish Nationalists under Franco as they fought northwards. This cut off the Republicans from the route to Portugal, and prepared the way for a nationalist advance on Madrid from the north and west.

2 August 1936. An autonomous Catalan government was established in Barcelona. See 26 January 1939.

30 July 1936, In Spain, General Franco and General Emilio Mola formed a Junta of National Defence, in effect a provisional Government.

28 July 1936, German aircraft arrived in Morocco to airlift General Franco�s army back to Spain. Two days later Italian aircraft also arrived to help in this task.

26 July 1936, Comintern agreed to send volunteers and money to support the Spanish Republicans.

24 July 1936. The Spanish government appealed for foreign help in the Civil War.

20 July 1936, General Jose Sanjuro, en-route to become Spanish Head of State, died as his plane crashed on take-off near Lisbon. Meanwhile, Nationalist General Emilio Mola was having difficulties in northern Spain. However General Franco was in full control of Morocco, and importantly, had the allegiance of the Veteran Army pf Africa.

18 July 1936. The Spanish Civil War began when the army, under Generals Francisco Franco and Emilio Mola, revolted against the Republican Government. The army wanted to preserve traditional values and religion. Other mutinies began across Spain. The conflict lasted three years.

17 June 1936, Army garrisons in Spanish Morocco rebelled against the Spanish Government.

Start of Spanish Civil War 1936 (Nationalist) (Republican)


5 January 1938. King Juan Carlos I of Spain, who succeeded General Franco as Head of State, was born.

7 October 1936, Aguirre was elected President of the Basque Republic (Euskadi), honouring a promise for autonomy within Spain.

10 May 1936, Manuel Azana was elected President of Spain.

10 April 1936, The Spanish Parliament dismissed President Zamora.

19 February 1936, The Spanish Republic announced an amnesty for the rebels in the 1934 Asturian revolt.

16 February 1936. Victory for the Left in Spanish elections. The Left won 256 seats against 165 for the Right and 52 for the Centre Parties. Manuel Azana became Prime Minister; he restored the 1931 Spanish Constitution. Churches in Spain were attacked and their land seized.


-2.0, Civil conflict in Spain 1930-34

8 October 1934. Despite martial law, there was fierce fighting in Spain and Catalonia was trying to set up its own government, with Barcelona as the capital.

5 October 1934, Catalonia attempted to declare independence from Spain.

12 May 1934, Fighting broke out at the University of Madrid between socialists and fascists shortly after a 48-hour general strike by students went into effect. Riot police moved in to break up the clashes.

25 April 1934. Martial law was declared in Spain as the government resigned.

14 January 1934, In Spain, the Left won in the Barcelona area but the Right won in all other regions of Spain.

10 January 1933. Civil disorder broke out in Spain and the army declared martial law.

2 January 1933, Anarchist uprising in Barcelona.

10 August 1932, In Spain, a revolt by General Jose Sanjurjo in Seville was suppressed.

22 January 1932. A Communist uprising in northern Spain was crushed.

11 June 1931. Martial law was imposed on 7 Spanish cities.

16 December 1930, A General Strike began in Spain..

12 December 1930. The Spanish revolution began.


19 November 1933, In Spain, the CEDA (Spanish Confederation of Right-Wing Groups) won the largest number of seats, 115, in the general election. The Radicals won 102, Centre parties won 167, and the Left won 99. CEDA and the Radicals formed a Government, led by Alejandro Lerroux.

29 October 1933, The Falange Party, a Spanish version of fascism, advocating violence to gain its ends, was launched by Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera. The Party won just 0.7% of the vote in the general elections of 16 February 1936; however the Falange then grew rapidly as Spanish middle-class youth, disillusioned with the mainstream parties, joined it en masse. Falange activists played a key role in organising the street fighting that was a prelude to the Civil war that broke out in July 1936; during the early stages of the Civil war itself, the Falange controlled the press and propaganda in the Natioinalist-controlled areas. However its leader, Jose Antonio, was executed in Alicante jail in November 1936. In April 1937 General Franco forcibly united the Falange with his own Carlist Nationalist organisation.

17 May 1933, In Spain the Association Law nationalised Church property, and closed Church schools.

25.9/1932, Catalonia in Spain became autonomous, with its own Parliament, language and flag.

15 September 1932, In Spain, the Agrarian Law was passed, allowing for expropriation of private estates, to be administered by a Bureau of Agrarian Reform.

10 December 1931, Alcala Zamora became President of the Spanish Republic.

28 June 1931. Socialists won the Spanish general elections.

10 May 1931, Rioting in Spanish cities.

14 April 1931 King Alfonso XIII of Spain abdicated and left Spain to settle in Rome, when the Republicans gained overwhelming success in Spain�s municipal elections. He never formally abdicated the throne. Alfonso (1886 �1941) had ruled Spain since 1902. Alfonso had supported the dictator Primo de Rivera, who overthrew the Spanish Parliament in 1923; Rivera was ousted in 1930 and the army also opposed Alfonso.

12 April 1931. In Spain, elections showed a big majority for the Republicans. King Alfonso XIII abdicated on 14 April 1931, and left for exile in Rome.

15 September 1930. The removal of press censorship in Spain brought out demands for a Republic.

17 August 1930, In Spain, the Pact of San Sebastian was made between Republicans and Catalans. Catalonia was to have autonomy if the Republicans gained power.

16 March 1930, The Spanish dictator Primo de Rivera died, aged 59, having fallen ill on 28 January 1930.

28 January 1930, In Spain the dictator Primo de Rivera resigned, after the Army withdrew support for him. General Damaso Berenguer formed a Government.

17 March 1929, The Spanish Government closed Madrid University because of student political agitation.

7 September 1926. Spain left the League of Nations after being denied a permanent seat on the council.

25 February 1926, Franco became Spain�s youngest General, at age 33.

16 October 1923, General Francisco Franco of Spain, aged 30, married Maria del Carmen Polo y Martinez Valdez, aged 23, in Oviedo.


-3.0, Civil conflict in Spain 1917-23

14 September 1923, In Spain, Miguel Primo de Rivera became dictator, ruling under King Alfonso XIII.

12 September 1923, The garrison at Barcelona mutinied. In response, General Primo, with the approval of King Alfonso XIII, suspended the constitution and instituted a military government.

13 April 1921, The Spanish Worker�s Communist Party was formed.

8 March 1921. Spanish Prime Minister Eduardo Iradier was assassinated by an anarchist.

10 March 1918, The Spanish Liberal coalition won 42% of the vote in the general election, allowing Antonio Maura a third term as Prime Minister.

1917, In Spain, the Conferedacion Nacional Catolica-Agrario (CNCA) was set up by large landowners, to combat the rising power of the rural and urban working classes. The middle-c;lass, Conservative, religious, CNCA attracted the support of smaller landowners particularly in northern and central Spain and by 1919 boasted 500,000 members. It supported the Right wing during the Spanish Civil War. In 1942 it became the National Union of Rural Co-operatives (UNCC).

13 August 1917, In Spain, Catalonia revolted over demands for home rule.


1915, Franco, born 1892, became the youngest Captain in the Spanish Army.

1914-1918, Spain remained neutral during World War One.

27 November 1912. France and Spain agreed on their respective spheres of influence in Morocco.


-4.0, Civil conflict in Spain 1909-13

1911, In Spain the Comferedacion Nacional de Trabajo (CNT), a leftist-anarchist movement, was founded. It became the largest trade union in Spain, drawing support from the Barcelona, Madrid and Saragossa regions. However the CNT�sanarchist tendencies caused differences with the Republicans, and these splits undermined the Leftist war effort against the Nationalists in the Civil War.

18 September 1911, A General Strike began in Valencia, Spain.

13 October 1909, Yerren, leader of the anti-clerical party in Spain, was executed.

1 August 1909, End of the �Tragic Week� in Barcelona; from 26 July 1909 over 100 civilians had been killed and many buildings destroyed in rioting in Barcelona.

28 July 1909, Martial Law was declared in Spain.

26 July 1909, A general strike began in Barcelona, lasting until 26 September 1909. There was rioting across Catalonia.


18 July 1909, Don Carlos, claimant to the Spanish throne, died (born 30 March 1848).

3 April 1909, Pascual Cervera, Spanish Admiral, died (born 18 February 1839)

21 September 1908, Nicolas Salmeron y Alfonso, Spanish statesman, died in Pau (born 10 April 1838 in Almeria)

16 May 1907. Spain signed the Cartagena Pact with Britain and France, to counter a perceived German threat to annex the Balearic and Canary Islands.

10 April 1904, Isabella II, Queen of Spain, died (born 10 October 1830).


-5.0, Civil conflict in Spain 1900-03

2 April 1903, Violent clashes between students and police in Spain.

12 February 1903, Gaspar Nunez de Arce, Spanish statesman, died in Madrid (born 1834 in Valladolid).

30 May 1902, The newly installed Spanish King Alfonso XII suspended the Cortes (Parliament). Labour unrest and riots now led to the imposition of martial law. Many Spanish did not want a hereditary monarchy.

