Chronography of the USA
Page last modified 26 October 2023
For US Presidents (birth, election, death etc), other politicians, lawyers, soldiers and clerics, see USA Legal
For Hawaii Click Here
For Indigenous American Nations, Click Here
See Road transport for rising US auto production, early 20th century.
USA Urban Growth � Image of Chicago, 1908 and 1970 here
USA Urban Growth � Map of Denver area here
USA Urban Growth � Washington DC, 1785, 1795 and present-day
USA Urban Growth � Washington urban sprawl
US Bureau of Economic Analysis, https://www.bea.gov/
US Bureau of Labor, https://www.bls.gov/
US Census Bureau, https://www.census.gov/
US population data, https://www.census.gov/popclock/
Alaska � see Appendix 4 below
California � see Appendix 5 below
Florida � see Appendix 6 below
US National Parks, see Appendix 7 below
As MarkTwain said: �Both politicians and nappies need to be changed often and for the same reason!�
14.0, Unabomber, 1978-98
4 February 2023, The US Air Force shot down, off the coast of South Carolina, a Chinese balloon that had drifted over the USA The US alleged it was a spy balloon; China claimed it was an off-course weather balloon. Relations between the two countries, already edgy over Taiwan, deteriorated.
7 May 2021, A cyberiattack by a group called Darkside shut down the crucial Colonial oil pipeline taking petrol from Texas to supply the east coast of the USA. The pipeline was down for several days, causing motorists to panic-buy fuel.
6 January 2021, In Washington DC, USA, a mob of several thousand Republican Trump supporters stormed into the Capitol Buildings and occupied them for several hours. They were protesting that the 2020 Presidential Election result, in which Democrat Joe Biden, won, had been falsified.
25 May 2020, In Minneapolis, a Black man, George Floyd, bought some cigarettes at a shop and paid with a US$ 20 note. The shopkeeper accused Mr Floyd of passing a counterfeit note; Mr Floyd refused to return the cigarettes. The shopkeeper called the police. The police handcuffed Mr Floyd, then knelt on his neck; he died of suffocation. This event started a series of �Black Lives Matter� marches and demonstrations that spread across the entire USA and several European countries. A minority of the demonstrators also looted shops and caused property damage. In Bristol a statue of the slave trader and local philanthropist Edward Colston was pulled from its plinth in Bristol UK and thrown in the harbour. There were concerns that demonstrators were not social-distancing and would spread a further wave of Covid-19.
22 March 2019, Robert Mueller completed his report on Russian interference in the 2016 US Presidential election.
26 February 2019, The longest US Government shutdown in history, 35 days, ended as President Trump backed down before opposition in (Democrat-controlled) Congress in a dispute over funding� for a �wall� (or, steel barrier) to keep out migrants on the Mexican border. However Trump later declared an �emergency� so as to try and secure funding for the barrier by alternative means, by using emergency powers to take funding from other areas of government.
11 January 2019, The USA began to pull its forces out of Syria. Russia, ally of Syrian President Assad, welcomed the news, as Assad appeared to have won the Syrian Civil War. There were concerns that the US move could allow ISIS to regroup, or expose the Kurds to attacks from Turkey.
8 May 2018, President Trump of the US unilaterally pulled out of the Iran Nuclear Deal, arranged by his predecessor President Obama, under which Iran received financial aid in return for curbing its nuclear missiles programme.
2 October 2017, Early in the morning, a gunman opened fire in Las Vegas. Shooting from the Mandalay Bay Hotel, he killed 58 and injured over 500. He shot himself dead as policed closed in. The gunman was initially alleged to be ISIS related but in fact there was no link to any terrorist organisation. The motive remains unknown.
27 January 2017, President Trump of the US issued a controversial executive order instituting a temporary travel ban on the entry of people to the US from seven mainly-Muslim countries. The ban was challenged and overturned in the US Courts.
12 June 2016, An Islamist gunman, Omar Mateen, entered a gay nightclub in Orlando, Florida, and killed 50 people. It was the worst massacre in recent US history.
7 December 2015, Donald Trump, contender for the Republican Presidential nomination, called for a ban on all Muslims entering the US, after an Islamic gunman shot 14 dead in San Bernardino, California, whilst the conflict with ISIS was still ongoing. There were widespread protests at his comments, and over 550,000 people in the UK signed a petition to ban him from Britain.
21 August 2015, Britain and Iran re-opened their embassies in each other�s capitals. This followed a nuclear agreement between Iran and the USA organised by US President Obama (but not yet ratified by US Congress).
15 April 2013, The Boston Marathon race was hit by two bombs, killing 3 and injuring 284.
17 September 2012, Occupy Wall Street protests began in the USA
16 August 2012, Julian Assange, founder of Wikileaks,� was officially given political asylum by Ecuador.
20 July 2012, James Eagan Holmes, 25, entered a cinema in Aurora, Colorado, USAA, where the film Batman was showing and shot dead 12 people, injuring another b58l. Holmes told police he was the �Joker�. There was pressure on IUS President Obama to tighten gun laws.
28 November 2010, Wikileaks released over 250,000 American diplomatic cables, of which 100,000 which were �secret� or �confidential�.
19 September 2010, The BP oil well, Deepwater Horizon, was capped after spilling millions of barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico.
25 July 2010, Wikileaks released 90,000 covert and classified documents relating to the US occupation of Afghanistan, 2004-2010.
20 April 2010, The Deepwater Horizon oil platform in the Gulf of Mexico exploded, killing 11 workers. Major oil pollution ensued.
18 November 2008, Heads of the big three US car manufacturers asked the US government for assistance during the ongoing Credit Crunch.� They said their companies were important as job providers.
1 August 2007, In the USA, 13� motorists died when a road bridge over the River Mississippi collapsed during the rush hour in Minneapolis. 50 cars plunged 20 metres into the river. An investigation found that steel plates holding up the bridges were too thin to bear the weight of the bridge and cars.
16 April 2007, Student Cho Seung Hui went on a shooting rampage at Virginia Tech University, killing 32 staff and students. Cho then shot himself.
19 November 2006, Muslim women in New York City aimed to start a Koran Council to interpret strict sharia law
2 October 2006, In� the USA, 26 year old gunman Charles Carl Roberts burst into an Amish school in Pennsylvania and killed several girls, before shooting himself dead.
27 September 2006, A hostage situation at Platte Canyon High School near Bailey, Colorado, United States ended with the death of the gunman.
26 April 2006, Construction of the Freedom Tower in New York began. It was on the site of the Twin Towers destroyed in the 9-11 attacks in 2001.
30 January 2006, Coretta Scott King, widow of Martin Luther King, died (born 27 April 1927)
29 August 2005, Hurricane Katrina hit the southern and south �east states of the USA, with winds of up to 175 mph, severely damaging an area as big as Great Britain. New Orleans was particularly badly hit. The city of 500,000 people sits around 1 metre below sea level, due to subsidence associated with the growth of the Mississippi delta, and was flooded, in some areas several metres deep, when the levees protecting the city from Lake Pontchartrain to the north gave way. Several thousand people died. There were allegations that the maintenance of the levees had been cut back to help fund the fighting in Iraq, and that National Guardsmen who could have helped evacuate the victims and restore law and order were away in Iraq. A week after the floods, there was almost no food or potable water, and disease and looting, along with rapes and murder, were rampant. People likened the situation to a Third World disaster, right in America itself.
28 August 2005, The Mayor of New Orleans, Ray Nagin, ordered the evacuation of the city as Hurricane Katrina loomed.
22 August 2005, The Atlanta bomber, Eric Rudolph (born 19 September 1966), was sentenced to four life terms without parole.
22 July 2004, In the US the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks published its final report on the 9-11 attacks. There was, it said, a failure of imagination, anticipation and policy.
24 March 2004, In the US, Richard Clarke, former deputy national security advisor, testified before the National Commission on Terrorist attacks, which was established by the US Congress to investigate the intelligence failures which contributed to the 9-11 attacks. He stated that the US Government was distracted from Al-Quaeda by the question of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq.
18 November 2003, US President Bush visited Prime Minister Tony Blair of the UK; there were ongoing protests against the US war on Iraq.
14 August 2003, Across the N.E. USA and Canada, nine States (Ontario, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Vermont) lost power when one power station became overloaded and shut down, creating a domino effect across the outdated electricity distribution system.
17 April 2003, John Paul Getty, oil magnate, died aged 84.
5 November 2002, US Congressional elections gave a majority to the Republicans in the Senate and House of Representatives.
29 April 2002, The USA was readmitted to the United Nations Commission for Human rights, after a 12-month suspension for refusing to recognise the International Criminal Court.
22 January 2002, In the USA, K-Mart became the largest retail chain to date to file for bankruptcy;
23 December 2001, The �shoe bomber�, Richard Reid, attempted to blow up an American Airlines flight from Paris to Miami, by setting off explosives hidden in his shoe, but was overpowered by the other passengers.
4 October 2001, The first anthrax attack occurred on a US government office, sent through the post.� More anthrax arrived in the post on 9 October 2001.
11 June 2001, In the US, Timothy McVeigh was executed for the Oklahoma City bombing.
16 November 2000, Bill Clinton became the first US President to visit Vietnam.
8 November 2000, (1) In the controversial US Presidential Elections, Republican George W Bush defeated Democrat Vice President� Al Gore but the final result was delayed for over a month because of a disputed vote count in Florida. The Florida State Governor, Jebb Bush, ruled that about 4,000 votes from poorer districts could not be counted as the holes in the voting papers had not been completely punched through. This decision favoured his brother, George Bush. The US Supreme Court upheld this decision on 13 December 2001. It was later found that if these 4,000 votes had been included, Democrat Al; Gore would have won the State and hence the Presidency.
(2) Hillary Rodham Clinton was elected to the US Senate
20 September 2000, The US Whitewater scandal was officially over when a 3rd investigation also found insufficient evidence to implicate President Clinton in improper property dealings.
24 July 2000, A concert planned for Central Park, New York, was cancelled due to the threat of West Nile virus, carried by mosquitoes and birds. The virus had been detected in New York in 1999 and appeared to have persisted over-winter.
14 May 2000, 750,000 people took part in the Million Mom March in Washington DC. They wanted tougher gun laws, after White supremacist Buford Furrow shot children at a Jewish community centre in 1999.
30 November 1999, In Seattle, a large-scale protest by the anti-globalisation movement caught the authorities unaware and forced the cancellation on a WTO meeting.
4/1999, President Clinton considered housing Kosovan refugees at Guantanamo bay, but the idea was scrapped.
20 April 1999, US teenagers Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold took two submachine guns to Columbine High School, for an attack planned for Hitler�s birthday. 15 children were killed or injured before the two killed themselves.
22 March 1999, Jack Kevorkian, pro-euthanasia doctor, went on trial for murder in Pontiac, Michigan.� He was later convicted of second-degree murder.
23 April 1998, James Earl Ray, assassin of Martin Luther King, died.
24 October 1996, Rioting in Florida after a Black youth, Tyron Lewis, was shot dead by police.
27 July 1996, A nail bomb exploded at the Atlanta Olympics, killing two people and injuring over 100.
11 June 1996, A damning US Senate report on the Whitewater Affair accused Hillary Clinton of complicity in a� fraudulent land deal in Arkansas in the 1980s.
28 May 1996, Jim and Susan McDougal, former business associates of President Clinton, were found guilty� of fraud and conspiracy in the Whitewater scandal, involving property deals in Arkansas.
16 October 1995, The Million Man March was held in Washington DC.� It was conceived by Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan.
11 May 1995, In New York City, 170 nations agreed to extend the nuclear non-proliferation treaty indefinitely, without conditions.
24 March 1995. The House of Representatives, USA, passed welfare reforms denying state benefits to immigrants, unmarried mothers, and those who refused to work.
28 December 1994, James Woolsey, director of the CIA, resigned after allegations that the organisation was vulnerable to double agents.
8 November 1994. The Republicans gained control of the US Congress.
28 April 1994, CIA double agent Aldrich Ames was jailed for life after pleading guilty to selling secrets to the USSR, later to Russia.
24 March 1994, Allegations made in US Congress that President Clinton and his wife behaved improperly in dealings with the Whitewater Development Corporation. Later on this was to prove electorally damaging to President Clinton.
3 February 1994, US President Clinton lifted trade sanctions against Vietnam; In December 1992 President Bush had allowed US companies to open offices in Vietnam but the embargo meant they could not yet trade there.
21 January 1994, In the USA Lorena Bobbitt was cleared of malicious wounding after cutting off her husband�s penis.
15 January 1994, In a Virginia, USA, Court, Lorena Bobbitt said she could not remember the moment she cut off her husband�s penis, after an alleged rape by him; she leaded temporary insanity. The member was successfully reattached by surgeons.
14 January 1994, US President Clinton and Soviet President Boris Yeltsin signed the |Kremlin Accords. Treaties aimed ending the preprogrammed targetimng of nuclear missiles.
4 November 1993, A forest fire in the Santa Monica Mountains near Los Angeles was finally brought under control. It had begun pon 2 November 1993, killed 3, and destroyed 400 homes. Arsonists had lit many fires in the area..
3 October 1993, US troops fought large-scale land battles with local militiamen in Mogadishu, Somalia.
19 April 1993. The siege at Waco, Texas, ended after 51 days. On 28 February 1993 the Branch Davidian sect, led by David Koresh, was visited by US Federal Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms personnel to arrest Koresh for suspected firearms offences. Sect members opened fire, killing four Federal Agents and injuring a dozen more. US government troops and armoured cars surrounded the sect�s ranch. On 19 April the wooden compound was set alight by cult members as troops fired tear gas into the buildings. 86 people, including David Koresh and 17 children, died.
