Sweden; key historical events

Page last modified 25 November 2023

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See also Finland

Demography of Sweden


9 September 2018, Swedish elections produced a deadlock. Of 349 seats (majority = 175), the Left coalition received 144 seats, down 15 (40.6% of vote). The Centre Right coalition received 143 seats, no change (40.0% of vote). The third largest party was the anti-immigrant Populist Right party, Swedish Democrats, with 63 seats, up 14 (17.6% of vote). However none of the other parties were prepared to form a coalition with the Swedish Democrats. The full results were; Left = Social Democrats, 101 seats, -12 (28.4% of vote), Green Party 15 seats, -10 (4.3% of vote), and Left Party, 28 seats, +7 (7.9% of vote). Right � Moderates, 70 seats, -14 (19.8% of vote), Centre Party, 31 seats, +9 (8.6% of vote), Liberal Party, 19 seats, n/c (5.5% of vote), and Christian Democrats, 23 seats, +7 (6.4% of vote). Had the Green Party failed to make 4% they would have received no seats under Swedish election law.

13 August 2018, Over 100 cars were burnt in co-ordinated attacks across several Swedish cities. The disorder was widely blamed on migrant gangs.

6 April 2017, An Islamist terrorist drove a lorry into crowds shopping in the centre of Stockholm; 4 people were killed.

25 May 2013, A sixth night of rioting in the Swedish capital, Stockholm; many cars were burnt, mainly in poorer areas.

14 September 2003, In a referendum, Sweden rejected joining the Euro.

11 September 2003, Anna Lindh, Swedish Foreign Minister, died.

10 September 2003, Anna Lindh, foreign minister of Sweden, was fatally stabbed whilst shopping.

1999, The Swedish cabinet became the first in the world to have a majority of women.

27 August 1997, Norway and Sweden admitted that, between 1934 and 1967, they sterilised thousands of people deemed �substandard�, including the disabled.

13 November 1994, In a referendum, Swedish voters chose to join the European Union. They joined in 1995.

13 February 1992, Carl Bildt announced the end of Sweden�s policy of neutrality.

28 February 1986. The Swedish Prime Minister, Olof Palme, was assassinated, and his wife Lisbeth wounded, in an ambush in central Stockholm. Neither the perpetrator nor a motive were ever discovered.

19 September 1982, In Sweden, the Social Democrats under Olof Palme won the elections.

13 October 1978, A new Swedish Government, minority Liberal, took power under Ola Ullsten.

5 October 1978, The Swedish Centre-Right Government collapsed over the issue of nuclear power.

19 September 1976, Swedish general election ended 40 years of Social Democrat government led by Olof Palme. Thorbjorn Falldin, Conservative, became Prime Minister.

27 February 1974, New Constitution in Sweden stripped the monarchy of all remaining powers. The Riksdag (Parliament) became unicameral.

15 September 1973, Gustavus VI, King of Sweden since 1950, died aged 90. He was succeeded by his 23-year-old son, Carl Gustavus XVI.

10/1969, In Sweden, Olaf Palme was elected Party Leader and Prime Minister, succeeding Tage Erlander who had been in power since 1946.

1960, Sweden joined the European Free Trade Area (EFTA).

21 July 1957, Stefan Lofven, Swedish Prime Minister (2014-18), was born in Stockholm.

19 June 1957, Anna Lindh, Swedish politician, was born.

9 March 1957, Mona Sahlin, leader of the Swedish Social Democratic Party, was born in Sollefte�, Sweden.

29 October 1950, Gustav V, King of Sweden since 1907, died aged 92, after a 43-year reign. He was succeeded by his 61-year old son, Gustavus VI Adolf,who ruled until 1973.

October 1948, The Swedish Parliament approved the creation of a National Health Service.

26 January 1947, Prince Gustav of Sweden was killed in a air crash near Copenhagen

30 April 1946, Carl XVI Gustaf, King of Sweden since 1973, was born in Solna

10 April 1940. Sweden insisted on its neutrality during World War Two; however it allowed German forces to transit its territory to invade Norway.

20 September 1936, In Sweden, the Social Democrats won the General Election with 46% of the vote.

24 September 1932, In Sweden, Socialist Per Albin Hansson became Prime Minister. He retained this office until 1946, and his Socialist party remained in government until 1976. There was a severe recession in Sweden at this time.