17 May 1902, Coronation of King Alfonso XIII of Spain in Madrid as the young monarch came of age at 16.

20 February 1902, Strikes in Barcelona, Spain; fighting left 500 dead.

17 February 1902, A general strike in Barcelona and nearby towns led to military reprisals that left 40 dead.

14 May 1901, End of a General Strike in Barcelona, Spain, that had begun on 7 May 1901.

11 May 1900, Civil disorder in many Spanish cities, in protest at new taxes.


25 May 1899, Emilio Castelar, Spanish politician, died (born 8 September 1832).

24 June 1898, Jose de Elduayen, Spanish politician, died (born 22 June 1823).

22 October 1896, Manuel Pavia Y Lacy Novaliches, Spanish Marshal, died in Madrid (born in 6 July 1814 in Granada)

23 January 1896, Juan Camacho, Spanish statesman, died (born 1824).

31 July 1895, The Basque Nationalist Party was founded by Sabino de Arana Goiri (1865-1903). He did much to revive the Basque language, publishing newspapers, magazines, and books on subjects ranging from grammar to history in this language. He also coined the word Euzkadi for the Basque national people, and designed the first Basque national flag, the Ikurrrina.

4 January 1895, Manuel Pavia, Spanish General, died (born in Cadiz 2 August 1828).

4 December 1892, General Franco, Spanish dictator, was born in El Ferrol.

17 April 1892, Easter Sunday; Joaquin Jovellar y Soler, Captain-General of Spain, died (born 28 December 1819).

27 March 1890, Spain adopted universal (male) suffrage.

31 January 1890, Quiepo Torino, Spanish politician, died (born 1840 in Madrid)

18 January 1890, Death of King Amadeus I of Spain (born 1845).

24 November 1885, Alphonso XII of Spain died of tuberculosis, aged 27. He was later succeeded by his posthumous son, Alphonso XIII. Born in 1857, son of the exiled Queen Isabella, he was chosen as monarch to succeed Amadeus of Aosta in 1874. He successfully suppressed the Carlist Rebellion of 1876.

1881, Trades Unions were legalised.

8 January 1879, Baldomero Espartero, Spanish soldier, died (born 27 February 1792).

24 May 1877, Ramon Cabrera, Spanish General, died (born 27 December 1806).


-6.0, Second Carlist War 1870-76

2/1876, After a long siege of the Carlist-held Basque city of Pamplona, it surrendered. Don Carlos III now fled to France. The Basque region lost autonomy in taxation and military systems.

1875, The Carlists in Catalonia and aragon were subdued.

1 December 1874, The 17-year-old Alphonso XII of Spain issued a proclamation from Sandhurst announcing himself as sole heir to the Spanish throne, and formally beginning his reign.

1/1874, The Spanish Republic (see 1873) collapsed and a military dictatorship under General Francisco Serrano y Dominguez (1805-1885) took power. The military now lifted the Carlist siege of Bilbao, and installed Isabella�s on, Alfonso XII (1857-85) as constitutiomnal King.

1873, As Spain proclaimed itself a Republic, Don Carlos III (1848-1909), grandson of Don Carlos I and the 3rd Carlist Pretender to the Spanish throne, revived the Carlist claims on the monarchy. The Basques backed Don Carlos III in the north of Spain, whilst in the south the army was split, with the Carlists captturing Alcoy, Seville, Cadiz and Valencia. They also took Cartagena after a 4-month siege. See 1/1874.

11 September 1873, Augustin Riansares, husband of Maria Christina, Queen of Spain, died near Le Havre.

12 February 1873, Amadeus I of Spain abdicated and a Republic was proclaimed. Foreign Minister Emilio Cistelar y Ripoli became Prime Minister.

May 1872, The Pretender to the Spanish throne, Don Carlos, entered Navarre. However his forces were routed and he was forced to retreat back into the Pyrenees.

26 April 1872, Don Carlos, Duke of Madrid, was proclaimed King by Conservative supporters of the Carlist branch of the Spanish Royal Family. He entered Spain in May 1872 but his frces were repulsed by the ruling King, Amadeus I.

30 December 1870, Juan Prim, Prime Minister of Spain (born 1814) was assassinated.

16 November 1870, Amadeus I (1845-90), Duke of Aosta and son of King Victor Emmanuel of Italy, was elected King of Spain. He attempted to govern constitutionally but was thwarted by the existing undemocratic institutions of the country. He abdicated in 1873 and retired to Italy as Duke of Aosta.


25 June 1870, Queen Isabella of Spain abdicated. This precipitated the Franco-Prussian War. One possible candidate for the vacant Spanish throne was the German Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. He was a Catholic, but France was alarmed at the thought of a German monarch to its south as well as to the north. Her abdication also precipitated te Second Carlist War in 1873.

5 October 1868, In Spain, Marshal Juan Prim formed a provisional Government. Universal suffrage and a free press were established, and the Jesuits were banned.

29 September 1868, Queen Isabella fled Spain into France.

18 September 1868, Admiral Juan Batista Topete y Carballo proclaimed the end of absolutist rule in Spain.

17 September 1868, In Spain, the Liberal military staged a coup against Queen Isabella.

23 April 1868, Ramon Maria Narvaez, reactionary Prime Minister of Spain, Duke of Valencia, died.

5 November 1867, Leopold O�Donnell, Spanish statesman, died in Bayonne (born 12 January 1809 in Santa Cruz, Tenerife)

22 June 1865, Angel de Saavedra, Spanish politician, died.

11 November 1861, Pedro V of Portugal died of cholera aged 24. He was succeeded by his 23-year-old brother, Luiz I.

21 July 1858, Maria Christina, Queen-Regent of Spain, widow of Alphonso XII and mother of Alphonso XIII, was born.

10 March 1855, Don Carlos, claimant to the Spanish throne, died (born 29 March 1788).

4 October 1851, Alvarez Godoy, Spanish statesman, died (born 12 May 1767).

18 May 1845, Don Carlos relinquished his right to the Spanish Crown in favour of his son.

13 May 1844, Spain set up a military peacekeeping force, the Guardia Civil.

16 September 1843, Jose Toreno, Spanish politician, died in Paris (born 25 November 1786 in Oviedo

25 October 1839. Spain passed a law removing all independence from the Basque provinces. This law was applied to Navarre in 1841, and to Alava, Guipuzcoa, and Vizcaya in 1876, and converted these into provinces of Spain.

10 April 1838, Nicolas Salmeron y Alfonso, Spanish statesman, was born in Almeria (died 21 September 1908 in Pau)


-7.0, First Carlist War 1833-1839

31 August 1839, The Carlist commander, Maroto (1785-1847), withoiut authority from Don Carlos, signed the Convention of Vergara, effectively surrendering to the Cristinists in return for an amnesty and autonomy for the Basque and Navarre provinces. Don Carlos and some Carlists then fled to Bourges, France. Some carlist fighters remained in Catalonia, under Father Ramon Cabrera (1806-77), until finally routed by Espartero in July 1840.

18 February 1839, Pascual Cervera, Spanish Admiral, was born (died 3 April 1909).

24 December 1836, Francisco Mina, Spanish soldier who resisted the French invasion in 1808, died (born 17 June 1781).

10 August 1836, The Carlist War spread with insurrections in Catalonia, Aragon and Madrid. Queen Maria Cristina, wife of the late King Ferdinand VII and Rehgent for her daughter Isabella, was forced to restore the Liberal Constitution of 1812 in order to muster support against the Conservative claimant to the throne, Don Carlos.

1835, The Carlist leader, General Tomas Zumalacarregui (1788-1835), gained several victories until he was wounded in the leg at an unsccesful siege of Bilbao and died of incompetent medical treatment. The Cristinists now gained victory mnder General Baldomero Espartero (1792-1879), assisted by Britain�s �Spanish legion� and the French Foreign Legion. Don Carlos was forced to withdraw from Madrid in 1837. See 31 August 1839.

1835, Anti-clerical riots in Barcelona. Doiscontent at the result of a bullfight sparked disturbances in which 7,000 male clergy (but only a small number of nuns) were massacred and many churches were destroued, and in others, images were broken.

15 July 1834, The Spanish Inquisition, founded in 1478, was disbanded.

7 July 1834, Don Carlos, second son of Charles IV of Spain, formally laid claim to the Spanish throne against his infant neice Queen Isabella II.

1833, The First Carlist War began. On the death of King Ferdinand VII (1784-1833), the Spanish throne has passed to his daiughter, Queen Isabella II (1830-1904). However Ferdinand;s brother., Don Carlos (1788-1855) opposed this succession on the grounds of the Salic Law proscriboing female succession, The conservative clergy supported the Carlists against Isabella, as did much of northern Spain, including the Basques, Catalonia Aragoin and Navarre. The Spanish Govermnment, now ruled by Isabella�s mother Maria Cristina (1806-78)as Regent. The liberal Cristinists, gained the support of Portugal, France and Britain in a Quadruple alliance against the Carlists. See 1835.


-8.0, King Ferdinand VII 1814-33

29 September 1833, Ferdinand VII, King of Spain, died, aged 48. He was succeeded by his 2-year old daughter, Isabella II. Ferdinand�s brother, Don Carlos, claimed the throne, threatening civil war.

8 September 1832, Emilio Castelar, Spanish politician, was born (died 25 May 1899).

14 December 1831, Arsenio Campos, Spanish statesman (died 1900) was born.

10 October 1830, Isabella II, Queen of Spain, was born.

24 February 1829, Cadiz was made a free port.

2 August 1828, Manuel Pavia, Spanish General, was born in Cadiz (died 4 January 1895).


Deposition of Ferdinand VII, 1822-23. French military action to restore him.

7 November 1823, Riego Nunez, Spanish Army Officer who began a long series of mutinies in Spain, was hanged in Madrid (born 2 April 1784 in Asturias)

23 September 1823, French troops, suppressing a rebellion in Spain, took Cadiz. The rebels surrendered Ferdinand VII, who was restored to the Spanish throne.

31 August 1823, At the Battle of the Trocadero, French troops defeated Spanish rebels under Colonel Rafael del Riego y Nunez (1785-1823).