18 March 1993, Kenneth E Boulding, US economist and activist, died (born 1910).
24 May 1994, 4 men convicted of bombing the New York Trade centre were each sentenced to 240 years in prison.
26 February 1993. Bomb exploded beneath World Trade Centre, New York. Six were killed and hundreds injured when a bomb exploded� in an underground car park, planted by Muslim fundamentalists.
4 December 1992. US troops landed in Somalia. Rival warlord�s factions were causing chaos on Somali capital Mogadishu and hundreds of thousands were starving in the countryside. The US sent 28,000 troops to help relief efforts, codenamed �Restore Hope�.
11 August 1992. The biggest shopping mall in the USA opened in Minnesota. It had over 300 stores, covering 4.2 million square feet.
28 May 1992. The US prison population reached a record high of 823,414. One in three was being held for a drugs-related offence.
5 April 1992. Samuel Moore Walton, born 29 March 1918, founder of Wal-Mart, died.
26 March 1992. Mike Tyson was sentenced to 10 years in jail after being found guilty of rape.
10 January 1992, US President Bush concluded trade talks with various Asian and Oceania countries.
16 October 1991, In the worst mass shooting in the US to date, George Hennard, an unemployed 35 year old from Texas, killed 23 people and wounded a further 20 in Luby�s Cafeteria.
15 November 1990, President Bush signed the Clean Air Act 1990.
5 August 1990. 200 US Marines arrived in Liberia to rescue US citizens caught in the civil war there.
15 April 1990, Greta Garbo died in New York, after some 50 years of living a reclusive life after her 1940s Hollywood fame.
12 December 1989, New York heiress Leona Helmsley was fined US$ 7 million and sentenced to 4 years prison for tax evasion. She had said �only little people pay taxes�.
14 September 1989, US performed a nuclear test at Nevada.
14 June 1989, Ronald Reagan was given a knighthood by Queen Elizabeth.
20 April 1989, A gun turret on US battleship Iowa exploded, killing 47 sailors.
14 March 1989, In the USA, the Bush administration announced a ban on the import of semi-automatic assault rifles.
23 February 1989, The U.S. Senate Armed Services Committee rejected, 11�9, President Bush's nomination of John Tower for Secretary of Defense.
22 February 1989, Death of Aldo Jacuzzi, American manufacturer of the eponymous baths.
7 May 1988, Boston saw the first meeting of people who claimed to have been abducted by aliens.
6 May 1987, William J Casey, CIA Director, died.
31 March 1987, In the �Baby M� case, the US Supreme Court denied parental rights to surrogate mothers.
19 February 1987, The US lifted sanctions on Poland.
22 January 1987, Pennsylvania politician R Budd Dwyer committed suicide by shooting himself on national TV, after being convicted of bribery and corruption charges.
7 November 1986, In the USA, the Simpson-Mazzoli Act legalised the residential status of millions of illegal immigrants; the Act was signed by President Reagan this day.
4 November 1986. Democrats won control of the US Senate.
15 April 1986. The USA launched air strikes against Libya, in retaliation for Libya�s alleged support of terrorism, and a bombing in a Berlin nightclub. Libya had also fired two missiles at the US radar base on Lampedusa; both missed. Benghazi and Tripoli were bombed, killing at least 100 people, including Gaddaffi�s 15-month-old adopted daughter, Hanna. The departure of the US planes from British airfields caused widespread protests in the UK. On 17 April 1986 two British hostages in Lebanon were killed in retaliation for the US raids.
8 April 1986, Clint Eastwood was elected Mayor of his native city, Carmel, California.
27 February 1986, The United States Senate allowed its debates to be televised on a trial basis.
25 January 1985, In a case that divided American society, New York subway vigilante Bernard Goetze (born 7 November 1947) was told by a Grand Jury that he would not face charged of murder for shooting four Black youths at close range on 22 December 1984; he would be tried for illegal possession of handguns. Goetze served 8 months of a 1-year sentence on the handgun charge; one of his victims, rendered a quadriplegic by the shooting, was awarded US$ 43 million in a civil judgement against Goetze.
26 July 1984, G H Gallup, US survey pioneer, died aged 82.
21 July 1984. The man who popularised jogging, James J Fixx, had a heart attack and died whilst out running in Vermont, aged 52.
1 May 1984, Reagan concluded a visit to China.
US monetary policy 1982-86
22 October 1986, US President Reagan radically simplified the tax system, reducing the 15 tax brackets to just 2 (15% and 28%). Tax breaks for the wealthy were removed and the lower-paid removed from the tax system. However there were more taxes on business, which then raised prices.
20 April 1983, In the US, President Reagan delayed inflation-linked increases in welfare payments for 6 months and proposed raising the minimum retirement age to 67 by 2027.
2 October 1982, Paul Volcker, Chairman of the US Federal Reserve System, expressed concerns about the damage to the US economy from anti-inflation policies, with higher unemployment and interest rates. Monetarism was abandoned, and after peaking at 10.8% in 11/1982, US unemployment began to fall. Later, lower inflation and interest rates created a recovery in US shares.
19 August 1982, US Congress approved a reversal of earlier tax-cutting measures.
29 September 1981, President Reagan said he wanted to implement a further US$ 13 billion spending cuts.
13 August 1981, US President Reagan signed a Bill implementing the biggest tax� and Government spending cuts in history. Reagan rejected the demand-side economics of Keynes, in favour of supply-side economics, a policy also favoured by Mrs Thatcher of the UK.
17 April 1987, US President Reagan announced a 100% tariff on some Japanese imports, as the US trade deficit ballooned to US$ 16.5 billion by July 1987.
11 June 1982, The USA moved towards a protectionist policy, placing tariffs on imported steel to protect its own steel industry.
US Defence policy, arms reduction talks with USSR, 1981-87
8 December 1987. Gorbachev and Reagan signed an arms reduction treaty, to eliminate medium range nuclear missiles from Europe.
22 October 1983, The announcement by Washington that Pershing II and Cruise Missiles were to be deployed in Europe precipitated large anti-nuclear demonstrations in Britain, Germany and Italy.
23 March 1983. President Reagan proposed his �Star Wars� missile defence system, calling the Soviet Union an �evil empire�.
2 February 1983. The US and USSR began START (Strategic Arms Reduction Talks) in Geneva.
12 June 1982, 800,000 marched for peace in New York City.
6 February 1982, US President Reagan asked for an increased military budget and for cuts in social expenditure. Congress approved a 6% rise in defence spending but the Boland Amendment (8 December 1982) banned the use of defence money to destabilise the Sandinista Government in Nicaragua.
30 November 1981. The US and USSR began arms talks in Geneva.
9 August 1981, In the USA, President Reagan announced the decision to proceed with the neutron bomb.
Anti-Trades Union policy
4 February 1983, US President Reagan condemned the violence associated with a strike of truck drivers.
5 August 1981, President Reagan fired 11,359 striking air traffic controllers who ignored his order for them to return to work.
11 April 1980, New York City was hit by a transport workers strike, which lasted 11 days.
17 January 1984, The Reagan-nominated US Commission on Civil Rights declared that numerical quotas for the promotion of African-Americans and others ;�may merely constitute another form of discrimination�.
2 July 1980, The US Supreme Court ruled that Federal Government could use racial quotas to accomplish �reverse discrimination� when awarding contracts, enforcing minimum quotas for minorities.
25 October 1983. 2,000 US Marines invaded Grenada to restore order after, on 19 October 1983, Grenada�s army had murdered the Prime Minister (Maurice Bishop) and taken power. Britain opposed the US invasion. The US said it had saved Grenada from becoming a Soviet-Cuban colony.
2 November 1982, Democrats made large gains in US mid-term elections. The Republicans retained control of the Senate.
7 June 1982, Graceland, the mansion in Memphis, Tennessee where Elvis Presley lived until his death in 1977, was opened to the public.
30 March 1981. President Reagan, 70 years old, survived an assassination attempt by John Hinckley. He was wounded, a bullet in the left lung, outside Washington�s Hilton Hotel. The shooter, John Hinckley III, arrested at the spot, had used a .22 calibre shot; had he used a .45 the bullet, which lodged just 3 inches from Reagan�s heart, would have killed him.
18 January 1981, BASE jumping was founded by Phil Smith and Phil Mayfield as they jumped off of the 72nd floor of the Texas Commerce Tower in Houston and parachuted to the ground. The pair had previously leapt from an antenna, a bridge and a cliff.
27 February 1980, Chelsea Clinton, daughter of former US President Bill Clinton, was born.
23 January 1980, President Carter initiated the Carter Doctrine � that Middle Eastern oil reserves were of strategic importance to the US and that any attempt by another power to take control in the region would be met by US military action. This Doctrine was adopted by President Reagan, leading to the Gulf War.
3 November 1979, Clashes between Communist Worker�s party members and Klu Klux Klan neo-Nazis in Greensboro�, North Carolina, USA. 5 Communists were shot dead.
1 October 1979. The USA handed back control of the Canal Zone to Panama.
7 July 1979, China was granted �most favoured nation� status by the USA, giving it ;lower tariff rates on its imports to the US.
18 June 1979. US President Carter and USSR President Brezhnev signed the SALT 2 (Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty) in Vienna.
8 May 1979, Talcott Parsons, US sociologist, died aged 76.
5 April 1979, US President Carter established an Energy Security Fund to help US consumers meet fuel costs, and to promote alternative energy and more use of public transport.
17 March 1979, Stormy Daniels (stage name for Stephanie Clifford), US pornographic actress who was involved in a legal dispute with US President Donald Trump in 2018; was born in Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
26 January 1979, Nelson Rockerfeller, Republican politician and vice President to Gerald Ford, died.
3 January 1979, Conrad Hilton, founder of the Hilton Hotel Group and once married to Zsa Zsa Gabor, died.
1 January 1979. Diplomatic relations were established between China and the USA.
15 December 1978, Cleveland, Ohio, became the first major US city to go into default since the great Depression, under mayor Dennis Kucinich.
3 November 1978. Vietnam and the USA signed a 25-year treaty of friendship and co-operation in economic, scientific and technical endeavours.
7 August 1978, President Jimmy Carter declared a federal emergency at Love Canal.
7 April 1978. US President Carter pulled back from building a neutron bomb.
14 January 1978, Kurt Godel, Austrian-American logician, died aged 71.
13 January 1978, Hubert Humphrey, Vice President to Lyndon Johnson, died.
10/1977, The US Department of Energy was created.
7 September 1977, A treaty between the USA and Panama was signed; the US agreed to give Panama control of the Canal by 2000.
4 June 1977, Two people died during violence on� Puerto Rican Day in Chicago.
21 April 1977, US President Carter proposed a national energy conservation plan to discourage waste and achoieve greater efficiency.
25 January 1977, The US Supreme Court reversed a previous decision 91966) and ruled that a suspect who has not been formally arrested can be interrogated without being informed of their legal rights.
21 January 1977, Jimmy Carter issued a pardon for those who evaded the draft for the Vietnam War.
18 August 1976, In North Korea, at Panmunjom, two US soldiers were killed whilst trying to chop down a tree in the demilitarised zone; the tree had obscured their view.
6 June 1976, Paul Getty, American oil tycoon, reputed to be the richest man on earth, died aged 83, at his home, Sutton Place, outside London. He was worth around US$ 4 billion.
3 June 1976, The UK presented the US with the oldest known copy of Magna Carta.
5 April 1976. The multi-millionaire Howard Hughes died on his private jet going to a hospital at Houston, Texas leaving a fortune of US$ 2,000 million. He was aged 71.
1 May 1975, The US Securities and Exchange Commission ordered an abolition of the fixed commission rate on Wall Street. This increased the number of investors who came forward, meaning more money was available for shares trading.
23 February 1975, In response to the energy crisis, daylight saving time began two months early in the USA.
14 January 1975, The House Committee on Internal Security (formerly HUAC, House Committee on Un-American Activities) was formally terminated on January 14, 1975, the day of the opening of the 94th Congress. The Committee's files and staff were transferred on that day to the House Judiciary Committee.
3 April 1974, President Nixon agreed to pay US$ 432,787 outstanding income tax.
4 February 1974, Heiress Patty Hearst was kidnapped.
1974 oil crisis
17 March 1974, The Arab oil embargo, imposed om the US in 1973 in retaliation for US support for Israel in the 1973 Yom Kippur War, was lifted.
6 January 1974, In response to the energy crisis, the USA started Daylight Savings Time almoist 4 months before usual; many children had to leave for school before sunrise.
2 January 1974, In response to the Oil Crisis, the USA imposed a national 55 mph (88 kph) speed limit on its major roads.
14 December 1973. John Paul Getty II was freed by kidnappers after his grandfather paid a US$ 750,000 ransom.
15 July 1973. Paul Getty III was kidnapped
26 October 1973, US President Nixon considered an attack on the Soviet Union, after hearing that the USSR was arming Arab nations in the Middle East.
4 May 1973, The Sears Tower in Chicago, then the world�s tallest office building at 1,454 feet and 110 storeys was �topped out� when the highest storey was completed.
23 April 1973, Henry Kissinger, head of the US National Security Council, called for a new �Atlantic Charter� governing relations between the US, Europe and Japan.
28 March 1973, Marlon Brando refused an Oscar because of Hollywood�s abuses of the American Indians.
28 February 1973, US Indians took hostages at Wounded Knee. They challenged the US Government to �repeat the massacre of Sioux Indians� that happened there over 80 years earlier.