12 March 1932, Ivar Kreuger, 52, Swedish civil engineer and industrialist committed suicide.

14 May 1931, In Sweden, soldiers shot and killed striking workers at Adalen.

1919, Universal adult suffrage in Sweden.

1917, A new Swedish Liberal Government limited exports that were helping the German war effort.

16 September 1917, General election in Sweden, the Liberal Swedish Social Democratic Party gained control from the conservative Electoral League, winning 86 of the 230 seats in the Riksdag.

1914 - 1917, Sweden was nominally neutral during World War One, however they supplied Germany with war goods.

4 August 1909, General Strike began in Sweden over wages and working conditions.

8 December 1907, King Oscar II of Sweden died, aged 78, after a 35-year reign; he also ruled Norway until 1905. His eldest son, Gustav V, 49, became King, and ruled until 1950.

29 July 1905, Dag Hammarskjold, Swedish Secretary-General of the United Nations, was born in Jonkoping.


Separation of Norway from Sweden, 1905

26 October 1905. Norway and Sweden ended their union. King Oscar II of Sweden formally abdicated the crown of Norway.

24 September 1905, The Swedish Riksdag (Parliament) agreed to Norwegian independence.

13 August 1905, A referendum in Norway found 80% agreed with the separation from Sweden.

7 June 1905. Norway declared independence from Sweden (see 4 November 1814).Since the end of the Napoleonic Wars, Norway had been a self-governing subject of the Swedish Crown. In 1905 the provincial parliament voted to cut off relations with Sweden, and a plebiscite backed the move by 386,208 to 184 votes. In 1397 Margaret I succeeded in uniting Denmark, Norway and Sweden. In 1527 Gustav I cancelled that union, and Norway was ruled by Denmark until 1814, when it was ceded to Sweden under the Treaty of Kiel. Calls for Norwegian independence grew, especially after the adoption of universal suffrage in 1898.


13 June 1901, Tage Erlander, Prime Minister of Sweden 1946-69, was born in Ransater. He made Sweden into a welfare state.

1900, In Sweden, the Liberal party was formed, to fight for an extended franchise. It first took power in 1905 under Karl Staaff.

1890, Exploitation of the great iron ore deposits at Kiruna began; see railways (Sweden) for transport development here.

11 November 1882, Gustav VI, King of Sweden, was born the eldest son of Gustav V.

18 September 1872, Charles IV of Sweden died at Malmo, aged 46. He was succeeded by his 43-year-old brother, as Oscar II.

1866, The Swedish Riksdag (Parliament) was made bicameral.

8 July 1859, King Oskar I of Sweden died aged 60 after a 15-year reign. He was succeeded by his 33-year-old son who reigned as Charles XV until 1872.

16 June 1858, Gustav V, King of Sweden from 1907 to 1950, was born the son of Oscar II.

18 October 1854, Salomon August Andree, Swedish engineer, was born in Grenna.

21 October 1853, Alfred Nobel was born in Stockholm.

22 December 1846, Oscar Josef Alin, Swedish politician, was born in Falun (died 31 December 1900 in Uppsala).

8 March 1844, Charles XIV, King of Sweden, died aged 81, after a 26-year reign. He was succeeded by his son, Oskar I, aged 44.

7 February 1837, Gustavus IV, King of Sweden, died. King of Sweden from 1792; he was born in 1778.

21 January 1829, Oscar II, King of Sweden and Norway, was born.

3 May 1826, Charles XV, King of Sweden, was born (died 18 September 1872).

5 February 1818, Charles XIII of Sweden died aged 69 after a 9-year reigh. He was succeeded by Crown Prince Jean Bernadotte (55), who now became Charles XIV. He ruled until 1844.

1815, Congress of Vienna. Sweden ceded territory to Russia and Denmark. A long period of peace began.

4 November 1814, Norway united with Sweden, see 7 June 1905.

27 December 1813, Gustaf Adolf Reuterholm, Swedish statesman, died in Schleswig.

3 March 1813, Britain agreed with Sweden that it would not oppose a union of Sweden and Norway.


Sweden and Napoleonic Wars

17 November 1810. Sweden declared war on Britain.

For more on Napoleonic wars see France-Germany

20 October 1810, Jean Baptiste Bernadotte arrived in Sweden as Regent (see 21 August 1810), with the name Charles John, whilst King Charles XIII was ill.