22 June 1823, Jose de Elduayen, Spanish politician, was born (died 24 June 1898).

17 April 1823, The rest of Europe was alarmed at the rise of counter-monarchist forces in Spain, and authorised France to invade to restore King Ferdinand VII. This day French forces under Louis Antpoine de Bourbon, Duke of Angoulmeme (1775-1844) crossed the Pyrenees into Spain, welcomed by the Basques and Catalans. He then sent some forces to besiege San Sebastian whilst directing his main attack on Madrid.

30 June 1822, In Spain, rebels took King Ferdinand VII prisoner.

24 May 1821, Juan Bauptista Topete, Spanish politician, was born in Mexico (died 29 October 1885 in Madrid)

7 March 1820, King Ferdinand VII of Spain was forced to restore the Liberal constitution of1812 after a rebellion led by Colonel Farael Riego.


28 December 1819, Joaquin Jovellar y Soler, Captain-General of Spain, was born (died 17 April 1892).

20 January 1819, Charles IV of Spain died (born 11 November 1748).

12 December 1814, Juan Prim, Spanish statesman, was born in Reus, Catalonia (assassinated 30 December 1870)

6 July 1814, Manuel Pavia Y Lacy Novaliches, Spanish Marshal, was born in Granada (died 22 October 1896 in Madrid)


Spanish anti-liberal reforms following Napoleon;s defeat.

1814, By decree, Spain exiled the �Afrencesados�, some 10,000 in number, the Spanish politicians and intellectuals who had supported Napoleon and the reforms he introduced to Spain during his occupation of the country. King Ferdinand VII was restored to the throne, which he held until 1833.

4 May 1814, King Ferdinand VII of Spain annulled the liberal Constitution of the Cortes (National Assembly). This was the first of several anti-democratic acts by the Spanish royalty, after their restoration following Napoleon�s defeat.


-9.0, French occupation of Spain � evicted by Wellington, Peninsular War, 1808-13

11 December 1813, By the Treaty of Valencay, Napoleon agreed to restore Ferdinand VII as King of Spain, in order to gain an ally.

31 October 1813, Spanish forces took Pamplona in Navarre.

21 June 1813. The victory of Wellington at Vitoria in the Peninsular War. Spain was lost by the French. Napoleon had deposed the Spanish monarch and replaced him with his own brother, Joseph. However this act provoked major Spanish popular resistance against France and led to Napoleon�s defeat there.

10 June 1813, The Duke of Wellington made a second attack on the French in Burgos, this time taking the city in two days.


Liberalisation of Spanish politics

8 May 1812, The Spanish Cortes (Parliament) promulgatred a Liberal Constitution with universal (male0 suffrage.

4 December 1808. Napoleon abolished the Spanish Inquision.


22 October 1812, First attempt by the Duke of Wellington to capture Burgos, Spain (Pensinsular War) went badly. He began the siege on 19 September 1812, but 2,000 of his troops were killed, against 600 French. The siege was lifted this day.

19 March 1812, The Spanish Cortes (National Assembly) proposed a liberal constitution with universal suffrage under a hereditary monarch

16 May 1811, The Battle of Albuera in Spain, at which a combined English (under Sir Arthur Wellesley), Portuguese, and Spanish force defeated the French under Marshal Soult. This was part of the Peninsular War.

5 May 1811, French defeated by the British at the Battle of Fuentes d�Omoro, Portugal.

10 March 1811. During the Peninsular War, Badajoz was surrendered to the French after its Spanish Commander had been bribed into the capitulation. The French had unsuccessfully attacked Badajoz in 1808 and 1809.

6 March 1811, British forces under Viscount Wellington (Arthur Wellesley) defeated the French at Fuentes d�Onoro, near Ciudad Rodrigo, Portugal. The French subsequently replace dthe unsuccessful Marshal Andre Massena with Marshal Auguste Marmont.

19 February 1811, Battle of Gebora (Peninsular War). The French under Marshal Soult roiuted the Spanish under Mendizabal.

17 December 1810, Francisco Serrano y Dominguez, Spanish statesman, was born in Cadiz (died 26 November 1885 in Madrid)

19 November 1809, Spanish forces were defeated at Ocana. The French now overran all of Andalusia, apart from Cadiz, which remained capital of free Spain.

12 May 1809, The Duke of Wellington crossed the Douro River (Pensinsular War) and drove the French under Marshal Soult out of Oporto.

28 March 1809, Battle of Medellin (Peninsular War). The French under Marshal Victor heavily defeated the Spanish iunder Cuesta.

For more events of Peninsular War, see France-Germany

16 January 1809, The British won a rearguard action against the French, under Nicolas Soult, at Corunna in the Peninsular War. Britain had invaded Spain in the hope of raising anti-Napoleonic support but found this lacking. Corunna enabled the British forces to be successfully evacuated. However the British commander, Sir John Moore, was killed in this battle

12 January 1809, Leopold O�Donnell, Spanish statesman, was born in Santa Cruz, Tenerife (died 5 November 1867 in Bayonne).

1 January 1809, The Spanish Supreme Junta and Britain agreed not to make any separate peace with Napoleon.

21 December 1808, Battle of Molinos del Rey, Peninsular War. The French under General St Cyr defeated the Spanish under Reding.

20 November 1808, Don Jose Floridablanca, Spanish statesman, died (born 1728).

21 August 1808, British troops under Wellington defeated the French under General Junot.This was at the Battle of Vimiero, during the Peninsular War.The Peninsular War absorbed some 300,000 of Napoleon�s best troops, andwas ended when Napoleon heard reports that Austria, backed by Britain, was arming against him.

1 August 1808, A British Army under Sir Arthur Wellesley, future Duke of Wellington, arrived in Portugal to support Spanish fighters against Napoleon.

23 July 1808, Spanish fighters defeated French General Dupont de l�Etang, whose army was poorly equipped, at Bailen in southern Spain.

15 June 1808, French forces laid siege to Saragossa, Spain, after the Spanish garrison and local people resisted French attempts to use the town as a point of communication for the military with central Spain and Portugal.

2 May 1808. The people of Madrid rebelled against Napoleon�s rule. The French had replaced the Spanish monarch, with Napoleon�s elder brother, Joseph. Moreover, Marshal Joachim Murat proposed removing the children of the Royal Family to France. This precipitated a riot with a crowd assembled at the Royal Palace to prevent this removal. The French dealty with the protest harshly, killing many, which merely inflamed matters further.

23 March 1808, French forces occupied Madrid.

19 March 1808, Spanish King Charles V abdicated, in favour of his son Ferdinand. Charles had aroused antipathy for his pro-French policies.

18 March 1808, Manuel de Godoy, Spanish Chief Minister, was forced out of office by popular protest due to his pro-French policies that had encouraged Napoleon I to occupy Spain.

29 February 1808, France occupied Barcelona, as part of a plan to conquer Spain and consolidate Napoleonic control of southern Europe.


-10.0, King CharlesIV � deposed by the French 1808; 1796-1806

21 October 1805. Battle of Trafalgar. Death of Nelson. Nelson blockaded the combined fleets of France and Spain in Cadiz. The French Admiral, Villeneuve, attempted to break out, but British ships sank or captured most of the French and Spanish ships. The French had planned to link up with the Spanish fleet in the West Indies and so lure the British into giving chase across the Atlantic. However Nelson guessed at the French tactics and the Admiralty was warned. A British fleet under Calder found the French fleet off Cape Finistere and they put into Spanish harbours. The French fleet later emerged to sail, not for Britain, but to return to the Mediterranean. The French were intercepted off Cape Trafalgar, and destroyed in the Battle of Trafalgar.

12 December 1804, Spain reliuctantly declared war on Britain, at French insistence.

3 February 1802, Arsenio Campos, Spanish statesman (born 1 July 1723) died.

12 July 1801, British Admiral James Saumarez defeated a larger French-Spanish fleet off the coast of Morocco in the Second Battle of Algecieras.

6 July 1801, The English and Spanish fleets fought an inconclusive battle off Algeciras.

4 August 1800, Ramon Narvaez, Spanish statesman, was born (died 23 April 1868).

1798, The British again seized Majorca, holding it until 1803 when it was ceded to Spain by the Peace of Amiens.

9 January 1798, Pedro Aranda, Spanish politician, died in Epila (born 1 August 1719 in Sietamo).

For more events of the Napoleonic Wars see France-Germany

14 February 1797. Horatio Nelson and Admiral Jervis defeated the Spanish fleet off Cape St Vincent, south west Portugal.


Spain allies with Napoleonic France; a move opposed by many Spanish citizens

5 October 1796. Spain declared war on Britain by signing the Treaty of San Il Defonso, allying it with Revolutionary France. The Treaty was engineered by Spanish Prime Minister Manuel de Godoy, lover of King Charles IV�s wife Maria Luisa. De Godoy was opposed to monarchist Britain. Many ordinary Spanish opposed the Treaty, which diminished Spain as an imperial power and weakened her influence in The Americas.

19 August 1796, France and Spain signed an alliance against Britain at Ildefonso, Spain. This was effectively a renewal of the 1761 Family Compact between the Bourbon rulers of the two countries.


-11.0, King Charles III, 1759-1788

14 December 1788, King Charles III of Spain died aged 72 after an enlightened reign of 29 years during which he had encouraged industrial growth, constructed new roads and canals, improved sanitation and suppressed lawlessaness. His firstborn son was epileptic and therefore was passed over for the succession in favour of his lazy 40-year-old second son, who ruled until 1808 as King Charles IV.

