Chronography of the USA
Page last modified 6/9/2022
For Hawaii Click Here
For Indigenous American Nations, Click Here
See Road transport for rising US auto production, early 20th century.
USA Urban Growth � Image of Chicago, 1908 and 1970 here
USA Urban Growth � Map of Denver area here
USA Urban Growth � Washington DC, 1785, 1795 and present-day
USA Urban Growth � Washington urban sprawl
US Bureau of Economic Analysis, https://www.bea.gov/
US Bureau of Labor, https://www.bls.gov/
US Census Bureau, https://www.census.gov/
US population data, https://www.census.gov/popclock/
US Presidents born, nominated, elected, died � see Appendix 3 below
Alaska � see Appendix 4 below
California � see Appendix 5 below
Florida � see Appendix 6 below
US National Parks, see Appendix 7 below
As MarkTwain said: �Both politicians and nappies need to be changed often and for the same reason!�
14.0, Unabomber, 1978-98
7/5/2021, A cyberiattack by a group called Darkside shut down the crucial Colonial oil pipeline taking petrol from Texas to supply the east coast of the USA. The pipeline was down for several days, causing motorists to panic-buy fuel.
13/1/2021, After a Senate vote, President Trump became the first US President to be impeached twice. This second impeachment was based on his alleged incitement of the Capitol Hill rioters of 6/1/2021.
6/1/2021, In Washington DC, USA, a mob of several thousand Republican Trump supporters stormed into the Capitol Buildings and occupied them for several hours. They were protesting that the 2020 Presidential Election result, in which Democrat Joe Biden, won, had been falsified.
25/5/2020, In Minneapolis, a Black man, George Floyd, bought some cigarettes at a shop and paid with a US$ 20 note. The shopkeeper accused Mr Floyd of passing a counterfeit note; Mr Floyd refused to return the cigarettes. The shopkeeper called the police. The police handcuffed Mr Floyd, then knelt on his neck; he died of suffocation. This event started a series of �Black Lives Matter� marches and demonstrations that spread across the entire USA and several European countries. A minority of the demonstrators also looted shops and caused property damage. In Bristol a statue of the slave trader and local philanthropist Edward Colston was pulled from its plinth in Bristol UK and thrown in the harbour. There were concerns that demonstrators were not social-distancing and would spread a further wave of Covid-19.
22/3/2019, Robert Mueller completed his report on Russian interference in the 2016 US Presidential election.
26/2/2019, The longest US Government shutdown in history, 35 days, ended as President Trump backed down before
opposition in (Democrat-controlled) Congress in a dispute over funding� for a �wall� (or, steel barrier) to keep out migrants on the Mexican border. However Trump later declared an �emergency� so as to try and secure funding for the barrier by alternative means, by using emergency powers to take funding from other areas of government.
11/1/2019, The USA began to pull its forces out of Syria. Russia, ally of Syrian President Assad, welcomed the news, as Assad appeared to have won the Syrian Civil War. There were concerns that the US move could allow ISIS to regroup, or expose the Kurds to attacks from Turkey.
8/5/2018, President Trump of the US unilaterally pulled out of the Iran Nuclear Deal, arranged by his predecessor President Obama, under which Iran received financial aid in return for curbing its nuclear missiles programme.
2/10/2017, Early in the morning, a gunman opened fire in Las Vegas. Shooting from the Mandalay Bay Hotel, he killed 58 and injured over 500. He shot himself dead as policed closed in. The gunman was initially alleged to be ISIS related but in fact there was no link to any terrorist organisation. The motive remains unknown.
27/1/2017, President Trump of the US issued a controversial executive order instituting a temporary travel ban on the entry of people to the US from seven mainly-Muslim countries. The ban was challenged and overturned in the US Courts.
12/6/2016, An Islamist gunman, Omar Mateen, entered a gay nightclub in Orlando, Florida, and killed 50 people. It was the worst massacre in recent US history.
7/12/2015, Donald Trump, contender for the Republican Presidential nomination, called for a ban on all Muslims entering the US, after an Islamic gunman shot 14 dead in San Bernardino, California, whilst the conflict with ISIS was still ongoing. There were widespread protests at his comments, and over 550,000 people in the UK signed a petition to ban him from Britain.
21/8/2015, Britain and Iran re-opened their embassies in each other�s capitals. This followed a nuclear agreement between Iran and the USA organised by US President Obama (but not yet ratified by US Congress).
15/4/2013, The Boston Marathon race was hit by two bombs, killing 3 and injuring 284.
17/9/2012, Occupy Wall Street protests began in the USA
16/8/2012, Julian Assange, founder of Wikileaks,� was officially given political asylum by Ecuador.
20/7/2012, James Eagan Holmes, 25, entered a cinema in Aurora, Colorado, USAA, where the film Batman was showing and shot dead 12 people, injuring another b58l. Holmes told police he was the �Joker�. There was pressure on IUS President Obama to tighten gun laws.
4/4/2011, In the US, Barack Obama announced his intention to stand for re-election for a second term.
28/11/2010, Wikileaks released over 250,000 American diplomatic cables, of which 100,000 which were �secret� or �confidential�.
19/9/2010, The BP oil well, Deepwater Horizon, was capped after spilling millions of barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico.
25/7/2010, Wikileaks released 90,000 covert and classified documents relating to the US occupation of Afghanistan, 2004-2010.
20/4/2010, The Deepwater Horizon oil platform in the Gulf of Mexico exploded, killing 11 workers. Major oil pollution ensued.
27/1/2010, J D Salinger, reclusive author of �Catcher in the Rye�, died aged 91.
25/8/2009, Veteran US Senator Edward Kennedy died,
25/6/2009, The American entertainer Michael Jackson died (born 29/8/1958).
18/11/2008, Heads of the big three US car manufacturers asked the US government for assistance during the ongoing Credit Crunch.� They said their companies were important as job providers.
1/8/2007, In the USA, 13� motorists died when a road bridge over the River Mississippi collapsed during the rush hour in Minneapolis. 50 cars plunged 20 metres into the river. An investigation found that steel plates holding up the bridges were too thin to bear the weight of the bridge and cars.
16/4/2007, Student Cho Seung Hui went on a shooting rampage at Virginia Tech University, killing 32 staff and students. Cho then shot himself.
27/12/2006, Former US President Gerald Ford died aged 93.
19/11/2006, Muslim women in New York City aimed to start a Koran Council to interpret strict sharia law
2/10/2006, In� the USA, 26 year old gunman Charles Carl Roberts burst into an Amish school in Pennsylvania and killed several girls, before shooting himself dead.
27/9/2006, A hostage situation at Platte Canyon High School near Bailey, Colorado, United States ended with the death of the gunman.
17/9/2006, Patricia Lawford Kennedy, younger sister of President Kennedy, died (born 6/5/1924)
13/9/2006, Ann Richards, Governor of Texas, died (born 1/9/1933)
26/4/2006, Construction of the Freedom Tower in New York began. It was on the site of the Twin Towers destroyed in the 9-11 attacks in 2001.
28/3/2006, Caspar Weinberger, US Secretary of Defence, died (born 18/8/1917)
30/1/2006, Coretta Scott King, widow of Martin Luther King, died (born 27/4/1927)
2/12/2005, Kenneth Boyd became the 1,000th person to be executed in the USA since capital punishment was re-introduced in 1976.
29/8/2005, Hurricane Katrina hit the southern and south �east states of the USA, with winds of up to 175 mph, severely damaging an area as big as Great Britain. New Orleans was particularly badly hit. The city of 500,000 people sits around 1 metre below sea level, due to subsidence associated with the growth of the Mississippi delta, and was flooded, in some areas several metres deep, when the levees protecting the city from Lake Pontchartrain to the north gave way. Several thousand people died. There were allegations that the maintenance of the levees had been cut back to help fund the fighting in Iraq, and that National Guardsmen who could have helped evacuate the victims and restore law and order were away in Iraq. A week after the floods, there was almost no food or potable water, and disease and looting, along with rapes and murder, were rampant. People likened the situation to a Third World disaster, right in America itself.
28/8/2005, The Mayor of New Orleans, Ray Nagin, ordered the evacuation of the city as Hurricane Katrina loomed.
22/8/2005, The Atlanta bomber, Eric Rudolph (born 19/9/1966), was sentenced to four life terms without parole.
5/7/2005, Vice Admiral James Stockdale, US politician, died (born 23/12/1923)
7/1/2005, Rosemary Kennedy, eldest daughter of US President Kennedy, died (born 13/9/1918).
15/11/2004, General Colin Powell resigned as US Secretary of State. President Bush nominated national security advisor Condoleezza� Rice as his successor.
22/7/2004, In the US the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks published its final report on the 9-11 attacks. There was, it said, a failure of imagination, anticipation and policy.
2/3/2004, US Senator John Kerry won the nomination for the Democrat Party�s Presidential candidate after winning 9 out of 10 State primary and caucus elections.
24/3/2004, In the US, Richard Clarke, former deputy national security advisor, testified before the National Commission on Terrorist attacks, which was established by the US Congress to investigate the intelligence failures which contributed to the 9-11 attacks. He stated that the US Government was distracted from Al-Quaeda by the question of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq.
18/11/2003, US President Bush visited Prime Minister Tony Blair of the UK; there were ongoing protests against the US war on Iraq.
14/8/2003, Across the N.E. USA and Canada, nine States (Ontario, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Vermont) lost power when one power station became overloaded and shut down, creating a domino effect across the outdated electricity distribution system.
17/4/2003, John Paul Getty, oil magnate, died aged 84.
5/11/2002, US Congressional elections gave a majority to the Republicans in the Senate and House of Representatives.
29/4/2002, The USA was readmitted to the United Nations Commission for Human rights, after a 12-month suspension for refusing to recognise the International Criminal Court.
22/1/2002, In the USA, K-Mart became the largest retail chain to date to file for bankruptcy;
19/4/2002, US Congress rejected President Bush�s proposals to authorise oil exploration in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska.
2/8/2001, Under pressure from US President Bush, the House of Representatives voted to authorise oil exploration in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, despite protests from indigenous Americans that this would jeopardise their existence as a nation.
23/12/2001, The �shoe bomber�, Richard Reid, attempted to blow up an American Airlines flight from Paris to Miami, by setting off explosives hidden in his shoe, but was overpowered by the other passengers.
4/10/2001, The first anthrax attack occurred on a US government office, sent through the post.� More anthrax arrived in the post on 9/10/2001.
11/6/2001, In the US, Timothy McVeigh was executed for the Oklahoma City bombing.
16/11/2000, Bill Clinton became the first US President to visit Vietnam.
8/11/2000, (1) In the controversial US Presidential Elections, Republican George W Bush defeated Democrat Vice President� Al Gore but the final result was delayed for over a month because of a disputed vote count in Florida. The Florida State Governor, Jebb Bush, ruled that about 4,000 votes from poorer districts could not be counted as the holes in the voting papers had not been completely punched through. This decision favoured his brother, George Bush. The US Supreme Court upheld this decision on 13/12/2001. It was later found that if these 4,000 votes had been included, Democrat Al; Gore would have won the State and hence the Presidency.
(2) Hillary Rodham Clinton was elected to the US Senate
20/9/2000, The US Whitewater scandal was officially over when a 3rd investigation also found insufficient evidence to implicate President Clinton in improper property dealings.
24/7/2000, A concert planned for Central Park, New York, was cancelled due to the threat of West Nile virus, carried by mosquitoes and birds. The virus had been detected in New York in 1999 and appeared to have persisted over-winter.
16/5/2000, Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton was nominated for the US Senate by the New York Democratic Party.
14/5/2000, 750,000 people took part in the Million Mom March in Washington DC. They wanted tougher gun laws, after White supremacist Buford Furrow shot children at a Jewish community centre in 1999.
30/11/1999, In Seattle, a large-scale protest by the anti-globalisation movement caught the authorities unaware and forced the cancellation on a WTO meeting.
4/1999, President Clinton considered housing Kosovan refugees at Guantanamo bay, but the idea was scrapped.
20/4/1999, US teenagers Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold took two submachine guns to Columbine High School, for an attack planned for Hitler�s birthday. 15 children were killed or injured before the two killed themselves.
22/3/1999, Jack Kevorkian, pro-euthanasia doctor, went on trial for murder in Pontiac, Michigan.� He was later convicted of second-degree murder.
23/4/1998, James Earl Ray, assassin of Martin Luther King, died.
24/10/1996, Rioting in Florida after a Black youth, Tyron Lewis, was shot dead by police.
27/7/1996, A nail bomb exploded at the Atlanta Olympics, killing two people and injuring over 100.
11/6/1996, A damning US Senate report on the Whitewater Affair accused Hillary Clinton of complicity in a� fraudulent land deal in Arkansas in the 1980s.
28/5/1996, Jim and Susan McDougal, former business associates of President Clinton, were found guilty� of fraud and conspiracy in the Whitewater scandal, involving property deals in Arkansas.
16/10/1995, The Million Man March was held in Washington DC.� It was conceived by Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan.
21/5/1995, Les Aspin, US Secretary of Defense, died.
11/5/1995, In New York City, 170 nations agreed to extend the nuclear non-proliferation treaty indefinitely, without conditions.
24/3/1995. The House of Representatives, USA, passed welfare reforms denying state benefits to immigrants, unmarried mothers, and those who refused to work.
28/12/1994, James Woolsey, director of the CIA, resigned after allegations that the organisation was vulnerable to double agents.
8/11/1994. The Republicans gained control of the US Congress.
28/4/1994, CIA double agent Aldrich Ames was jailed for life after pleading guilty to selling secrets to the USSR, later to Russia.
24/3/1994, Allegations made in US Congress that President Clinton and his wife behaved improperly in dealings with the Whitewater Development Corporation. Later on this was to prove electorally damaging to President Clinton.
3/2/1994, US President Clinton lifted trade sanctions against Vietnam; In December 1992 President Bush had allowed US companies to open offices in Vietnam but the embargo meant they could not yet trade there.
21/1/1994, In the USA Lorena Bobbitt was cleared of malicious wounding after cutting off her husband�s penis.
15/1/1994, In a Virginia, USA, Court, Lorena Bobbitt said she could not remember the moment she cut off her husband�s penis, after an alleged rape by him; she leaded temporary insanity. The member was successfully reattached by surgeons.
14/1/1994, US President Clinton and Soviet President Boris Yeltsin signed the |Kremlin Accords. Treaties aimed ending the preprogrammed targetimng of nuclear missiles.
4/11/1993, A forest fire in the Santa Monica Mountains near Los Angeles was finally brought under control. It had begun pon 2/11/1993, killed 3, and destroyed 400 homes. Arsonists had lit many fires in the area..
3/10/1993, US troops fought large-scale land battles with local militiamen in Mogadishu, Somalia.
23/8/1993, US Police� raided singer Michael Jackson�s home after a 13-year old boy made allegations of child abuse.
19/4/1993. The siege at Waco, Texas, ended after 51 days. On 28/2/1993 the Branch Davidian sect, led by David Koresh, was visited by US Federal Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms personnel to arrest Koresh for suspected firearms offences. Sect members opened fire, killing four Federal Agents and injuring a dozen more. US government troops and armoured cars surrounded the sect�s ranch. On 19 April the wooden compound was set alight by cult members as troops fired tear gas into the buildings. 86 people, including David Koresh and 17 children, died.
18/3/1993, Kenneth E Boulding, US economist and activist, died (born 1910).
24/5/1994, 4 men convicted of bombing the New York Trade centre were each sentenced to 240 years in prison.
26/2/1993. Bomb exploded beneath World Trade Centre, New York. Six were killed and hundreds injured when a bomb exploded� in an underground car park, planted by Muslim fundamentalists.
4/12/1992. US troops landed in Somalia. Rival warlord�s factions were causing chaos on Somali capital Mogadishu and hundreds of thousands were starving in the countryside. The US sent 28,000 troops to help relief efforts, codenamed �Restore Hope�.
11/8/1992. The biggest shopping mall in the USA opened in Minnesota. It had over 300 stores, covering 4.2 million square feet.
28/5/1992. The US prison population reached a record high of 823,414. One in three was being held for a drugs-related offence.
5/4/1992. Samuel Moore Walton, born 29/3/1918, founder of Wal-Mart, died.
26/3/1992. Mike Tyson was sentenced to 10 years in jail after being found guilty of rape.
16/10/1991, In the worst mass shooting in the US to date, George Hennard, an unemployed 35 year old from Texas, killed 23 people and wounded a further 20 in Luby�s Cafeteria.
15/11/1990, President Bush signed the Clean Air Act 1990.
5/8/1990. 200 US Marines arrived in Liberia to rescue US citizens caught in the civil war there.
15/4/1990, Greta Garbo died in New York, after some 50 years of living a reclusive life after her 1940s Hollywood fame.
26/1/1990, Lewis Mumford, US historian (born 19/10/1895) died.
12/12/1989, New York heiress Leona Helmsley was fined US$ 7 million and sentenced to 4 years prison for tax evasion. She had said �only little people pay taxes�.
14/9/1989, US performed a nuclear test at Nevada.
14/6/1989, Ronald Reagan was given a knighthood by Queen Elizabeth.
20/4/1989, A gun turret on US battleship Iowa exploded, killing 47 sailors.
12/4/1989, Abbie Hoiffman, US political activist, died.
14/3/1989, In the USA, the Bush administration announced a ban on the import of semi-automatic assault rifles.
23/2/1989, The U.S. Senate Armed Services Committee rejected, 11�9, President Bush's nomination of John Tower for Secretary of Defense.
22/2/1989, Death of Aldo Jacuzzi, American manufacturer of the eponymous baths.
20/1/1989. George Herbert Walker Bush was sworn in as 41st US President.
7/5/1988, Boston saw the first meeting of people who claimed to have been abducted by aliens.
6/5/1987, William J Casey, CIA Director, died.
31/3/1987, In the �Baby M� case, the US Supreme Court denied parental rights to surrogate mothers.
19/2/1987, The US lifted sanctions on Poland.
22/1/1987, Pennsylvania politician R Budd Dwyer committed suicide by shooting himself on national TV, after being convicted of bribery and corruption charges.
7/11/1986, In the USA, the Simpson-Mazzoli Act legalised the residential status of millions of illegal immigrants; the Act was signed by President Reagan this day.
4/11/1986. Democrats won control of the US Senate.