21 August 1810, Jean Baptiste Bernadotte, French soldier, was elected Crown Prince by the Swedish Riksdag, see 20 October 1810.

28 May 1810, Crown Prince Christian of Sweden died during a fit of apoplexy.

6 January 1810, By the treaty of Paris, Sweden joined the Continental system, closing its ports to british trade. In return, Pomerania was returned by France to Sweden.


1 March 1810, The world�s first Ombudsman, Lars Mannerheim, was appointed in Sweden.

17 September 1809, In February 1808 Tsar Alexander invaded Finland, then part of Sweden, without a declaration of war.On this day the Treaty of Fredrikshamn ended the war; Sweden ceded Finland and the Aland Islands to Russia. Sweden was unable to secure an undertaking by Russia not to fortify the Aland Islands, which were close to Stockholm, but see 30 March 1856.

5 June 1809, Charles XIII became King of Sweden.


King Gustavus IV

29 March 1809, King Gustavus IV of Sweden officially abdicated. This followed military defeats in the war with Denmark.

13 March 1809, Swedish Army officers seized King Gustavus IV of Sweden and put him under house arrest in the royal apartments. A provisional government was announced, led by the Duke of Sudermania. On 29 March 1809 Gustavus IV officially abdicated, and on 10 May 1809 the Swedish Government announced that the Gustavus family would not regain the throne.

30 April 1800, Olaf Wallqvist, Swedish statesman, died (born 1755)

1 November 1778, Gustavus IV, King of Sweden, was born.


King Gustavus III, reigned1771-92

29 March 1792, King Gustavus III of Sweden died, aged 46 (acceded 1771). He was succeeded by his son, 13-year old Gustavus IV.

16 March 1792, Gustavus III, King of Sweden, was shot at a masked ball; he died on 29 March 1792. King of Sweden from 1771, he was born in 1746. He was succeeded by his 13-year-old son who ruled as Gustavus IV until his forced abdication in 1809.

14 August 1790, The Treaty of Verela ended the Swedish-Russian War, with no significant territorial changes.

24 August 1789, The Russian Navy destroyed the Swedish fleet in the Gulf of Finland.

3 April 1789, King Gustavus III of Sweden passed an Act of Unbity and Security, giving him absolute powers.

19 August 1772, Gustavus III of Sweden re-established an absolute monarchy, as he removed the Riksdag�s power to legislate. However he also liberalised, abolishing torture and proclaiming the freedom of the press and of religious worship.

24 January 1746, Gustavus III, King of Sweden, was born.


29 March 1772, Emanuel Swedenborg, Swedish mystic, died in London (born 29 January 1688 in Stockholm)

12 February 1771, King Adolphus Frederick of Sweden died, aged 60, in Stockholm. He was succeeded by his 25-year old son, Gustavus III.

26 January 1763, Charles XIV, King of Sweden, was born.

2 June 1761, Jonas Alstromer, Swedish industrialist, died (born 7 January 1685 in Alingsas, Vestergotland).

9 October 1757, Charles X, King of Sweden, was born.

7 October 1748, Charles XIII, King of Sweden, was born (died 5 February 1818).

17 April 1742, Arvid Horn, Swedish statesman, died (born 6 April 1664).


Great Northern War

23 January 1743, Russia and Sweden began negotiations to end their conflict.

1720, Ulrika Eleanora abdicated in favour of her husband Frederick of Hesse, aged 44. He ruled until 1751 as Frederick I, but the new Constitution had taken away much of the monarchy�s power.

11 December 1718, Charles XII, King of Sweden, was killed after a 21-year reign, aged 36, shot at the Fortress of Frederiksten as he peered across at the Norwegians. He was succeeded by his sister, Ulrika Eleanora, aged 30, who was made Queen on condition that she accept a new Constitution drafted by the Riksdag. She ended the Great Northern War.