25 November 1786, Jose Toreno, Spanish politician, was born in Oviedo (died 16 September 1843 in Paris)

14 October 1784, Ferdinand VII, King of Spain, was born.

29 June 1784, Alexandre Aguado, Spanish soldier and politician, was born in Seville (died 14 April 1842 in Gijon).

2 April 1784, Riego Nunez, Spanish Army Officer who began a long series of mutinies in Spain, was born in Asturias (hanged 7 November 1823 in Madrid)

5 February 1782, Spain captured Minorca from Britain.

17 June 1781, Francisco Mina, Spanish soldier who resisted the French invasion in 1808, was born (died 24 December 1836).

2 December 1781, Cenon Ensenada, Spanish statesman, died (born 2 June 1702).

12 May 1767, Alvarez Godoy, Spanish statesman, was born (died 4 October 1851).

1763, Britain recovered Majorca from the French, holding it until 1782, when the Spanish took control.

2 January 1762, Britain declared war on Spain, three months after William Pitt resigned

10 August 1759, Ferdinand VI, King of Spain, died aged 45 after a 13-year reign. He was succeeded by his half-brother aged 43, who ruled until 1788 as Charles III.


-12.0, King Ferdinand IV, 1746-59

10 August 1759, Ferdinand VI, King of Spain, died aged 45 after a 13-year reign. He was succeeded by his half-brother aged 43, who ruled until 1788 as Charles III.

14 March 1757, Admiral John Byng was executed by firing squad on the Monarque at Portsmouth, for his failure to relieve the island of Minorca, under attack by the French, at the start of the Seven Years War. In fact his fleet was probably inadequate for the task; having failed to prevent a French landing on Minorca, he took advice to leave the British garrison to its fate.

27 December 1756, The court-martial of Admiral Byng began over the surrender of Minorca to the French.

20 May 1756, During the Seven Year�s War, Britain lost Minorca to the French.

1756, A force of 12,000 French invaded Majorca, ousting the British.

11 November 1748, Charles IV of Spain was born (died 20 January 1819).

9 July 1746, Philip V, King of Spain, died, insane, aged 62. He reigned for 46 years. He was succeeded by his son, Ferdinand VI, who reigned until 1759.


11 April 1743, Jose del Campillo, Spanish statesman, died (born 1695).

3 November 1736, Jose Patino, Spanish statesman, died (born in Milan 11 April 1666).

12 June 1727, Spain lifted the siege of Gibraltar (imposed 11 February 1727).

17 January 1724, King Philip V of Spain abdicated.

5 December 1722, Marie Anne de la Tremoille, Princess of Ursins, lady of the Spanish Court, died in Rome (born 1642)

17 February 1720, By the Treaty of the Hague, the Allies forced King Philip V of Spain to renounce his claim on Sicily; also Victor Amadeus II of Savoy gave up Sicily to Austria in exchange for Sardinia (see 2 August 1718).

1 August 1719,Pedro Aranda, Spanish politician, was born in Sietamo (died 9 January 1798 in Epila).

11 August 1718, Admiral Byng destroyed the Spanish fleet off Cape Passaro.

2 August 1718, A Quadruple Alliance was formed between Britain, France, Holland, and Austria, against Spain, after Spain seized Sardinia and Sicily, threatening another European war. Under the Treaty of Utrecht (11 April 1713) Sardinia had been assigned to Austria and Sicily to Savoy (see also 17 February 1720). However King Philip V of Spain, influenced by his wife Elizabeth Farnese of Parma and her advisor Giulio Alberoni, seized these islands. Admiral Byng was sent to defend Sicily, with Austrian troops. In a sea battle off Cape Passaro, he totally destroyed the Spanish fleet. Meanwhile French troops occupied northern Spain. The purpose of the Quadruple Alliance were, to maintain the terms of the Peace of Utrecht, for Spain to renounce any claim to the French throne, and to guarantee the Protestant succession in Britain. The four powers would also assist each other if any were attacked. Spain initially backed a Jacobite invasion of Britain, but after the dismissal of Cardinal Alberoni in December 1719 Spain changed policy and joined the Alliance, which provided a forum to discuss territorial disputes in Europe.


-13.0, War of the Spanish Succession, 1700-15

1715, Catalonia lost its independence to Spain, Madrid declared the Catalan language illegal.

11 September 1714, Spanish troops under King Felipe V captured Barcelona. The Catalans had been abandoned by their allies, the Germans and English, during the War of the Spanish Succession and were forced to defend themselves or surrender. Tye 11th September is now the National Day of Catalonia.

1713, Majorca came under British rule by the Peace of Utrecht.

23 September 1713, Ferdinand VI, King of Spain, was born.

10 December 1710, The Battle of Villaviciosa. French victory over Imperial forces.

11 September 1709, At the Battle of Malplaquet in northern France, near Mons, The Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene won a costly victory over the French in the War of the Spanish Succession.

31 August 1709, Battle of Malplaquet began.

14 September 1709, Luis Manuel Fernandez de Portocarrero, Cardinal Archbishop of Toledo, died (born 8 January 1635)

18 August 1708, The British occupied Minorca.

12 July 1708. The French were defeated at Oudenarde in western Belgium, by Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy. Marlborough also captured Lille after a four-month siege.This was during the War of the Spanish Succession.

30 June 1708, Battle of Oudenarde began.

25 April 1707, The Battle of Alamanza, fought during the War of the Spanish Succession. The British and the Dutch together defeated the French.

For more events of the War of Spanish Succession, see France-Germany

29 June 1706, Battle of Alicante, War of the Spanish Succession. British Admiral Sir Geoirge Byng, commanding a fleet of 5 ships, attacked the city walls, causing severe damage.

26 June 1706 The Allies captured Madrid.

23 May 1706, The Battle of Ramillies, between Louvain and Namur in Belgium.Allied British and Dutch armies under Marlborough intercepted a French offensive. 15,000 French and 5,000 Allied soldiers died. The result of Ramillies was that Brussels, Antwerp and most of the Spanish Netherlands surrendered. By the end of 1706 the French held only Namur and Mons in The Netherlands.

4 October 1705, Lord Peterborough captured Barcelona.

12 September 1703, Hapsburg Archduke Ferdinand was proclaimed King of Spain, War of the Spanish Succession began. France had already, in 1701, begun to occupy key fortresses in the Spanish Netherlands, following the death of the Spanish monarch Charles II on 2/10./1700, with no heir.

12/ September 1703, The Hapsburg Archduke Ferdinand was proclaimed King of Spain, War of the Spanish Succession

2 June 1702, Cenon Ensenada, Spanish statesman, was born (died 2 December 1781).


End of the Spanish Hapsburg line: War of the Spanish Succession

1 November 1700, The Spanish monarch, Charles II, died, aged 39, with no heir. England, Austria and Holland were alarmed that Charles had named Philip, Duke of Anjou, as his successor; these nations had agreed that Joseph Ferdinand, Prince of Bavaria, should get the Spanish Crown. Spanish territory would be ceded to buy off the rival Frenchand Austrian claimants to the throne, Philip the second grandson of King Louis XIV and Archduke Charles, second son of the Hapsburg Emperor Leopold I. However Ferdinand predeceased the Spanish King, leaving Charles, who was physically and mentally handicapped, was susceptible to the influences of the French Court. War seemed inevitable, see 12 September 1703, 17 September 1665.

17 March 1700, Charles II of Spain, in his will, nominated Philip of Anjou as his successor.


12 March 1695, Cristoval Rojas de Spinola, Spanish ecclesiastic, died.

25 October 1692, Elizabeth Farnese, Queen of Spain, was born (died 1766)

7 February 1692, Fernando de Venezuela, Spanish statesman, died in Mexico (born 19 January 1630 in Naples)

15 August 1684, The Truce of Ratisbon (or, Truce of Regensburg) ended the War of the Reunions between Spain and the Holy Roman Empire on one side and France on the other. The War of the Reunions (1683�84) was a conflict between France, Spain and the Holy Roman Empire, with limited involvement by Genoa. It can be seen as a continuation of the 1667�1668 War of Devolution and the 1672�1678 Franco�Dutch War, which were driven by Louis XIV's determination to establish defensible boundaries along France's northern and eastern borders.

19 December 1683, Philip V, King of Spain, was born.


King Philip IV dies. France claims the Spanish Netherlands by inheritance right, Spain refuses, France tries military conquest, Sp[ain retains most of the territory, 1665-68

2 May 1668, Treaty of Aix la Chapelle ended the War of Devolution between France ans Spain. France returned most of the gains it had made from Spain in The Spanish Netherlands.

13 February 1668, Spain recognised Portugal as an independent nation.

24 May 1667, The French under Turenne invaded the Spanish Netherlands, which France had claimed in 1665.

11 April 1666, Jose Patino, Spanish statesman, was born in Milan (died 3 November 1736)

1665, On the death of King Philip IV of Spain, his son in law King Louis XIV of France demanded the imnheritance right to the entire Spanish Netherlands. Spain refused.

17 September 1665, Philip IV, King of Spain, died, aged 60. He was succeeded by his 4-year-old son, Charles II. Charles II, Don Carlos, was crippled by rickets; he ruled for 35 years, the last of the Spanish Hapsburgs.


6 November 1661, King Charles II of Spain was born.

7 November 1659.. The war between France and Spain ended. France gained Flanders and northern Catalonia, under the Treaty of the Pyrenees. Spain�s treasury was empty and England had joined on the side of the French. Spain was left badly bruised, and France was consolidated. King Louis XIV then married Maria Theresa, daughter of Philip IV of Spain, and Conde asked for, and recieved, the forgiveness of Louis XIV.