15/4/1986. The USA launched air strikes against Libya, in retaliation for Libya�s alleged support of terrorism, and a bombing in a Berlin nightclub. Libya had also fired two missiles at the US radar base on Lampedusa; both missed. Benghazi and Tripoli were bombed, killing at least 100 people, including Gaddaffi�s 15-month-old adopted daughter, Hanna. The departure of the US planes from British airfields caused widespread protests in the UK. On 17/4/1986 two British hostages in Lebanon were killed in retaliation for the US raids.
8/4/1986, Clint Eastwood was elected Mayor of his native city, Carmel, California.
27/2/1986, The United States Senate allowed its debates to be televised on a trial basis.
25/1/1985, In a case that divided American society, New York subway vigilante Bernard Goetze (born 7 November 1947) was told by a Grand Jury that he would not face charged of murder for shooting four Black youths at close range on 22 December 1984; he would be tried for illegal possession of handguns. Goetze served 8 months of a 1-year sentence on the handgun charge; one of his victims, rendered a quadriplegic by the shooting, was awarded US$ 43 million in a civil judgement against Goetze.
26/7/1984, G H Gallup, US survey pioneer, died aged 82.
21/7/1984. The man who popularised jogging, James J Fixx, had a heart attack and died whilst out running in Vermont, aged 52.
1/5/1984, Reagan concluded a visit to China.
US monetary policy 1982-86
22/10/1986, US President Reagan radically simplified the tax system, reducing the 15 tax brackets to just 2 (15% and 28%). Tax breaks for the wealthy were removed and the lower-paid removed from the tax system. However there were more taxes on business, which then raised prices.
20/4/1983, In the US, President Reagan delayed inflation-linked increases in welfare payments for 6 months and proposed raising the minimum retirement age to 67 by 2027.
2/10/1982, Paul Volcker, Chairman of the US Federal Reserve System, expressed concerns about the damage to the US economy from anti-inflation policies, with higher unemployment and interest rates. Monetarism was abandoned, and after peaking at 10.8% in 11/1982, US unemployment began to fall. Later, lower inflation and interest rates created a recovery in US shares.
19/8/1982, US Congress approved a reversal of earlier tax-cutting measures.
29/9/1981, President Reagan said he wanted to implement a further US$ 13 billion spending cuts.
13/8/1981, US President Reagan signed a Bill implementing the biggest tax� and Government spending cuts in history. Reagan rejected the demand-side economics of Keynes, in favour of supply-side economics, a policy also favoured by Mrs Thatcher of the UK.
17/4/1987, US President Reagan announced a 100% tariff on some Japanese imports, as the US trade deficit ballooned to US$ 16.5 billion by July 1987.
11/6/1982, The USA moved towards a protectionist policy, placing tariffs on imported steel to protect its own steel industry.
US Defence policy, arms reduction talks with USSR, 1981-87
8/12/1987. Gorbachev and Reagan signed an arms reduction treaty, to eliminate medium range nuclear missiles from Europe.
22/10/1983, The announcement by Washington that Pershing II and Cruise Missiles were to be deployed in Europe precipitated large anti-nuclear demonstrations in Britain, Germany and Italy.
23/3/1983. President Reagan proposed his �Star Wars� missile defence system, calling the Soviet Union an �evil empire�.
2/2/1983. The US and USSR began START (Strategic Arms Reduction Talks) in Geneva.
12/6/1982, 800,000 marched for peace in New York City.
6/2/1982, US President Reagan asked for an increased military budget and for cuts in social expenditure. Congress approved a 6% rise in defence spending but the Boland Amendment (8/12/1982) banned the use of defence money to destabilise the Sandinista Government in Nicaragua.
30/11/1981. The US and USSR began arms talks in Geneva.
9/8/1981, In the USA, President Reagan announced the decision to proceed with the neutron bomb.
Anti-Trades Union policy
4/2/1983, US President Reagan condemned the violence associated with a strike of truck drivers.
5/8/1981, President Reagan fired 11,359 striking air traffic controllers who ignored his order for them to return to work.
11/4/1980, New York City was hit by a transport workers strike, which lasted 11 days.
17/1/1984, The Reagan-nominated US Commission on Civil Rights declared that numerical quotas for the promotion of African-Americans and others ;�may merely constitute another form of discrimination�.
2/7/1980, The US Supreme Court ruled that Federal Government could use racial quotas to accomplish �reverse discrimination� when awarding contracts, enforcing minimum quotas for minorities.
25/10/1983. 2,000 US Marines invaded Grenada to restore order after, on 19/10/1983, Grenada�s army had murdered the Prime Minister (Maurice Bishop) and taken power. Britain opposed the US invasion. The US said it had saved Grenada from becoming a Soviet-Cuban colony.
2/11/1982, Democrats made large gains in US mid-term elections. The Republicans retained control of the Senate.
7/6/1982, Graceland, the mansion in Memphis, Tennessee where Elvis Presley lived until his death in 1977, was opened to the public.
8/4/1981, Omar Bradley, US senior army officer, died aged 88.
30/3/1981. President Reagan, 70 years old, survived an assassination attempt by John Hinckley. He was wounded, a bullet in the left lung, outside Washington�s Hilton Hotel. The shooter, John Hinckley III, arrested at the spot, had used a .22 calibre shot; had he used a .45 the bullet, which lodged just 3 inches from Reagan�s heart, would have killed him.
18/1/1981, BASE jumping was founded by Phil Smith and Phil Mayfield as they jumped off of the 72nd floor of the Texas Commerce Tower in Houston and parachuted to the ground. The pair had previously leapt from an antenna, a bridge and a cliff.
25/9/1980, Charles Henry Elston, US Representative from Ohio (born 1/1/1891) died.
27/2/1980, Chelsea Clinton, daughter of former US President Bill Clinton, was born.
23/1/1980, President Carter initiated the Carter Doctrine � that Middle Eastern oil reserves were of strategic importance to the US and that any attempt by another power to take control in the region would be met by US military action. This Doctrine was adopted by President Reagan, leading to the Gulf War.
19/1/1980, William O Douglas, judge in the US Supreme Court and civil rights defender (born 16/10/1898 in Maine, Minnesota) died.
3/11/1979, Clashes between Communist Worker�s party members and Klu Klux Klan neo-Nazis in Greensboro�, North Carolina, USA. 5 Communists were shot dead.
1/10/1979. The USA handed back control of the Canal Zone to Panama.
7/7/1979, China was granted �most favoured nation� status by the USA, giving it ;lower tariff rates on its imports to the US.
18/6/1979. US President Carter and USSR President Brezhnev signed the SALT 2 (Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty) in Vienna.
8/5/1979, Talcott Parsons, US sociologist, died aged 76.
5/4/1979, US President Carter established an Energy Security Fund to help US consumers meet fuel costs, and to promote alternative energy and more use of public transport.
26/1/1979, Nelson Rockerfeller, Republican politician and vice President to Gerald Ford, died.
3/1/1979, Conrad Hilton, founder of the Hilton Hotel Group and once married to Zsa Zsa Gabor, died.
1/1/1979. Diplomatic relations were established between China and the USA.
15/12/1978, Cleveland, Ohio, became the first major US city to go into default since the great Depression, under mayor Dennis Kucinich.
3/11/1978. Vietnam and the USA signed a 25-year treaty of friendship and co-operation in economic, scientific and technical endeavours.
7/8/1978, President Jimmy Carter declared a federal emergency at Love Canal.
7/4/1978. US President Carter pulled back from building a neutron bomb.
14/1/1978, Kurt Godel, Austrian-American logician, died aged 71.
13/1/1978, Hubert Humphrey, Vice President to Lyndon Johnson, died.
10/1977, The US Department of Energy was created.
7/9/1977, A treaty between the USA and Panama was signed; the US agreed to give Panama control of the Canal by 2000.
4/6/1977, Two people died during violence on� Puerto Rican Day in Chicago.
21/4/1977, US President Carter proposed a national energy conservation plan to discourage waste and achoieve greater efficiency.
25/1/1977, The US Supreme Court reversed a previous decision 91966) and ruled that a suspect who has not been formally arrested can be interrogated without being informed of their legal rights.
21/1/1977, Jimmy Carter issued a pardon for those who evaded the draft for the Vietnam War.
18/8/1976, In North Korea, at Panmunjom, two US soldiers were killed whilst trying to chop down a tree in the demilitarised zone; the tree had obscured their view.
6/6/1976, Paul Getty, American oil tycoon, reputed to be the richest man on earth, died aged 83, at his home, Sutton Place, outside London. He was worth around US$ 4 billion.
3/6/1976, The UK presented the US with the oldest known copy of Magna Carta.
5/4/1976. The multi-millionaire Howard Hughes died on his private jet going to a hospital at Houston, Texas leaving a fortune of US$ 2,000 million. He was aged 71.
1/5/1975, The US Securities and Exchange Commission ordered an abolition of the fixed commission rate on Wall Street. This increased the number of investors who came forward, meaning more money was available for shares trading.
23/2/1975, In response to the energy crisis, daylight saving time began two months early in the USA.
14/1/1975, The House Committee on Internal Security (formerly HUAC, House Committee on Un-American Activities) was formally terminated on January 14, 1975, the day of the opening of the 94th Congress. The Committee's files and staff were transferred on that day to the House Judiciary Committee.
6/1/1975, Burton K. Wheeler, 92, U.S. Senator, died.
15/11/1974, US President Gerald Ford confirmed that he would stand for re-election in 1976.
3/4/1974, President Nixon agreed to pay US$ 432,787 outstanding income tax.
4/2/1974, Heiress Patty Hearst was kidnapped.
17/3/1974, The Arab oil embargo, imposed om the US in 1973 in retaliation for US support for Israel in the 1973 Yom Kippur War, was lifted.
6/1/1974, In response to the energy crisis, the USA started Daylight Savings Time almoist 4 months before usual; many children had to leave for school before sunrise.
2/1/1974, In response to the Oil Crisis, the USA imposed a national 55 mph (88 kph) speed limit on its major roads.
14/12/1973. John Paul Getty II was freed by kidnappers after his grandfather paid a US$ 750,000 ransom.
10/10/1973, US Vice President Spiro Agnew resigned after pleading guilty to tax evasion charges.
15/7/1973. Paul Getty III was kidnapped
26/10/1973, US President Nixon considered an attack on the Soviet Union, after hearing that the USSR was arming Arab nations in the Middle East.
4/5/1973, The Sears Tower in Chicago, then the world�s tallest office building at 1,454 feet and 110 storeys was �topped out� when the highest storey was completed.
23/4/1973, Henry Kissinger, head of the US National Security Council, called for a new �Atlantic Charter� governing relations between the US, Europe and Japan.
28/3/1973, Marlon Brando refused an Oscar because of Hollywood�s abuses of the American Indians.
28/2/1973, US Indians took hostages at Wounded Knee. They challenged the US Government to �repeat the massacre of Sioux Indians� that happened there over 80 years earlier.
13/2/1973, The USA devalued the Dollar by 10%, causing the price of gold to rise to US$42.22.
29/1/1973, The USA�s balance of payments deficit for 1972 was estimated at US$ 6 � 7 billion; the Dollar collapsed.
26/11/1973, The Getty family agreed to pay US$ 1 million in ransom for their kidnapped son Paul, whose ear had been posted to them.
26/9/1972. President Nixon opened the Museum of Immigration, at the base of the Statue of Liberty, New York.
8/7/1972, US President Nixon announced that the USSR was to buy US$ 750 million worth of US grain over the next 3 years.
15/5/1972, George Wallace, Governor of Alabama, was shot and injured by a White assailant, Arthur Bremer, aged 21. Wallace, known for his racist and segregationist policies (see 2/9/1963), was campaigning for the Democratic Party�s Presidential nomination.
2/5./1972, J Edgar Hoover, American founder of and head of the FBI, died in Washington DC.
21/2/1972, US President Nixon landed in China to forge links with Prime Minister� Chou En Lai and Chairman Mao Tse Tung. China still objected to US support for the Taiwan regime.
7/2/1972, In the USA, President Nixon signed the Federal Election Campaign Act. This required that all electoral campaign contributions be declared, and limited spending on media campaigning to 10 cents per person of voting age in the candidate�s constituency.
10/12/1971, The John Sinclair Freedom Rally is held at the University of Michigan. Performers included John Lennon and Yoko Ono.
12/10/1971, Dean Acheson, US statesman, died aged 78.
25/9/1971, Hugo LaFayette Black, US Supreme Court judge who upheld civil rights, died (born 1886).
30/6/1971. The 26th amendment to the US constitution was passed, lowering the voting age from 21 to 18.
17/6/1971, Disneyland admitted its 100-millionth visitor, Valerie Suldo of New Jersey.
25/4/1971, 200,000 protested in Washington DC against the Vietnam War. 12,000 protestors were arrested over the following week.
10/2/1971, An earthquake, 6.6 on the Richter Scale, hit Los Angeles, killing 64 people.
3/2/1971, Andrew Truxal, US academic, died aged 71.
29/12/1970, US President Nixon signed the Occupational Safety and Health Act and established an agency to regulate safety at work.
17/11/1969, Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) opened in Helsinki between the USSR and USA (President Nixon). The talks had been proposed for 19/6/1969 but suspended by the USA due to the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia.
15/8/1969. The famous American rock festival, Woodstock, began. It was attended by 400,000.
18/7/1969. Senator Edward Kennedy crashed his car into the Chappaquidick River on the east coast of the USA. Kennedy escaped but his companion Mary Jo Kopechne drowned. Kennedy didn�t report the incident for ten hours and was found guilty of leaving the scene of an accident.
19/6/1969, US President Nixon suspended arms limitation talks with the USSR due to the their invasion of Czechoslovakia.
11/6/1969, John Llewellyn Lewis, US Trades Union leader (born 2/12/1880 in Lucas, Iowa), died.
28/2/1969, Dwight D Eisenhower, US statesman, died aged 78.
23/2/1969, President Nixon of the USA began a tour of European capitals.
22/2/1969. President Nixon arrived in Britain for talks with Prime Minister Harold Wilson.
22/12/1968, The captain and crew of the Pueblo were released by the North Koreans at Panmunjom.
21/11/1968, Baby Sheri Schroder was born with several birth defects, in Love Canal, a residential area of Niagara Falls. Her birth spurs on an investigation which uncovered one of the worst pollution svcandals in US history.
1/7/1968. The USA and the USSR signed the Non-Proliferation treaty regarding nuclear weapons (see 5/8/1963). This bound its signatories not to transfer nuclear weapons or knowledge to non-nuclear countries. This was a recognition that both the USA and the USSR had interests in not assisting China to become nuclear.
26/6/1968, Earl Warren announced his resignation as Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court.
5/6/1968. A Jordanian-Arab called Sirhan Bishara Sirhan shot Robert Kennedy, US Senator (born 1925), in the Hotel Ambassador, Los Angeles. Kennedy, younger brother of President Kennedy, died 25 hours later. Sirhan was arrested. He was protesting against Kennedy�s outspoken support for Israel, on the first anniversary of the Six Day War.
21/5/1968, The US Navy lost contact with the nuclear submarine Scorpion, with 99 men on board. The wreck of the vessel was subsequently located on the ocean floor 640 km southwest of the Azores.
16/2/1968, The first 911 emergency phone service was inaugurated in the USA, at Haleyville, Alabama. It was free; other phone calls cost 10 cents.
23/1/1968, The USS Pueblo, an intelligence ship, and its 89 man crew was seized by North Koreans in the Sea of Japan.
15/12/1967, The Silver Bridge, between Point Pleasant, West Virginia and Gallipolis, hio, collapsed, killing 46 people.
7/11/1967, The Corporation for Public Broadcasting was established in the USA
25/8/1967, John Patler killed the head of the American Nazi Party, George Lincoln Rockwell. Patler had been a Party member until his expulsion shortly before the murder.
12/7/1967, Five days of race riots, lasting until 17/7/1967, broke out in Newark, USA, after an African-American was beaten by police for a traffic offence.
26/3/1967. 10,000 hippies held a rally in New York's Central Park.
3/1/1967, Jack Ruby, who shot Lee Harvey Oswald, the alleged assassin of President Kennedy, died of natural causes at a Dallas hospital. Mr Ruby was awaiting the retrial of his murder case.
15/10/1966, The US Department of Transportation was created, and began operations in 1967.
15/9/1966, Responding to a sniper gun attack at the University of Texas, US President Lyndon Johnson called on US Congress to enact gun control legislation.
1/8/1966, In Austin, USA, Charles Whitman shot dead 12 people at Texas University before being shot dead himself by policemen.
7/4/1966, The US recovered an atom bomb that had been accidentally dropped into the Atlantic ocean after a mid-air collision.
20/2/1966, Chester Nimitz, American General and Pacific Fleet Commander in World War II, died in San Francisco, four days before his 81st birthday.
10/2/1966, Consumer activist and safety campaigner Ralph Nader began testifying before US Congress about the reluctance of the US car industry to invest in safety features.
9/11/1965. A transmission relay in New York City failed, sparking a domino effect that led to a blackout across New York State, Connecticut, Massachusetts, New England, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont, and parts of Pennsylvania and Ontario.
3/10/1965, US President Johnson ditched the immigration quota system under the 1965 Immigration Act. Educated skilled migrants could now enter the USA so long as they did not threaten the livelihood of a US citizen.
10/9/1965, Yale University published a map showing that the Vikings discovered America in the 11th century.
9/9/1965, The Department of Housing and Urban Affairs (HUD) was established in the USA
11/6/1965, President Johnson declared that the promotion of learning the English language should be a major policy in American foreign aid, and directed the Peace Corps, the United States Agency for International Development and other organizations to encourage the such study, in what was viewed as elevating "the status of English as an international language.
28/8/1964, Race riots broke out in Philadelphia, USA.
18/7/1964, Race riots in Harlem, New York; start of the �ghetto revolts�.
1/7/1964, Roscoe Pound, US legal scholar, died aged 93.
10/6/1964, The U.S. Senate voted closure of the Civil Rights Bill after a 75-day filibuster.
5/4/1964, Douglas MacArthur, American General and commander in the Pacific during World War Two, died in Washington DC aged 84.
27/3/1964, Powerful earthquake, magnitude 9.2, hit Alaska, 139 died.