24 December 1715, Swedish troops occupied Norway.

11 November 1714, Charles XII of Sweden arrived at Stralsund, having fled from virtual Tirkish house arrest.

6 August 1714, Naval Battle of Gangut, in the Baltic; Russia defeated Sweden.

14 May 1710, Frederick Adolphus, King of Sweden from 1743, was born (died 12 February 1771).

28 February 1710, Sweden defeated a force of 14,000 Danes at the Battle of Helsingborg.

8 July 1709, The Battle of Poltava (in modern day eastern Ukraine). Peter the Great of Russia destroyed the Swedish army. Hanover and Denmark joined with Russia in attacking the Swedish Empire.

9 October 1708, Battle of Lesnaya. 11,000 Swedes under Loewenhaupt were defeated by a larger Russian force just east of the River Dnieper.

9 September 1708, The Swedes forced a bried engagement with the Russians at Dobry. However the Russians were pursuing a scorched earth policy, retreating as winter loomed. The Swedish army began to run short of food and fodder for the horses. However Charles XII decided not to retreat, but to move to the Ukraine to join the Cossacks under Ivan Mezeppa, who had secretly agreed to mount an uposising against the Russians with 30,000 men. However this was a military blunder by Charles, who should have consolidated his position and supplies before marching deeper into Russia.

Winter looms: the war turns against Sweden


8 July 1708, Charles XII now advanced to the River Dnieper at Mogilev.

4 July 1708, Battle of Holovsin; Sweden defeated Russia.

29 June 1708, Charles XII crossed the River Berezina at Borisov.

26 January 1708, Charles XII of Sweden took Grodno, which had bgeen abandoned by Peter.

1 January 1708, Charles XII of Sweden invaded Russia, crossing the now-frozen River Vistula with 45,000 men.

3 February 1706, The Swedes under Karl G Rehnskold routed a laerger Polish army under Augustus.

4 July 1704, Peter recaptured Dorpat.

13 April 1703, Battle of Pultusk; Sweden defeated Russia, and then laid siege to Thorn.

18 July 1702, Battle of Hummelsdorf; Russia defeated Sweden.

2 July 1702, Battle of Kliszow. Charles XII routed a larger Saxon-Polish army, then marched through hostile territory to seize Cracow.

7 January 1702, Battle of Errestfer; Russia defeated Sweden.

10 June 1701, Swedish forces under King Charles XII relieved Riga, which had been under siege by Saxony troops (Great Northern War). Charles XII then went on to invade Poland.

20 November 1700, Sweden defeated the Russians at Narva.

13 November 1700, Charles XII, with 8,000 men, advanced on Narva. Peter of Russia chose discretion over valour and fled.

6 October 1700, Charles XII landed at Livonia with a small force, intending to relieve Riga. Awaiting reinforcements, he decided to relieve Narva instead.

4 August 1700, Charles XII attacked Zealand across supposedly un-navigable waters against the advice of his Admiral, and advanced on Copenhagen. Denmark immediately sued for peace.


1699, Drottingholm Palace, near Stockholm, was completed.

14 December 1697, Charles XII was crowned King of Sweden, aged 15.

7 May 1697, The Royal Castle, Tree Kronor (Three Crowns) in Sweden burnt down, destroying a large part of the Royal Library.


King Charles XI

5 April 1697, Death of King Charles XI of Sweden, aged 40, after a 37-year reign. He was succeeded by his 14-year-old son, Charles XII, who ruled until 1718, see 14 December 1697.

19 April 1689, Queen Christina of Sweden died (born 1626); she had abdicated in 1654.

29 January 1688, Emmanuel Swedenborg, Swedish mystic, was born.

7 January 1685, Jonas Alstromer, Swedish industrialist, was born in Alingsas, Vestergotland. He died 2 June 1761.

30 April 1683, France, Brandenburg-Prussia, and Denmark agreed that Sweden should be expelled from German territories.

17 June 1682, Charles XII, King of Sweden, was born (died 1718).

1680, The city of Karlskrona, Sweden, was founded by King Charles XI.

2 September 1680, Per Brahe, Swedish statesman, died in Visingborg (born near Stockholm 18 February 1602).

14 July 1677, At the Battle of Landskrona, Sweden defeated Denmark.

31 May 1677, Danish ships defeated a Swedish naval force.

4 December 1676, The Swedish town of Lund was defended in the Battle of Lund, one of the bloodiest battles fought in Scandinavia.