14 June 1658, The Battle of the Dunes was fought near Dunkirk. Marshal Turenne commanded the French and English armies, against the Spanish under Don Juan of Austria and the Prince of Conde. The Spanish were attempting to relieve Dunkirk, which Turenne was besieging. The Spanish were defeated, and Dunkirk surrendered to the French.

14 January 1659, The Battle of Elvas practically ensured Portuguese independence from Spain.

9 September 1656, English Captain Stayner seized the Spanish treasure fleet off Cadiz.

30 January 1648. To free his forces for the war against France, Philip IV of Spain made peace in the United Provinces at Munster. Spain therefore made major concessions. The United Provinces (Netherlands) were recognised as independent by Spain, all Dutch conquests were recognised, and freedom of trade in the East and West Indies was conceded.

Spain prepares for further war against France by making concessions to the United Provinces (Netherlands)


19 May 1647, Uprising in Palermo against the salt tax.

22 July 1645, In Spain, Gaspar de Guzman, Count of Olivares and Chief Minister of Spain 1623-43, died.

24 January 1643, Gaspar de Guzman, Count Olivares, Chief Minister to King Philip IV of Spain, was removed from office following revolts in Catalonia and Portugal.

18 January 1641, Pau Claris proclaimed the Catalan Republic.

12 May 1640, Catalonia began a 19-year revolt against Spain, in protest at high taxes and suppression of Catalan rights.

21 October 1639, Battle of the Downs. A Dutch fleet under Maarten Tromp defeated the Spanish in The Channel, effectively ending Spain�s role as a major naval power.Spain was weakened by the breakaway of Portugal, and the rise of France.Spain�s colonial quarrels with the Dutch, in Brazil and the Portuguese spice islands, were now superseded by these areas now being under Portuguese rule.

15 August 1636, The Spanish besieged Corbie, France.

19 May 1635, France declared war on Spain.Spain initially had success, capturing Corbie, near Amiens.However the Spaniards did not follow up their successes and faced with revolts in Portugal and Catalonia, lost Artois and Roussillion.

8 January 1635, Luis Manuel Fernandez de Portocarrero, Cardinal Archbishop of Toledo, was born (died 14 September 1709)

19 January 1630, Fernando de Venezuela, Spanish statesman, was born in Naples (died 7 February 1692 in Mexico)

24 September 1624, Pedro Tellez Giron Osuna, Spanish statesman, died (born 1575)

July 1624, The Count-Duke of Olivares proposed that a Spanish force of 140,000 men be raised from each State of Spain, in proportion to its wealth. The plan was intended to ease the burden on Castile, which until then had born most of the burden of defence. There was trong reistance from Aragon, especially Catalonia, this leading to the Revolt of Catalonia in 1640.

30 August 1623, Charles, Prince of Wales, and the Duke of Buckingham leftMadrid after the breakdown of negotiations for the Prince�s marriage to the Infanta. In December 1623 King James I of Englmnd broke off the marriage treaty and in March 1624 England was at war with Spain.

21 October 1621, Rodrigo Calderon, Spanish adventurer, died.


-14.0, King Philip III, 1598-1621

31 March 1621, Philip III, King of Spain, died aged 42 after a 23-year reign. He was succeeded by his 15-year old son, who ruled as Philip IV until 1665.

9 October 1617, The Treaty of Pavia was signed, between Spain and Savoy.Savoy returned Monferrato to Mantua.

27 March 1615, Marguerite de Valois, Queen of Navarre, died.

22 September 1609, In Spain the Duke of Lerma, Chief Minister of King Philip III, expelled the Moors and Moriscos. Some 300,000 fled to the Maghreb over the next 5 years.

19 November 1607, King Philip III of Spain declared the Spanish Crown bankrupt. This endangered the Banco san Giorgio of Genoa.

8 April 1605, Philip IV, King of Spain, born.

18 August 1604, The Treaty of London was signed ending the Anglo-Spanish War.

13 September 1598, King Philip II of Spain died after a reign of over 40 years, aged 71. Spain had acquired great wealth from its conquest of South America, but had squandered it in a series of wars, and had suffered the defeat of the Great Armada. He was succeeded by his fourth wife�s fourth son, Philip III.


2 May 1598, The Treaty of Vervins ended the Franco-Spanish War. Spanish troops withdrew from Picardy.

29 November 1596, Spain admitted that the Royal Treasury was bankrupt, drained by a series of wars and especially the attempt to invade England. Revolts against Spanish rule in the Americas were also costly.

30 June 1596, Lord Howard of Effingham and Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, led an expedition to sack Cadiz and attack other Spanish coastal cities

13 April 1589, Sir Francis Drake and Sir John Norrys sailed form Plymouth with 150 ships and 18,000 men to attack Spain and invade Portugal. They destroyed the Spanish port of Corunna, but were repulsed at Lisbon. The expedition was a failure.

10 August 1585, Elizabeth I of England signed the Treaty of Nonsuch, promising 64,000 foot soldiers, 1,000 cavalry, and 600,000 florins a year to support Protestant rebels in The Netherlands against Spain. Although Elizabeth disliked involvement in foreign European wars, the Spanish presence in The Netherlands was too close to England to ignore. King Philip II of Spain, who had laid siege to Antwerp in 1584, saw this Treaty as a declaration of war.

See Great Britain for events of 1588 Spanish Armada

1584, The Escorial Palace was completed (construction began 1559), near Madrid, by King Philip II.

14 April 1578, Philip III, King of Spain, was born.

31 March 1578, Juan de Escovedo, Spanish politician, was killed.

17 September 1574, Pedro Aviles, Spanish naval adventurer, died (born 15 February 1519 in Aviles, Asturia).

15 June 1572, Jeanne III, Queen of Navarre, died.

25 December 1568, Revolt by the Moriscos in Andalusia, Spain. The Moriscos were Muslims who had been forced to convert to Christianity; however they continued to speak, write, and dress as Muslims, and therefore came under heavy persecution., King Philip II of Spain (1527-98) forbade their language amnd traditions in 1566. The Moriscxos inflicted heavy damage at Granada; in retaliation Spanish troops slaughtered many of them at the Alfajarali Pass in 1569. By 1`571 the Morisco rebellion was totally suppressed. However the Moriscos, scattered across Spain, continued their Muslim culture until 1609, when they were expelled to North Africa.

24 July 1568, Don Carlos, Prince of Asturias, died (born 8 July 1545).

23 April 1563, King Philip II of Spain began construction of El Escorial.

1561, Madrid was established as the Spanish capital.

2 April 1559, The Peace of Cateau-Cambresis, ending the wars of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in Europe. Italy was recognised as a Spanish sphere of influence, and Franche Comte was to be part of the Spanish monarchy. French possession of Metz, Toul and Verdun was confirmed. A strategic marriage was arranged between King Philip II of Spain and Elizabeth Valois, daughter of King Henry II of France.

10 August 1557, The Battle of St Quentin. Spanish forces under the Duke of Savoy defeated the French under the Constable of Montmorency. The French were driven out of Italy.

25 October 1556, Charles V, King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor, retired to a Spanish monastery, dividing his possessions between his son and his brother.

16 January 1556, Emperor Charles V handed over government of Spain to his son Philip, who ruled as Philip II of Spain.

25 May 1555, King Henry II of Navarre died (born 1503).

11 April 1555, Joanna, Queen of Castille, died (born 6 November 1479).

14 May 1553, Marguerite de Valois, Queen of Navarre, was born.

10 September 1550, Medina Sidonia, commander of the Spanish Armada, was born (died 1615).

21 September 1549, Marguerite d�Angoulmeme, Queen of Navarre, died.

8 July 1545, Don Carlos, Prince of Asturias, was born (died 24 July 1568).

12 January 1539, The Treaty of Toledo was signed by Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor, and King of Spain), and Francis I (King of France).Each agreed to make no further alliances with England.The origin of this Treaty was the dispute between King Henry VIII of England and Pope Paul III.

23 February 1530, Carlos I of Spain was crowned Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire and King of Italy by Pope Clement V.

22 April 1529, The Treaty of Saragossa divided the eastern hemisphere between Spain and Portugal, along a north-south line 17 degrees 9297.5 leagues) east of the Moluccas.

21 May 1527, King Philip II was born in Valladolid, Spain. He was the son of Emperor Charles V, and ruled over Spain at the peak of its power. In 1588 he sent an Armada against England but was defeated.

18 October 1526, Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon, Spanish adventurer, died.

4 August 1526, Juan Sebastian del Cano, Spanish explorer, died on his second voyage to the Pacific.

30 June 1521, The French had invaded Navarre, Spain, and placed Henri d�Albret on the throne, but this day they were caught unprepared by a Spanish force at the Battle of Esquiroz, near Pamplona, and evicted from Spain.


Communeros rebellion, 1520-21

24 April 1521, In Spain, the Communeros rebel leaders were executed.

23 April 1521, Comuneros uprising in Spain, against the autocratic rule of King Charles I (1500-58). On this day the Comuneros were defeated at Villalar; the movement�s leaders were subsequently captured and arrested. Charles�s autocratic powers were increased.

14 July 1520, The Communeros Revolt in Spain began, against abolition of ancient rights by the Habsburgs.


15 February 1519, Pedro Aviles, Spanish naval adventurer, was born in Aviles, Asturia (died 17 September 1574).

1517, Aragon became part of a united Spain.

8 November 1517, Cardinal Jimenez de Cisneros, recently appointed Regent of Spain, died. The Habsburgs now ruled Spain; Charles I, grandson of Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, made a triumphal entry into Madrid.