27/9/1964, The Warren Report was published, stating that Lee Harvey Oswald alone was responsible for the assassination of President Kennedy. Conspiracy theorists were not satisfied.
14/3/1964. Jack Ruby, aged 52, was found guilty in Dallas of killing Lee Harvey Oswald, alleged assassin of President Kennedy (see 22/11/1963). He was sentenced to death but died of a blood clot on the lung in 1967.
29/11/1963, US President Lyndon Johnson set up the Warren Commission to investigate the assassination of John F Kennedy
24/11/1963, Lee Harvey Oswald, assassin of President Kennedy, was himself shot dead by Jack Ruby.
11/12/1963, In Los Angeles, Frank Sinatra Jr was set free after his father paid kidnappers a US$ 240,000 ransom.
31/8/1963, The �hot line�, linking the Kremlin and the White House, went into operation.
5/8/1963. President Kennedy signed a Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in Washington. This treaty forbade testing in the atmosphere, outer space, or underwater, and was aimed at preventing other nations than the USA or USSR developing nuclear weapons. However to allow America and Russia to develop their nuclear weapons, underground testing was allowed under this treaty (see 1/7/1968).
26/6/1963. President Kennedy made his famous �Ich bin ein Berliner� speech. He meant to say �I am a Berliner�, to indicate US support for the freedom of West Germany. However what he actually said translated as �I am a doughnut�.
20/6/1963. The White House and the Kremlin agreed to set up a �hot line�.
9/4/1963, Winston Churchill was given honorary US citizenship.
6/4/1963, Anglo-US Polaris weapons agreement signed.
18/3/1963, In the USA, in Gideon v Wainwright, the Supreme Court required the State to appoint defence counsel if the defendant could not afford a private lawyer.
1962, The Baker v Carr case , in the US Supreme Court; the Court ruled that state electoral districts must contain approximately equal numbers of voters. This ended rural domination of state legislatures.
21/12/1962, The US agreed to sell Polaris missiles to the UK.
18/12/1962, PM Harold MacMillan of the UK and President Kennedy of the USA concluded the Nassau Agreement, at Nassau, Bahamas.� This allowed the US navy to provide Polaris missiles for the Royal Navy, normally operating under NATO command.� This Anglo-US collaboration was resented by General De Gaulle of France, who saw it as proof that Britain was not sufficiently European.� Within a month De Gaulle had vetoed UK membership of the EEC, see 14/1/1963.
5/12/1962, US diplomat Dean Acheson said Britain was 'played out'.
5/11/1962, In the US, elections left Democrats in control of both Houses.
18/10/1961. A work by Henri Matisse attracted big crowds in the Museum of Modern Art in New York. Only after 116,000 people had seen it over 46 days did someone notice it was hung upside-down.
22/5/1961, The revolving restaurant, Eye of the Needle (now known as SkyCity Restaurant) opened in Seattle at the top of the Space Needle.
1/3/1961, US President Kennedy formed the Peace Corps, a group of volunteers to work in less-developed countries.
27/1/1961, Zachary Space, US politician, was born.
26/9/1960, The first US Presidential debate to be televised, between Nixon and Kennedy. Millions watched.
21/8/1960, David B Steinman, US bridge engineer, died aged 74.
15/7/1960, In Los Angeles, Kennedy accepted the Democratic Party nomination for President.
21/6/1960, Kate Brown, Governor of Oregon� from 2015, was born.
17/2/1960, Martin Luther King was arrested in the USA.
16/10/1959, George Marshall, US soldier and politician who formulated the Marshall Plan to aid post-War Europe, died in Washington DC.
15/9/1959, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev became the head of State of the USSR to be received at the US White House.
9/6/1959. The USA launched its first ballistic missile submarine, the George Washington.
24/5/1959, John Foster Dulles (born 1888), US Secretary of State until his resignation due to ill-health in April 1959, died from cancer. He was chief spokesperson for US President Woodrow Wilson at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. He believed in a robust �brinkmanship� approach to Soviet threats, reinforcing NATO and creating SEATO. He did not get on with UK Prime Minister Anthony Eden, disagreeing in particular with the UK�s policy over Suez. He opposed the Anglo-French invasion of Egypt in late 1956, and sometimes failed to anticipate Arab nationalist reactions to external intervention.
4/11/1958, In the USA, Democrats won the mid-term elections, gaining 62 seats in the Senate (Republicans 34 seats). The Democrats gained 281 seats in the� House of Representatives (Republicans 153 seats).
31/5/1958, The Kremlin and Washington agreed to hold talks on a ban on atmospheric atom bomb tests.
24/3/1958. Elvis Presley was sworn in as a US private. He was paid $78 as a regular. He had been given a 60-day deferment to make the film �King Creole�.
19/9/1957, The US carried out the first underground nuclear test in the� Nevada desert, the first of 29 such tests.
30/8/1957, US senator Strom Thurmond spoke for 24hrs 27m against civil rights.
31/5/1957, American playwright Arthur Miller was convicted of contempt of Congress for refusing to name other writers as communists. Miller confessed his own communist sympathies but said his conscience would not let him finger others; the judge praised his motives but he could still face a year in jail.
7/5/1957 Eliot Ness, the FBI agent who headed the investigation of Al Capone in Chicago, died.
1956, President Eisenhower signed the Federal Aid Highway Act, to create a US-wide network of freeways.
25/9/1956, Transatlantic telephone cable between the UK and the USA became operational.
3/8/1956, The name of Bedloe�s Island, site of the Statue of Liberty, was changed to Liberty Island, on the approval of President Eisenhower.
29/6/1956, US President Eisenhower signed the Federal Aid Highway Act this day, providing for the construction of a 41,000 mile highway system.
24/9/1955, US President Dwight D Eisenhower suffered a heart attack.
14/8/1955, The US schooner Levin J. Marvel capsized and sank in Chesapeake Bay with the loss of 12 of the 24 people on board.
3/3/1955, Katharine Drexel, US philanthropist, teacher and Roman Catholic saint, died aged 96.
12/11/1954, The immigration centre at Ellis Island, New York, closed. 15 million migrants into the US had been processed through here since 1892.
25/10/1954, In the US, meetings of the Cabinet were televised for the first time.
20/7/1954. The Geneva Agreement ended hostilities between North and South Korea.
12/7/1954, US Vice President Richard Nixon announced the construction of a network of Interstate Highways which would enable drivers to cross the USA without encountering a single crossroads or traffic light. They would also be useful as part of a defensive network, and to provide rapid exits from cities in the event of war.
10/7/1954, US President Eisenhower signed Public Law 480, the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, better known as PL-480. This facilitated the export of grain to US-aligned governments that were facing threats from Leftist agencies, either internal rebels or intimidation from a Soviet-aligned State next door. PL-480 could be used to keep recalcitrant allies, those possibly sliding towards Communism, in line. For example in 1965 US President Johnson shifted the renewal of PL-480 food aid to India from an annual to a� monthly basis, threatening India with withdrawal of food aid as India�s President Shastri expressed disapproval of US bombing in Vietnam. However if Shastri abandoned Nehru�s ideas of land distribution to Indian peasants then India would receive US agricultural technology, enhancing food yields.
10/6/1954, Charles Adams, US statesman (born 2/8/1866) died.
4/5/1954, Doug Jones, US politician, was born.
7/4/1954, The USA announced that, in conjunction with Canada, it would set up a chain of almost 100 radar stations along a 3,000 mile line at the 55th parallel. On 27/9/1954 a second chain of radfar stations was announced above the Arctic Circle to warn of enemy aircraft approaching from Russia across the North Pole. This was the Distant Early Warning Line, of DEW; within a few years it was obsolete because missiles would be delivered by rockets not planes.
8/3/1954, The US and Japan signed a mutual defence pact.
5/2/1954, Carl Wickman, founder of Greyhound Lines bus service, died aged 66.
10/10/1953. President Eisenhower of the USA signed a treaty with South Korea promising military aid if North Korea attacked.
31/7/1953, Robert Taft, US Conservative politician, died aged 63.
11/4/1953, The US Department of Health and Human Services was established.
5/2/1953, Walt Disney�s film Peter Pan went on general release.
2/12/1952, US President Eisenhower visited Korea.
31/10/1952, The USA exploded the first hydrogen bomb at Eniwetok Atoll in the Pacific. The bomb was equivalent to 5 to 7 megatons (million tons of TNT) and left a hole a mile in diameter and 175 feet deep. A 5 megaton bomb would devastate about 150 square miles by blast and subject about 800 square miles to searing heat. See 9/9/2003.
25/10/1952, The USA blocked the entry of China to the United Nations for the third year running. See 25/10/1971.
24/10/1952, In the US, Eisenhower described Korea as �the burial place of twenty thousand Americans� and promised that if he was elected President he would end the Korean War. Meanwhile the United Nations remained deadlocked over the issue of the return of North Korean prisoners of War. The USSR and China wanted them all returned to North Korea, but some PoWs insisted they had been forcibly drafted into the North Korean forces and wanted to settle in South Korea.
24/7/1952, Charles Copeland, US educationalist, died in Massachusetts.
27/6/1952. The USA lifted its ban on immigration from Africa and Asia.
25/6/1952, In the US the Immigration Bill was passed, despite Resident Truman�s veto and a Democrat majority of ten in the Senate. This Bill established immigration quotas by nationality, something Truman considered racist.
2/6/1952, In Youngstown vs Sawyer, the US Supreme Court ruled that President Truman had gone beyond his powers in ordering the State seizure of the steel industry during a strike.
8/4/1952, In the USA, President Truman ordered the State seizure of the steel industry in response to a strike. The output of the steel mills was considered vital for the US forces fighting in Korea. The strike ended in 2/5/1952, but the seizure continued until after the Supreme Court decision of 2/6/1952..
29/3/1952, In the USA, President Truman announced he would not be standing for the elections that year.
27/2/1952, The United Nations Building in New York saw its first session.
1/11/1951, The US tested an atom bomb over the Nevada desert.
5/10/1951, The US House of representatives approved the US$ 56.9 billion Armed Forces appropriation Bill.
8/9/1951, The San Francisco Treaty of Friendship between the US and Japan was signed.
19/7/1951, Severe flooding hit Kansas and Missouri. 41 died and 200,000 were made homeless.
7/11/1950, In US elections, the Republicans gained 30 seats in the House of Representatives.
1/11/1950, �Puerto Rican nationalists Griselio Torresola and Oscar Collazo attempted to assassinate President Harry S Truman. Torresola was killed during the attack, but Collazo was captured. Collazo served 29 years in a federal prison, being released in 1979. Don Pedro Albizu Campos also served many years in a federal prison in Atlanta, for seditious conspiracy to overthrow the U.S. government in Puerto Rico
12/9/1950, Louis A Johnson resigned as US Secretary of Defence. He was succeeded by George Marshall.
20/2/1949, Ivana Trump, US socialite was born.
9/2/1949, US actor Robert Mitchum was jailed for 2 months for smoking marijuana.
7/1/1949, Marshall was succeeded by Acheson as US Secretary of State.
16/11/1948, US President Truman refused to participate in talks with the Soviets on the future of Berlin until the blockade was lifted.
15/10/1948, US President Gerald Ford married widow Elizabeth Bloomer Warren.
23/9/1948, 12,000 people attended a rally of the American Communist Party at Madison Square Garden.
2/9/1948, Christa McAuliffe, US� teacher who died in the Challenger space shuttle disaster in 1986, was born in Boston, Massachusetts.
2/8/1948, Alger Hiss testified in the US McCarthy anti-Communist hearings, using the phrase �Reds under the bed�.
15/7/1948. John Pershing, commander of the US Army in France in World War One, nicknamed �Black Jack�, died in Washington DC.
30/4/1948, The Organisation of American States was set up. The agreement, covering all 21 of the republics in the Americas, was signed at Bogota, Colombia. The fourteenth state ratified the treaty on 13/12/1951, thereby formally legally validating the treaty.
31/3/1948. Al Gore, US Vice President under Bill Clinton, noted for his strong pro-environmental stance, was born.
15/3/1948. US coal miners went on strike for better pensions.
6/11/1947, The first post-War Rolls Royce and Bentley cars arrived in the USA.
30/6/1947, US coal mining was denationalised.
16/4/1947, Ammonium nitrate stored aboard the freighter Grandcamp exploded in Texas City Port, killing 752.
4/2/1947, US politician Dan Quayle was born
25/1/1947, Al Capone, American gangster and leader of organised crime in Chicago during the Prohibition era, died aged 48 due to a major brain haemorrhage, virtually penniless. In 1931 he was jailed for 11 years income tax evasion; he was released from Alcatraz in 1939, suffering from syphilis and prematurely aged.
7/1/1947, George Marshall was appointed US Secretary of State.
5/12/1946. New York was chosen as the permanent site of the UN.
5/11/1946, In the US, Republicans gained control of Congress.
28/7/1946, Howard C. Petersen, US Assistant Secretary of War, announced that, in addition to deaths in combat, 131,028 American and Filipino citizens, mostly civilians, had died "as a result of war crimes" from December 7, 1941 until the end of World War II.
23/7/1946, The last German prisoners of war in the United States were released, as 1,385 POWs were placed on the ship General Yates, following detention at Camp Shanks in New York. In all, there had been 375,000 German prisoners kept in the US at the end of World War II.
13/7/1946, The US House of Representatives approved a loan to Europe.
17/6/1946, Barry Manilow, American singer and songwriter, was born in New York City.
12/6/1946, John H. Bankhead II, U.S. Senator for Alabama since 1931, died aged 73
20/2/1946, US Congress passed the Employment Act, stating that its aim was maximum employment.
10/2/1946, The first �GI brides� arrived in the USA to live with their new partners. When US servicemen were stationed in the UK, British males complained they were �overpaid, oversexed, and over here�. Many British women became engaged or married to them. Now the GI brides assembled at camps in Hampshire, to be shipped over to the USA aboard the Queen Mary.
29/1/1946, Harry L Hopkins, US government social administrator, died aged 56.
19/1/1946, Dolly Parton, American Country and Western singer, was born in Sevierville, Tennessee.
21/12/1945, US General Patton was killed in a road accident whilst commanding the 5th US Army in West Germany.
6/12/1945, U.S. General George C. Marshall testified at the Pearl Harbour inquiry that he did not anticipate the attack but that an "alert" defence would have prevented all but "limited harm�.
5/12/1945. Five US Navy bombers on a training flight from Fort Lauderdale, Florida, disappeared over the area later known as the Bermuda Triangle, with 27 crew. When radio contact with the 5 planes was lost, a 6th plane was sent to search for them; it too disappeared without trace.
2/12/1945, The Arab world began a general boycott of Israel, to geographically isolate the country. The boycott was to cover not just companies trading with Israel or with Israeli companies but also companies doing business with these companies. In 1977 the US, under President Carter, declared it illegal for US companies to participate in this boycott. In the 1990s Israel insisted upon the dismantling of the boycott, which was estimated to have cost the country some US$ 40 billion, as part of the Peace Process. In 2001, however, the Arab League�s Boycott Office resumed activities as part of its support for the Palestinians during the Intifada.
3/11/1943. US miners ended a 6 month strike.
9/6/1943, US Congress approved the Pay as You Go scheme for deducting income tax from salaries.
14/5/1943, Jules Gabriel Fisher, Louisiana State Senator, died (born 15/4/1874).
1/4/1943. The rationing of meats, fats, and cheese began in the USA.
13/3/1943, J P Morgan Jnr, US financier, died aged 75.
15/1/1943. The Pentagon, built to house the US Defence Department, opened in Arlington, Virginia, on the Potomac River.
28/11/1942, 492 died in a fire at Cocoanut Grove nightclub, Boston, USA.
10/11/1942, William Crozet, US artillery expert, died.
24/2/1942, Joe Lieberman, US politician, was born.
25/6/1941, US President Roosevelt appointed an Employment Practices Committee to ensure reasonable employment conditions.
22/3/1941, The Grand Coulee Dam, on the Columbia River, Washington State, began operating.
6/3/1941. Gutzon Borglum, American sculptor noted for his work on the Mount Rushmore heads of Presidents Washington, Jefferson, Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt, died.
30/1/1941, Dick Cheney, US Vice-President, was born.
4/1/1941. The German-born actress Marlene Dietrich became a US citizen.
20/7/1940. The first singles charts were published in the US journal Billboard.
15/5/1940. Nylon stockings went on sale for the first time, in America. In New York. Alone, 72,000 pairs were sold in the first eight hours.
7/2/1940, Disney�s film Pinocchio was given a gala premiere in New York.
23/11/1939, In the USA, Thanksgiving Day was now celebrated this Thursday, the 4th Thursday in the month, rather than the 30th,� the last Thursday as previous years. The retail lobby had persuaded President Roosevelt to make the change so as to lengthen the Christmas Shopping season by a week.
28/7/1939, William James Mayo, US surgeon and co-founder of the Mayo Clinic, died aged 78.
30/4/1939, The World Fair in New York opened. It was opened by President Franklin D Roosevelt, who became the first US President to appear on TV, as NBC began their TV news service this day.
14/4/1939, John Steinbeck�s The Grapes of Wrath was published.
1/4/1939, The USA recognised Franco�s government in Spain.
31/10/1938. A radio broadcast of H G Well�s War of the Worlds caused widespread panic because of its vivid realism. The adaptation of the play carried a warning that it was not for real but this warning was not broadcast until 40 minutes after the play had begun. Terrified Americans packed the roads, hid in cellars, loaded guns, and wrapped their heads in wet towels to protect themselves against Martian poison gas. The event proved both the power of mass media and the American capacity for hysteria.
8/6/1938, US President Franklin D Roosevelt requested a report on the utility of a national tolled road network.
26/5/1938, The Dies Committee was established by the US House of Representatives. Named after its Chairman, Martin Dies, its remit was to investigate �Un-American� activities by Nazis and Communists within the USA. See 3/1/1945.
15/5/1937, Madeleine Albright, US Secretary of State, was born.
5/4/1937, Colin Powell, US Secretary of State, was born.
22/1/1937, In the USA, the Ohio River flooded, killing 16 and making 150,000 homeless.
6/1/1937, In the USA, President Roosevelt forbade shipments of arms to either side in Spain.
1936, In the US, the Rural Electrification Administration (REA) was established. Riral telephone lines were also developed by the REA from 1949.
30/12/1936, Striking workers in the USA closed 7 General Motors plants.