13 February 1973, The USA devalued the Dollar by 10%, causing the price of gold to rise to US$42.22.
29 January 1973, The USA�s balance of payments deficit for 1972 was estimated at US$ 6 � 7 billion; the Dollar collapsed.
26 November 1973, The Getty family agreed to pay US$ 1 million in ransom for their kidnapped son Paul, whose ear had been posted to them.
26 September 1972. President Nixon opened the Museum of Immigration, at the base of the Statue of Liberty, New York.
8 July 1972, US President Nixon announced that the USSR was to buy US$ 750 million worth of US grain over the next 3 years.
15 May 1972, George Wallace, Governor of Alabama, was shot and injured by a White assailant, Arthur Bremer, aged 21. Wallace, known for his racist and segregationist policies (see 2 September 1963), was campaigning for the Democratic Party�s Presidential nomination.
2/5./1972, J Edgar Hoover, American founder of and head of the FBI, died in Washington DC.
21 February 1972, US President Nixon landed in China to forge links with Prime Minister� Chou En Lai and Chairman Mao Tse Tung. China still objected to US support for the Taiwan regime.
7 February 1972, In the USA, President Nixon signed the Federal Election Campaign Act. This required that all electoral campaign contributions be declared, and limited spending on media campaigning to 10 cents per person of voting age in the candidate�s constituency.
10 December 1971, The John Sinclair Freedom Rally is held at the University of Michigan. Performers included John Lennon and Yoko Ono.
25 September 1971, Hugo LaFayette Black, US Supreme Court judge who upheld civil rights, died (born 1886).
30 June 1971. The 26th amendment to the US constitution was passed, lowering the voting age from 21 to 18.
17 June 1971, Disneyland admitted its 100-millionth visitor, Valerie Suldo of New Jersey.
25 April 1971, 200,000 protested in Washington DC against the Vietnam War. 12,000 protestors were arrested over the following week.
10 February 1971, An earthquake, 6.6 on the Richter Scale, hit Los Angeles, killing 64 people.
29 December 1970, US President Nixon signed the Occupational Safety and Health Act and established an agency to regulate safety at work.
17 November 1969, Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) opened in Helsinki between the USSR and USA (President Nixon). The talks had been proposed for 19 June 1969 but suspended by the USA due to the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia.
15 August 1969. The famous American rock festival, Woodstock, began. It was attended by 400,000.
18 July 1969. Senator Edward Kennedy crashed his car into the Chappaquidick River on the east coast of the USA. Kennedy escaped but his companion Mary Jo Kopechne drowned. Kennedy didn�t report the incident for ten hours and was found guilty of leaving the scene of an accident.
19 June 1969, US President Nixon suspended arms limitation talks with the USSR due to the their invasion of Czechoslovakia.
11 June 1969, John Llewellyn Lewis, US Trades Union leader (born 2 December 1880 in Lucas, Iowa), died.
23 February 1969, President Nixon of the USA began a tour of European capitals.
22 February 1969. President Nixon arrived in Britain for talks with Prime Minister Harold Wilson.
22 December 1968, The captain and crew of the Pueblo were released by the North Koreans at Panmunjom.
21 November 1968, Baby Sheri Schroder was born with several birth defects, in Love Canal, a residential area of Niagara Falls. Her birth spurs on an investigation which uncovered one of the worst pollution svcandals in US history.
1 July 1968. The USA and the USSR signed the Non-Proliferation treaty regarding nuclear weapons (see 5 August 1963). This bound its signatories not to transfer nuclear weapons or knowledge to non-nuclear countries. This was a recognition that both the USA and the USSR had interests in not assisting China to become nuclear.
5 June 1968. A Jordanian-Arab called Sirhan Bishara Sirhan shot Robert Kennedy, US Senator (born 1925), in the Hotel Ambassador, Los Angeles. Kennedy, younger brother of President Kennedy, died 25 hours later. Sirhan was arrested. He was protesting against Kennedy�s outspoken support for Israel, on the first anniversary of the Six Day War.
21 May 1968, The US Navy lost contact with the nuclear submarine Scorpion, with 99 men on board. The wreck of the vessel was subsequently located on the ocean floor 640 km southwest of the Azores.
16 February 1968, The first 911 emergency phone service was inaugurated in the USA, at Haleyville, Alabama. It was free; other phone calls cost 10 cents.
23 January 1968, The USS Pueblo, an intelligence ship, and its 89 man crew was seized by North Koreans in the Sea of Japan.
15 December 1967, The Silver Bridge, between Point Pleasant, West Virginia and Gallipolis, hio, collapsed, killing 46 people.
7 November 1967, The Corporation for Public Broadcasting was established in the USA
25 August 1967, John Patler killed the head of the American Nazi Party, George Lincoln Rockwell. Patler had been a Party member until his expulsion shortly before the murder.
12 July 1967, Five days of race riots, lasting until 17 July 1967, broke out in Newark, USA, after an African-American was beaten by police for a traffic offence.
26 March 1967. 10,000 hippies held a rally in New York's Central Park.
3 January 1967, Jack Ruby, who shot Lee Harvey Oswald, the alleged assassin of President Kennedy, died of natural causes at a Dallas hospital. Mr Ruby was awaiting the retrial of his murder case.
15 October 1966, The US Department of Transportation was created, and began operations in 1967.
15 September 1966, Responding to a sniper gun attack at the University of Texas, US President Lyndon Johnson called on US Congress to enact gun control legislation.
1 August 1966, In Austin, USA, Charles Whitman shot dead 12 people at Texas University before being shot dead himself by policemen.
5 August 1966, Groundbreaking took place for the World Trade Centre in New York City, as jackhammers began breaking pavement at the former site of Radio Row.
7 April 1966, The US recovered an atom bomb that had been accidentally dropped into the Atlantic ocean after a mid-air collision.
20 February 1966, Chester Nimitz, American General and Pacific Fleet Commander in World War II, died in San Francisco, four days before his 81st birthday.
10 February 1966, Consumer activist and safety campaigner Ralph Nader began testifying before US Congress about the reluctance of the US car industry to invest in safety features.
9 November 1965. A transmission relay in New York City failed, sparking a domino effect that led to a blackout across New York State, Connecticut, Massachusetts, New England, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont, and parts of Pennsylvania and Ontario.
3 October 1965, US President Johnson ditched the immigration quota system under the 1965 Immigration Act. Educated skilled migrants could now enter the USA so long as they did not threaten the livelihood of a US citizen.
10 September 1965, Yale University published a map showing that the Vikings discovered America in the 11th century.
9 September 1965, The Department of Housing and Urban Affairs (HUD) was established in the USA
23 July 1965, In the USA, President Johnson signed the Coinage Bill. This eliminated all silver from quarters and dimes, and cut the silver content of half-dollars from 90% to 40%.
11 June 1965, President Johnson declared that the promotion of learning the English language should be a major policy in American foreign aid, and directed the Peace Corps, the United States Agency for International Development and other organizations to encourage the such study, in what was viewed as elevating "the status of English as an international language.
28 August 1964, Race riots broke out in Philadelphia, USA.
18 July 1964, Race riots in Harlem, New York; start of the �ghetto revolts�.
10 June 1964, The U.S. Senate voted closure of the Civil Rights Bill after a 75-day filibuster.
27 September 1964, The Warren Report was published, stating that Lee Harvey Oswald alone was responsible for the assassination of President Kennedy. Conspiracy theorists were not satisfied.
14 March 1964. Jack Ruby, aged 52, was found guilty in Dallas of killing Lee Harvey Oswald, alleged assassin of President Kennedy (see 22 November 1963). He was sentenced to death but died of a blood clot on the lung in 1967.
29 November 1963, US President Lyndon Johnson set up the Warren Commission to investigate the assassination of John F Kennedy
24 November 1963, Lee Harvey Oswald, assassin of President Kennedy, was himself shot dead by Jack Ruby.
11 December 1963, In Los Angeles, Frank Sinatra Jr was set free after his father paid kidnappers a US$ 240,000 ransom.
31 August 1963, The �hot line�, linking the Kremlin and the White House, went into operation.
5 August 1963. President Kennedy signed a Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in Washington. This treaty forbade testing in the atmosphere, outer space, or underwater, and was aimed at preventing other nations than the USA or USSR developing nuclear weapons. However to allow America and Russia to develop their nuclear weapons, underground testing was allowed under this treaty (see 1 July 1968).
26 June 1963. President Kennedy made his famous �Ich bin ein Berliner� speech. He meant to say �I am a Berliner�, to indicate US support for the freedom of West Germany. However what he actually said translated as �I am a doughnut�.
20 June 1963. The White House and the Kremlin agreed to set up a �hot line�.
9 April 1963, Winston Churchill was given honorary US citizenship.
6 April 1963, Anglo-US Polaris weapons agreement signed.
18 March 1963, In the USA, in Gideon v Wainwright, the Supreme Court required the State to appoint defence counsel if the defendant could not afford a private lawyer.
1962, The Baker v Carr case , in the US Supreme Court; the Court ruled that state electoral districts must contain approximately equal numbers of voters. This ended rural domination of state legislatures.
21 December 1962, The US agreed to sell Polaris missiles to the UK.
18 December 1962, PM Harold MacMillan of the UK and President Kennedy of the USA concluded the Nassau Agreement, at Nassau, Bahamas.� This allowed the US navy to provide Polaris missiles for the Royal Navy, normally operating under NATO command.� This Anglo-US collaboration was resented by General De Gaulle of France, who saw it as proof that Britain was not sufficiently European.� Within a month De Gaulle had vetoed UK membership of the EEC, see 14 January 1963.
5 December 1962, US diplomat Dean Acheson said Britain was 'played out'.
5 November 1962, In the US, elections left Democrats in control of both Houses.
25 June 1962, In a 6 to 1 decision, based on the First Amendment, the US Supreme Court ruled that the recital of an official prayer in New York State Schools was unconstitutional.
18 October 1961. A work by Henri Matisse attracted big crowds in the Museum of Modern Art in New York. Only after 116,000 people had seen it over 46 days did someone notice it was hung upside-down.
22 May 1961, The revolving restaurant, Eye of the Needle (now known as SkyCity Restaurant) opened in Seattle at the top of the Space Needle.
1 March 1961, US President Kennedy formed the Peace Corps, a group of volunteers to work in less-developed countries.
26 September 1960, The first US Presidential debate to be televised, between Nixon and Kennedy. Millions watched.
21 August 1960, David B Steinman, US bridge engineer, died aged 74.
17 February 1960, Martin Luther King was arrested in the USA.
15 September 1959, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev became the head of State of the USSR to be received at the US White House.
9 June 1959. The USA launched its first ballistic missile submarine, the George Washington.
24 May 1959, John Foster Dulles (born 1888), US Secretary of State until his resignation due to ill-health in April 1959, died from cancer. He was chief spokesperson for US President Woodrow Wilson at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. He believed in a robust �brinkmanship� approach to Soviet threats, reinforcing NATO and creating SEATO. He did not get on with UK Prime Minister Anthony Eden, disagreeing in particular with the UK�s policy over Suez. He opposed the Anglo-French invasion of Egypt in late 1956, and sometimes failed to anticipate Arab nationalist reactions to external intervention.
4 November 1958, In the USA, Democrats won the mid-term elections, gaining 62 seats in the Senate (Republicans 34 seats). The Democrats gained 281 seats in the� House of Representatives (Republicans 153 seats)
10 June 1958, A tornado swept through the town of El Dorado, Kansas killing 13 and injuring 57.
31 May 1958, The Kremlin and Washington agreed to hold talks on a ban on atmospheric atom bomb tests.
19 September 1957, The US carried out the first underground nuclear test in the� Nevada desert, the first of 29 such tests.
30 August 1957, US senator Strom Thurmond spoke for 24hrs 27m against civil rights.
31 May 1957, American playwright Arthur Miller was convicted of contempt of Congress for refusing to name other writers as communists. Miller confessed his own communist sympathies but said his conscience would not let him finger others; the judge praised his motives but he could still face a year in jail.
7 May 1957 Eliot Ness, the FBI agent who headed the investigation of Al Capone in Chicago, died.
1956, President Eisenhower signed the Federal Aid Highway Act, to create a US-wide network of freeways.
25 September 1956, Transatlantic telephone cable between the UK and the USA became operational.
3 August 1956, The name of Bedloe�s Island, site of the Statue of Liberty, was changed to Liberty Island, on the approval of President Eisenhower.
29 June 1956, US President Eisenhower signed the Federal Aid Highway Act this day, providing for the construction of a 41,000 mile highway system.
14 August 1955, The US schooner Levin J. Marvel capsized and sank in Chesapeake Bay with the loss of 12 of the 24 people on board.
3 March 1955, Katharine Drexel, US philanthropist, teacher and Roman Catholic saint, died aged 96.
12 November 1954, The immigration centre at Ellis Island, New York, closed. 15 million migrants into the US had been processed through here since 1892.
25 October 1954, In the US, meetings of the Cabinet were televised for the first time.
20 July 1954. The Geneva Agreement ended hostilities between North and South Korea.
12 July 1954, US Vice President Richard Nixon announced the construction of a network of Interstate Highways which would enable drivers to cross the USA without encountering a single crossroads or traffic light. They would also be useful as part of a defensive network, and to provide rapid exits from cities in the event of war.
10 July 1954, US President Eisenhower signed Public Law 480, the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, better known as PL-480. This facilitated the export of grain to US-aligned governments that were facing threats from Leftist agencies, either internal rebels or intimidation from a Soviet-aligned State next door. PL-480 could be used to keep recalcitrant allies, those possibly sliding towards Communism, in line. For example in 1965 US President Johnson shifted the renewal of PL-480 food aid to India from an annual to a� monthly basis, threatening India with withdrawal of food aid as India�s President Shastri expressed disapproval of US bombing in Vietnam. However if Shastri abandoned Nehru�s ideas of land distribution to Indian peasants then India would receive US agricultural technology, enhancing food yields.