11 June 1676, Battle of Entholm, Northern Wars. The Danish fleet under Admiral van Tromp defeated the Swedes.

25 May 1676, Battle of Jasmund. The Danes under Admiral Niels Juel defeated the Swedish Navy.

1672, King Charles XI, now aged 16, took full power, from a corrupt Regency; he reigned until 1697.

6 April 1664, Arvid Horn, Swedish statesman, was born (died 17 April 1742).

16 September 1663, The Swedish Collegium Medicorum was founded. This later became the Swedish National Board of Health.

3 May 1660, At the Peace of Oliva (near Danzig), Frederick William ceded Eastern Pomerania to Sweden.


King Charles X

13 February 1660, Charles X of Sweden died, aged 37. He was succeeded by his 4-year old son, Charles XI. Also this day the Treaty of Copenhagen ended hostilities between Sweden and Denmark. The Danes ceded the province of Scania, southern tip of Scandinavia, to Sweden.

25 June 1656, The Treaty of Mareinburg was concluded between Sweden and Brandenburg-Prussia.The Poles under John Casimir had expelled the Swedes, and under this Treaty Brandenburg-Prussia was promised part of the spoils should Poland be defeated by Sweden.

24 November 1655, Charles XI, King of Sweden, was born (died 5 April 1697).


28 August 1654, Swedish Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna died (born 1583).

16 June 1654, Queen Christina of Sweden abdicated in favour of her cousin, Charles Gustavus (Charles X). There had been discontent at her luxurious lifestyle and failure to produce an heir. She had sold off large amounts of Crown Property to support the 500 nobles she had created . She fled disguised in men�s clothes as �Count Dohna�, to settle in Rome.Meanwhile Denmark felt uneasy at the accession of Charles X, fearing his aggressive expansionist attitude. The invasion of Poland by Sweden (July 1654) was a relief to Denmark.

7 April 1651, Lennart Torstensson, Swedish soldier, died in Stockholm (born 1603)

29 July 1647, Carl Piper, Swedish statesman, was born in Stockholm (died 29 May 1716 in Schlusselburg)

1645, Sweden acquired Gotland from Denmark.

13 October 1644, Naval Battle of Fehmarn. In the Fehmarn Strait, Baltic, the Swedish navy under Karl Gustav Wrangel defeated the Danes under Pros Mund. The Danes lost 1200 men to the Swedes 100.

10 May 1641, Johan Baner, Swedish soldier during the Thirty Years War, died in Halberstadt (born in Djursholm Castle 23 June 1596).


Swedish campaigns to acquire the southern shore of the Baltic, see Germany for main history, also see Poland.

16 November 1632, Gustavus II, King of Sweden from 1611 (born 1594), was killed as his army gained victory in the Battle of Lutzen (Thirty Years War) near Leipzig. He was succeeded by his 6-year old daughter, Christina; in the interim, Sweden was governed by Count Axel Oxenstierna.

23 January 1630, Under the Treaty of Barwalde, Sweden agreed, in return for an annual tribute of one million pounds to King Gustavus Adolphus, to respect te neutrality of Bavaria and the Catholic League.

25 September 1629,The Treaty of Altmark ended the Polish-Swedish war, for six years. Gustavus of Sweden was now, summer 1627, to start a campaign in northern Germany.


10 August 1628, The Swedish flagship Vasa sank on her maiden voyage at Stockholm.

8 December 1626, Queen Christina of Sweden was born.

8 November 1622, Charles X, King of Sweden, was born.

1621, Sweden seized Riga.

27 February 1617, The Treaty of Stolbovo ended the Ingrian War between Sweden and Russia.Sweden gained Ingermanland and Karelia.

20 January 1613, The Peace of Knared. Sweden paid a large ransom for the return of the fortress of Alvsborg, on the frontier with Denmark.


Charles IX died (1604-11)

30 October 1611, Charles IX of Sweden died aged 61, having ruled since 1604. He was succeeded by his 16-year old son, Gustavus II.

4 April 1611, The Kalmar War began when Denmark declared war on Sweden.Danish troops took the Swedish port of Kalmar, hoping to conquer the whole country.