12/11/1936, The San Francisco�Oakland Bay Bridge opened.
29/6/1936, US Congress passed the Merchant Marine Act, providing subsidies to US shipping lines who were facing higher costs than foreign shipping operators.
29/2/1936. President Roosevelt signed a second neutrality bill, banning loans to countries at war.
4/1/1936, The first pop music chart was compiled, based on record sales published in New York in The Billboard.
10/12/1935, The Huey Long Bridge was completed in Metairie, Louisiana.
10/9/1935, Huey Pierce Long, Louisiana politician, was shot dead in Baton Rouge.� He had opposed �lying newspapers� and got the Louisiana legislature to impose a tax on any newspaper with a circulation of over 20,000.
31/8/1935, In the USA, President Roosevelt banned arms sales to warring countries.
30/8/1935, The USA passed the Revenue Act, redistributing some wealth and taxing gifts and inheritances. The US Inland revenue service reported that 0.1% of US corporations owned 52% of all corporate assets and less than 5% owned 87% of all corporate assets.
23/8/1935, The USA established Fort Knox as its gold bullion repository.
14/8/1935. President Roosevelt signed the Social Security Bill, introducing welfare for the old, sick, and unemployed.
10/6/1935, Alcoholics Anonymous was founded in the United States by Bill Wilson and Dr Robert Smith.
21/5/1935, Death of Jane Addams (born 6/9/1860). She founded Hull House, a mission to help poor immigrants in the US. She was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 for her efforts to promote pacifism after World War One.
6/3/1935, Oliver Wendell Jr, US Supreme Court Justice, died in Washington DC.
16/2/1935, Sonny Bono, US Congressman, was born.
8/1/1935. Elvis Presley was born in Tupelo, Mississippi, the surviving brother of twins.
8/9/1934, The luxury liner Morro Castle caught fire off New Jersey, killing 134.
22/8/1934, Norman Schwarzkopf, US General, was born.
20/8/1934. The USA joined the International Labour Organisation.
7/8/1934, A US Appeal Court upheld a judge�s ruling to allow James Joyce�s work, Ulysses, to be sold in the USA.
22/7/1934, Bank robber John Dillinger was killed in an FBI ambush in Chicago.
20/6/1934, Samuel Zoll, US politician, was born in Peabody, Massachusetts (died 2011)
9/6/1934. Donald Duck was created, in Walt Disney�s cartoon The Little Wise Hen. Walt Disney was born in Chicago on 5/12/1901.
23/5/1934. Bank robbers Bonnie Parker (23) and Clyde Barrow (25) were shot dead in an ambush by Texas rangers near Gibland, Alabama. Clyde met Bonnie in the caf� where she worked. She chose a life of excitement, drama, and danger, when she married the convict Clyde. She drove his getaway car as he robbed banks. A total of 12 people had died in their raids across the south western USA over the past 4 years. In 1930 Clyde was arrested but he escaped with Bonnie�s help and returned to bank robbery. After the death of the pair, people paid to see their bodies in the State morgue.
17/5/1934, Cass Gilbert, the US architect who designed many of New York�s skyscrapers, including the Woolworth Building, died.
26/4/1934, US railway companies averted a strike by reaching a settlement to gradually roll back the 10% pay cut imposed on the workers two years earlier.
18/4/1934. The first launderette opened in Fort Worth, Texas, by J F Cantrell. It was called a washeteria.
25/3/1934, The threatened US car workers' strike was averted when the Roosevelt administration created a National Automotive Labor Board to help resolve disputes
24/3/1934. The USA promised it would grant independence to the Philippines.
5/2/1934, Rioting broke out in the streets of New York over the cab driver strike as strikers fought with police and burned independent cabs.
16/11/1933, The USA established diplomatic relations with the USSR for the first time since the Russian Revolution.
7/11/1933, LaGuardia was elected Mayor of New York; he served until 1045.
31/10/1933, The carvings of the four heads of Presidents at Mount Rushmore, South Dakota, was completed.
30/9/1933, US President Franklin D Roosevelt announced the US$ 700 million New Deal for the poor.
25/6/1933, James Meredith, US civil rights activist, was born.
6/6/1933. The first drive � in cinema opened in Camden, New Jersey, with room for 400 cars.
27/5/1933, The �Century of World Progress� Fair opened in Chicago.
24/4/1933, Felix Adler, US educationalist (born 13/8/1851) died.
20/3/1933, Guisepope Zangara, who attempted to murder US President-elect Roosevelt in February, was executed.
23/1/1933, The US, under the 20th Amendment, moved the Inauguration Day of its Presidents from 4 March to 23 January. The aim was to reduce the �lame duck� period of an outgoing President.
7/9/1932, J Paul Getty II, US philanthropist, was born.
9/7/1932. King Camp Gillette, American inventor of the safety razor and blade, died.
12/5/1932, The body of the kidnapped infant son of Charles and Anne Lindbergh was found, less than 8km from his home 8in New Jersey.
1/3/1932, The 20-month old son of Charles Lindbergh was kidnapped from the nursery of their home in Hopwell, New Jersey. He was found dead on 12/5/1932. Bruno Hauptmann was convicted of the crime and electrocuted.
8/3/1932. Franklin D. Roosevelt won the New Hampshire presidential primary
22/2/1932. Edward Kennedy, American senator and younger brother of President Kennedy, was born in Brookline, Massachusetts.
13/11/1931, The Whitney Museum of American Art opened in New York City.
24/10/1931. Al Capone, 32, Chicago gang boss of the Prohibition era, was jailed for 11 years for tax evasion. He was also fined US$80,000. He was released in 1939 and died on 25/1/1947 of a brain haemorrhage.
1/10/1931, The Waldorf Astoria, on Park Avenue, New York, opened.� It was the world�s largest commercial hotel building.
17/9/1931. 33 1/3 rpm LP records were released in the USA.� They were demonstrated at the Savoy Plaza Hotel, New York.
31/7/1931, Cleveland Municipal Stadium, home of the Cleveland Indians, opened.� It was the largest baseball stadium in the world.
19/3/1931, Indigestion aid Alka-Seltzer went on sale in the USA.
18/3/1931, The US company Schick Inc started to manufacture electric razors.
3/3/1931. The song, �The Star Spangled Banner�, became the American National Anthem.
30/12/1930, The Colonial National Monument in Virginia was proclaimed by President Hoover.
27/6/1930, Ross Perot, US politician, was born.
6/12/1929, US marines were sent to Haiti to quell a revolt there.
3/12/1929, President Hoover delivered his first State of the Union speech to Congress.
23/9/1929, The $1.5 million, 21,000-seat St. Louis Arena opened.
28/7/1929, Jacqueline Onassis, widow of President Kennedy, was born in Southampton, New York State, as Jacqueline Lee Bouvier.
14/2/1929. The St Valentines Day Massacre took place in Chicago. Seven members of Bugsy Moran�s gang were machine-gunned to death by a rival gang.
13/1/1929, Wyatt Earp, American lawman and hero of the OK Corral, died peacefully aged 81.
1928, Roosevelt, future US President, was elected Governor of New York.
7/12/1928, Noam Chomsky, US social scientist, was born.
13/3/1928, In Los Angeles, 450 died when a dam burst.
21/1/1928, George Washington Goethals, American, chief engineer of the Panama Canal, died.
3/1/1928, US troops went to Nicaragua to fight the Sandinistas.
7/8/1927, The Peace Bridge opened between Canada and the USA.
21/1/1927, Telly Savalas, American film actor who played �Kojak�, was born in Garden City, New York.
19/6/1925, Bank robber Everett Bridgewater and two accomplices were arrested in Indianapolis, Indiana.
13/1/1929, Wyatt Earp, American lawman and hero of the OK Corral, died peacefully aged 81.
28/11/1925, The newly-rebuilt Madison Square Garden indoor arena opened in New York.
10/10/1925, James Buchanan Duke, US industrialist, (born in Durham, North Carolina, 23/12/1856) died in New York.
26/7/1925, William Jennings Bryan, US Democratic Party orator and prosecutor in the Scopes �Monkey Trial�, born 19/3/1860 in Salem, Illinois, died in Dayton, Tennessee.
17/1/1925, US President Coolidge, in an address to the Society of American newspaper Editors, stated �The business of America is business� as he set out his policy of reducing taxes, especially on the middle class. He opposed any write down of British and French War Debt to the USA.
27/11/1924, The first Macy�s Thanksgiving Parade was held in New York City.
4/11/1924, Calvin Coolidge was re-elected President pof the USA
26/5/1924. The US cut immigration quotas from an annual 3% of the number of that nationality already in the US (enacted 1921) to 2%, and excluded Japanese citizens entirely. Japan protested.
6/5/1924, Patricia Lawford Kennedy, younger sister of President Kennedy, was born (died 17/9/2006)
13/4/1924, Calvin Coolidge was nominated as US Presidential candidate by the Republican Party
10/4/1924. The first crossword puzzle book was published in New York.
19/4/1923, The Yankee Stadium, New York, opened.
3/3/1923. The US magazine Time was first published. Republican-leaning, the magazine was to condense the news for time-pressed Americans, and could be distributed by rail in a country with no true national newspaper.
13/1/1923, The US Senate agreed to take in 25,000 Armenian orphans.
10/1/1923, The last US troops left Germany.
22/12/1922, New York�s last horse-drawn fire engine was taken out of service.
7/11/1922. In US Congressional elections, the Republican majority was reduced.
15/8/1922, End of a coal strike in the USA (began 1/4/1922).
20/3/1922. President Harding recalled US troops from the Rhineland.
4/3/1922, In the USA the �Teapot Dome� scandal emerged. Secretary of the Interior Albert B Fall resigned as a Senate Committee investigated alleged unlawful leasing of Government oil reserves and other matters. In 1929 Fall was sentenced to 1 year in prison, also fined.
6/2/1922, The Limitation of Armaments Conference at Washington ended.
22/12/1921, US Congress set aside US$ 20 million for food aid to starving children in the USSR.
12/11/1921, The Limitation of Armaments Conference began in Washington.
10/11/1921, The US Marine Corps was founded.
1/9/1921, In the USA, the Klu Klux Klan now had over 4 million members.
25/8/1921. Peace treaty (Treaty of Berlin) signed between Germany and the USA.
11/8/1921, Alex Hailey, US author of Roots, was born.
19/5/1921. The USA introduced quotas for immigration, setting these at 3% of the each nationality in the US as it was in 1910. This favoured the British, Irish, Scandinavians, and Germans, and worked against the southern Europeans and Asians. The measure was backed by organised labour, worried about unemployment, by reformers worried about the poverty and slums in the US, and by those who felt that the Asian races were inferior to Europeans.
12/4/1921, US President Harding rejected joining the League of Nations.
11/2/1921, Lloyd Bentsen, US politician, was born (died 23/5/2006)
10/12/1920, Woodrow Wilson and Leon Bourgeois were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
7/12/1920, US President Woodrow Wilson made his State of the Union speech.
9/11/1920, Philip Hodge, US engineer, was born.
16/10/1920, US Marines killed the Haitian rebel leader.
16/9/1920, A bomb exploded at the JP Morgan bank, killing 30 and injuring 100.
26/8/1920. Under the 19th Amendment, women received the vote in the USA.
5/7/1920, In the US, the Democratic Convention nominated James M Cox for Presidency and F D Roosevelt for Vice-Presidency.
12/3/1920, Edward P. McCabe, African-American land agent who sought to make the Oklahoma Territory into a majority black state, died aged 69.
16/1/1920. Prohibition began in the USA (18th Amendment), and the sale, manufacture, or involvement with alcohol was banned.
See also Morals and Fashion for more details on Prohibition.
5/1/1920. Radio Corporation of America was formed for world-wide broadcasting.
27/11/1919. A large meteor landed in Lake Michigan.
11/11/1919, Death of Andrew Carnegie, US steel magnate and philanthropist. Born in Dunfermline, Scotland, on 25/11/1835, his family moved to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania when Andrew was 13. \he gave considerable sums to education and set-up the Carnegie Endowment for International Pece.
13/10/1919. Dock strike in New York.
2/10/1919, US President Wilson suffered a massive stroke, leaving his left side paralysed.
22/9/1919. Major steel strike in the USA.
9/9/1919, Boston, USA, police went on strike over low pay. Just 427 of the former 1,544 man force remained on duty, and crime soared. The militia were called in and the strikers sacked.
11/8/1919, Andrew Carnegie died aged 83 at his Berkshire Hills, Massachusetts, mansion. Out of his fortune, he had given away US$ 350 million in philanthropic donations.
25/2/1919, Oregon became the first US State to levy a tax on petrol. The tax revenue was used for road construction and maintenance.
15/1/1919, A tank containing 8.7 million litres of warm molasses in Boston, USA, burst. A 5-metre high wave of molasses swept through the docks area at 60 mph, wrecking buildings. 21 people were killed and 150 injured. Many died as the molasses cooled and became more viscous, suffocating its victims.
4/6/1918, Charles Warren Fairbanks, US statesman, died in Indianapolis, Indiana (born 11/5/1852 in Ohio).
12/5/1918, Julius Rosenberg was born (see 19/6/1953).
19/3/1918, US Congress passed the Standard Time Act making the 4 US time zones official.
2/7/1917, Race riots in Illinois, 75 Black people were killed.
9/3/1917, Dante Fascell, American politician (U.S. House of Representatives from Florida) was born in Bridgehampton, New York (d. 1998).
8/3/1917. US marines landed in Cuba to help the civil authorities.
2/3/1917. The US Congress passed the Jones Act, making Puerto Rico a US territory.
20/2/1917, The USA bought the Dutch West Indies.
5/2/1917, Immigrants to the US were now required to pass a literacy test. This law, inspired by the Immigration Restriction League founded in 1894, had been vetoed by US President Wilson, but was passed by Congress anyway. Those fleeing religious persecution were exempted, which allowed more Russian Jews to enter.
29/1/1917. Congress passed the Immigration Act (or, Asiatic Barred Zone Act), requiring all immigrants to know at least 30 words of English and banning all Asian migrants except Japanese. This followed on from the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, banning further immigration from China. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immigration_Act_of_1917 for further details.
1916, The US introduced its first tax on inherited wealth, an �estate tax�.
1/12/1916, The lights of the Statue of Liberty were turned on by President Wilson.
31/7/1916, Ammunition freight wagons exploded in New York, killing 26.
3/7/1916, Hetty Green, the wealthiest women in the USA died aged 80, leaving a fortune of US$ 100 million.
15/6/1916, In the US, the Democratic Convention nominated President Wilson as presidential candidate.
10/6/1916, In the US, the Republican Convention nominated Charles E Hughes as presidential candidate.
29/3/1916, Eugene McCarthy, US Senator, was born.
15/3/1916. The US mounted a punitive raid into Mexico in revenge for the raids of Pancho Villa into New Mexico on 9/3/1916.
6/10/1915, Humberto Sousa Medeiros, Archbishop of Boston 1970-83, was born in Arrifes, S�o Miguel Island, Azores (died 1983)
28/9/1915. Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg was born (see 19/6/1953).
15/3/1915, US soldiers under General Pershing entered Mexico to hunt down the revolutionary Pancho Villa.
28/1/1915, The US Coastguard was founded at Washington DC.
8/5/1914, The US Congress officially recognised Mothers� Day, setting it as the second Sunday in May thereafter.
21/4/1914, US troops occupied the Mexican city of Vera Cruz to prevent German weaponry reaching the Mexican military.
20/4/1914, US National Guard troops shot dead 3 striking mine workers, along with 2 women and 13 children, in Colorado.
26/3/1914, General William Westmoreland, Commander in Chief of US forces in Vietnam 1964-68, was born (died 18/7/2005).
1913, The United States Department of Labor was created, to promote the welfare of US workers.
1913, The Woolworth Building, designed by Cass Gilbert, was completed. Until 1930 it was the highest skyscraper in the city.
24/12/1913, The Italian Hall Disaster. A stampede at the Italian Hall in Calumet, Michigan killed 73 people (59 of them children) during a Christmas Eve celebration for over 400 striking miners and their families. An unknown person had yelled "Fire!" (even though there wasn't one). Speculation included the theory that an anti-union ally of mine management had yelled out the false alarm in order to disrupt the party.
23/12/1913, The Federal Reserve, the Central Banking system of the USA, was established.
31/10/1913, The Lincoln Highway, from New York to San Francisco, was officially designated, see 12/12/1912.
14/5/1913, The Rockefeller Foundation was established, by US industrialist James Rockefeller.
8/5/1913, US Congress approved the Underwood-Simmons Act, reducing import duties by 30%. This was the first reduction in the US tariff wall since the civil war; domestic industries suffered.
8/4/1913, The 17th Amendment to the Constitution was ratified. This provided for the election of US Senators by direct popular vote, so ending the �millionaire�s club� that had dominated the US Senate.
31/3/1913, New York�s Ellis Island, where new migrants were processed, received a record 6,745 admissions.
27/3/1913, The Arkansas Supreme Court ruled unanimously in Futrell v. Oldham that Junius Futrell was the Governor of Arkansas, after Futrell and former President William Kavanaugh Oldham had both claimed the office
25/2/1913. In the USA, Federal income tax was introduced. By the 16th Amendment the US Government was authorised to raise a tax of between 1% and 6% on incomes of more than US$ 4,000 (US$ 3,000 for bachelors) without having to share this tax revenue between the States of the Union according to their population.
3/2/1913. In the USA, the 16th Amendment to the Constitution was ratified. This authorised the imposition of income tax.
1912, US President Taft passed an Act stipulating how the US flag should look (see 1818). It then had 48 stars.
2/11/1912, An explosion on the battleship USS Vermont near Norfolk, Virginia killed 2 and injured 4.
14/10/1912. President Roosevelt was shot and seriously wounded by a demented man in Milwaukee.
12/9/1912, Carl Fisher and James Allison announced a plan to build a motor road across the USA from New York to San Francisco, 3,389 miles (5,454 km) long. They hoped to get backing from Henry Ford but he declined. Then they decided to name the road after former US President Abraham Lincoln, making it eligible for a Government grant. They secured US$ 1.7 million this way, and the Lincoln Highway was officially designated on 31/10/1913.
5/8/1912, In Chicago, the Progressive Party, nicknamed the "Bull Moose" Party to rival the Republican elephant and Democrat donkey, called itself to order as its founding convention opened at noon.