7 April 1954, The USA announced that, in conjunction with Canada, it would set up a chain of almost 100 radar stations along a 3,000 mile line at the 55th parallel. On 27 September 1954 a second chain of radfar stations was announced above the Arctic Circle to warn of enemy aircraft approaching from Russia across the North Pole. This was the Distant Early Warning Line, of DEW; within a few years it was obsolete because missiles would be delivered by rockets not planes.
8 March 1954, The US and Japan signed a mutual defence pact.
5 February 1954, Carl Wickman, founder of Greyhound Lines bus service, died aged 66.
10 October 1953. President Eisenhower of the USA signed a treaty with South Korea promising military aid if North Korea attacked.
11 April 1953, The US Department of Health and Human Services was established.
2 December 1952, US President Eisenhower visited Korea.
31 October 1952, The USA exploded the first hydrogen bomb at Eniwetok Atoll in the Pacific. The bomb was equivalent to 5 to 7 megatons (million tons of TNT) and left a hole a mile in diameter and 175 feet deep. A 5 megaton bomb would devastate about 150 square miles by blast and subject about 800 square miles to searing heat. See 9 September 2003.
25 October 1952, The USA blocked the entry of China to the United Nations for the third year running. See 25 October 1971.
24 October 1952, In the US, Eisenhower described Korea as �the burial place of twenty thousand Americans� and promised that if he was elected President he would end the Korean War. Meanwhile the United Nations remained deadlocked over the issue of the return of North Korean prisoners of War. The USSR and China wanted them all returned to North Korea, but some PoWs insisted they had been forcibly drafted into the North Korean forces and wanted to settle in South Korea.
24 July 1952, Charles Copeland, US educationalist, died in Massachusetts.
27 June 1952. The USA lifted its ban on immigration from Africa and Asia.
25 June 1952, In the US the Immigration Bill was passed, despite Resident Truman�s veto and a Democrat majority of ten in the Senate. This Bill established immigration quotas by nationality, something Truman considered racist.
2 June 1952, In Youngstown vs Sawyer, the US Supreme Court ruled that President Truman had gone beyond his powers in ordering the State seizure of the steel industry during a strike.
8 April 1952, In the USA, President Truman ordered the State seizure of the steel industry in response to a strike. The output of the steel mills was considered vital for the US forces fighting in Korea. The strike ended in 2 May 1952, but the seizure continued until after the Supreme Court decision of 2 June 1952..
27 February 1952, The United Nations Building in New York saw its first session.
1 November 1951, The US tested an atom bomb over the Nevada desert.
5 October 1951, The US House of representatives approved the US$ 56.9 billion Armed Forces appropriation Bill.
8 September 1951, The San Francisco Treaty of Friendship between the US and Japan was signed.
19 July 1951, Severe flooding hit Kansas and Missouri. 41 died and 200,000 were made homeless.
7 November 1950, In US elections, the Republicans gained 30 seats in the House of Representatives.
1 November 1950, �Puerto Rican nationalists Griselio Torresola and Oscar Collazo attempted to assassinate President Harry S Truman. Torresola was killed during the attack, but Collazo was captured. Collazo served 29 years in a federal prison, being released in 1979. Don Pedro Albizu Campos also served many years in a federal prison in Atlanta, for seditious conspiracy to overthrow the U.S. government in Puerto Rico
20 February 1949, Ivana Trump, US socialite was born.
9 February 1949, US actor Robert Mitchum was jailed for 2 months for smoking marijuana.
2 September 1948, Christa McAuliffe, US� teacher who died in the Challenger space shuttle disaster in 1986, was born in Boston, Massachusetts.
15 July 1948. John Pershing, commander of the US Army in France in World War One, nicknamed �Black Jack�, died in Washington DC.
30 April 1948, The Organisation of American States was set up. The agreement, covering all 21 of the republics in the Americas, was signed at Bogota, Colombia. The fourteenth state ratified the treaty on 13 December 1951, thereby formally legally validating the treaty
15 March 1948. US coal miners went on strike for better pensions.
6 November 1947, The first post-War Rolls Royce and Bentley cars arrived in the USA.
30 June 1947, US coal mining was denationalised.
16 April 1947, Ammonium nitrate stored aboard the freighter Grandcamp exploded in Texas City Port, killing 752.
25 January 1947, Al Capone, American gangster and leader of organised crime in Chicago during the Prohibition era, died aged 48 due to a major brain haemorrhage, virtually penniless. In 1931 he was jailed for 11 years income tax evasion; he was released from Alcatraz in 1939, suffering from syphilis and prematurely aged.
5 December 1946. New York was chosen as the permanent site of the UN.
5 November 1946, In the US, Republicans gained control of Congress.
20 July 1946, In the USA, the Report of the Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack was released. The higher armed forces ranks were blamed for failing to anticipate the military disaster.
16 July 1946, The Bureau of Land Management was created within the US Department of the Interior, by a merger of two other agencies, the Grazing Service and the General Land Office.
13 July 1946, The US House of Representatives approved a loan to Europe.
20 February 1946, US Congress passed the Employment Act, stating that its aim was maximum employment.
6 February 1946, A tugboat workers strike in New York caused fuel shortages and power cuts.
2 February 1946, US President Truman approved the McMahon Bill on atomic energy and urged the swift institution of a civilian controlled Government monopoly on atomic energy.
5 December 1945. Five US Navy bombers on a training flight from Fort Lauderdale, Florida, disappeared over the area later known as the Bermuda Triangle, with 27 crew. When radio contact with the 5 planes was lost, a 6th plane was sent to search for them; it too disappeared without trace.
2 December 1945, The Arab world began a general boycott of Israel, to geographically isolate the country. The boycott was to cover not just companies trading with Israel or with Israeli companies but also companies doing business with these companies. In 1977 the US, under President Carter, declared it illegal for US companies to participate in this boycott. In the 1990s Israel insisted upon the dismantling of the boycott, which was estimated to have cost the country some US$ 40 billion, as part of the Peace Process. In 2001, however, the Arab League�s Boycott Office resumed activities as part of its support for the Palestinians during the Intifada.
3 November 1943. US miners ended a 6 month strike.
9 June 1943, US Congress approved the Pay as You Go scheme for deducting income tax from salaries.
14 May 1943, Jules Gabriel Fisher, Louisiana State Senator, died (born 15 April 1874).
1 April 1943. The rationing of meats, fats, and cheese began in the USA.
13 March 1943, J P Morgan Jnr, US financier, died aged 75.
15 January 1943. The Pentagon, built to house the US Defence Department, opened in Arlington, Virginia, on the Potomac River.
28 November 1942, 492 died in a fire at Cocoanut Grove nightclub, Boston, USA.
25 June 1941, US President Roosevelt appointed an Employment Practices Committee to ensure reasonable employment conditions.
22 March 1941, The Grand Coulee Dam, on the Columbia River, Washington State, began operating.
6 March 1941. Gutzon Borglum, American sculptor noted for his work on the Mount Rushmore heads of Presidents Washington, Jefferson, Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt, died.
20 July 1940. The first singles charts were published in the US journal Billboard.
15 May 1940. Nylon stockings went on sale for the first time, in America. In New York. Alone, 72,000 pairs were sold in the first eight hours.
23 November 1939, In the USA, Thanksgiving Day was now celebrated this Thursday, the 4th Thursday in the month, rather than the 30th,� the last Thursday as previous years. The retail lobby had persuaded President Roosevelt to make the change so as to lengthen the Christmas Shopping season by a week.
28 July 1939, William James Mayo, US surgeon and co-founder of the Mayo Clinic, died aged 78.
10 June 1939, 2 million people watched the King and Queen of the United Kingdom arrive on the destroyer USS Warrington.
30 April 1939, The World Fair in New York opened. It was opened by President Franklin D Roosevelt, who became the first US President to appear on TV, as NBC began their TV news service this day.
1 April 1939, The USA recognised Franco�s government in Spain.
31 October 1938. A radio broadcast of H G Well�s War of the Worlds caused widespread panic because of its vivid realism. The adaptation of the play carried a warning that it was not for real but this warning was not broadcast until 40 minutes after the play had begun. Terrified Americans packed the roads, hid in cellars, loaded guns, and wrapped their heads in wet towels to protect themselves against Martian poison gas. The event proved both the power of mass media and the American capacity for hysteria.
6 January 1939, Al Capone was transferred from Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary and sent to a prison on Terminal Island to serve the last year of his sentence.
8 June 1938, US President Franklin D Roosevelt requested a report on the utility of a national tolled road network.
26 May 1938, The Dies Committee was established by the US House of Representatives. Named after its Chairman, Martin Dies, its remit was to investigate �Un-American� activities by Nazis and Communists within the USA. See 3 January 1945.
1 May 1937, US President Roosevelt signed the Third Neutrality Act, extending the earlier Acts of 1935 and 1936. Arms exports to belligerents were banned and Us ships banned from transporting armaments to war zones.
22 January 1937, In the USA, the Ohio River flooded, killing 16 and making 150,000 homeless.
6 January 1937, In the USA, President Roosevelt forbade shipments of arms to either side in Spain.
1936, In the US, the Rural Electrification Administration (REA) was established. Riral telephone lines were also developed by the REA from 1949.
30 December 1936, Striking workers in the USA closed 7 General Motors plants.
12 November 1936, The San Francisco�Oakland Bay Bridge opened.
29 June 1936, US Congress passed the Merchant Marine Act, providing subsidies to US shipping lines who were facing higher costs than foreign shipping operators.
29 February 1936. President Roosevelt signed a second neutrality bill, banning loans to countries at war.
6 January 1936, The US Supreme Court ruled the New Deal Agricultural Adjustment was unconstitutional,
4 January 1936, The first pop music chart was compiled, based on record sales published in New York in The Billboard.
10 December 1935, The Huey Long Bridge was completed in Metairie, Louisiana.
10 September 1935, Huey Pierce Long, Louisiana politician, was shot dead in Baton Rouge.� He had opposed �lying newspapers� and got the Louisiana legislature to impose a tax on any newspaper with a circulation of over 20,000.
31 August 1935, In the USA, President Roosevelt banned arms sales to warring countries.
30 August 1935, The USA passed the Revenue Act, redistributing some wealth and taxing gifts and inheritances. The US Inland revenue service reported that 0.1% of US corporations owned 52% of all corporate assets and less than 5% owned 87% of all corporate assets.
23 August 1935, The USA established Fort Knox as its gold bullion repository.
14 August 1935. President Roosevelt signed the Social Security Bill, introducing welfare for the old, sick, and unemployed.
10 June 1935, Alcoholics Anonymous was founded in the United States by Bill Wilson and Dr Robert Smith.
27 May 1935, The USA�s New Deal suffered a setback when the US Supreme Court ruled that the National Recovery Administration was unconsdtitutional.
21 May 1935, Death of Jane Addams (born 6 September 1860). She founded Hull House, a mission to help poor immigrants in the US. She was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 for her efforts to promote pacifism after World War One.
6 May 1935, The Works Progress Administration was founded in the USA to create employment.
30 April 1935, President Roosevelt established the Resettlement Administration, providing government funds to resettle farmers to more productive land.
8 September 1934, The luxury liner Morro Castle caught fire off New Jersey, killing 134.
20 August 1934. The USA joined the International Labour Organisation.
7 August 1934, A US Appeal Court upheld a judge�s ruling to allow James Joyce�s work, Ulysses, to be sold in the USA.
22 July 1934, Bank robber John Dillinger was killed in an FBI ambush in Chicago.
9 June 1934. Donald Duck was created, in Walt Disney�s cartoon The Little Wise Hen. Walt Disney was born in Chicago on 5 December 1901.
23 May 1934. Bank robbers Bonnie Parker (23) and Clyde Barrow (25) were shot dead in an ambush by Texas rangers near Gibland, Alabama. Clyde met Bonnie in the caf� where she worked. She chose a life of excitement, drama, and danger, when she married the convict Clyde. She drove his getaway car as he robbed banks. A total of 12 people had died in their raids across the south western USA over the past 4 years. In 1930 Clyde was arrested but he escaped with Bonnie�s help and returned to bank robbery. After the death of the pair, people paid to see their bodies in the State morgue.
26 April 1934, US railway companies averted a strike by reaching a settlement to gradually roll back the 10% pay cut imposed on the workers two years earlier.
18 April 1934. The first launderette opened in Fort Worth, Texas, by J F Cantrell. It was called a washeteria.
25 March 1934, The threatened US car workers' strike was averted when the Roosevelt administration created a National Automotive Labor Board to help resolve disputes
24 March 1934. The USA promised it would grant independence to the Philippines.
5 February 1934, Rioting broke out in the streets of New York over the cab driver strike as strikers fought with police and burned independent cabs.
5 December 1933. Prohibition Laws repealed in the USA, by the 21st Amendment, after over 13 dry years, leaving individual States free to determine their known drinks laws. See 16 January 1920. Utah was the last state to ratify the 21st Amendment, which nullified the 19th Amendment of 1919 prohibiting the manufacture sale or transportation of intoxicating liquors. Prohibition had not stopped alcohol consumption, but merely driven it underground into the criminal world. America celebrated so much that 1.5 million barrels of beer were drunk the first night. Towns ran dry, and were drunk dry again the next night too. Prohibition had simply created enormous opportunities for organised crime.