13 August 1516, The Treaty of Noyon. Charles I, newly crowned King of Spain (later Emperor Charles V), made peace with France, recognising French control of Milan in return for French renunciation of its claims over Naples.

23 January 1516, Ferdinand V, King of Castile and Leon, also Ferdinand II of Aragon, died aged 63. He was succeeded by his 16-year old grandson, Carlos I, then a student in Flanders.

2 December 1515, Gonzalo Cordoba., Spanish military commander, died (born 16 March 1453).

4 August 1511, The Portuguese explorer, Alfonso de Aberquerque, captured Malacca, now in Malaysia. This gave Portugal control over the strategic Strait of Malacca, through which all trade between China and India passed.

12 March 1507, Cesare Borgia died at the siege of Viana in Navarre.

25 September 1506, Philip the Handsome, King of Spain, died suddenly aged 28, at Burgos. His wife went mad after his death. Her father Ferdinand II of Aragon ruled as Regent of Castile, as Ferdinand V.

24 November 1504, Isabella, Queen of Castille and Leon, died aged 53. She was succeeded by her daughter Juana and Juana�s husband, Philip. However they remained in Flanders, and Ferdinand ruled instead.

23 February 1503, At the Battle of Ruvo, the Spanish defeated the French.

20 January 1503, Seville, in Castille, was awarded exclusive rights to trade with the New World.

10 October 1500, King Manuel I of Portugal married the Infanta Maria of Spain, sister of his dead wife and 4th daughter of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castille. This revived hopes of a dynastic union between these kingdoms.

20 July 1500, Dom Miguel, infant heir to the Kingdoms of Spain and Portugal, died, ending the hopes of his grandparents King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castille, for a union of these kimgdoms. This left Joanna the Mad and Philip the Handsomoe, Archduke ofAustria and Duke of Burgundy, as heirs to the Spanish throne.

24 February 1500, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor 1519-56, King of Spain as Charles I 1516-56, and Archduke of Austria as Charles I 1519-21, was born in Ghent (died 1556)

5 August 1498, King Louis XII of France and Ferdinand of Aragon signed the Treaty of Marcoussis, ending the effectiveness of the League of Venice. France and Spain now planned to divide the Kingdon of Naples between them.

18 June 1497, King Henry VII of England ratified a marriage treaty with Spain; in August Arthur, heir of Henry VII, was formally betrothedto Catherine of Aragon, daughter of King Ferdiunand Vand Queen Isabella.

3 April 1497, The Infante Juan of Spain, son and heir of King Ferdinand V and Queen Isabella I, married Margaret of Austria. However he died on October 4 1497, and their child was subsequently stillborn.

21 October 1496, Philip The Handsome, Duke of Burgundy, and son of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, married the infant Joanna the Mad, daughter of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Usabella of Catillle. This was a significant event as it led mto the union of their family�s realms.


Spanish conquest of the Canaries

29 September 1496, Spanoish troops under Alfonso Fernandez de Lugo finally overcameindigenous Guanche resistance on Tenerife and completed the conquest of the Canaries.

25 December 1495, At the Second Battle of Acentejo, Spanish forces crushed the natives of the island of Tenerife, destroying the last bastion of resistance on the Canary Islands.


6 July 1495, At the Battle of Fornovo, near Parma, the French Army secured its retreat from Italy by defeating a combined Milanese-Venetian force under Giobvanni Francesco Gonzaga, Marquis of Mantua. France had contested with Spain over who would control Italy. Charles VIII of France expected support from his one-time allies, the Milanese, but when he arrived in Italy he found they had joined with Venice, the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire to oppose his plans for Italy.

11 January 1495, Pedro Mendoza, Spanish statesman, died (born 3 May 1428).

7 June 1494, The Treaty of Tordesillas was signed. In 1493, Pope Alexander VI had set a line at 100 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands from north to south Pole; Spain had the rights to colonise west of this line, Portugal to the east. The 1494 Treaty moved this line a further 270 leagues to the west. This resulted in Portugal having possession of both Brazil and Africa; in turn this greatly facilitated the expansion of the slave trade, providing cheap labour for the sugar plantations.

19 January 1493, King Charles VIII of France returned Cardagne and Roussillon in the eastern Pyrenees to Spain under the Treaty of Barcelona. This allayed Spanish concerns over his acquisition of Brittany, and would raise support for his claims on Naples, Italy.

11 April 1492, Marguerite d�Angoulmeme, Queen of Navarre, was born.


Christopher Columbus 1486 - 1506

20 May 1506. Christopher Columbus, Italian navigator who discovered the New World in 1492, died aged 55 in Valladolid, Spain. See 3 August 1492. He was virtually penniless. However his discovery of favourable winds in both directions across the Atlantic opened up the way for European exploration of the New World.

11 May 1502. Christopher Columbus left on his fourth voyage of exploration, returning on 7 November 1504.

7 June 1498. Christopher Columbus left on his third journey of exploration.

3 August 1492. Christopher Columbus left Palos de la Frontera, Andalusia, south-west Spain, on his first voyage to search for a passage to the Far East via the Atlantic. He actually found the Americas.He sailed in the Santa Maria, accompanied by the Nina and the Pinta. Columbus had delayed his sailing until after 2 August 1492 as that was the deadline for Jews to leave Spain; therefore Columbus was now departing from a �cleansed� Spain.

25 September 1493. Christopher Columbus left Spain on a second voyage of exploration with a fleet of 20 ships.

4 March 1493. Christopher Columbus arrived back in Lisbon, then travelled to Spain.

See America, Christopher Columbus

17 April 1492, Queen Isabella of Castille contracted Christopher Columbus to gfo ona voyage of discovery, naming him Admiral, and Viceroy of any new lands discovered,

1 May 1486. The navigator Christopher Columbus persuaded Queen Isabella of Spain to grant him funds to find a western sea passage to the Indies.


Expulsion of the Moors from Spain 1467-1502

12 February 1502. Spain expelled all Moors (Muslims) who had not been baptised as Christians.See 30 March 1492

7 July 1501, King Ferdinand II of Spain decalred Christianity as the official religion of Granada. Persecution of Muslims there intensified.

5 May 1500, Moorish revolt in Spain, following the forced mass conversions to Catholicism by Cardinal Cisneros and the Inquisition, was suppressed by King Ferdinand II.

2 January 1492. The Spanish Army under Queen Isabella recaptured Granada from the Moors.This had been the last remaining Moslem territory in Spain.The Moorish surrender by Boadbil concluded a siege by thye Christians that began in April 1491.

25 November 1491, The siege of Granada, last stronghold of the Moors in Spain, began.

4 December 1489. The fall of Baza, in southern Spain. The Catholic Spanish army had besieged this town, held by the Muslims; both siege and defence were financed by the sale of the jewels of the ladies on both sides. Baza had been a bishopric since at least before 302, when its bishop was recorded as attending the Council of Elvira.

29 April 1483, Gran Canaria, the main of the Canary Islands was conquered by the Kingdom of Castile, an important step in the expansion of Spain.

1 July 1482, Ferdinand V was defeated at the Battle of Loja (see 14 May 1482). However the Spanish fleet continued to block Moorish supplies from North Africa, ultimately leading to the fall of Granada and the complete expulsion of the Moors from Spain (1492).

14 May 1482, In retaliation for the attack of 26 December 1481, the Marquis of Cadiz seized the Moorish town of Alhama, near Granada. Abdul Hassan then laid siege to Alhama, but raised the siege when Christian forces under King Ferdinand V of Castile and Aragon (1452-1516) approached. Ferdinand entered Alhama this day, and Queen Isabella I of Castile and Aragon helped Ferdinand prepare to lay siege to Moorish-held Loja, assembling a fleet to block Moorish reinforcements by sea.

26 December 1481, In southern Spain, a period of peace between Christians and Muslims suddenly ended when Muslim ruler King Muley Abdul Hassan attacked and captured the Zahara fortress, near Ronda, enslaving the Chrstians there.

20 January 1479, Ferdinand II took the throne of Aragon and ruled together with his wife Isabella, Queen of Castile, over most of the Iberian Peninsula.In 1492 they conquered Granada, ending 700 years of Moorish rule.

19 October 1469, The Crowns of Castile and Aragon were joined with the marriage of Prince Ferdinand of Aragon and the Infanta Isabella of Castile. This nominally united almost all of what is now Spain, except for the Kingdom of Navarre in the north and Granada in the south (although the two kingdoms remained politically separate entities). Spain was now the most powerful State in Europe.

1467, The sheep population of Castile was 2.7 million, up from 1.5 million in 1300. The recovery of the southern Spajish winter pastures for sheep was a powerful economic incentive for La Reconquista, the conquest of Spain from the Moors.


6 March 1480, The Treaty of Toledo: Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain recognised the African conquests of Alphonso of Portugal, and he ceded the Canary Islands to Spain.

6 November 1479, Joanna, Queen of Castille, was born (died 11 April 1555).

4 September 1479, The Treaty of Alcovas between Portugal and Spain confirmed Castile�s claim on the Canary Islands, and Portugal�s claim on the Azores and Madeira, also Portuguese rights in west Africa.

22 July 1478, Philip II, King of Spain, was born. Son of Emperor Maximilian I and Mary of Burgundy, he married Joanna the Mad; she inherited the throne of Castile in 1504 but due to her insanity Philip assumed full control in 1506.

12 December 1474, King Henry IV of Castile died of a urinary blockage. His younger sister, Isabella, seized power, publically declaring herself as the new monarch. Her brother, known as Henry the Impotent, has been married twice but produced just one heir, Joanna, who was rumoured to have been fathered by a different man. Isabella seized her opportunity before an official successor to Henry IV could be proclaimed. She proved to be a capable and popular ruler, conquering Islamic Andalusia along with Ferdinand. She was the mother of Catharine of Aragon.