23/6/1912, A bridge over the Niagara Falls collapsed, killing 47.
22/6/1912, William Taft was nominated for a 2nd term as President.
12/4/1912, Clara Barton (born 25/12/1812 near Oxford, Massachusetts) died at Glen Echo, Maryland. She founded the American Red Cross in 1881, having worked in Europe with the Red Cross there to alleviate the suffering caused by the Franco-Prussian War.
14/2/1912. Arizona became the 48th State of the USA.
6/1/1912. New Mexico became the 47th State of the USA.
3/11/1911, Death of Norman Jay Colman, the first US Secretary of Agriculture (born 16/5/1827).
27/5/1911, Hubert Humphrey, US politician, was born (died 1978).
23/5/1911, The New York Public Library opened on 5th Avenue.
15/5/1911, After a long legal battle the US Supreme Court ordered that Standard Oil be broken up into 34 smaller companies, including Mobil Oil, Chevron and Exxon. Standard Oil had become a huge monopoly through trust agreements signed by its leader John D Rockerfeller in 1882, that gave it control over 75% of US refining capacity, 90% of US pipelines, and 15% of crude oil products. Standard Oil also had interests in gas, copper, iron, steel, shipping, banks, and railroad companies. The State of Ohio challenged this monopoly in Court , and in 1890 US Congress passed the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, giving the Federal US Government the power to regulate corporate trusts that extended across State boundaries, In the 1904 Presidential Election Theodore Roosevelt began a trust-busting campaign, culminating in the 1911 Supreme Court decision against Standard Oil.
25/4/1911, Jack Ruby, killer of Lee Harvey Oswald, was born.
13/3/1911, L Ron Hubbard, US science fiction writer who founded the scientologists, was born.
17/2/1911, The city of Lakewood, Ohio, a suburb of Cleveland, was incorporated.
25/1/1911. US troops were sent to Rio Grande in the Mexican Civil War.
1/10/1910, Bonnie Parker, US outlaw of the Bonnie and Clyde duo, was born in Rowena, Texas.
30/9/1910, US terrorist J.B. McNamara planted a time bomb in a passage beneath the headquarters of the Los Angeles Times newspaper, with 16 sticks of dynamite set to explode after working hours. Two other bombs were placed outside the homes of the Times owner and the secretary of the Merchants and Manufacturers Association. The bomb outside the Times building detonated shortly after 1:00 a.m. on Saturday, triggering an explosion of natural gas lines and setting a fire that killed 20 newspaper employees.
6/7/1910, The city of Redmond, Oregon, was incorporated.
3/7/1910, Esau Jenkins, African-American educator was born (died 1972).
19/6/1910. Fathers Day was instituted in the USA.
18/6/1910, The city of Glendale, Arizona, was incorporated.
25/2/1910, Millicent Fenwick, US diplomat, was born.
16/12/1909, US marines forced the resignation of President Jose Zelaya of Nicaragua.
22/8/1909, 5 US workers died in steel industry riots.
24/3/1909, Clyde Barrow, one of the Bonnie and Clyde outlaws, was born in Toledo, Texas.
14/11/1908, Joseph McCarthy, US politician and lawyer noted for his purge against Communists, was born in Grand Chute, Wisconsin.
14/10/1908, George Harold Brown, US engineer, was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
12/8/1908, The Model T Ford began rolling off the production line. Priced at US$ 825, the cost was kept low by mass production using standardised parts. Instead of one man assembling an entire car, each worker preformed just one task as the car moved along a conveyor belt. By this production line method, the time to assemble a car was cut from 14 hours to 2. To motivate his workforce, Henry Ford raised wages from US$ 2.34 for a 9 hour day to US$ 5 for an 8 hour day. Productivity improvements meant Ford could reduce the car�s price to US$ 300. Over 15 million Model Ts were built and by the time production ceased in 1927 half the cars in the US were Fords.
4/8/1908, William Boyd Allison, US legislator, died in Dubuque, Iowa (born 2/3/1829 in Perry, Ohio).
26/7/1908. The Federal Bureau of Investigation, or FBI, was established in Washington DC. Before this date the US Department of Justice often called on Secret Service �operatives� to help in its investigations. These operatives were well trained and dedicated but expensive. They reported not to the Attorney General but to the chief of the Secret Service. Bonaparte created a special agents force, to report not to the chief of the Secret Service but to the Chief Examiner, Stanley Finch, later head of the FBI. This force of 34 agents later became a permanent part of the Department of Justice.
2/7/1908, Thurgood Marshall, US lawyer, was born (died 1993)
10/5/1908. Mothers Day was first celebrated in the USA.
21/3/1908, Abraham Maslow, US psychologist, was born (died 1970).
16/12/1907, The US sent a fleet of 16 battleships on a round-the-world tour, to demonstrate the military might of the USA.
23/11/1907, The Rockefeller institute was founded, with a US$ 2.5 million gift from John Rockefeller.
16/11/1907. Oklahoma was admitted as the 46th State of the USA.
15/10/1907, The US town of Fontanet was almost totally destroyed when its gunpowder factory exploded.
13/3/1907, The New York Stock Exchange collapsed.
1/3/1907, The New York Salvation Army Bureau set up a suicide counselling service.
24/1/1907, Alexander Russell Alger, US soldier and politician (born 27/2/1836 in Lafayette, Ohio) died in Washington DC.
9/10/1906. Death of Joseph Glidden in the USA; he invented barbed wire.�������������������������
22/6/1906, US President Roosevelt sued John D Rockerfeller�s Standard Oil Company for operating a monopoly. See 15/5/1911.
18/4/1906. Major earthquake hit San Francisco. Over 1,000 people were killed and large fires threatened upmarket homes on Nob Hill, after the water mains were destroyed in the quake. Overall, 3,000 acres of the city were devastated. The fire did more damage than the quake, it took 3 days to bring the blaze under control and 490 blocks were destroyed.
21/3/1906, John D Rockefeller III, billionaire philanthropist, was born.
17/2/1906, Alice Roosevelt, daughter of President Theodore Roosevelt, married Ohio Congressman Nicholas Longworth.
24/12/1905, The US industrialist Howard Hughes was born.
11/12/1905, Edward Atkinson, US economist, died in Boston (born 10/2/1827 in Brookline, Massachusetts).
19/6/1905. The world�s first all motion picture cinema opened in Pittsburgh. For 10 cents admission there was a film, Poor But Honest, followed by The Baffled Burglar, accompanied by a melody on the� harp by Madame Durocher.
28/4/1905, Fitzhugh Lee, US Cavalry General, died (born 19/11/1835).
28/2/1905, George Boutwell, US statesman, died in Groton, Massachusetts (born in Brookline, Massachusetts 28/1/1818).
23/2/1905, The Rotary Club was founded by Paul Harris and others, in offices in Dearborn, Chicago.
18/2/1905, Jay Cooke, US financier, died (born 10/8/1821).
10/2/1905. The state of Wisconsin passed a tax on bachelors aged over 30.
1904, The US Forestry Service was created, out of the Department of Agriculture, by President Roosevelt.
1/12/1904, The Great World Fair, at St Louis, USA, closed, having had millions of visitors from all over the world.
4/10/1904, Death of French sculptor Frederic Auguste Bartholdi, designer of the Statue of Liberty.
30/9/1904, George Hoar, US politician, died (born 29/8/1836).
3/6/1904, Robert Keep, US educator, died (born 26/4/1844).
23/5/1904, Introduction of cheap steerage rates encouraged migration from Europe to the USA.
30/4/1904, The St Louis Exhibition opened.
22/4/1904. Robert Oppenheimer, American scientist who developed the US atomic bomb at Los Alamos, was born in New York City.
22/3/1904. In the USA, the Daily Illustrated Mirror carried the world�s first colour picture in a newspaper.
15/2/1904, Marcus Hanna, US politician, died (born 24/9/1837).
7/2/1904. A major fire destroyed much of the centre of Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
4/1/1904, The US Supreme Court ruled that Puerto Ricans could enter the US freely, but were not entitled to US citizenship.
2/1/1904, James Longstreet, US Confederate soldier, died (born 8/2/1821).
30/12/1903, Major fire at a Chicago theatre, 602 killed in a panic stampede for the exit.
1/8/1903, Calamity Jane, prominent figure in the US Wild West, died of pneumonia this day, aged 51 (born 1/5/1852).
22/7/1903, Cassius Clay, US politician, died (born 19/10/1818).
4/7/1903, President Roosevelt of the USA inaugurated the Pacific Communications Cable with a global message.
22/4/1903, The new New York Stock Exchange opened at 18 Broad Street.
21/3/1903, In the US, the grievances that caused the 1902 miners� strike were resolved with a 10% pay rise and shorter working day, The mine owners, however, refused to recognise the United Mine Workers Union.
3/3/1903. The USA passed a bill to limit immigration and ban �undesirables�.
15/2/1903, The first teddy bear was sold from Michtom�s candy store, New York. The origin of teddy bears was that in 1902 on a hunting trip by President Theodore Roosevelt, his assistants tied a bear to a tree so he could shoot it; Roosevelt refused such unsporting conduct and set the bear free instead.
5/2/1903, Henry Dawes, US lawyer, died (born 30/10/1816).
1902, (see also Prisons) Death of John Peter Atgeld (born 1847), who was a prison reformer ahead of his time. A German-born lawyer in Chicago, he was concerned about how the poor found it difficult to access justice. He was elected Governor of Illinois in 1892 and succeeded in passing laws regulating child labour and loosening the monopolies enjoyed by railways and tramways companies. He pardoned three anarchists imprisoned since 1886, and condemned President Cleveland for sending in troops to disrupt a railway strike. However he was then vilified by the press as a �Illinois Jacobin� and was defeated when seeking re-election in 1896.
31/12/1902, In� a test of the Monroe doctrine, British and German naval ships seized the Venezuelan navy and shelled a fort in Caracas, to enforce payment for property seized without compensation during the 1899 revolution. The US pressurised the two countries to end the blockade and refer the matter to the international court in The Hague.
15/10/1902, US President Roosevelt threatened to send in troops to end a miner�s strike.
15/9/1902, Horace Gray, US jurist, died (born 24/3/1828).
22/8/1902, Theodore Roosevelt became the first incumbent US President to travel by car. He very much preferred horse and carriage.
30/7/1902, The US militia restored order in Shenandoah, Pennsylvania, after a street fight between striking coal miners and police, resulting in at least one death.
26/7/1902, Charles Adams, US historian (born 24/1/1835) died.
20/7/1902, John MacKay, US industrialist, died (born 28/11/1831).
20/5/1902, Cuba gained dependence, from US military rule, see 1/1/1899.
11/5/1902, Charles Collis, US soldier, died aged 64.
7/5/1902, The U.S. House of Representatives began consideration of statehood for the U.S. territories of Oklahoma, Arizona and New Mexico.
14/4/1902, US trader KC Penney opened his first store, in Kemmerer, Wyoming.
3/3/1902, In the USA, the Supreme Court banned dealing in �financial futures�.
16/2/1902, George Carter Needham, US evangelist, died aged 56.
2/12/1901, In the Insular Case, the US Supreme Court ruled that Puerto Ricans and inhabitants of other US overseas territories are US Nationals, but not US citizens, as the US Constitution only applied to areas incorporated by Congress.
30/11/1901, In the USA, Christmas tree lights were developed by the Edison Electric Company.
18/11/1901. US journalist and statistician George Gallup was born in Jefferson, Iowa.
29/10/1901, Anarchist Leon Czolgosz was executed by electrocution for assassinating US President McKinley
26/10/1901, William Holland, US abolitionist, died aged 87.
25/10/1901, A serious fire killed 19 people and left another 12 badly injured in Philadelphia, USA. The fire began in the 8-floor Hu8nt & Wilkinson furniture company and spread to three other buildings. The conflagration began in the basement and spread up the lift shaft.
24/10/1901, Ann Edson Taylor rode over the Niagara Falls in a padded barrel, and lived to tell the tale.
12/10/1901, President Theodore Roosevelt renamed the Executive Mansion as The White House.
10/9/1901, US anarchist Emma Goldman was arrested for her part on the plot to kill President McKinley.
3/9/1901, Theodore Roosevelt, then Vice-President of the USA, spoke the phrase �speak softly and carry a big stick�. Meaning use diplomatic negotiations but have military back up if needed. This became known as �big stick diplomacy�.
6/8/1901, The town of Lawton, Oklahoma, came into being as the United States Land Office began auctioning lots divided from a 320-acre townsite located near the U.S. Army's Fort Sill.
29/7/1901, The Socialist Party of America was founded at Indianapolis.
17/7/1901, Daniel Butterfield, US soldier, died (born 1831).
4/7/1901, US Republican, Taft, was appointed Governor of the Philippines. replacing a former military government with civilian rule. He announced an amnesty for all former rebels who took an oath of allegiance to the USA.
25/2/1901, �Zeppo� Marx, the youngest of the Marx Brothers, who became their agent, was born in New York City as Herbert.
24/2/1901, After 53 ballots without any single candidate attaining a majority, the legislature of Oregon elected former Senator John H. Mitchell to be one of its two United States Senators.
8/2/1901, Benjamin Prentiss, US Major General who had distinguished himself at the Battle of Shiloh, died aged 81.
10/1/1901, Major oil discovery in Texas, USA. The salt dome of Spindletop had been suspected of containing oil since 1865; this day oil was struck; a gush of oil 6 inches wide rose over 200 feet, and was visible for over 10 miles. The population of nearby Beaumont rapidly rose from 10,000 to over 50,000, as oil production at Spindletop reached 100,000 barrels per day. Oil production in the area lasted until 1950.
27/11/1900, Cushman Davis, US politician, died (born 16/6/1838).
20/9/1900, John McClernand, US soldier, died (born 30/5/1812)
8/9/1900, Over 5,000 were killed when a hurricane hit Galveston, Texas.
5/7/1900, Henry Barnard, US educationalist, died in Hartford, Connecticut born in Hartford, Connecticut 24/1/1811).
21/6/1900, In the US, the Republican Party Convention renominated McKinley for Presidency and Theodore Roosevelt for vice-Presidency.
9/5/1900, Striking tramway workers in St Louis, USA, blew up a tramcar.
16/4/1900. The world�s first book of stamps was issued, in the USA.
8/4/1900, In the first major event associated with the introduction of Buddhism to the United States, Buddha's birthday was celebrated in an elaborate ceremony in San Francisco. The Buddhist mission had begun its outreach to European-Americans in weekly lectures beginning on January 4.
5/2/1900, Adlai Stevenson, US politician, was born (died 1965).
4/1/1900, Jacob Cox, US General, died (born 27/10/1828).
2/1/1900. New York�s first electric omnibus began operating.
23/12/1899, Dorman Eaton, US lawyer, died (born 27/6/1823).
22/12/1899, Dwight Moody, US evangelist, died (born 5/2/1837).
2/12/1899. In Washington, the USA, Britain, and Germany signed a treaty dividing the Samoan Islands between the USA and Germany.
21/11/1899, Garrett Hobart, US Vice-President, died (born 3/6/1844).
5/10/1899, James Harlan, US politician, died (born 26/8/1820).
9/4/1899, Stephen Field, US jurist, died (born 4/11/1816).
6/9/1899. The US Secretary of State, John Hay, embarked on an �open door� policy towards China. He also urged the European powers, and Japan, to respect China�s territorial integrity and pursue a policy of free trade with China.
31/7/1899, Daniel Brinton, US archaeologist, died (born 30/5/1837).
1/7/1899, The first juvenile court sat, at Cork County Court, Chicago.
26/6/1889, Simon Cameron, US politician, died (born 8/3/1799).
24/5/1889, Laura Bridgman, US blind deaf mute, died (born 21/12/1829).
18/3/1899, Othniel Charles Marsh, US palaeontologist, died in new Haven, Connecticut.
17/1/1899, Al Capone, American gangster who operated in Chicago, was born in Naples, Italy.
19/11/1898, Don Carlos Buell, US soldier, died (born 23/3/1818).
28/9/1898, Thomas Bayard, US statesman, died in Dedham, Massachusett (born in Wilmington, Delaware, 29/10/1828).
27/3/1898, Gloria Swanson, American silent-film star, was born.
1/1/1898. The boroughs of Brooklyn, Queens, Richmond, Manhattan, and The Bronx united to form Greater New York.
22/2/1897, Darius Couch, US soldier, died (born 23/7/1822).
19/2/1897. The Women�s Institute organisation was founded at Stoney Creek in Ontario by Mrs Hoodless. The first W I meeting was on 25/9/1897. The W I idea was brought to England by a Mrs Watt during World War One.
13/1/1897, Mr and Mrs Bradley Martin, members of New York�s �top 400�, threw an extremely extravagant party in which the ballroom of the Waldorf Astoria was made into a replica of Versailles. This event, in the face of an economic recession, attracted much criticism in the popular press, and the Martins fled to England.
26/6/1896. The world�s first permanent cinema opened in New Orleans; admission was 10 cents. Britain�s first cinema opened in Islington on 5/8/1901, and charged between 6d and 3s for entry. However by World War One most cinemas were only charging 3d or 6d. The first drive in cinema opened on 6/6/1933 in Camden, New Jersey, and could hold 400 cars.
22/6/1896, Benjamin Bristol, US politician, died (born 20/6/1832).
26/5/1896, In the USA, the Dow Jones Industrial Average shares index was first published.
5/5/1896, Silas Adams, US politician died (born 1839)
6/3/1896, Charles Brady King test-drove a car he had built in Detroit, the first car ever driven in what would become known as Motor City.
4/1/1896. Utah became the 45th State of the USA.
17/12/1895. Relations between the US and Britain were under severe strain because of a border dispute between Guiana and Venezuela.
26/8/1895. A hydroelectric plant designed by Nikola Tesla and built by Westinghouse opened at Niagara Falls.
28/5/1895, Walter Gresham, US statesman, died (born 28/5/1895).
24/5/1895, Hugh McCulloch, US financier, died (born 7/12/1808).
31/1/1895, Ebenezer Hoar, US politician, died (born 21/2/1816).
1/1/1895, J Edgar Hoover, American criminologist and founder of the FBI, was born in Washington DC.