16 November 1933, The USA established diplomatic relations with the USSR for the first time since the Russian Revolution.
31 October 1933, The carvings of the four heads of Presidents at Mount Rushmore, South Dakota, was completed.
30 September 1933, US President Franklin D Roosevelt announced the US$ 700 million New Deal for the poor.
25 June 1933, James Meredith, US civil rights activist, was born.
6 June 1933. The first drive � in cinema opened in Camden, New Jersey, with room for 400 cars.
27 May 1933, The �Century of World Progress� Fair opened in Chicago.
24 April 1933, Felix Adler, US educationalist (born 13 August 1851) died.
20 March 1933, Guisepope Zangara, who attempted to murder US President-elect Roosevelt in February, was executed.
23 January 1933, The US, under the 20th Amendment, moved the Inauguration Day of its Presidents from 4 March to 23 January. The aim was to reduce the �lame duck� period of an outgoing President.
7 September 1932, J Paul Getty II, US philanthropist, was born.
9 July 1932. King Camp Gillette, American inventor of the safety razor and blade, died.
12 May 1932, The body of the kidnapped infant son of Charles and Anne Lindbergh was found, less than 8km from his home 8in New Jersey.
1 March 1932, The 20-month old son of Charles Lindbergh was kidnapped from the nursery of their home in Hopwell, New Jersey. He was found dead on 12 May 1932. Bruno Hauptmann was convicted of the crime and electrocuted.
13 November 1931, The Whitney Museum of American Art opened in New York City.
24 October 1931. Al Capone, 32, Chicago gang boss of the Prohibition era, was jailed for 11 years for tax evasion. He was also fined US$80,000. He was released in 1939 and died on 25 January 1947 of a brain haemorrhage.
1 October 1931, The Waldorf Astoria, on Park Avenue, New York, opened.� It was the world�s largest commercial hotel building.
17 September 1931. 33 1/3 rpm LP records were released in the USA.� They were demonstrated at the Savoy Plaza Hotel, New York.
31 July 1931, Cleveland Municipal Stadium, home of the Cleveland Indians, opened.� It was the largest baseball stadium in the world.
19 March 1931, Indigestion aid Alka-Seltzer went on sale in the USA.
18 March 1931, The US company Schick Inc started to manufacture electric razors.
3 March 1931. The song, �The Star Spangled Banner�, became the American National Anthem.
30 December 1930, The Colonial National Monument in Virginia was proclaimed by President Hoover.
6 December 1929, US marines were sent to Haiti to quell a revolt there.
3 December 1929, President Hoover delivered his first State of the Union speech to Congress.
23 September 1929, The $1.5 million, 21,000-seat St. Louis Arena opened.
28 July 1929, Jacqueline Onassis, widow of President Kennedy, was born in Southampton, New York State, as Jacqueline Lee Bouvier.
14 February 1929. The St Valentines Day Massacre took place in Chicago. Seven members of Bugsy Moran�s gang were machine-gunned to death by a rival gang.
13 February 1929, The US expanded its Navy. Congress passed the Cruiser Act, authorising 15 new cruisers and 1 new aircraft carrier.
13 January 1929, Wyatt Earp, American lawman and hero of the OK Corral, died peacefully aged 81.
7 December 1928, Noam Chomsky, US social scientist, was born.
8 November 1928, The Preble Box Toe Company explosion in Lynn, Massachusetts killed 20 people.
13 March 1928, In Los Angeles, 450 died when a dam burst.
21 January 1928, George Washington Goethals, American, chief engineer of the Panama Canal, died.
3 January 1928, US troops went to Nicaragua to fight the Sandinistas.
7 August 1927, The Peace Bridge opened between Canada and the USA.
19 June 1925, Bank robber Everett Bridgewater and two accomplices were arrested in Indianapolis, Indiana.
13 January 1929, Wyatt Earp, American lawman and hero of the OK Corral, died peacefully aged 81.
1925 Monkey Trial � see Biology
28 November 1925, The newly-rebuilt Madison Square Garden indoor arena opened in New York.
10 October 1925, James Buchanan Duke, US industrialist, (born in Durham, North Carolina, 23 December 1856) died in New York.
17 January 1925, US President Coolidge, in an address to the Society of American newspaper Editors, stated �The business of America is business� as he set out his policy of reducing taxes, especially on the middle class. He opposed any write down of British and French War Debt to the USA.
27 November 1924, The first Macy�s Thanksgiving Parade was held in New York City.
26 May 1924. The US cut immigration quotas from an annual 3% of the number of that nationality already in the US (enacted 1921) to 2%, and excluded Japanese citizens entirely. Japan protested.
6 May 1924, Patricia Lawford Kennedy, younger sister of President Kennedy, was born (died 17 September 2006)
10 April 1924. The first crossword puzzle book was published in New York.
19 April 1923, The Yankee Stadium, New York, opened.
3 March 1923. The US magazine Time was first published. Republican-leaning, the magazine was to condense the news for time-pressed Americans, and could be distributed by rail in a country with no true national newspaper.
13 January 1923, The US Senate agreed to take in 25,000 Armenian orphans.
10 January 1923, The last US troops left Germany.
22 December 1922, New York�s last horse-drawn fire engine was taken out of service.
7 November 1922. In US Congressional elections, the Republican majority was reduced.
15 August 1922, End of a coal strike in the USA (began 1 April 1922).
14 June 1922, Warren Harding became the first US President to speak in a radio broadcast.
20 March 1922. President Harding recalled US troops from the Rhineland.
4 March 1922, In the USA the �Teapot Dome� scandal emerged. Secretary of the Interior Albert B Fall resigned as a Senate Committee investigated alleged unlawful leasing of Government oil reserves and other matters. In 1929 Fall was sentenced to 1 year in prison, also fined.
6 February 1922, The Limitation of Armaments Conference at Washington ended.
22 December 1921, US Congress set aside US$ 20 million for food aid to starving children in the USSR.
12 November 1921, The Limitation of Armaments Conference began in Washington.
10 November 1921, The US Marine Corps was founded.
1 September 1921, In the USA, the Klu Klux Klan now had over 4 million members.
25 August 1921. Peace treaty (Treaty of Berlin) signed between Germany and the USA.
19 May 1921. The USA introduced quotas for immigration, setting these at 3% of the each nationality in the US as it was in 1910. This favoured the British, Irish, Scandinavians, and Germans, and worked against the southern Europeans and Asians. The measure was backed by organised labour, worried about unemployment, by reformers worried about the poverty and slums in the US, and by those who felt that the Asian races were inferior to Europeans.
12 April 1921, US President Harding rejected joining the League of Nations.
10 December 1920, Woodrow Wilson and Leon Bourgeois were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
9 November 1920, Philip Hodge, US engineer, was born.
16 October 1920, US Marines killed the Haitian rebel leader.
16 September 1920, A bomb exploded at the JP Morgan bank, killing 30 and injuring 100.
26 August 1920. Under the 19th Amendment, women received the vote in the USA.
5 July 1920, In the US, the Democratic Convention nominated James M Cox for Presidency and F D Roosevelt for Vice-Presidency.
12 March 1920, Edward P. McCabe, African-American land agent who sought to make the Oklahoma Territory into a majority black state, died aged 69.
16 January 1920. Prohibition began in the USA (18th Amendment), and the sale, manufacture, or involvement with alcohol was banned.
See also Morals �- Alcohol for more details on Prohibition.
5 January 1920. Radio Corporation of America was formed for world-wide broadcasting.
27 November 1919. A large meteor landed in Lake Michigan.
11 November 1919, Death of Andrew Carnegie, US steel magnate and philanthropist. Born in Dunfermline, Scotland, on 25 November 1835, his family moved to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania when Andrew was 13. \he gave considerable sums to education and set-up the Carnegie Endowment for International Pece.
13 October 1919. Dock strike in New York.
22 September 1919. Major steel strike in the USA.
9 September 1919, Boston, USA, police went on strike over low pay. Just 427 of the former 1,544 man force remained on duty, and crime soared. The militia were called in and the strikers sacked.
11 August 1919, Andrew Carnegie died aged 83 at his Berkshire Hills, Massachusetts, mansion. Out of his fortune, he had given away US$ 350 million in philanthropic donations.
25 February 1919, Oregon became the first US State to levy a tax on petrol. The tax revenue was used for road construction and maintenance.
15 January 1919, A tank containing 8.7 million litres of warm molasses in Boston, USA, burst. A 5-metre high wave of molasses swept through the docks area at 60 mph, wrecking buildings. 21 people were killed and 150 injured. Many died as the molasses cooled and became more viscous, suffocating its victims.
12 May 1918, Julius Rosenberg was born (see 19 June 1953).
19 March 1918, US Congress passed the Standard Time Act making the 4 US time zones official.
26 December 1917, Brite Ranch raid A US cavalry force of 200 men pursued the Mexican raiders that besieged a Texas ranch the day before, killing 10 raiders and recovering some of the stolen horses and supplies.
2 July 1917, Race riots in Illinois, 75 Black people were killed.
9 March 1917, Dante Fascell, American politician (U.S. House of Representatives from Florida) was born in Bridgehampton, New York (d. 1998).
8 March 1917. US marines landed in Cuba to help the civil authorities.
2 March 1917. The US Congress passed the Jones Act, making Puerto Rico a US territory.
20 February 1917, The USA bought the Dutch West Indies.
5 February 1917, Immigrants to the US were now required to pass a literacy test. This law, inspired by the Immigration Restriction League founded in 1894, had been vetoed by US President Wilson, but was passed by Congress anyway. Those fleeing religious persecution were exempted, which allowed more Russian Jews to enter.
29 January 1917. Congress passed the Immigration Act (or, Asiatic Barred Zone Act), requiring all immigrants to know at least 30 words of English and banning all Asian migrants except Japanese. This followed on from the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, banning further immigration from China. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immigration_Act_of_1917 for further details.
1916, The US introduced its first tax on inherited wealth, an �estate tax�.
1 December 1916, The lights of the Statue of Liberty were turned on by President Wilson.
31 July 1916, Ammunition freight wagons exploded in New York, killing 26.
3 July 1916, Hetty Green, the wealthiest women in the USA died aged 80, leaving a fortune of US$ 100 million.
15 June 1916, In the US, the Democratic Convention nominated President Wilson as presidential candidate.
10 June 1916, In the US, the Republican Convention nominated Charles E Hughes as presidential candidate.
15 March 1916. The US mounted a punitive raid into Mexico in revenge for the raids of Pancho Villa into New Mexico on 9 March 1916.
28 September 1915. Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg was born (see 19 June 1953).
15 March 1915, US soldiers under General Pershing entered Mexico to hunt down the revolutionary Pancho Villa.
28 January 1915, The US Coastguard was founded at Washington DC.
8 May 1914, The US Congress officially recognised Mothers� Day, setting it as the second Sunday in May thereafter.
21 April 1914, US troops occupied the Mexican city of Vera Cruz to prevent German weaponry reaching the Mexican military.
20 April 1914, US National Guard troops shot dead 3 striking mine workers, along with 2 women and 13 children, in Colorado.
26 March 1914, General William Westmoreland, Commander in Chief of US forces in Vietnam 1964-68, was born (died 18 July 2005).
1913, The United States Department of Labor was created, to promote the welfare of US workers.
1913, The Woolworth Building, designed by Cass Gilbert, was completed. Until 1930 it was the highest skyscraper in the city.
24 December 1913, The Italian Hall Disaster. A stampede at the Italian Hall in Calumet, Michigan killed 73 people (59 of them children) during a Christmas Eve celebration for over 400 striking miners and their families. An unknown person had yelled "Fire!" (even though there wasn't one). Speculation included the theory that an anti-union ally of mine management had yelled out the false alarm in order to disrupt the party.
23 December 1913, The Federal Reserve, the Central Banking system of the USA, was established.
31 October 1913, The Lincoln Highway, from New York to San Francisco, was officially designated, see 12 December 1912.
14 May 1913, The Rockefeller Foundation was established, by US industrialist James Rockefeller.
8 May 1913, US Congress approved the Underwood-Simmons Act, reducing import duties by 30%. This was the first reduction in the US tariff wall since the civil war; domestic industries suffered.
8 April 1913, The 17th Amendment to the Constitution was ratified. This provided for the election of US Senators by direct popular vote, so ending the �millionaire�s club� that had dominated the US Senate.
31 March 1913, New York�s Ellis Island, where new migrants were processed, received a record 6,745 admissions.
27 March 1913, The Arkansas Supreme Court ruled unanimously in Futrell v. Oldham that Junius Futrell was the Governor of Arkansas, after Futrell and former President William Kavanaugh Oldham had both claimed the office
25 February 1913. In the USA, Federal income tax was introduced. By the 16th Amendment the US Government was authorised to raise a tax of between 1% and 6% on incomes of more than US$ 4,000 (US$ 3,000 for bachelors) without having to share this tax revenue between the States of the Union according to their population.
3 February 1913. In the USA, the 16th Amendment to the Constitution was ratified. This authorised the imposition of income tax.
1912, US President Taft passed an Act stipulating how the US flag should look (see 1818). It then had 48 stars.
2 November 1912, An explosion on the battleship USS Vermont near Norfolk, Virginia killed 2 and injured 4.
12 September 1912, Carl Fisher and James Allison announced a plan to build a motor road across the USA from New York to San Francisco, 3,389 miles (5,454 km) long. They hoped to get backing from Henry Ford but he declined. Then they decided to name the road after former US President Abraham Lincoln, making it eligible for a Government grant. They secured US$ 1.7 million this way, and the Lincoln Highway was officially designated on 31 October 1913.