12 March 1610, Swedish troops under Jacob de la Gardie took Moscow.

15 March 1607, Duke Charles of Sodermalmland was crowned King of Sweden, a title he had held since 1604.

27 September 1604, Battle of Kircholm. Newly-crowned Swedish King Charles IX landed in Estonia with an army of 14,000 men and marched on Riga. Chodkiewicz, with 8,000 me, two-thirds cavalry, charged and routed the swedes. Charles was almost captured, and 9,000 Swedes killed.

20 March 1604, The Lutheran Duke Charles of Sodermalmland assumed the title of King Charles IX of Sweden.

Charles IX acceded


18 February 1602, Per Brahe, Swedish statesman, was born near Stockholm (died in Visingborg 2 September 1680).

23 June 1596, Johan Baner, Swedish soldier during the Thirty Years War, was born in Djursholm Castle (died in Halberstadt 10 May 1641).

9 December 1594, Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, was born.

1592, Swedish King John III died aged 55, having failed to Romanise the country. He was succeeded by his 28-year-old son Sigismund, who had been King of Poland since 1587. Sigismund married the Austrian Archduchess Anne.

15 January 1582, Ivan IV, The Terrible, of Russia ceded, at the Peace of Zapoli, Livonia and Polotsk to Stephen Bathory of Poland. He also ceded this day, by the Truce of Ilyusa, Ingria to Sweden. Muscovy lost the Baltic seaboard for over a century.


King Eric XIV

24 February 1577, Former Swedish King Eric XIV died at Orbyhus prison, allegedly poisoned by the prison Governor, Johan Henriksen.

10 March 1575, The former Swedish King Eric XIV had become a source of trouble for the State, with three rebellions hoping to reinstate him having to be suppressed since his deposition for insanity in 1568. This day a formal sentence of death was passed upon him.

13 December 1570, The Peace of Stettin ended the war between Sweden and Denmark, recognising Swedish independence.

25 January 1569, The Swedish Riksdag confirmed the choice of new King and formally deposed Eric XIV.

30 September 1568, King Eric XIV of Sweden was deposedby the Swedish army and nobility after several years of worsening insanity. He was succeeded by his 31-year-old brother who reiged until 1592 as John III.

4 July 1568, King Eric XIV of Sweden, having recovered his sanity somewhat, married Karin at Stockholm.

16 January 1567, King Eric XIV of Sweden, already showing signs of incipient insanity, arrived at the Riksdag in Upsala where he delivered a speech condemning the treachery of the nobility.

15 June 1566, In Sweden, Count Nils was ritually humiliated by King Eric XIV, who was fearful that the power of the Swedish aristocracy might supersede that of the monarchy.

30 May 1563, The Nordic Seven Years War began between Denmark and Sweden.

4 October 1562, Duke John of Sweden married Catherine, daughter of King Sigismund I of Poland. He also pledged to help Poland conquer Livonia (approximately, modern-day Estonia and Latvia). This was a breach of the Arbiga Articles (drawn up by King Eric XIV on 15 April 1561 at Arboga) which proscribed the royal dukes from making any political treaties without Royal assent. Eric sent an army. 10,000 strong, to John�s Duchy of Finland to seize him and bring him back to Sweden.

6/1561, Eric XIV was crowned King of Sweden at Upsala.

15 April 1561, King Eric XIV of Sweden summoned a Riksdag at Arboga which drew up the Arboga Articles this day, proscribing the power of the royal dukes, John and Charles.

29 September 1560, Gustavus Vasa, King of Sweden, died. His son Eric XIV, who had been about to sail for England to propose marriage to Queen Elizabeth I, now hastened back to Stockholm.


25 June 1560, Gustavus I of Sweden abdicated, aged 64. King of Sweden from 1523, he was born in 1496. He was succeeded by his son, Charles IX.

1533, Eric XIV, King of Sweden 1561-68, was born (died 1577).

1527, Evangelical Lutheranism was established as the State Religion.

24 June 1526, Religious reform began in Sweden, under King Gustavus I Vasa. The Swedish Diet accepted the King�s demand for Royal control of the Swedish Church and all its assets.