14/12/1894. Eugene Debs, President of the American Railway Union, was jailed for 6 months for ignoring an injunction to end the Pullman strike. The strike began on 11/5/1894 when the Pullman Company reduced wages but did not cut rents for workers living in company housing.� The strike turned violent with riots and burning or railroad cars. Attorney-General Richard Olney obtained an injunction to end the strike on the grounds it was obstructing the mail, and when this was ignored federal troops arrived in Chicago to enforce the court order. By 10/7/1894 the strike was broken.
22/11/1894. The USA and Japan signed a commercial treaty.
7/10/1894. Andrew Curtin, US politician, died (born 22/4/1817).
1/5/1894. David Coxey, who led a march of 100,000 unemployed to the capital, Washington, to demand economic reform, was arrested.
13/4/1894, David Field, US lawyer, died (born 13/2/1805).
28/3/1894, George Curtis, US lawyer, died (born 28/11/1812).
2/3/1894, Jubal Anderson Early, US Confederate General (born 3/11/1816 in Franklin County, Virginia) died in Lynchburg, Virginia.
3/1/1894, Elizabeth Peabody, American educator and founder in 1960 of the first kindergarten in the US, died aged 89.
31/10/1893, US Congress repealed the Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 and the USA returned to the Gold Standard. Silver prices collapsed.
11/5/1893, Samuel Armstrong, US soldier and philanthropist, died in Hampton, Virginia (born 30/1/1839 in Maui, Hawaii).
5/5/1893, Panic selling hit the New York Stock exchange. In the ensuing crash, some 500 banks and 15,000 companies went bankrupt.
20/2/1893, Pierre Beauregard, American Confederate General, died.
27/1/1893, James Blaine, US statesman, died in Washington DC (born in Pennsylvania 31/1/1830).
26/1/1893, Abner Doubleday, US soldier, died (born 26/6/1819).
11/1/1893, Benjamin Butler, US politician, died (born 5/11/1818).
15/12/1892, Paul Getty, US oil tycoon, was born in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
2/12/1892, Jay Gould, US financier, died (born 27/5/1836).
12/10/1892, The USA introduced an oath of allegiance to Flag and State for its schoolchildren.
17/8/1892, Mae West, US film actress, was born in Brooklyn, New York.� She was the daughter of a boxer.
30/3/1892, Roger Mills, US politician, was born.
US restricts immigration, especially from China
1902.The Chinese Exclusion Act was extended to include those of Oriental origin from Hawaii and the Philippines, and such exclusion was made permanent.
17/3/1894, The USA and China signed a Chinese Exclusion Treaty, whereby China consented to the exclusion of Chinese labourers from migration to the USA. This year the US established an Immigration Bureau, and a group of Boston citizens formed an Immigration Restriction League, which campaigned for literacy tests for immigrants to the US. This was aimed against Chinese, Slavs and Latin-Americans.
5/5/1892, US Congress passed the Geary Chinese Exclusion Act, extending all restrictions on Chinese immigration to the USA for another 10 years, and requiring all existing Chinese immigrants to register or face deportation.
1/1/1892, New York opened an immigration office on Ellis Island to cope with the flood of immigrants to the USA.
Many were fleeing political and religious persecution in Russia and Central Europe. Named after Samuel Ellis, who owned the island in the 1770s, the new facility replaced older cramped facilities at The Battery on Manhattan Island.
3/3/1891, US Congress voted to establish a US Office of Superintendent of Immigration.
1/10/1888, In an attempt to curb Chinese immigration, US Congress ruled that any Chinese
worker who had left the USA could not return again.
4/7/1891, Hannibal Hamlin, Vice-President of the USA, died (born 27/8/1809).
7/4/1891, Phineas T Barnum, American circus showman, died aged 80.
21/3/1891, Joseph Johnston, US Confederate General, died.
4/3/1891, US Congress passed the Copyright Act, to protect authors, composers and artists.
14/2/1891, William Sherman, Union Army commander in the American Civil War, died in New York City.
17/1/1891, George Bancroft, US politician, died in Washington (born in Worcester, Massachusetts 3/10/1800).
7/1/1891, Charles Devens, US lawyer, died (born 4/4/1820).
24/11/1890, August Belmont, US financier, died in New York (born in Prussia 8/12/1816).
1/10/1890, US import duties reached record levels after the protectionist McKinley Tariff act was passed.
6/8/1890, In New York�s Auburn prison, the electric chair was used for the first time on the murderer William Kemmler. This method of execution was attacked as constituting �cruel and unusual punishment� but was upheld in the US State and Federal Courts. By 1906 115 murderers had been executed by �electrothanasia�, and the method was had also adopted by the US States of Ohio (1896), Massachusetts (1898), New Jersey (1906), Virginia (1908) and North Carolina (1910).
13/7/1890, John Fremont, explorer of the US Midwest, died (21/1/1813).
10/7/1890, Wyoming was admitted as the 44th State of the USA.
3/7/1890, Idaho became the 43rd State of the Union.
2/7/1890, The US government passed the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, banning trade monopolies. With more than 90% of the US oil trade in the hands of the Rockerfeller family, and sugar, wheat, and alcohol prices also governed by mysterious �trusts�, the US government felt that these trusts threatened the economic structure of the USA. A judge, Mr Justice Harlan, said that these trusts were another form of slavery, as capital became concentrated in the hands of a few.
1/6/1890, The US Census Bureau began using Herman Hollerith�s tabulating machine to count census returns.� Hollerith�s company eventually became IBM.
14/4/1890, The Pan-American Union was established at the first International Congress of American States.
28/3/1890, Washington State University was established in Pullman, Washington.
8/3/1890, North Dakota State University was founded in Fargo, North Dakota.
11/11/1889. Washington became the 42nd State of the Union.
8/11/1889, Montana became the 41st State of the Union.
2/11/1889, North and South Dakota became the 39th and 40th States of the Union.
24/9/1889, Daniel Hill, US Confederate soldier, died (born 11/7/1821).
3/6/1889, The first �long-distance� electric power transmission line in the US was completed.� It ran 14 miles from a generator at Williamette Falls to downtown Portland, Oregon.
22/4/1889, The great land rush in the US, see 2/5/1890.
22/3/1889, Stanley Matthews, US jurist, died (born 21/7/1824).
8/3/1889, John Ericsson, Swedish-US inventor and engineer, died in New York City (born in Langbanshyttan, Sweden, 31/7/1803).
22/2/1889, US President Grover Cleveland signed a Bill admitting North and South Dakota, Montana, and Washington, as US States.
25/10/1888, Richard Byrd, US naval officer and polar explorer, was born in Winchester, Virginia.
9/10/1888, The 555-foot high white marble Washington Monument was opened.� It was designed by Robert Mills.
18/4/1888, Roscoe Conkling, US lawyer and politician, died in New York City (born 30/10/1829 in Albany, New York).
4/3/1888, Amos Alcott, US educationalist, born 29/11/1799, died.
25/12/1887, Conrad Hilton, American hotelier, was born in San Antonio, New Mexico.
23/11/1887, Violence erupted in a sugar cane workers strike in Louisiana, and at least 20 Black people were killed.
8/11/1887, John Henry Holliday, US gunfighter, died.
8/3/1887, Henry Beecher, US preacher, died in Brooklyn (born in Litchfield, Connecticut 24/6/1813).
21/2/1887, James Geddes, US soldier, died (born 19/3/1827).
26/12/1886, John Logan, US politician, died.
21/11/1886, Charles Adams, US diplomat (born 18/8/1807 in Boston) died in Boston.
31/8/1886, Earthquake hit Charleston, USA. .27 were killed and 90% of the city�s buildings were damaged, with US$5 million incurred. However the city soon recovered.
22/8/1886, Amos Lawrence, US philanthropist, died (born 31/7/1814).
28/5/1886, John Bartlett, US historian, died in Providence (born in Providence, Rhode Island 23/10/1805).
20/5/1885, Frederick Frelinghuysen, US statesman, died (born 4/8/1817).
4/5/1886, The Haymarket Square Riot in Chicago. A bomb exploded at a trades union rally, killing 7 policemen and injuring 70 other people. Four people were executed by the State of Illinois, and the incident greatly eroded public support for the trades union movement.
1/5/1886, Over 100,00 workers across the USA went on strike for an 8 hour day. A bomb thrown by Anarchists in Chicago on 4/5/1886 killed 7 police and strikers and injured 60 more. The perpetrator was never found but a judge ruled that seven who had incited the event were as guilty and sentenced them to death. One committed suicide, four were executed, and two had their sentences commuted.
9/2/1886, Winfield Hancock, US General, died (born 14/2/1824).
14/11/1885, Horace Chaflin, US merchant, died (born 18/12/1811).
10/9/1885, The town of Stafford, Kansas, was officially incorporated as such. The boundaries of Stafford County were fixed by the US legislature in 1868, and was named in honour of Lewis Stafford, a Civil War soldier who was killed ion the Battle of Young�s Point. For several years the county had no permanent settlers, but was inhabited by buffalo hunters, cowboys, and surveyors. The first permanent inhabitants arrived in May 1874. Early industries included the gathering of buffalo hides and bones left by earlier settlers; buffalo bones fetched US$3-US$9 a ton. Many of the first houses were made of earth, or sod, hence the first town here was called �Sod-Town�, renamed Stafford in 1885.
23/7/1885, Ulysses Grant, American commander of the Union Army, Republican politician and 18th President from 1869 to 1877, died of cancer in Mount McGregor, near Saratoga, New York State.
4/5/1885, Irvin McDowell, US soldier, died (born 15/10/1818).
24/2/1885, Chester Nimitz, American admiral and commander in the Pacific during World War II, was born in Fredericksburg, Texas.
13/1/1885, Schuyler Colfax, US politician, died (born 23/3/1823).
16/6/1884, The first purpose-built roller coaster, the Switchback railway, opened at Coney Island, New York.
Statue of Liberty
28/10/1886, The Statue of Liberty in New York was unveiled by President Grover Cleveland.� It was presented by France to mark the 100th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, and designed by the French sculptor Auguste Bartholdi; it took more than nine years to complete.
5/8/1885, Erection of the Statue of Liberty in Bedloe�s Island, New York, began.
4/7/1885, The Statue of Liberty was formally presented to US Minister Morton by Frenchman Ferdinand de Lesseps.
19/6/1885. The Statue of Liberty arrived in New York from France. The statue was dedicated to the US-France friendship on 28/10/1886 by President Cleveland. The Statue was 300 foot high, of a woman holding a tablet with the date 4 July 1776 on it. The 225 ton structure made of hand-hammered copper sheet on a steel frame was assembled in France then dismantled and shipped to the USA.
21/5/1885, The Statue of Liberty was completed. Work on it was begun in 1874 by Auguste Bartholdi, in Paris.
21/3/1884, Ezra Abbot, US scholar of the Bible, died in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
27/12/1883, Andrew Humphreys, US soldier, died (born 2/11/1810).
23/10/1883, The Metropolitan Opera House in New York opened.
4/4/1883, Death of Peter Cooper, US inventor and steam locomotive designer (born 12/2/1791).
14/2/1883, Edwin Morgan, US politician, died (born 8/2/1811).
16/1/1883, The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act in the USA instituted a more meritocratic system of recruitment to the Civil Service, replacing the former �spoils� system.
1882, The US passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, to halt Chinese immigration into the USA. See 29/1/1917.
5/9/1882, The first Labor Day Parade was held in New York.
30/6/1882, Charles Guiteau, who shot and killed US President James Garfield on 6/7/1881, was hanged.
3/4/1882, Jesse James, US outlaw, died.
26/10/1881, The gunfight at the OK Corral, Arizona, took place between Doc Holliday and Wyatt, Virgil and Morgan Earp and the Clantons and McLaurys.
13/9/1881, Ambrose Burnside, US soldier, died (born 23/5/1824).
3/8/1881, William George Fargo, co-founder of the Wells Fargo Express in 1852, died aged 65.
4/7/1881, The outlaw William H Bonney, or Billy the Kid, born 23/11/1859, was shot dead in New Mexico by lawman Pat Garrett. He reputedly killed his first man before he was a teenager.
31/12/1880, George Marshal, US general and politician who originated the Marshal Plan for the post World War Two reconstruction of Europe, was born in Uniontown, Pennsylvania.
27/11/1880, George Crittenden, US soldier, died (born 20/3/1812).
1/6/1880, The first public telephone call box was installed, in New Haven, Connecticut.
8/3/1880. President Hayes of America declared that the USA will have jurisdiction over any canal built across Panama.
26/1/1880, Douglas MacArthur, American military commander in the south-west Pacific in World War Two, was born near Little Rock, Arkansas.
8/11/1879, Margaret Eaton, acquaintance of US President Jackson, died (born 1796).
1/11/1879, Zachariah Chandler, US politician, died (born 10/12/1813)
13/10/1879, Henry Carey, US economist, died (born 15/12/1793).
30/8/1879, John Hood, US soldier, died (born 1831)
26/6/1879, Henry Richard Anderson, US soldier, died in Beaufort, South Carolina (born 7/10/1821 in South Carolina).
21/4/1879, John Dix, US politician, died (born 24/7/1798).
9/3/1879, Elihu Burritt, US philanthropist, died (born 8/12/1810)
2/1/1879, Caleb Cushing, US statesman, died at Newburyport, |Massachusetts.
10/12/1878, Henry Wells, partner of William Fargo, died.
4/10/1878, The first Chinese Embassy in the USA opened, in Washington DC.
12/6/1878, Benjamin Bonneville, US military engineer and explorer, died in Foret Smith, Arkansas. An extinct glacial lake which once covered NW Utah is named in his honour.
28/1/1878, America�s first commercial telephone switchboard exchange opened in New Haven, Connecticut.
1/11/1877, Oliver Morton, US politician, died (born 4/8/1823).
29/10/1877, Nathan Forrest, US Confederate General, died (born 13/7/1821).
21/6/1877, Eleven members of the Molly Maguires, a secret Irish-American coalminer�s organisation, were hanged after ten years of criminal activity in Pennsylvania. The organisation had been infiltrated by the Pinkerton detective agency.
8/4/1877, William Muhlenberg, US philanthropist, died (born 16/9/1796).
2/3/1877, The 11/1876 US Presidential election result had been uncertain, with 20 electoral college votes contested, enough to give either Samuel Jones Tilden (Democrat) or Rutherford Birchard Hayes (Republican) victory. On 29/1/1877 an electoral commission was formed, comprising 8 Republicans and 7 Democrats, which on this day awarded the 20 votes to Hayes, who became US President on 4/3/1877.
27/9/1876, Braxton Bragg, US soldier, died in Galveston, Texas (born in North Carolina 22/3/1817).
2/8/1876, Death of Wild Bill Hickok, Marshall of Kansas City, who gunned down many outlaws; he was shot in the back this day.
1/8/1876, Colorado became the 38th State of the USA.
10/2/1876, Reverdy Johnson, US politician, died (born 21/5/1796).
9/1/1876, Samuel Howe, US philanthropist, died (born 10/11/1801).
2/10/1875, San Francisco�s Palace Hotel opened.
10/6/1875, Duff Green, US politician, died (born 15/8/1791).
17/5/1875, The Kentucky Derby horse race, USA, was first run.
17/12/1874, William Cushing, US naval officer, died (born 4/11/1842).
9/12/1874, Ezra Cornell, US industrialist who founded Cornell University in Ithaca, died.
7/12/1874, Race riots in Vicksburg, Mississippi, 75 Black people were killed.
17/9/1874, The White League rioted against the Black Government in New Orleans,USA.
15/4/1874, Jules Gabriel Fisher, Louisiana State Senator, was born (died 14/5/1943).
29/1/1874, John D Rockefeller, US entrepreneur, was born.
23/12/1873, Sarah Grimke, US social reformer, died (born 6/11/1792).
19/11/1873, John Hale, US politician, died (born 31/3/1806).
9/10/1873, Charles Walgreen, US entrepreneur who founded Walgreens, was born.
7/5/1873, Salmon Chase, US jurist, died (born 13/1/1808).
6/5/1873, John Brodhead, US historical scholar, died (born 2/1/1814).
13/4/1873, In the USA, the Colefax Massacre occurred when 300 armed White men clashed with militant African-Americans over a disputed local election result in Louisiana. Over 100 African Americans were killed.
4/3/1873, The New York Daily Graphic became the world�s first illustrated daily newspaper.
1/2/1873, Matthew Maury, US naval officer, died (born 24/1/1806).
5/12/1872, The Marie Celeste was spotted drifting, crewless, in the Atlantic near The Azores, and was boarded by the crew of the Dei Gratia. The 206 ton Marie Celeste had left New York on 7/11/1872, captained by Benjamin Briggs, with his wife, daughter and eight crew on its way to Genoa, with a cargo of 1,700 barrels of alcohol, which was found intact. The lifeboat was missing but the captain�s table was set for a meal that was never eaten.
9/11/1872, A great fire broke out in the commercial district of Boston, USA, on the Saturday night. It burned until Sunday 10th, and destroyed 767 buildings filled with merchandise. 14 lives and an estimated US$75million of goods were lost. Very little residential property was lost and the commercial district was soon rebuilt with better buildings and straighter roads.
7/11/1872, The 282 ton brigantine Marie Celeste set sail from New York on her ill-fated journey.
6/11/1872, George Meade, US soldier, died.
25/9/1872, Peter Cartwright, US Methodist preacher, died (born 1/9/1785).
9/4/1872, Erastus Corning, US politician and industrialist, died (born 14/12/1994).
25/1/1872, Richard Ewell, US soldier, died (born 2/2/1817).
6/1/1872, James Fisk, US financier, was shot and killed (born 1/4/1834).
26/10/1871, Thomas Ewing, US politician, died (born 28/12/1789).
17/10/1871, Death of Sylvester Mowry (born 17/1/1833). He was a miner and land speculator who promoted the establishment of the Arizona Territory.
11/10/1871, The Great Fire of Chicago ended.
8/10/1871, The Great Fire of Chicago started, killing 300 people. 90,000 were made homeless and US$ 200 million damage was done.� The fire ended on 11/10/1871; it was supposedly started in Mrs O�Leary�s barn in De Koven Street, by a cow upsetting a lantern. Four square miles of the city were destroyed, as a long spell of dry weather had made buildings tinder-dry.
11/7/1871, In New York City the ferryboat SS Westfield exploded, killing 104 people. Her boiler was severely corroded, but safety standards remained lax.