5 August 1912, In Chicago, the Progressive Party, nicknamed the "Bull Moose" Party to rival the Republican elephant and Democrat donkey, called itself to order as its founding convention opened at noon.
23 June 1912, A bridge over the Niagara Falls collapsed, killing 47.
18 June 1912, Tuesday (-12,012) The US national Republican Convention in Chicago was split between Taft, supported by the conservatives, and Theodore Roosevelt, supported by the progressives. When Taft was nominated, the conservatives split to form the Bull Moose Party, taking the liberals form the Republican Party.
12 April 1912, Clara Barton (born 25 December 1812 near Oxford, Massachusetts) died at Glen Echo, Maryland. She founded the American Red Cross in 1881, having worked in Europe with the Red Cross there to alleviate the suffering caused by the Franco-Prussian War.
14 February 1912. Arizona became the 48th State of the USA.
6 January 1912. New Mexico became the 47th State of the USA.
23 May 1911, The New York Public Library opened on 5th Avenue.
15 May 1911, After a long legal battle the US Supreme Court ordered that Standard Oil be broken up into 34 smaller companies, including Mobil Oil, Chevron and Exxon. Standard Oil had become a huge monopoly through trust agreements signed by its leader John D Rockerfeller in 1882, that gave it control over 75% of US refining capacity, 90% of US pipelines, and 15% of crude oil products. Standard Oil also had interests in gas, copper, iron, steel, shipping, banks, and railroad companies. The State of Ohio challenged this monopoly in Court , and in 1890 US Congress passed the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, giving the Federal US Government the power to regulate corporate trusts that extended across State boundaries, In the 1904 Presidential Election Theodore Roosevelt began a trust-busting campaign, culminating in the 1911 Supreme Court decision against Standard Oil.
25 April 1911, Jack Ruby, killer of Lee Harvey Oswald, was born.
13 March 1911, L Ron Hubbard, US science fiction writer who founded the scientologists, was born.
17 February 1911, The city of Lakewood, Ohio, a suburb of Cleveland, was incorporated.
25 January 1911. US troops were sent to Rio Grande in the Mexican Civil War.
1 October 1910, Bonnie Parker, US outlaw of the Bonnie and Clyde duo, was born in Rowena, Texas.
30 September 1910, US terrorist J.B. McNamara planted a time bomb in a passage beneath the headquarters of the Los Angeles Times newspaper, with 16 sticks of dynamite set to explode after working hours. Two other bombs were placed outside the homes of the Times owner and the secretary of the Merchants and Manufacturers Association. The bomb outside the Times building detonated shortly after 1:00 a.m. on Saturday, triggering an explosion of natural gas lines and setting a fire that killed 20 newspaper employees.
6 July 1910, The city of Redmond, Oregon, was incorporated.
3 July 1910, Esau Jenkins, African-American educator was born (died 1972).
19 June 1910. Fathers Day was instituted in the USA.
18 June 1910, The city of Glendale, Arizona, was incorporated.
6 March 1910, Thomas Collier Platt, US politician, died in New York City (born 15 July 1833 in New York State)
16 December 1909, US marines forced the resignation of President Jose Zelaya of Nicaragua.
27 September 1909, US President Taft set aside some 3 million acres of oil-rich land, including the Teapot Dome, Wyoming, for conservation purposes.
22 August 1909, 5 US workers died in steel industry riots.
24 March 1909, Clyde Barrow, one of the Bonnie and Clyde outlaws, was born in Toledo, Texas.
26 December 1908, Claus Spreckels, US industrialist, died in San Francisco (born 1928 in Hanover)
14 November 1908, Joseph McCarthy, US politician and lawyer noted for his purge against Communists, was born in Grand Chute, Wisconsin.
14 October 1908, George Harold Brown, US engineer, was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
12 August 1908, The Model T Ford began rolling off the production line. Priced at US$ 825, the cost was kept low by mass production using standardised parts. Instead of one man assembling an entire car, each worker preformed just one task as the car moved along a conveyor belt. By this production line method, the time to assemble a car was cut from 14 hours to 2. To motivate his workforce, Henry Ford raised wages from US$ 2.34 for a 9 hour day to US$ 5 for an 8 hour day. Productivity improvements meant Ford could reduce the car�s price to US$ 300. Over 15 million Model Ts were built and by the time production ceased in 1927 half the cars in the US were Fords.
26 July 1908. The Federal Bureau of Investigation, or FBI, was established in Washington DC. Before this date the US Department of Justice often called on Secret Service �operatives� to help in its investigations. These operatives were well trained and dedicated but expensive. They reported not to the Attorney General but to the chief of the Secret Service. Bonaparte created a special agents force, to report not to the chief of the Secret Service but to the Chief Examiner, Stanley Finch, later head of the FBI. This force of 34 agents later became a permanent part of the Department of Justice.
7 July 1908, The US Democratic Party Convention started their 3 day meeting in Denver, and nominated William Jennings Bryan as Presidential candidate.
16 June 1908, The US Republican Party began a 4-day conference at Chicago. President Theodore Roosevelt, who had promised not to seek another term in 1904, now chose William Howard Taft as his successor.
10 May 1908. Mothers Day was first celebrated in the USA.
21 March 1908, Abraham Maslow, US psychologist, was born (died 1970)
16 December 1907, The US sent a fleet of 16 battleships on a round-the-world tour, to demonstrate the military might of the USA.
23 November 1907, The Rockefeller institute was founded, with a US$ 2.5 million gift from John Rockefeller.
16 November 1907. Oklahoma was admitted as the 46th State of the USA.
15 October 1907, The US town of Fontanet was almost totally destroyed when its gunpowder factory exploded.
1 October 1907, A downturn in the US stock market led to a banking crisis that led to a year-long depression.
13 May 1907, US President Roosevelt persuaded the Mayor of San Francisco to rescind the segregation of Japanese, Chinese and Korean schoolchildren (11 October 1906). However the underlying fears of a reduction in US wages caused by Japanese and Chinese immigration remained.
13 March 1907, The New York Stock Exchange collapsed.
1 March 1907, The New York Salvation Army Bureau set up a suicide counselling service.
25 October 1906, The Japanese Ambassador to the US lodged a protest regarding the segregation of Japanese children in San Francisco schools (see 11 October 1906)
19 October 1906, Frederick Winslow Taylor, originator of Taylorism, was awarded an honorary degree of Doctor of Science by the University of Pennsylvania.
11 October 1906, The San Francisco Board of Education ordered segregation in separate schools of Japanese, Chinese and Korean children. President Roosevelt was unhappy, aware of the likely impact on international relations.
9 October 1906. Death of Joseph Glidden in the USA; he invented barbed wire.
30 June 1906, US Congress passed the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act. There had been a public outcry after Upton Sinclair�s novel The Jungle had exposed poor conditions in the meat packing industry.����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
22 June 1906, US President Roosevelt sued John D Rockerfeller�s Standard Oil Company for operating a monopoly. See 15 May 1911.
21 May 1906, The USA and Mexico reached agreement about water rights on the Rio Grande, which had increasingly been diverted for US irrigation.
18 April 1906. Major earthquake hit San Francisco. Over 1,000 people were killed and large fires threatened upmarket homes on Nob Hill, after the water mains were destroyed in the quake. Overall, 3,000 acres of the city were devastated. The fire did more damage than the quake, it took 3 days to bring the blaze under control and 490 blocks were destroyed.
14 April 1906, US President Roosevelt called US writers who were exposing corruption as �men with a muckrake, an allusion to Bunyan�s Pilgrim�s Progress. The term came to be applied favourably to all crusading writers exposing wrongdoing.
21 March 1906, John D Rockefeller III, billionaire philanthropist, was born.
24 December 1905, The US industrialist Howard Hughes was born.
17 December 1905, The New York City press noted the transformation of the Harlem neighbourhood, a predominantly Black area of Manhattan, as a result of a victory for the African-American community in a successful legal� fight In April, the Hudson company had purchased three apartment houses on West 135th Street between 5th Avenue and Lenox Avenue and issued eviction notices to the African-American tenants. Payton retaliated the same day by issuing eviction notices to the White tenants in its two buildings on 30 and 32 West 135th Street� By December, Hudson River Realty had been forced to sell the three apartment buildings to Afro-American Realty Within the next 20 years, White property owners moved out as some sold their buildings at a loss or boarded them up, rather than to rent or sell to Black people and "A negro colony (sic) spread from the concentrated area around Payton's original buildings on 134th Street, until it became an onslaught no wall could contain."
11 December 1905, Edward Atkinson, US economist, died in Boston (born 10 February 1827 in Brookline, Massachusetts).
19 June 1905. The world�s first all motion picture cinema opened in Pittsburgh. For 10 cents admission there was a film, Poor But Honest, followed by The Baffled Burglar, accompanied by a melody on the� harp by Madame Durocher.
15 May 1905, In the USA, Las Vegas was founded.
8 March 1905, The US Senate confirmed all the diplomatic and consular appointments made by President Roosevelt.
28 February 1905, George Boutwell, US statesman, died in Groton, Massachusetts (born in Brookline, Massachusetts 28 January 1818).
23 February 1905, The Rotary Club was founded by Paul Harris and others, in offices in Dearborn, Chicago.
18 February 1905, Jay Cooke, US financier, died (born 10 August 1821).
10 February 1905. The state of Wisconsin passed a tax on bachelors aged over 30.
1904, The US Forestry Service was created, out of the Department of Agriculture, by President Roosevelt.
6 December 1904, US President Roosevelt extended the Monroe Doctrine (that the USA would permit no more foreign interference in the western hemisphere). Roosevelt stated that this meant the US has responsibility to seek redress for wrongs inflicted on a foreign State by a western hemisphere State. In effect, Roosevelt was asserting a right by the US to interfere in Latin American affairs.
1 December 1904, The Great World Fair, at St Louis, USA, closed, having had millions of visitors from all over the world.
4 October 1904, Death of French sculptor Frederic Auguste Bartholdi, designer of the Statue of Liberty.
3 June 1904, Robert Keep, US educator, died (born 26 April 1844).
28 May 1904, Matthew Stanley Quay, US politician died (born in Pennsylvania 30 September 1833)
23 May 1904, Introduction of cheap steerage rates encouraged migration from Europe to the USA.
18 May 1904, In Morocco, a US citizen, Ion H Perdicaris, was kidnapped by brigands under Raizuli. The USA sent a note to the Moroccan Government insisting on Perdicaris� release, or the capture of Raizuli, and in June 1904 Perdicaris was released. This incident boosted the US Republican�s reputation for muscular protection of its interests abroad.
30 April 1904, The St Louis Exhibition opened.
22 March 1904. In the USA, the Daily Illustrated Mirror carried the world�s first colour picture in a newspaper.
15 February 1904, Marcus Hanna, US politician, died (born 24 September 1837).
7 February 1904. A major fire destroyed much of the centre of Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
4 January 1904, The US Supreme Court ruled that Puerto Ricans could enter the US freely, but were not entitled to US citizenship.
30 December 1903, Major fire at a Chicago theatre, 602 killed in a panic stampede for the exit.
1 August 1903, Calamity Jane, prominent figure in the US Wild West, died of pneumonia this day, aged 51 (born 1 May 1852).
4 July 1903, President Roosevelt of the USA inaugurated the Pacific Communications Cable with a global message.
22 April 1903, The new New York Stock Exchange opened at 18 Broad Street.
21 March 1903, In the US, the grievances that caused the 1902 miners� strike were resolved with a 10% pay rise and shorter working day, The mine owners, however, refused to recognise the United Mine Workers Union.
3 March 1903. The USA passed a bill to limit immigration and ban �undesirables�.
15 February 1903, The first teddy bear was sold from Michtom�s candy store, New York. The origin of teddy bears was that in 1902 on a hunting trip by President Theodore Roosevelt, his assistants tied a bear to a tree so he could shoot it; Roosevelt refused such unsporting conduct and set the bear free instead.
11 February 1903, US Congress adopted the Expedition Act. This authorised the US Attorney-General to �expedite� anti-Trust cases through the Courts, as President Roosevelt�s �Trust-busting� campaign grew in popularity.
1902, (see also Prisons) Death of John Peter Atgeld (born 1847), who was a prison reformer ahead of his time. A German-born lawyer in Chicago, he was concerned about how the poor found it difficult to access justice. He was elected Governor of Illinois in 1892 and succeeded in passing laws regulating child labour and loosening the monopolies enjoyed by railways and tramways companies. He pardoned three anarchists imprisoned since 1886, and condemned President Cleveland for sending in troops to disrupt a railway strike. However he was then vilified by the press as a �Illinois Jacobin� and was defeated when seeking re-election in 1896.
31 December 1902, In� a test of the Monroe doctrine, British and German naval ships seized the Venezuelan navy and shelled a fort in Caracas, to enforce payment for property seized without compensation during the 1899 revolution. The US pressurised the two countries to end the blockade and refer the matter to the international court in The Hague.
21 October 1902, A strike by 140,000 anthracite miners, mainly in Pennsylvania, ended, over 4 months after it began on 12 May 1902, after President Roosevelt threatened to call in the army to run the mines. The price of coal in the US had risen steeply through the summer as the mine owners refused to even recognise the United Mine Workers (UMW) Union, let alone negotiate with it.
15 October 1902, US President Roosevelt threatened to send in troops to end a miner�s strike.
14 October 1902, The Court of Arbitration in The Hague decided, in the case of the Pious Fund (see 22 May 1902) in favour of the USA, calling on Mexico to pay US$ 1,402,682.