Union of Kalmar 1397 - 1523

6 June 1523, Gustavus Vasa, aged 27, was elected King of Sweden, and finally established full independence from Denmark. End of the Kalmar Union. This was confirmed by the Treaty of Malmo, 1524.

24 August 1522, Gustavus Vasa was appointed administrator of Sweden and promised to free the whole country from Danish rule. In November 1522 the Danish nobility also rebelled against King Christian II.

30 January 1522, The powerful German port of Lubeck allied with Gustavus Vasa of Sweden, against Danish King Christian II.

2/1521, A popular revolt against Christian II. Gustavus Vasa captured Uppsala.

8 November 1520, The Stockholm Bloodbath. King Christian II killed leading Swedish nobles and churchmen, starting a national revolt under the future leader Gustavus Vasa.

4 November 1520, Christian was crowned King of Sweden.

18 January 1520, Christian II of Denmark defeated the Swedes at Lake Malar. The Swedish regent, Sten Sture the Younger, died of his wounds on 3 February 1520, and Christian II could now become King of Sweden also.

1513, King John I of Denmark (who was also King John II of Sweden, 1497-1501), died after a 32-year reign. He was succeeded by his 32-year-old son as King Christian II of Denmark and Norway, but Sweden refused to accept his rule.

2 January 1512, Swedish Regent Svante Sture died. The Council of State elected the pro-Danish Bishop Gustave Trolle as his successor.

28 October 1497, John of Denmark (reigned 1481-1513) defeated the Swedes, entered Stockholm, and revived thye Kalmar Union.

12 May 1496, Gustavus Vasa, King of Sweden, was born.

15 May 1470,Charles VIII, King of Sweden, died

20 June 1448, The Swedish nobility chose Karl Knuttson as King; however the Danes chose Count Christian of Oldenburg.

5 January 1448, In Helsingborg, Sweden, Christopher III of Bavaria, King of Denmark, Norway and Sweden died. The Kalmar Union temporarily dissolved.

28 October 1412, Margaret, Queen of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, died.

20 June 1397. The Union of Kalmar united Denmark, Norway, and Sweden under one monarch. See 1380.


1380, Hakon, King of Norway, died. His surviving wife was Queen Margaret (born 1353, married 1363, and daughter of Waldemar III, King of Denmark). Her son Olaf died in 1387, which meant she became ruler of Denmark also. She defeated Albert, King of Sweden, thereby gaining that country too. Margaret then instituted the Union of Kalmar, 1397, to permanently unite these three countries. Margaret died in 1412.

23 July 1373, St Bridget, patron saint of Sweden, and founder of the Briggitine order, died.

30 November 1363, The Swedish nobles forced the abdication of Magnus II Eriksson at age 47 after a weak 44-year reign. He was freplaced by their puppet, Albert of Mecklenburg, who became Albert II, and ruled until 1387.

8 July 1319, Three-year-old Magnus Eriksson was elected king of Sweden, thus uniting it with Norway. His mother Ingeborg of Norway was given a place in the regency in both Sweden and Norway.

18 December 1290, Sweden�s King Magnus Ladulos died aged 50 after an 11-year reign. He was succeeded by his 10-year-old son who was crowned Birger III in 1302; he ruled until his exile in 1318.

21 October 1266, Binger Jarl, who founded the city of Stockholm, died.

1255, The city of Stockholm was founded, on an island in a fjord, by Binger Jarl.

15 July 1240. Alexander Nevski defeated the Swedish army, led by General Briger Jarl, on the banks of the Neva.

1150, King Sverker of Sweden was deposed after a 16-year reign that has amalgamated the Swedes and Goths. He was succeeded by Eric IX, who ruled until 1160.

1090, King Ingo of Sweden acceded (died 1112).

10161035, Under King Canute the Great, all of Scandinavia and England were united.

993, Sweden�s first Christian ruler, Olaf Skutkonung, acceded. Son of Eric the Conqueror, he ruled until his death in 1024.

517, The first documented Viking raid on Gaul. The Viking King Hygelac was killed and his fleet defeated.

600s, The Svear, from which the name �Sweden� derives�, extended their control across much of central Sweden.

500, Danes from Scania (southern Sweden) settled in Jutland (Denmark).

8,000 BCE, Start of hunter-gatherer peoples in Scandinavia, as the climate warmed.


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