28/4/1871, James Mason, US politician, died (born 3/11/1798).
20/4/1871, In the US, the Klu Klux Klan Act outlawed paramilitary organisations such as the Klu Klux Klan.
24/12/1870, Albert Barnes, US theologian, died in Philadelphia (born in Rome, New York State, 1/12/1798).
12/10/1870, Robert E Lee, US Confederate General during the Civil War, died in Lexington, Virginia.
17/8/1870, Mount Rainier, Washington, was first successfully climbed.
14/7/1870, David Farragut, US naval hero of the Civil War, died in Portsmouth, New Hampshire.
22/6/1870, The US Department of Justice was established.
23/2/1870, Anson Burlingame, US statesman, died (born 14/11/1820).
9/2/1870, The United States weather service was published.
3/2/1870, In the US, the Fifteenth Amendment gave every US citizen, regardless of race, the right to vote.
10/9/1869, John Bell, US politician, died (born near Nashville, Tennessee 15/2/1797).
6/9/1869, William Fessenden, US politician, died (born 16/10/1806).
13/7/1869, Anti-Chinese-labourer riots in San Francisco.
10/5/1869, The first railroad across the USA from east to west, 1,776 miles long, was completed after three years work at a ceremony west of Ogden, in Utah. The Union Pacific Line finally met with the Central Pacific Line. Both companies raced to lay as much track as possible as they converged, spurred on by government payments of US$16,000 per mile, more for mountainous areas. A golden spike was driven in at Promontory Point, Utah, where the railways met. Travel time between New York and San Francisco was slashed from 3 months to 8 days.
8/4/1869, Harvey Cushing, US surgeon, was born.
7/11/1868, Royal Samuel Copeland, US politician, was born in Michigan.
3/11/1868, Ulysses S Grant, ultimate commander of the Union armies in the Civil War, was elected President of the USA.
9/10/1868, Howell Cobb, US politician, died (born 7/9/1815).
24/8/1868, George J Adler, US lexicographer (born 1821) died.
28/7/1868, The USA and China signed the Burlingame Treaty at Washington DC, defining mutual rights of migration between the two countries.
25/7/1868, President Johnson signed an Act creating the territory of Wyoming.
9/7/1868, The US passed the Fourteenth Amendment, during the period of �reconstruction� following the conclusion of the Civil War. It guaranteed equality before the law for Black and White people alike, specifically including ex-slaves here, and prohibited any State from �abridging their privileges� or� denying them �equal protection of the laws�. However, due to the fact that corporations are also �persons� before the law, the 14th Amendment began to be used for purposes it was not intended for. The 14th Amendment was used to shield companies from government regulation, and even, before the 1950s, to justify racial discrimination because it contained the words �separate but equal�. Later, in the 1980s, it was still being used to block so-called �positive discrimination� in favour of racial minorities.
23/5/1868, Kit Carson, US soldier and fur trapper who did much to open up the West to White settlers, died (born 24/12/1809).
30/10/1867, John Albion Andrew, US politician, died in Boston (born 31/5/1818 in Windham, Maine).
28/8/1867, The Midway Islands, in the Pacific Ocean, were claimed for the US by Captain Reynolds.
29/7/1867, Charles Anthon, US classicist, died in New York (born 19/11/1797 in New York City).
1/3/1867, Nebraska became the 37th State of the Union.
11/7/1866, James Lane, US politician, died.
13/4/1866, Butch Cassidy, American outlaw, was born.
4/3/1866, Alexander Campbell, US religious leader, died (born 12/9/1788).
12/2/1866. Invoking the Monroe Doctrine, the USA called for the withdrawal of French troops from Mexico. Maximilian, having failed to secure recognition of his regime from the US, now sought help from Napoleon III and the Pope, but his cause was hopeless.
25/12/1865, The Union stockyards at Chicago opened, on 345 acres of reclaimed swampland SW of the city. The shutdown of the Mississippi River as a trade route due to the US Civil War meant that Chicago replaced Cincinnati, Louisville and St Louis as the nation�s meat packing centre, along with the railways now serving Chicago. The new stockyards could hold 10,000 cattle and 100,000 hogs.
26/10/1865, Benjamin Guggenheim, US businessman, was born
27/4/1865, In the US, the paddle steamer Sultana exploded on the Mississippi River, killing 1,600 people on board.
6/2/1865, Robert E Lee became Commander of the Confederate forces in America.
1/2/1865, President Abraham Lincoln signed a Resolution proposing the Thirteenth Amendment, abolishing slavery in the USA.
21/1/1865, Sherman left Savannah, starting an advance through the Carolinas.
24/12/1864, General Sherman captured Savannah, Georgia, from the Confederates.
1/12/1864, George Dallas, US statesman, died (born 10/7/1792).
15/11/1864, General Sherman set out on his march to Savannah, leaving Atlanta a ruin so the Confederates could not use it. He destroyed all arsenals, public buildings, machine shops, and depots, having evacuated all civilians.
31/10/1864, Nevada became the 36th State of the Union.
20/10/1864, Charles Lowell, US soldier, died (born 2/1/1835)
19/10/1864, At the Battle of Cedar Creek, in the American Civil War, General Sheridan defeated the Confederates.
For the Saint Albans (Vermont) riad this day, see Canada.
24/9/1864, Joshua Bates, US financier, died in London (born in Weymouth, Massachusetts 10/10/1788).
19/9/1864, Sheridan repulsed Early at the Battle of Winchester, Virginia.
4/9/1864, John Morgan, US Confederate soldier, died (born 1/6/1825).
2/9/1864, Sherman took Atlanta, then marched across Georgia towards Savannah.
17/8/1864, Eight crewmen on the Confederate submarine HL Hunley sank the Union warship Housatonic with an explosive charge, killing five Northern sailors. This was the first time a submarine had sunk an enemy ship in wartime. The Hunley surfaced to signal success to shore with a blue light, then resubmerged. She never resurfaced.
7/8/1864, Philip Sheridan replaced Hunter.
5/8/1864, A Federal fleet under David Farragut won the Battle of Mobile Bay.
28/7/1864, At the Second Battle of Atlanta, the South under General Hood was again defeated.
22/7/1864, General Sherman defeated� Southern troops under General John Bell Hood, aged 33, at the Battle of Atlanta.
12/7/1864, Federal forces defending Washington DC repulsed Early.
5/7/1864, Early invaded Maryland, aiming at Washington DC.
27/6/1864, Battle of Kenesaw Mountains, Georgia. Confederate troops defeated Sherman�s forces, killing 2,000 of them to losses of only 270 of themselves.
18/6/1864, The USS Kearsarge, captained by John Wilmslow, sank the British built warship Alabama, a Confederate ship, off Cherbourg.
15/6/1864, Arlington Cemetery, the site of the unknown soldier, was established near Washington.
5/6/1864, Battle of Wilderness; Unionist victory.
3/6/1864, Battle of Cold Harbor. Fought in Virginia during the American Civil War, General Ulysses S Grant�s Unionist forces suffered heavy losses, 12,000 men, in an ill-judged attack on General Robert E Lee�s well-defended Confederate position. Although a Confederate victory, this battle served to maintain the Unionist strategy of maintaining unremitting pressure on the South..
23/5/1864, Battle of North Anna; Confederate victory.
21/5/1864, The Battle of Spottsylvania Courthouse ended.
19/5/1864, David Hunter replaced Sigel as Union Commander in the Shenandoah Valley.
15/5/1864, Battle of Drewry�s Bluff; Confederate victory.
11/5/1864, Battle of Yellow Tavern; Unionist victory.
7/5/1864, Sherman launched a campaign against Joseph Johnston in Georgia.
9/3/1864, General Ulyssses Grant was made Commander in Chief of the Union forces in the American Civil War.
2/3/1864, US President Lincoln rejected Confederate General Lee�s call for peace talks, demanding surrender.
23/11/1863, The Battle of Chattanooga in the American Civil War. The Confederates under Bragg were heavily defeated.
19/11/1863. Abraham Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address, at the dedication of the military cemetery at Gettysburg. He said �government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth�.
2/11/1863, US President Lincoln was invited to make a speech at the dedication of the new cemetery at Gettysburg. Jefferson Davis visited Charleston and publicly stated that he believed the city would not fall.
17/10/1863, US Secretary of War Edwin Stanton boarded a train in Indianapolis, with orders for him to assume command of the Military Division of the Mississippi.
3/10/1863. President Lincoln declared the last Thursday in November to be a national holiday of Thanksgiving.
19/9/1863, The Battle of Chickamauga in the American Civil War. Confederate forces under Bragg won, but at a cost of over 2,000 dead and 14,600 wounded.
13/9/1863, Cyrus Adler, US historian (died 1940) was born.
26/8/1863, John Floyd, US politician, died (born 1/6/1807)
21/8/1863, The Quantrill raid, on Lawrence, Kansas.
17/7/1863, John Jacob Astor, US millionaire, was born.
11/7/1863, Conscription began for the Unionist Army in the US Civil war. Draft riots broke out in New York and other cities; 1,200 people were killed.
4/7/1863, Confederate forces under General Joseph Pemberton surrendered unconditionally to Federal troops who had besieged Vicksburg since May. This effectively split Confederate territory in two.
3/7/1863, The Battle of Gettysburg,, Pennsylvania, in the American Civil War, ended with the Confederate Army under General Robert E Lee routed and over 50,000 dead or wounded.� The Union victory was under General Meade
1/7/1863, The Battle of Gettysburg began. It ended on 3/7/1863 with a Unionist victory, although both sides lost heavily (Unionists, 23,000; Confederates, 25,000). With his defeat at Gettysburg, General Lee retreated having lost any hopes of foreign support for his cause.
20/6/1863, West Virginia became the 35th State to join the Union.
3/6/1863, Lee began a campaign into Pennsylvania, partly to relieve pressure on his army in Virginia. This led to the Battle of Gettysburg, 1/7/1863.
10/5/1863, US General Stonewall Jackson died (born 21/1/1824).
6/5/1863, Lee (Confederate) defeated Hooker (Unionist) at the Battle of Chancellorsville.
3/5/1863, Despite a Confederate victory, their best General, Stonewall Jackson, was seriously injured. This day his arm was amputated; on 10/5/1863 he died of pneumonia.
30/4/1863, General Lee learnt of Hooker�s flanking manoeuvre and sent most of his forces to counter it, under Stonewall Jackson.
29/4/1863, Federal troops crossed the Rappahannock River below Fredericksburg to hold Lee�s forces in place whilst the flanking manoeuvre was completed.
27/4/1863, Hooker launched a flanking movement against Robert E Lee�s Army of Northern Virginia at Fredericksburg.
2/4/1863, Bread riots in Richmond, Virginia, as women protested at food shortages and high prices.
3/3/1863, President Lincoln signed the Conscription Act, compelling US citizens to report for duty in the Civil War or pay US$300. This would bolster the army and top up the war coffers.
26/1/1863, Joseph Hooker replaced Ambrose Burnside as Commander of the Army of the Potomac.
2/1/1863, The Battle of Stones River ended with Confederate forces under Braxton Bragg withdrawing from Murfreesboro, Tennessee.
1/1/1863, US President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, freeing slaves
13/12/1862, At the Battle of Fredericksburg in the American Civil War, Lee�s Confederate forces defeated� Major General Burnside�s soldiers, who were attempting to capture the town of Fredericksburg, despite being heavily outnumbered.
26/10/1862, McClellan crossed from Maryland into Virginia.
22/9/1862, In a deliberate attempt to cause social disruption in the Confederacy, President Lincoln proclaimed the freedom of slaves in the South from 1/1/1863.
17/9/1862, Battle of Antietam, in the American Civil War. Although technically a Confederate victory, both sides suffered major casualties and the Union cause gained enough credibility to issue their Emancipation Proclamation. In particular Lee�s Confederate forces could not now invade the North and had to retreat back into Virginia.
4/9/1862, Lee invaded Maryland. McClellan pursued him.
2/9/1862, Lincoln removed Pope from command after his defeat at the Second Battle of Bull Run, and placed McClellan in charge of all Federal troops in the Washington area.
1/9/1862, Philip Kearny, US soldier, died (born 2/6/1815).
30/8/1862, At the second Battle of Bull Run, Virginia,Union forces under Pope were defeated by� Confederate forces under Lee, helped by Jackson.
3/8/1862, Lincoln recalled McClellan�s army. Lee launched an offensive in northern Virginia.
1/7/1862, Battle of Malvern Mill; Unionist victory.
27/6/1862, Battle of Gaine�s Mill; Confederate victory.
26/6/1862, Battle of Mechanicsville; Unionist victory.
9/6/1862, Battle of Port Republic; Confederate victory.
8/6/1862, Battle of Cross Keys; Confederate victory.
6/6/1862, Turner Ashby, US cavalry leader, died in a cavalry fight in Harrisonburg, Virginia (born 1824 in Virginia).
31/5/1862, In the US Civil War, Federal troops withdrew from the area between the James and York Rivers, after suffering heavy losses.
25/5/1862, Battle of Winchester; Confederate victory.
20/5/1862, The Homestead Act was voted in by US Congress. It Specified that any US citizen, or alien wishing to become a citizen, could have free, apart from a US$ 10 registration fee, 160 acres of Western land provided they made certain improvements and lived there for 5 years.
8/5/1862, Battle of McDowell; Confederate victory.
2/5/1862, Union forces occupied Baton Rouge.
1/5/1862, Union forces occupied New Orleans.
28/4/1862, Union naval forces led by Flag Officer David Farragut captured New Orleans.
15/4/1862, Nashville, Tennessee, became the first Confederate capital to fall to Union forces.
7/4/1862, In the American Civil War, the Federal Army under Grant defeated the Confederates under General Joseph Johnson, on the second day of the Battle of Shiloh, near the Tennessee River.
6/4/1862, The Battle of Shiloh began.
23/3/1862, Unionists defeated the Confederates at the Battle of Kernstown.
27/3/1862, Confederate hopes of breaking through Union territory to the SW were dashed at the battle of Glorieta Pass, Santa Fe County, New Mexico.
17/3/1862, McClellan�s Army of the Potomac began its campaign against Richmond.
14/3/1862, William Meade, US Bishop, died (born 11/11/1789).
9/3/1862, The first battle between iron-clad ships took place in the American Civil War. Merrymack was forced to retreat by the Union ship Monitor. This blocked Confederate access to New York, and gave the Unionists command of the sea. The Monitor was the first ship to be fitted with a revolving gun turret allowing her to fire at any target regardless of direction and after 1862 all combat ships were fitted with this turret.
4/3/1862, Confederate forces under Henry Sibley took Santa Fe.
1/3/1862, Stonewall Jackson received orders to prevent Federal forces in the Shenandoah Valley from advancing westward through gaps in the Blue Ridge Mountains and threatening Richmond, Virginia.
25/2/1862, �Greenbacks�, American banknotes, were first issued during the Civil War by Abraham Lincoln.
8/11/1861, The Unionist warship San Jacinto removed Confederate Commissioners from the British mailship Trent.
7/11/1861, Union forces won a major victory over the Confederates at Port Royal, South Carolina.
24/10/1861, The Pony Express Mail Service in America, running from St Joseph in Missouri to Sacramento in California, ended after operating for just over 18 months.� The Transcontinental telegraph line across the USA was completed.
21/10/1861, Unionist forces were defeated at the Battle of Ball�s Bluff.
2/10/1861, At the Battle of Bulls Bluff, on the Potomac River, the Unionists were defeated.
20/9/1861, The Battle of Lexington.
19/8/1861, The passport system was introduced in the USA.
16/8/1861, President Lincoln barred all commerce with the Confederacy.
10/8/1861, Union forces under General Nathaniel Lyon were defeated at Wilson�s Creek, Missouri.
21/7/1861, The first thrust by Unionist forces towards the Confederate capital at Richmond was repulsed at the first Battle of Bull Run.
18/7/1861, Skirmish at Blackburn�s Ford, Virginia.
14/7/1861, Nathan Appleton, US politician, died in Boston (born in New Ipswich, New Hampshire, 6/10/1779).
10/6/1861, Battle of Big Bethel, Virginia.
29/1/1861, Kansas became the 34th State of the Union.
1860, The US songwriter Dan Emmett �I wish I was in the land of the dixes�; referring to the banknotes issued by the Citizen�s Bank of Louisiana, which used both English and French on its notes, so the 10$ notes were stamped �dix�, and became known as dixes. Emmett�s line became corrupted to �I wish I was in the land of Dixie�.
31/10/1860, Juliette Low, founder in the USA of the Girl Scouts, was born.
13/9/1860, John Pershing, commander of US forces in France in World War One, was born in Linn County, Missouri.
19/3/1860, William Bryan, US political leader, was born.
6/3/1860. The Republican politician Abraham Lincoln made a campaign speech defending the right to strike.
16/2/1860, The first Japanese-built ship, the SS Karrinmaru, to reach the USA, arrived in San Francisco. A delegation then travelled to Washington DC.
28/1/1860, Joseph Addison Alexander, US scholar (born 24/4/1809 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) died in Princeton.
10/1/1860. The first major factory accident in the USA. A textiles factory collapsed in St Lawrence, Massachusetts, killing 77 people.
1859, Boston�s Public Garden was established, 108 acres.
25/12/1858, James Gadsden, US diplomat, died (born 15/5/1788).
23/11/1859, Billy the Kid, or William Bonney, was shot dead by Sheriff Pat Garrett.
3/10/1859, John Mason, US politician, died (born 18/4/1799).
14/2/1859. Oregon became the 33rd State of the USA.
1858, Central Park in New York opened to the public, although it was not completed until 1863.
9/11/1858, The New York Symphony Orchestra gave its first concert.
29/7/1858, US diplomat Townsend Harris persuaded Japan to grant further trade privileges to the USA.
13/7/1858, US anthropologist Robert Culin was born in Philadelphia (died 8/4/1929).
16/6/1858. In a speech at Springfield, Illinois, US Senate candidate Abraham Lincoln said the slavery issue had to be addressed. He declared �a house divided against itself cannot stand�.
11/5/1858. Minnesota became the 32nd State of the USA.
7/10/1857, Louis McLane, US politician, died (born 28/5/1786).
18/4/1857, Clarence Darrow, US attorney famous for h9s part in the Scopes �Monkey Trial�, was born.
23/12/1856, James Buchanan Duke, US industrialist, was born in Durham, North Carolina (died 10/10/1925 in New York).