22 August 1902, Theodore Roosevelt became the first incumbent US President to travel by car. He very much preferred horse and carriage.
30 July 1902, The US militia restored order in Shenandoah, Pennsylvania, after a street fight between striking coal miners and police, resulting in at least one death.
20 July 1902, John MacKay, US industrialist, died (born 28 November 1831)
17 June 1902, US Congress passed the Newlands Reclamation Act, establishing a fund from the sale of public land to build dams to irrigate arid western lands.
22 May 1902, The US agreed with Mexico to submit to arbitration at the new Court of Arbitration in The Hague a dispute between the two countries over interest payments (The Pious Fund), see 14 October 1902. US President Roosevelt did this in order to show support for the New Court.
7 May 1902, The U.S. House of Representatives began consideration of statehood for the U.S. territories of Oklahoma, Arizona and New Mexico.
14 April 1902, US trader KC Penney opened his first store, in Kemmerer, Wyoming.
3 March 1902, In the USA, the Supreme Court banned dealing in �financial futures�.
30 November 1901, In the USA, Christmas tree lights were developed by the Edison Electric Company.
18 November 1901. US journalist and statistician George Gallup was born in Jefferson, Iowa.
29 October 1901, Anarchist Leon Czolgosz was executed by electrocution for assassinating US President McKinley
26 October 1901, William Holland, US abolitionist, died aged 87.
25 October 1901, A serious fire killed 19 people and left another 12 badly injured in Philadelphia, USA. The fire began in the 8-floor Hu8nt & Wilkinson furniture company and spread to three other buildings. The conflagration began in the basement and spread up the lift shaft.
24 October 1901, Ann Edson Taylor rode over the Niagara Falls in a padded barrel, and lived to tell the tale.
12 October 1901, President Theodore Roosevelt renamed the Executive Mansion as The White House.
10 September 1901, US anarchist Emma Goldman was arrested for her part on the plot to kill President McKinley.
3 September 1901, Theodore Roosevelt, then Vice-President of the USA, spoke the phrase �speak softly and carry a big stick�. Meaning use diplomatic negotiations but have military back up if needed. This became known as �big stick diplomacy�.
6 August 1901, The town of Lawton, Oklahoma, came into being as the United States Land Office began auctioning lots divided from a 320-acre townsite located near the U.S. Army's Fort Sill.
29 July 1901, The Socialist Party of America was founded at Indianapolis.
14 March 1901, Utah's Governor Heber Wells vetoed a bill that would have prevented criminal prosecution of polygamy. Earlier in the week, the State Senate had voted 11�7 to approve the measure and the State House of Representatives had concurred, 25�17.
25 February 1901, The United States Steel Corporation was formed by merging several smaller companies, including Andrew Carnegie�s steel company. Carnegie wished to retire and practise philanthropy.
10 January 1901, Major oil discovery in Texas, USA. The salt dome of Spindletop had been suspected of containing oil since 1865; this day oil was struck; a gush of oil 6 inches wide rose over 200 feet, and was visible for over 10 miles. The population of nearby Beaumont rapidly rose from 10,000 to over 50,000, as oil production at Spindletop reached 100,000 barrels per day. Oil production in the area lasted until 1950.
8 September 1900, Over 5,000 were killed when a hurricane hit Galveston, Texas.
5 July 1900, Henry Barnard, US educationalist, died in Hartford, Connecticut born in Hartford, Connecticut 24 January 1811).
9 May 1900, Striking tramway workers in St Louis, USA, blew up a tramcar.
16 April 1900. The world�s first book of stamps was issued, in the USA.
8 April 1900, In the first major event associated with the introduction of Buddhism to the United States, Buddha's birthday was celebrated in an elaborate ceremony in San Francisco. The Buddhist mission had begun its outreach to European-Americans in weekly lectures beginning on January 4.
2 January 1900. New York�s first electric omnibus began operating.
2 December 1899. In Washington, the USA, Britain, and Germany signed a treaty dividing the Samoan Islands between the USA and Germany.
6 September 1899. The US Secretary of State, John Hay, embarked on an �open door� policy towards China. He also urged the European powers, and Japan, to respect China�s territorial integrity and pursue a policy of free trade with China.
31 July 1899, Daniel Brinton, US archaeologist, died (born 30 May 1837).
1 July 1899, The first juvenile court sat, at Cork County Court, Chicago.
24 May 1889, Laura Bridgman, US blind deaf mute, died (born 21 December 1829).
18 March 1899, Othniel Charles Marsh, US palaeontologist, died in new Haven, Connecticut.
17 January 1899, Al Capone, American gangster who operated in Chicago, was born in Naples, Italy.
1 January 1898. The boroughs of Brooklyn, Queens, Richmond, Manhattan, and The Bronx united to form Greater New York.
19 February 1897. The Women�s Institute organisation was founded at Stoney Creek in Ontario by Mrs Hoodless. The first W I meeting was on 25 September 1897. The W I idea was brought to England by a Mrs Watt during World War One.
13 January 1897, Mr and Mrs Bradley Martin, members of New York�s �top 400�, threw an extremely extravagant party in which the ballroom of the Waldorf Astoria was made into a replica of Versailles. This event, in the face of an economic recession, attracted much criticism in the popular press, and the Martins fled to England.
26 June 1896. The world�s first permanent cinema opened in New Orleans; admission was 10 cents. Britain�s first cinema opened in Islington on 5 August 1901, and charged between 6d and 3s for entry. However by World War One most cinemas were only charging 3d or 6d. The first drive in cinema opened on 6 June 1933 in Camden, New Jersey, and could hold 400 cars.
26 May 1896, In the USA, the Dow Jones Industrial Average shares index was first published.
6 March 1896, Charles Brady King test-drove a car he had built in Detroit, the first car ever driven in what would become known as Motor City.
4 January 1896. Utah became the 45th State of the USA.
17 December 1895. Relations between the US and Britain were under severe strain because of a border dispute between Guiana and Venezuela.
12 December 1895, Allen Granberry Thurman, US statesman, died in Columbus, Ohio (born 13 November 1813 in Lynchburg, Virginia
26 August 1895. A hydroelectric plant designed by Nikola Tesla and built by Westinghouse opened at Niagara Falls.
24 May 1895, Hugh McCulloch, US financier, died (born 7 December 1808).
1 January 1895, J Edgar Hoover, American criminologist and founder of the FBI, was born in Washington DC.
14 December 1894. Eugene Debs, President of the American Railway Union, was jailed for 6 months for ignoring an injunction to end the Pullman strike. The strike began on 11 May 1894 when the Pullman Company reduced wages but did not cut rents for workers living in company housing.� The strike turned violent with riots and burning or railroad cars. Attorney-General Richard Olney obtained an injunction to end the strike on the grounds it was obstructing the mail, and when this was ignored federal troops arrived in Chicago to enforce the court order. By 10 July 1894 the strike was broken.
22 November 1894. The USA and Japan signed a commercial treaty.
1 May 1894. David Coxey, who led a march of 100,000 unemployed to the capital, Washington, to demand economic reform, was arrested.
3 January 1894, Elizabeth Peabody, American educator and founder in 1960 of the first kindergarten in the US, died aged 89.
31 October 1893, US Congress repealed the Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 and the USA returned to the Gold Standard. Silver prices collapsed.
11 May 1893, Samuel Armstrong, US soldier and philanthropist, died in Hampton, Virginia (born 30 January 1839 in Maui, Hawaii).
5 May 1893, Panic selling hit the New York Stock exchange. In the ensuing crash, some 500 banks and 15,000 companies went bankrupt.
15 December 1892, Paul Getty, US oil tycoon, was born in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
2 December 1892, Jay Gould, US financier, died (born 27 May 1836).
12 October 1892, The USA introduced an oath of allegiance to Flag and State for its schoolchildren.
US restricts immigration, especially from China
1902.The Chinese Exclusion Act was extended to include those of Oriental origin from Hawaii and the Philippines, and such exclusion was made permanent.
17 March 1894, The USA and China signed a Chinese Exclusion Treaty, whereby China consented to the exclusion of Chinese labourers from migration to the USA. This year the US established an Immigration Bureau, and a group of Boston citizens formed an Immigration Restriction League, which campaigned for literacy tests for immigrants to the US. This was aimed against Chinese, Slavs and Latin-Americans.
5 May 1892, US Congress passed the Geary Chinese Exclusion Act, extending all restrictions on Chinese immigration to the USA for another 10 years, and requiring all existing Chinese immigrants to register or face deportation.
1 January 1892, New York opened an immigration office on Ellis Island to cope with the flood of immigrants to the USA.
Many were fleeing political and religious persecution in Russia and Central Europe. Named after Samuel Ellis, who owned the island in the 1770s, the new facility replaced older cramped facilities at The Battery on Manhattan Island.
3 March 1891, US Congress voted to establish a US Office of Superintendent of Immigration.
1 October 1888, In an attempt to curb Chinese immigration, US Congress ruled that any Chinese
worker who had left the USA could not return again.
7 April 1891, Phineas T Barnum, American circus showman, died aged 80.
4 March 1891, US Congress passed the Copyright Act, to protect authors, composers and artists.
24 November 1890, August Belmont, US financier, died in New York (born in Prussia 8 December 1816).
1 October 1890, US import duties reached record levels after the protectionist McKinley Tariff act was passed.
6 August 1890, In New York�s Auburn prison, the electric chair was used for the first time on the murderer William Kemmler. This method of execution was attacked as constituting �cruel and unusual punishment� but was upheld in the US State and Federal Courts. By 1906 115 murderers had been executed by �electrothanasia�, and the method was had also adopted by the US States of Ohio (1896), Massachusetts (1898), New Jersey (1906), Virginia (1908) and North Carolina (1910).
13 July 1890, John Fremont, explorer of the US Midwest, died (21 January 1813).
10 July 1890, Wyoming was admitted as the 44th State of the USA.
3 July 1890, Idaho became the 43rd State of the Union.
2 July 1890, The US government passed the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, banning trade monopolies. With more than 90% of the US oil trade in the hands of the Rockerfeller family, and sugar, wheat, and alcohol prices also governed by mysterious �trusts�, the US government felt that these trusts threatened the economic structure of the USA. A judge, Mr Justice Harlan, said that these trusts were another form of slavery, as capital became concentrated in the hands of a few.
1 June 1890, The US Census Bureau began using Herman Hollerith�s tabulating machine to count census returns.� Hollerith�s company eventually became IBM.
14 April 1890, The Pan-American Union was established at the first International Congress of American States.
28 March 1890, Washington State University was established in Pullman, Washington.
8 March 1890, North Dakota State University was founded in Fargo, North Dakota.
11 November 1889. Washington became the 42nd State of the Union.
8 November 1889, Montana became the 41st State of the Union.
2 November 1889, North and South Dakota became the 39th and 40th States of the Union.
24 September 1889, Daniel Hill, US Confederate soldier, died (born 11 July 1821).
3 June 1889, The first �long-distance� electric power transmission line in the US was completed.� It ran 14 miles from a generator at Williamette Falls to downtown Portland, Oregon.
22 April 1889, The great land rush in the US, see 2 May 1890.
8 March 1889, John Ericsson, Swedish-US inventor and engineer, died in New York City (born in Langbanshyttan, Sweden, 31 July 1803).
22 February 1889, US President Grover Cleveland signed a Bill admitting North and South Dakota, Montana, and Washington, as US States.
25 October 1888, Richard Byrd, US naval officer and polar explorer, was born in Winchester, Virginia.
9 October 1888, The 555-foot high white marble Washington Monument was opened.� It was designed by Robert Mills.
4 March 1888, Amos Alcott, US educationalist, born 29 November 1799, died.
25 December 1887, Conrad Hilton, American hotelier, was born in San Antonio, New Mexico.
23 November 1887, Violence erupted in a sugar cane workers strike in Louisiana, and at least 20 Black people were killed.
8 November 1887, John Henry Holliday, US gunfighter, died.
31 August 1886, Earthquake hit Charleston, USA. .27 were killed and 90% of the city�s buildings were damaged, with US$5 million incurred. However the city soon recovered.
22 August 1886, Amos Lawrence, US philanthropist, died (born 31 July 1814)
8 December 1885, William Henry Vanderbilt, son of Cornelius Vanderbilt and philanthropist, died in New York (born 8 May 1821 in New Jersey)
4 May 1886, The Haymarket Square Riot in Chicago. A bomb exploded at a trades union rally, killing 7 policemen and injuring 70 other people. Four people were executed by the State of Illinois, and the incident greatly eroded public support for the trades union movement.
1 May 1886, Over 100,00 workers across the USA went on strike for an 8 hour day. A bomb thrown by Anarchists in Chicago on 4 May 1886 killed 7 police and strikers and injured 60 more. The perpetrator was never found but a judge ruled that seven who had incited the event were as guilty and sentenced them to death. One committed suicide, four were executed, and two had their sentences commuted.
14 November 1885, Horace Chaflin, US merchant, died (born 18 December 1811).
10 September 1885, The town of Stafford, Kansas, was officially incorporated as such. The boundaries of Stafford County were fixed by the US legislature in 1868, and was named in honour of Lewis Stafford, a Civil War soldier who was killed ion the Battle of Young�s Point. For several years the county had no permanent settlers, but was inhabited by buffalo hunters, cowboys, and surveyors. The first permanent inhabitants arrived in May 1874. Early industries included the gathering of buffalo hides and bones left by earlier settlers; buffalo bones fetched US$3-US$9 a ton. Many of the first houses were made of earth, or sod, hence the first town here was called �Sod-Town�, renamed Stafford in 1885.