26 September 1468, Juan de Torquemada, Spanishchurchman, died in Rome (born 1388 in Valladolid)

13 November 1460, Prince Henry the Navigator died, aged 66.

27 June 1458, King Alfonso V of Aragon (also Alfonso I of Sicily and Sardinia), born 1385, died. He succeeded his father Ferdinand the Just in 1416,

See for territories of Castile and Leon, and Aragon and Navarre, within Spain.

21 July 1454, Juan II of Castile died and was succeeded by his son, Enrique.

2 June 1453, Alvaro de Luna, Constable of Castile, was executed after a show trial. The Spanish King, Juan II�s, second wife was distiurbed at Alvaro�s influence over him.

16 March 1453, Gonzalo Cordoba, Spanish statesman, was born (died 2 December 1515).

19 April 1452, Ferdinand II, King of Aragon, was born.

16 March 1452, Ferdinand V, King of Castile and Leon, was born (died 23 January 1516).

22 April 1451, Isabella, Queen of Castile and Leon was born.

12 June 1442, Alfonso V, King of Aragon, was crowned King pof Naples.

5 August 1435, King Alfonso V of Aragon was captured bythe Genoese near the island of Ponza, off western Italy. He was released following a treaty of alliance between Aragon and Milan, in which Alfonso�s claim to the throne of Sicily was recognised.

3 May 1428, Pedro Mendoza, Spanish statesman, was born (died 11 January 1495).

2 April 1416, Ferdinand I, King of Aragon, died.


King Henry III of Castile

25 December 1406, King Henry III of Castile died aged 27 after a despotic reign of 16 years (born 1390).

6 March 1405, Juan II, King of Castile, was born (died 21 July 1454).

29 June 1397, John II, King of Aragon, was born (died 20 January 1479).

9 October 1390, Juan I of Castile died aged 32 after an 11-year reign; his claims on the Portuguese throne had been thwarted. He was succeeded by his 11 year old son, of frail health, who ruled until 1406 as Henry III.


1379, Henry II Trastamara of Castile and Leon died aged 46. He was succeeded by his 12-year-old son who ruled until 1390 as Juan I.


Pedro the Cruel of Castile

23 March 1369, Pedro the Cruel, King of Castile and Leon, was murdered at age 34 by his brother, Henry. He then ruled for ten years as Henry II Trastamara.

3 April 1367, In the Hundred Year�s War, the English under the Black Prince defeated a Spanish and French army at the Battle of Navarrete. The Spanish Kingdom of Castile was in civil war, between rival claimants for the throne, Pedro and his brother Enrique. The French under Bertrand du Guesclin and the English under Edward the Black Prince intervened, backing Enrique and Pedro respectively. The French and English met at Najera (Navarrete), where English longbowmen massacred the French cavalry. Pedro gained the throne but never repaid the English for the expense of their army. The heavy French footsoldier casualties brought some relief to the countryside,with fewer unemployed soldiers roaming and plundering it.

10 January 1367, In honour of an alliance formed in 1362 between King Edward III of England and King Pedro of Castile, an English army left for Castile to restore Pedro to the throne, who had been deposed in 1366.

5 March 1366, In Spain Henry of Trastamare expelled Pedro I the Cruel and was crowned Henry II of Castille.

27/ March 1350, Alfonso IV of Castile and Leon died aged 38 of The Plague during the siege of Moorish-held Gibraltar. He was succeeded by his 16-year-old son whose excesses during his 19-year reign caused him to be known as Pedro the Cruel.

30 August 1334, Pedro the Cruel, King of Castile and Leon, was born.


21 July 1348, Battle of Epila. Loyalists to King Pedro IV of Aragon, defending his intention to have one of his daughters as heir to the kingdom, whereas the nobles wanted a male heir of their choice, defeated these nobles. Pedro IV then woithdrew the Charter that had been granted by earlier monarchs Pedro III and his son Alfonso III, by whoch the nobles had tried to nominate theor own candidate as heir.

13 October 1340. In alliance with Portugal, Alfonso XI of Castile conquered the Moors at the River Salado. This was the last attempt by the Moors to reverse the Reconquista.

1336, Alfonso IV of Aragon died aged 37 after a 9-year reign. He was succeeded by his 17-year-old son who ruled as Pedro IV until 1387.

25 August 1333, In Moorish southern Spain, Yusuf I succeeded his murdered brother Muhammed IV as King of Granada.

26 June 1319, A Spanish Castillian invasion of the Moorish Kingdom of Granada failed.

7 September 1312, Ferdinand IV, King of Castile and Leon, died.

15 June 1300, The city of Bilbao received its royal foundation charter.

18 June 1291, Alfonso III of Aragon died, leaving his domains to hisbrother James, who returned to Sicily.


King Sancho IV of Leon and Casttile

1295, King Sancho IV (el Bravo) of Leon and Castile died, aged 37 after a reign of 11 years. He was succeeded by his 9-year-old son, whose period of minority was a time of anarchy. However he ruled until 1312 as Ferdinand IV.

1292, The town of Tarifa was captured by Sancho IV of Castile from the Muslims (see 710 AD). The Muslims attempted to retake the town in 1294, besieging it, but were repulsed.

17 January 1287, King Alfonso III of Aragon conquered the island of Minorca from the Moors.

8 November 1286, Pedro the Great, King of Aragon, died aged 50. He was succeeded by his weak son, who ruled until 1291 as Alfonso III. He allowed the nobility to rebel, and anarchy became permanent in Aragon.

1286, Pedro the Great, King of Aragon, repelled a French invasion.

2 November 1285, Peter III, King of Aragon, died. He was succeeded by his son Alfonso III in Aragon, and by James, another son, in Sicily.


24 April 1284, King Alfonso X of Leon and Castile died in Seville. Born 1226, he succeeded his father Ferdinand III as king in 1252. He was deposed by his second son, Sancho, as king in 1282.

5 May 1282, Don Manuel Juan, Infante of Castile, was born.

1262, Cadiz was taken from the Moors.


Reign of Ferdinand III of Castile

1252, Ferdinand III of Castille died aged 53 after a 35-year reign. His death aborted plans to invade north Africa. He was succeeded by the learned Alfonso X who reigned until 1284.

1248, Seville was taken from the Moors.

1 December 1247, A rebellion arose among the Muslim subjects of the Crown of Aragon in the region of Valencia. As a punishment, the king issued an order of expulsion of the Muslims from his realm leading numerous people into exile in Andalusia and North Africa in the subsequent year.

22 May 1244, James I of Aragon took the Muslim-held city of Janita after several months of siege This success was followed by the capture of Biar later that year

28 September 1238, James I of Aragon captured the city of Valencia from the Muslims, who retreated to Granada

29 June 1236. Ferdinand III of Leon and Castile (see 24 September 1230) took Cordoba, with little resistance, from the Moors who had held it since the 8th century.

1232, The Moors were expelled from Majorca.

1232, The Moorish Nasrides Dynasty, which ruled Granada until 1492, began with Mohammed I, 29, who ruled Granada until 1273. He stiffened resistance to the Christian Reconquista.

24 September 1230. On the death of Alfonso IX of Leon, Ferdinand III of Castile was accepted as King of Leon, unifying the two kingdoms. See 29 June 1236.

1229, Aragon conquered the Balearic Islands.

15 September 1227, Almohad ruler, Idris, became ruler of Spain.

1224, The town of San Felipe Jativa was taken from the Arabs by King James I.

23 November 1221, Alfonso X (The Wise) was born in Castile (died 1284), son of King Ferdinand III and Beatrice of Swabia. He became King of Castile and Leon in 1252.

31 August 1217, Ferdinand III of Castile was declared of age at 18 and ruled for 35 years during which he ended the dynastic wars that had impoverished the country. As the wars ended, and the Moors were pushed back, Spanish agriculture revived.


7 April 1234, Sancho VII, last Spanish King of Navarre, died.

16 July 1212. . Battle of Navas de Tolosa, near Toledo Following the Almohad victory at Alarcos (1195), it seemed possible that the Reconquista could be reversed and Toledo fall to the Muslims. However the Almohad leader, Al-Mansur, was old and in il-health, and wished to retire to North Africa.. In 1211 Al-Mansur�s successor, Muhammad al Nasir, brought an Islamic army to Iberia to recapture Toledo.Pope Innocent III called for a Crusade against the Moors, leading to a loose alliance of the rival and disunited Kingdoms of Castile, Navarre, Aragon and Portugal, with French knights also joining an army led by Alfonso VIII of Castile. Despite internal divisions, the Christian army approached Al-Nasir�s camp, which was on a high plateau, and were shown a local shepherd�s path which enabled them to approach it in secret and mount a surprise attack. The Christians decisively defeated the Almohads. This victory however left the Kingdom of Castile in a difficult financial position as the numerous soldiers had to be paid by the treasury.

1203, The Almoravid were evicted from their last Spanish stronghold, the Balearic Islands.

18 July 1195, The Almohads won amajor victory over Christian forces at Alarcos. However they had to deal with internal dissentions and were unable to follow up this victory.

29 December 1177, The Order of Alcantara (founded 1156 as the Order of Saint Julian) received Papal approval. It was a military order of crusading knights, and played a part in the Reconquista of Spain from the Muslims.

1170, The Almohad ruler, Yaqub Yusuf, moved the capital of Morrocco-Spain from Marrakesh to Seville.

1160, The Almohad Muslim dynasty, which had succeeded the Almoravid dynasty in North Africa ca. 1100, now gained control of the Arab lands in Spain.