22/12/1856, Frank B Kellogg, US politician, was born.
2/11/1856, Samuel Hoar, US lawyer, died (born 18/5/1778)
9/11/1856, John Clayton, US politician, died (born 24/7/1796).
2/9/1856, Jeremiah Jenks, US economist, was born.
18/8/1855, Abbott Lawrence, US statesman, died (born 16/12/1792).
4/7/1855. New York became the 13th state to ban the production or sale of alcoholic beverages. For more on Prohinition see Morals-Punishment.
26/10/1854, US entrepreneur CW Post was born.
5/7/1854, In America, the Republican Party was officially founded.
30/5/1854, US Congress adopted the Kansas-Nebraska Act, nullifying the Missouri Compromise.
See also Race Equality, end of slavery
13/4/1854, Richard Ely, US economist, was born.
31/3/1854, The USA and Japan signed the Treaty of Kanagawa, opening up the Japanese ports of Shimoda and Hakodate to American trade.
28/2/1854, The United States Republican Party was formed, in Ripon, Wisconsin.�������
1/2/1854, New York�s Astor Libraty opened, with 80,000 books.
30/12/1853, The Gadsden Purchase was agreed with Mexico. The USA paid Mexico US$10 million, and received a tract of land south of the Gila River. This was arranged by James Gadsden, aged 65.
14/7/1853, The first US World Fair opened in New York. The event was modelled on London�s 1851 Great Exhibition at the Crystal Palace.
8/7/1853, US Commodore Matthew Perry steamed into Japan�s Edo Bay (now Tokyo) with his �black ships� and demanded that the country open up to US trade. He backed up his demand with cannon fire. For 250 years Japan had been a feudal state run by the Tokugawa shoguns.
4/5/1853, Philander Knox, US politician, was born.
31/12/1852, Henry Carter Adams, US economist, was born.
29/6/1852, Henry Clay, US politician, died (born 12/4/1777).
28/12/1851, Perry Belmont, US politician, was born in New York.
24/12/1851, Large fire at the Library of Congress, Washington DC, USA. 35,000 books were destroyed, including most of Thomas Jefferson;�s personal collection, acquired in 1815.
22/10/1851, Archibald Alexander, US Presbyterian clergyman, died in Princeton, New Jersey (born 17/4/1772 in Virginia).
18/9/1851, The New York Times was first published.� It was founded by Henry Jarvis Raymond.
5/9/1851, Thomas Gallaudet, US educator of the deaf and dumb, died (born 10/12/1787).
14/8/1851, Doc Holliday, US Western gunfighter, was born.
13/8/1851, Felix Adler, US educationalist (died 24/4/1933) was born.
3/6/1851, George Adams, US historian (died 26/5/1925) was born.
19/4/1850, The Clayton-Bulwer Treaty between the USA and UK was signed. It was an agreement on the terms for building a canal across Nicaragua; under this treaty, neither party would exercise exclusive control over such a canal or fortify it. The US and the UK each had territorial interests in Central America, and were suspicious of each other�s activities in the region. Ultimately this Treaty was superseded by a similar neutralisation policy regarding the Panama Canal under the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty of 1902.
15/2/1850, Albert Cummins, US politician, was born (died 30/7/1926).
18/1/1850, Seth Low, US politician, was born.
12/8/1849, Albert Gallatin, US statesman, died (born 29/1/1761).
10/5/1849, In New York, 22 died and 56 were injured as troops fired on anti-British riots sparked by Irish gangs. The mob, armed with bricks and clubs, had gathered outside the Astor Place Opera House to revile the British actor Charles Macready, who had scorned the vulgarity of Americans.
5/3/1849, The US Departmwent of the Interior was created, to administer the large areas added to the US by the Louisiana Purchase and the Oregon Territories. It became custodian of the nations�s resources.
24/6/1848, Brooks Adams, US historian, (died 13/2/1927) was born.
29/5/1848, Wisconsin became the 30th State of the Union.
29/3/1848, John Jacob Astor, US fur merchant and philanthropist, died in New York City (born 17/7/1763 in Walldorf, Germany).
19/3/1848, Wyatt Earp, American law enforcer, was born in Monmouth, Illinois.
1847, The southern portion of the District of Columbia (see 1790, 1801), south of the Potomac River and neglected by Washington DC including Alexandria City, voted to return to Virgina State.
5/9/1847. Jesse James, American outlaw, was born near Kansas City. With his elder brother, Frank, he led the first gang to carry out train robberies.
10/7/1847, The first Chinese migrants arrived in the USA. They came on the ship� Kee Ying, from Canton (Guangzhou).
26/1/1847, John Clark, US economist, was born.
28/12/1846. Iowa was admitted as the 29th (non-slave) State of the USA.
12/12/1846. The USA and Colombia agreed to grant the USA transit rights on the narrow isthmus of Panama between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
10/8/1846, The Smithsonian Institute was founded in Washington DC; it was established by a bequest from the British scientist James Smithson.
30/7/1846, The USA moved towards a free trade policy, with Congress passing the Walker Tariff Act. This lowered import duties and increased the range of duty-free goods, encouranging growth in US trade.
5/7/1846, Joseph Foraker, US politician, was born.
15/6/1846. Britain agreed with the USA that Oregon was US territory. All land west of the Rockies and below the 49th parallel was to be US territory.
26/2/1846, Buffalo Bill, American Army Scout and showman, was born on a farm in Scott County, Iowa, as William Frederick Cody.
1845, The US Naval Academy was founded in Annapolis, Maryland.
29/12/1845, Texas became the 28th State of the Union.
29/3/1845, The UK and France laid proposals before Mexico, that Texas should become independent but should not seek to ally with any other country; they were concerned about the rapid growth of the US (see 1/3/1845).
28/3/1845. Mexico severed relations with the USA following America�s ratification of the annexation of Texas on 1/3/1845, after an almost unanimous vote in favour by the Texas electorate. On 29./12/1845 Texas became the 28th state of the USA.
1/3/1845, US President Tyler approved the decision to annex Texas to the United States, just three days before the accession of President James K Polk. Both the UK and France were now concerned at the great expansion of the USA. See 29/3/1845.
3/6/1844, Garrett Hobart, US Vice-President, was born (died 21/11/1899).
26/4/1844, Robert Keep, US educator, was born (died 3/6/1904).
7/3/1844, Anthony Comstock, US moralist, was born in Connecticut (died 21/9/1913 in New York).
24/11/1843, Richard Croker, US politician, was born.
29/8/1843, David Hill, US politician, was born (died 30/10/1910).
20/6/1843, Hugh Legare, US statesman, died (born 2/1/1797).
28/5/1843, Noah Webster, American lexicographer who first compiled Webster�s Dictionary in 1828, died in New Haven, Connecticut aged 84.
22/5/1843, The first wagon train, with over 1,000 people, left Missouri for Oregon. Travellers believed that paradisiacal conditions awaited them. Some 700 reached Oregon alive.
1/4/1843, John Armstrong, US soldier and politician (born 25/11/1758 in Carlisle, Pennsylvania) died in Red Hook, New York.
13/2/1843, Isaac Hull, US Commodore, died (born 9/3/1775).
11/1/1843, Francis Scott Key, the American lawyer and poet who wrote the words of the US national anthem The Star Spangled Banner in 1814, died.
See also Mexico for events with USA at this time
4/11/1842, Abraham Lincoln married Mary Todd, member of a slave-owning family in Kentucky.
9/8/1842, The USA and Britain settled a dispute over the US-Canada border in the Maine region.������
2/1/1842, The first wire suspension bridge in the USA opened, spanning the Schuykill River near Philadelphia.
6/11/1841, Nelson Aldrich, US politician, was born in Foster, Rhode Island.
10/4/1841, The New York Tribune was first published.
8/3/1841, Oliver Wendell Jr, US Supreme Court Justice, was born in Boston, Massachusetts.
for map of growth of the USA.
15/1/1841, Charles Briggs, US scholar, was born.
1840, From New York to Boston took 6 hours by train, or an overnight steamer journey; cost of the journey was 7 US$. From New York to Philadelphia by train and ferry took 6 � hours, down from 3 days in 1817. However if the Delaware river froze over the journey time was longer as passengers had to walk across the ice rather than use the ferry.
6/8/1840, Adolph Bandelier, US archaeologist, was born in Bern, Switzerland.
27/2/1840, Isaac Chauncey, US naval commander, died (born 20/2/1772).
9/2/1840, William Sampson, US naval commander, was born (died 6/5/1902).
8/8/1839, Nelson Miles, US soldier, was born.
8/7/1839, John D Rockerfeller, American philanthropist, was born in Richford, New York State.
26/6/1839, Simon Brute, US prelate, died (born 20/3/1779).
30/1/1839, Samuel Armstrong, US US soldier and philanthropist, was born in Maui, Hawaii (died 11/5/1893 in Hampton, Virginia).
8/10/1838, John Hay, US statesman, was born (died 1/7/1905).
11/9/1838, John Ireland, US Catholic priest, was born.
1/9/1838, William Clark, US explorer, died (born 1/8/1770).
4/7/1838, The territory of Iowa was established, with Robert Lucas as governor.
16/6/1838, Cushman Davis, US politician, was born (died 17/11/1900).
10/5/1838, John Wilkes Booth, American actor who assassinated President Abraham Lincoln, was born in Baltimore, Maryland.
1837, Atlanta, Georgia, was founded as a railhead.
26/12/1837, George Dewey, US naval officer, was born.
25/11/1837, Andrew Carnegie, US industrialist and philanthropist, was born in Dunfermline, Scotland.
24/9/1837, Marcus Hanna, US politician, was born (died 15/2/1904).
29/6/1837, Nathaniel Macon, US politician, died (born 17/12/1758).
30/5/1837, Daniel Brinton, US archaeologist, was born (died 31/7/1899).
10/5/1837, Financial crisis in New York as banks suspended payments. Hundreeds of busniesses closed and unemployment soared.
17/4/1837, John Morgan, US financier, was born.
18/3/1837, Grover Cleveland, Democrat, and twice US President, was born in Caldwell, New Jersey, the son of a Presbyterian Minister.
5/2/1837, Dwight Moody, US evangelist, was born (died 22/12/1899).
26/1/1837. Michigan became the 26th State of the USA.
7/12/1836, Stephen Austin, US pioneer, died.
14/9/1836, Aaron Burr, US politician, died (born 6/2/1756).
2/7/1836, US Congress passed an Act approving the founding of Dubuque, Iowa.
16/6/1836, Wesley Merriitt, US soldier, was born.
15/6/1836, Arkansas became the 25th State of the Union.
27/5/1836, Jay Gould, US financier, was born (died 2/12/1892).
23/5/1836, Edward :Livingston, US jurist, died (born 26/5/1764)
4/3/1836, John Lowell, US founder of the Lowell Institute, died.
27/2/1836, Alexander Russell Alger, US soldier and politician (died 14/1/1907 in Washington DC) was born Lafayette, Ohio.
19/11/1835, Fitzhugh Lee, US cavalry General, was born (died 28/4/1905).
18/8/1835, Marshall Field, US merchant and philanthropist, was born (died 16/1/1906).
6/7/1835, John Marshall, US jurist, died (born 24/9/1755).
31/1/1835, An assassination attempt on US President Andrew Jackson failed when the gun of Richard Lawson, house painter, jammed twice. Lawrence claimed to be the rightful heir to the British throne.
2/1/1835, Charles Lowell, US soldier, was born (died 20/10/1864).
15/9/1834, William Crawford, US statesman, died (born 24/2/1771).
23/4/1834, Chauncey Depew, US politician, was born.
1/4/1834, James Fisk, US financier, was born (killed 6/1/1872).
20/3/1834, Charles William Eliot, US educator, was born in Boston, Massachusetts (died in� Maine, 22/8/1926).
29/1/1834, Workers constructing the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal (started 1828) rioted. President Jackson ordered Secretary of War James Cass to send in Federal troops to restore order.
6/12/1833, John Mosby, US soldier, was born.
22/9/1833, Stephen Lee, US Confederate General, was born (died 28/5/1908).
28/7/1833, William Bainbridge, US naval commodore, died (born in Princeton, New Jersey, 7/5/1774).
1/6/1833, John Harlan, US jurist, was born.
24/5/1833, Brooklyn Bridge in New York was opened.
14/5/1833, James Donald Cameron, US politician, was born.
1/3/1833, US Congress passed the Compromise Tariff Act. This ended a conflict between the cotton producing sourhern States which objected to high tarfiffs, and the industrial northern States. By 1842, no tariff was to be over 20% of the value of the good.
11/2/1833, Melville Fuller, Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court, was born (died 1910).
26/1/1833, Newton Bliss, US politician, was born in Fall River, Massachusetts.
1832, The US Army daily liquor ration was abolished.
19/11/1832, South Carolina issued an Ordinance of Nullification, rejecting the reduction in tariffs legislated for by Congress on 14/7/1832.
14/7/1832, US Congress reduced some of the tariffs set in the 1828 Tariff of Abominations, but the US remained generally Protectionist.
13/7/1832, An expedition led by Henry Schoolcraft discovered the source of the Mississippi River.
26/6/1832, Mexico began to assert a more authoritarian rule over the US colonists in its territory of Texas. On this day the US colonists rebelled, and captured the Mexican Army fort of Velasco.
20/6/1832, Benjamin Bristol, US politician, was born (died 22/6/1896).
1/5/1832, Captain Benjamin de Bourneville started on a 3-year expedition to explore the Rocky Mountains.
25/1/1832, The State of Virginia rejected the abolition of slavery.
24/1/1832, Joseph Choate, US lawyer, was born.
17/1/1832, Henry Baird, US historian, was born (died in New York City, 11/11/1906).
26/12/1831, Stephen Girard, US financier and philanthropist, died (born 20/5/1750).
See also Mexico for events with USA at this time
28/11/1831, John MacKay, US industrialist, was born (died 20/7/1902).
22/4/1831, Alexander McCook, US soldier, was born.
21/4/1831, Texans defeated the Mexicans at the Battle of San Jacinto.
5/9/1830, Francis William Allen, US classical scholar, was born in Northborough, Massachusetts (died December 1889).
31/1/1830, James Blaine, US statesman, was born in Pennsylvania (died in Washington DC 27/1/1893).
21/12/1829, Laura Bridgman, US blind deaf mute, was born (died24/5/1889).
5/10/1829, Chester A Arthur, 21st US president, was born.
30/10/1829, Roscoe Conkling, US politician, was born (died 18/4/1888).
22/9/1829, William Belknap, US politician, was born in Newburgh, New York (died in Washington DC 13/10/1890).
27/6/1829, James Smithson, British scientist whose bequest established the Smithsonian Institute at Washington to encourage scientific research, died in Genoa.
17/5/1829, John Jay, US statesman, died (born 12/12/1745).
15/5/1829, US Congress declared the slave trade to be piracy.
2/3/1829, William Boyd Allison, US legislator, was born in Perry, Ohio (died in Dubuque, Iowa, 4/8/1908).
29/10/1828, Thomas Bayard, US statesman, was born in Wilmington, Delaware (died in Dedham, Massachusetts, 28/9/1898).
27/10/1828, Jacob Cox, US General, was born (died 4/1/1900).
8/9/1828, Joshua Chamberlain, US soldier, was born.
24/5/1828, US Congress passed a Reciprocity Act, charging lower duties on imports from countries which reciprocated with the US, but opposition to the Tariff of Abominations remained.
9/5/1828, Charles Cramp, US shipbuilder, was born
21/4/1828, The American Dictionary of the English language was published. This both standardised American English and put cultural difference between it and British English.
19/4/1829, In the USA the protectionist Tariff of Abominations was signed by President John Quincy Adams. It raised duties to protect farmers in the West and Northern manufacturers, but did not help Southern cotton farmers.
24/3/1828, Horace Gray, US jurist, was born (died 15/9/1902).
24/2/1828, US soldier Jacob Brown died (born 9/5/1775)
11/2/1828, De Witt Clinton, US politician, died (born 2/3/1760).
1/2/1828, George Edmunds, US politician, was born.
29/4/1827, Rufus King, US politician, died (born 24/3/1755)
19/3/1827, James Geddes, US soldier, was born (died 21/2/1887).
10/2/1827, Edward Atkinson, US economist, was born in Brookline, Massachusetts (died in Boston 11/12/1905).
3/12/1826, George McClellan, US soldier, was born (died 29/10/1885).
31/10/1826, Joseph Hawley, US politician, was born (died 17/3/1905).
29/8/1826, George Hoar, US politician, was born (died 30/9/1904).
10/7/1826, Luther Martin, US lawyer, died (born 19/2/1748).
19/6/1826, Charles Brace, US philanthropist, was born I Litchfield, Connecticut (died in Campfer, Tirol, 11/8/1890).
26/10/1825, The Erie Canal, linking New York with the Great Lakes via Niagara and the Hudson River, begun 4/7/1817, was completed. Influenced by Governor DeWitt Clinton the New York state legislature agreed to fund the US$ 7 million project. The canal, 363 miles long, 40 foot wide, 4 foot deep, with 82 locks, would make New York the principal port of America.
1/6/1825, John Morgan, US Confederate soldier, was born (died 4/9/1864).
21/7/1824, Stanley Matthews, US jurist, was born (died 22/3/1889).
24/5/1824, US President James Monroe signed a Bill establishing the US Army Corps of Engineers, to assist in building civilian transport infrastructure as well as in military campaigns.
23/5/1824, Ambrose Burnside, US soldier, was born (died 13/9/1881).
16/5/1824, Levi Morton, US politician, was born.
14/2/1824, Winfield Hancock, US General, was born (died 9/2/1886).
2/12/1823, President Monroe of the USA declared that no part of the Americas is now �res nullius�, or open to further European colonisation, although existing European influences would be tolerated. This was the basis of the Monroe Doctrine.
4/8/1823, Oliver Morton, US politician, was born (died 1/11/1877).
3/8/1823, Thomas Meagher, US soldier, was born (died 1/7/1867)
28/7/1823, Manasseh Cutler, US statesman, died (born 13/5/1742).
27/6/1823, Dorman Eaton, US lawyer, was born (died 23/12/1899).
5/6/1823, George Angell, US philanthropist, was born in Southbridge, Massachusetts (died 16/3/1909 in Boston).