1158, Alfonso VII of Castile died, aged 32, in the Sierra Moreno, whilst returning form a campaign against the Almohads. Leon seceded as Alfonso�s infant became king to rule for 56 years as Alfonso VIII.

1158, The Order of Caltrava was established, when Spanish monks and knights fought the Almohads for possession of the fortress town of Caltrava. The order was given official recognition by Pope Alexander III, who attached it to the Cistercian Order. As the Reconquista proceeded, the Order became more involved in the politics of Castile and was attached to the Crown by Ferdcinand and Isabella.

7 October 1147, Almeria, one of the most important maritime and commercial centres of al-Andalus, fell into Christian hands after two months of siege

25 July 1139, King Alfonso Henriques I (1110-85) of Portugal defeated the Muslims at Ourique.

7 September 1134, King Alfonso I of Aragon and Navarre (acceeded 1105) died. He took Saragossa and Tarragona from the Muslims, heavily defeating them near Valencia in 1126.

17 July 1134, Alfonso, King of Aragon, was defeated by the Moors at Fraga.

11 December 1118. The Christians captured Saragossa, Spain, from the Muslims.

1109, Death of King Alfonso I of Castile and Leon. Born 1030, he acceded in 1065.

7/1099, El Cid died aged 59, after being defeated by the Almoravid at Cuenca. His widow held Valencia against the Moors until 1102.

17 June 1094. Valencia, Spain, was captured by the Christians under El Cid from the Arabs; the city surrendered due to starvation after a 20 month siege. His kingdom now extended over nearly all of Valencia and Murcia.

1091, The Almoravid Muslim dynasty gained control of Arab Spain, They were noted for their severe religious principles.

23 October 1086, The Almoravids from North Africa invaded Spain, defeating Alfonso�s army at Zallaqah this day.

25 May 1085. The Christian, Alfonso VI of Leon, captured Toledo (the old Visigothic capital) from the Arabs. This had been an Arab centre of science and learning.

28 October 1069, Death of Abbad-al-Motadid, Arab ruler in Spain.

24 June 1065, Ferdinand I, King of Castile and Leon, died.

See for territories of Castile and Leon, and Aragon and Navarre, within Spain.

8 May 1065, In Spain, Ramiro I of Aragon died whilst attacking the Moors.

1035, The House of Aragon was founded by Ramiro I, illegitimate son of Sancho the Great of Navarre. In 1131 it was united by marriage with the rulers of Barcelona.

30 November 1031, Hisham III, Umayyad Muslim ruler in Cordoba, was deposed by the city�s inhabitants.

20 April 1012, Suleiman was re-established as Caliph in Cordoba.

1009, The Balearic Islands became a separate Moorish Kingdom. This kingdom became notorious for piracy, and was the target of a Crusade by Pope Paschal II, with Catalan forces playing the main part.

1 October 976, Al Hakkam II, Caliph of Spain, died and was succeeded by his son, Hisham II. However from then until around 1002 the real power was with the Regent, Al-Mansour, who won major victories against Christian forces in 988 and 997.

939, The Arabs lost Madrid to the Kingdom of Leon.

16 January 929, Abd ar Rahman III, Umayyad Emir of Spain, declared himself Caliph, independent of Baghdad.

15 October 912, Abd Allah, Emir of Spain, died. He was succeeded by Abd ar Rahman III, under whom the Umayyad Dynasty reached the peak of its power and cultural achievements.

910, Death of Alfonso the Great, king of Leon, Galicia and Asturias.

866, Alfonso III, the Great (848-910) succeeded his father, Ordono I, as king of Leon, Galicia and Asturias. He repulsed Muslim attacks and extended his rule over parts of Portugal.

857, Founding of the Kingdom of Navarre.


Moorish invasion of Spain, and southern France

798, The Moors took the Balearic Islands.

15 May 756, Abd ar Rahman I was proclaimed Emir of Cordoba, which became the capital of Islamic Spain.

25 October 732. The Frankish General, Charles Martel, won a major victory over the Arabs at Poitiers. In 718 an Arab siege of Constantinople had been defeated. The Arabs had crossed the Pyrenees, sacked Bordeaux and Poitiers, and were advancing on the wealthy monastery of St Martin at Tours. Eudo, Duke of Aquitaine, appealed to Charles who brought the Frankish army south to help. The Arabs, their leader killed, retreated south, probably to put down a Berber uprising in north Africa. More early history of France here.

720, The Arabs invading Spain crossed the Pyrenees into France, and took Narbonne.

718, At the Battle of Covadonga, the Kingdom of Asturias, north-western Spain, defeated the Arabs and escaped occupation by them. However Islamic expansion continued in other regions and by the 720s they controlled an area from Provence to the borders of China.

713, Barcelona conquered by the Arabs.

712, Seville conquered by the Arabs.


Visigoths rule Spain

19 July 711, Battle of Guadalete: Umayyad Moors' victory over the Visigothic army. Visigothic king Roderic (Rodrigo in Spanish and Portuguese) died in the battle.

710, The Spanish town of Tarifa, in the far south, was conquered by the Moors � the first part of Spain to be occupied by them. It was retaken by the Spanish in 1292 after a long siege by Sancho IV of Castile.

705, The Visigothic Kingdom of Spain was split by civil war,leaving it open to an Arab invasion.

586, Death of Leovigild.

585, Leovigild conquered the whole of Spain.

567, The Visigoths under King Leovigild drove the Byzantines from western Spain.

534, Toledo became capital of the Visigoth Kingdom of Spain.

28 December 484, Alaric II, eighth king of the Visigoths in Spain, succeeded his father Euric or Evaric. His dominions included all of Spain, except for the north-west, and also Aquitaine and much of Provence.

4 October 456, The Visigoths under King Theodoric II, acting on orders of Avitus, invaded Spain with an army of Burgundians,Franks and Goths, They defeated the Suebi; this shattered the power of the Suebi. During the battle Rechiar was captured and later executed.

423, The Balearic Islands were seized by the Vandals.

416, The Vandal Kingdom in Spain was invaded by the Visigoths.


257, The Franks invaded Spain.

See also Roman Empire


Appendix 1 � Andorra

Demography of Andorra

2002, Andorra adopted the Euro.

1278, Andorra became an independent Republic. It had been claimed by the French Counts of Foix.

218 BCE, The Andosini, a tribe subdued by Hannibal, were the firsr recorded inhabitants of the area.


Appendix 2 � Gibraltar

Demography of Gibraltar

18 March 2002, 24,000 out of 27,000 Gibraltar residents protested at Britain;s plans to share sovereignty with Spain.

5 February 1985, The Gibraltar � Spain border fully reopened.

15 December 1982, The border between Spain and Gibraltar opened for the first time in 13 years, to pedestrians only.

8 January 1982. Spain ended its 12-year siege of Gibraltar and reopened the frontier. In return Britain ended its opposition to Spain joining the EEC and NATO. See 27 December 1978.

10 April 1980, Spain and the UK agreed to reopen the border with Gibraltar, closed since 1969.

4 July 1969. Franco offered Gibraltarians Spanish citizenship.

18 December 1968, The UN passed a Directive requiring the UK to return Gibraltar to Spain by 67 to 18 votes with 34 abstentions. The UK rejected the call, saying that Gibraltarians had voted to remain with the UK.

6 May 1968, Spain closed its border with Gibraltar to all but Spaniards.

14 June 1967. Gibraltar voted overwhelmingly to stay British. 12,318 voted for Britain, and 44 for Spanish rule. In 2002 the British government was considering sharing sovereignty with Spain but the Gibraltarian governor was to hold an unauthorised referendum, which he believed would show the majority wished to stay British.

5 October 1966, Spain closed the frontier with Gibraltar to all but pedestrian traffic.

3 February 1965, Spain began a blockade of Gibraltar.

10 September 1963. The people of Gibraltar voted overwhelmingly to remain under British rule.

6 February 1783, The siege of Gibraltar ended.

16 January 1780. British troops under Admiral Rodney defeated the Spanish, destroying all but four ships of their fleet, at Cape St Vincent. This temporarily lifted the siege of Gibraltar.

16 June 1779, The siege of Gibraltar by Spanish forces began. Spain declared war on Britain after promises of assistance form France in recovering Gibraltar and Florida.

9 November 1729. Spain signed the Treaty of Seville, renouncing its right to Gibraltar in favour of the British.

17 July 1713, Britain took possession of Gibraltar after it was awarded the territory under the Treaty of Utrecht

24 July 1707, Britain captured Gibraltar from Spain.

24 July 1704, Admiral Sir George Rooke and Sir Cloudesley Shovel captured Gibraltar from the Spanish, during the War of the Spanish Succession.Gibraltar was formally ceded to the UK by the Treaty of Utrecht, 1713.

1462, After a series of failed attacks and sieges, the Spanish under Alonzo de Arcos again recovered Gibraltar

1333, Vasco Perez de Maya, having failed to maintain the defences of Gibraltar, was obliged to cedc it to Mahomet IV after a 5-month siege.

1315, Ismail ben Ferez mounted a failed attack on Gibraltar.

1309, Alonzo Perez de Guzman recaptured Gibraltar for King Ferdinand IV.

929, A second great famine struck Spain; an earlier one had occurred in 919.

742, Gibraltar, known as Mons Calpe to the Romans, and Alybe to the Greeks, was fortified by Tariq, who had invaded Andalusia in 711. The name �Gibraltar� derives from Jebel Tariq (Mount Tariq).


See Roman Empire for conquest of Spain by Carthaginians.


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