1 July 1884, Allan Pinkerton, founder of Pinkerton�s detective Agency, USA, died in Chicago (born 25 August 1819 in Glasgow, Scotland)
16 June 1884, The first purpose-built roller coaster, the Switchback railway, opened at Coney Island, New York.
7 May 1884, John Fox Slater, US philanthropist, died (born 4 March 1815)
Statue of Liberty
28 October 1886, The Statue of Liberty in New York was unveiled by President Grover Cleveland.� It was presented by France to mark the 100th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, and designed by the French sculptor Auguste Bartholdi; it took more than nine years to complete.
5 August 1885, Erection of the Statue of Liberty in Bedloe�s Island, New York, began.
4 July 1885, The Statue of Liberty was formally presented to US Minister Morton by Frenchman Ferdinand de Lesseps.
19 June 1885. The Statue of Liberty arrived in New York from France. The statue was dedicated to the US-France friendship on 28 October 1886 by President Cleveland. The Statue was 300 foot high, of a woman holding a tablet with the date 4 July 1776 on it. The 225 ton structure made of hand-hammered copper sheet on a steel frame was assembled in France then dismantled and shipped to the USA.
21 May 1885, The Statue of Liberty was completed. Work on it was begun in 1874 by Auguste Bartholdi, in Paris.
23 October 1883, The Metropolitan Opera House in New York opened.
4 April 1883, Death of Peter Cooper, US inventor and steam locomotive designer (born 12 February 1791).
16 January 1883, The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act in the USA instituted a more meritocratic system of recruitment to the Civil Service, replacing the former �spoils� system.
1882, The US passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, to halt Chinese immigration into the USA. See 29 January 1917.
5 September 1882, The first Labor Day Parade was held in New York.
30 June 1882, Charles Guiteau, who shot and killed US President James Garfield on 6 July 1881, was hanged.
3 April 1882, Jesse James, US outlaw, died.
26 October 1881, The gunfight at the OK Corral, Arizona, took place between Doc Holliday and Wyatt, Virgil and Morgan Earp and the Clantons and McLaurys.
3 August 1881, William George Fargo, co-founder of the Wells Fargo Express in 1852, died aged 65.
4 July 1881, The outlaw William H Bonney, or Billy the Kid, born 23 November 1859, was shot dead in New Mexico by lawman Pat Garrett. He reputedly killed his first man before he was a teenager.
31 December 1880, George Marshal, US general and politician who originated the Marshal Plan for the post World War Two reconstruction of Europe, was born in Uniontown, Pennsylvania.
1 June 1880, The first public telephone call box was installed, in New Haven, Connecticut.
8 March 1880. President Hayes of America declared that the USA will have jurisdiction over any canal built across Panama.
26 January 1880, Douglas MacArthur, American military commander in the south-west Pacific in World War Two, was born near Little Rock, Arkansas.
8 November 1879, Margaret Eaton, acquaintance of US President Jackson, died (born 1796).
13 October 1879, Henry Carey, US economist, died (born 15 December 1793).
17 May 1879, Asa Packer, US industrialist and philanthropist, died (born 29 December 1805 in Connecticut)
9 March 1879, Elihu Burritt, US philanthropist, died (born 8 December 1810)
10 December 1878, Henry Wells, partner of William Fargo, died.
4 October 1878, The first Chinese Embassy in the USA opened, in Washington DC.
12 June 1878, Benjamin Bonneville, US military engineer and explorer, died in Foret Smith, Arkansas. An extinct glacial lake which once covered NW Utah is named in his honour.
28 January 1878, America�s first commercial telephone switchboard exchange opened in New Haven, Connecticut.
21 June 1877, Eleven members of the Molly Maguires, a secret Irish-American coalminer�s organisation, were hanged after ten years of criminal activity in Pennsylvania. The organisation had been infiltrated by the Pinkerton detective agency.
8 April 1877, William Muhlenberg, US philanthropist, died (born 16 September 1796).
2 August 1876, Death of Wild Bill Hickok, Marshall of Kansas City, who gunned down many outlaws; he was shot in the back this day.
1 August 1876, Colorado became the 38th State of the USA.
10 April 1876, Alexander Turney Stewart, US merchant, died in New York (born 12 October 1803 near Belfast, Ireland)
9 January 1876, Samuel Howe, US philanthropist, died (born 10 November 1801).
2 October 1875, San Francisco�s Palace Hotel opened.
17 May 1875, The Kentucky Derby horse race, USA, was first run.
9 December 1874, Ezra Cornell, US industrialist who founded Cornell University in Ithaca, died.
7 December 1874, Race riots in Vicksburg, Mississippi, 75 Black people were killed.
17 September 1874, The White League rioted against the Black Government in New Orleans,USA.
29 January 1874, John D Rockefeller, US entrepreneur, was born.
23 December 1873, Sarah Grimke, US social reformer, died (born 6 November 1792).
9 October 1873, Charles Walgreen, US entrepreneur who founded Walgreens, was born.
13 April 1873, In the USA, the Colefax Massacre occurred when 300 armed White men clashed with militant African-Americans over a disputed local election result in Louisiana. Over 100 African Americans were killed.
5 December 1872, The Marie Celeste was spotted drifting, crewless, in the Atlantic near The Azores, and was boarded by the crew of the Dei Gratia. The 206 ton Marie Celeste had left New York on 7 November 1872, captained by Benjamin Briggs, with his wife, daughter and eight crew on its way to Genoa, with a cargo of 1,700 barrels of alcohol, which was found intact. The lifeboat was missing but the captain�s table was set for a meal that was never eaten.
9 November 1872, A great fire broke out in the commercial district of Boston, USA, on the Saturday night. It burned until Sunday 10th, and destroyed 767 buildings filled with merchandise. 14 lives and an estimated US$75million of goods were lost. Very little residential property was lost and the commercial district was soon rebuilt with better buildings and straighter roads.
7 November 1872, The 282 ton brigantine Marie Celeste set sail from New York on her ill-fated journey.
6 January 1872, James Fisk, US financier, was shot and killed (born 1 April 1834).
17 October 1871, Death of Sylvester Mowry (born 17 January 1833). He was a miner and land speculator who promoted the establishment of the Arizona Territory.
11 October 1871, The Great Fire of Chicago ended.
8 October 1871, The Great Fire of Chicago started, killing 300 people. 90,000 were made homeless and US$ 200 million damage was done.� The fire ended on 11 October 1871; it was supposedly started in Mrs O�Leary�s barn in De Koven Street, by a cow upsetting a lantern. Four square miles of the city were destroyed, as a long spell of dry weather had made buildings tinder-dry.
11 July 1871, In New York City the ferryboat SS Westfield exploded, killing 104 people. Her boiler was severely corroded, but safety standards remained lax.
20 April 1871, In the US, the Klu Klux Klan Act outlawed paramilitary organisations such as the Klu Klux Klan.
17 August 1870, Mount Rainier, Washington, was first successfully climbed.
14 July 1870, David Farragut, US naval hero of the Civil War, died in Portsmouth, New Hampshire.
22 June 1870, The US Department of Justice was established.
9 February 1870, The United States weather service was published.
3 February 1870, In the US, the Fifteenth Amendment gave every US citizen, regardless of race, the right to vote.
13 July 1869, Anti-Chinese-labourer riots in San Francisco.
10 May 1869, The first railroad across the USA from east to west, 1,776 miles long, was completed after three years work at a ceremony west of Ogden, in Utah. The Union Pacific Line finally met with the Central Pacific Line. Both companies raced to lay as much track as possible as they converged, spurred on by government payments of US$16,000 per mile, more for mountainous areas. A golden spike was driven in at Promontory Point, Utah, where the railways met. Travel time between New York and San Francisco was slashed from 3 months to 8 days.
24 August 1868, George J Adler, US lexicographer (born 1821) died.
28 July 1868, The USA and China signed the Burlingame Treaty at Washington DC, defining mutual rights of migration between the two countries.
25 July 1868, President Johnson signed an Act creating the territory of Wyoming.
9 July 1868, The US passed the Fourteenth Amendment, during the period of �reconstruction� following the conclusion of the Civil War. It guaranteed equality before the law for Black and White people alike, specifically including ex-slaves here, and prohibited any State from �abridging their privileges� or� denying them �equal protection of the laws�. However, due to the fact that corporations are also �persons� before the law, the 14th Amendment began to be used for purposes it was not intended for. The 14th Amendment was used to shield companies from government regulation, and even, before the 1950s, to justify racial discrimination because it contained the words �separate but equal�. Later, in the 1980s, it was still being used to block so-called �positive discrimination� in favour of racial minorities.
23 May 1868, Kit Carson, US soldier and fur trapper who did much to open up the West to White settlers, died (born 24 December 1809)
28 August 1867, The Midway Islands, in the Pacific Ocean, were claimed for the US by Captain Reynolds.
1 March 1867, Nebraska became the 37th State of the Union.
13 April 1866, Butch Cassidy, American outlaw, was born.
12 February 1866. Invoking the Monroe Doctrine, the USA called for the withdrawal of French troops from Mexico. Maximilian, having failed to secure recognition of his regime from the US, now sought help from Napoleon III and the Pope, but his cause was hopeless.
25 December 1865, The Union stockyards at Chicago opened, on 345 acres of reclaimed swampland SW of the city. The shutdown of the Mississippi River as a trade route due to the US Civil War meant that Chicago replaced Cincinnati, Louisville and St Louis as the nation�s meat packing centre, along with the railways now serving Chicago. The new stockyards could hold 10,000 cattle and 100,000 hogs.
26 October 1865, Benjamin Guggenheim, US businessman, was born
27 April 1865, In the US, the paddle steamer Sultana exploded on the Mississippi River, killing 1,600 people on board.
24 September 1864, Joshua Bates, US financier, died in London (born in Weymouth, Massachusetts 10 October 1788).
17 July 1863, John Jacob Astor, US millionaire, was born.
20 June 1863, West Virginia became the 35th State to join the Union.
29 January 1861, Kansas became the 34th State of the Union.
1860, The US songwriter Dan Emmett �I wish I was in the land of the dixes�; referring to the banknotes issued by the Citizen�s Bank of Louisiana, which used both English and French on its notes, so the 10$ notes were stamped �dix�, and became known as dixes. Emmett�s line became corrupted to �I wish I was in the land of Dixie�.
31 October 1860, Juliette Low, founder in the USA of the Girl Scouts, was born.
12 September 1860, William Walker, US adventurer, was executed in Honduras (born 8 May 1824 in Nashville, Tennessee)
6 March 1860. The Republican politician Abraham Lincoln made a campaign speech defending the right to strike.
16 February 1860, The first Japanese-built ship, the SS Karrinmaru, to reach the USA, arrived in San Francisco. A delegation then travelled to Washington DC.
10 January 1860. The first major factory accident in the USA. A textiles factory collapsed in St Lawrence, Massachusetts, killing 77 people.
1859, Boston�s Public Garden was established, 108 acres.
31 December 1859, US cotton production, mostly grown in the South, was 5.4 million bales in 1859, up from just 171,000 bales in 1810.
23 November 1859, Billy the Kid, or William Bonney, was shot dead by Sheriff Pat Garrett.
14 February 1859. Oregon became the 33rd State of the USA.
1858, Central Park in New York opened to the public, although it was not completed until 1863.
9 November 1858, The New York Symphony Orchestra gave its first concert.
29 July 1858, US diplomat Townsend Harris persuaded Japan to grant further trade privileges to the USA.
13 July 1858, US anthropologist Robert Culin was born in Philadelphia (died 8 April 1929).
16 June 1858. In a speech at Springfield, Illinois, US Senate candidate Abraham Lincoln said the slavery issue had to be addressed. He declared �a house divided against itself cannot stand�.
11 May 1858. Minnesota became the 32nd State of the USA.
23 December 1856, James Buchanan Duke, US industrialist, was born in Durham, North Carolina (died 10 October 1925 in New York).
2 September 1856, Jeremiah Jenks, US economist, was born.
4 July 1855. New York became the 13th state to ban the production or sale of alcoholic beverages. For more on Prohinition see Morals-Punishment.
26 October 1854, US entrepreneur CW Post was born.
5 July 1854, In America, the Republican Party was officially founded.
30 May 1854, US Congress adopted the Kansas-Nebraska Act, nullifying the Missouri Compromise.
See also Race Equality, end of slavery
13 April 1854, Richard Ely, US economist, was born.
31 March 1854, The USA and Japan signed the Treaty of Kanagawa, opening up the Japanese ports of Shimoda and Hakodate to American trade.
28 February 1854, The United States Republican Party was formed, in Ripon, Wisconsin.����������
1 February 1854, New York�s Astor Libraty opened, with 80,000 books.
30 December 1853, The Gadsden Purchase was agreed with Mexico. The USA paid Mexico US$10 million, and received a tract of land south of the Gila River. This was arranged by James Gadsden, aged 65.
14 July 1853, The first US World Fair opened in New York. The event was modelled on London�s 1851 Great Exhibition at the Crystal Palace.
8 July 1853, US Commodore Matthew Perry steamed into Japan�s Edo Bay (now Tokyo) with his �black ships� and demanded that the country open up to US trade. He backed up his demand with cannon fire. For 250 years Japan had been a feudal state run by the Tokugawa shoguns.
31 December 1852, Henry Carter Adams, US economist, was born.
24 December 1851, Large fire at the Library of Congress, Washington DC, USA. 35,000 books were destroyed, including most of Thomas Jefferson;�s personal collection, acquired in 1815.
22 October 1851, Archibald Alexander, US Presbyterian clergyman, died in Princeton, New Jersey (born 17 April 1772 in Virginia).
5 September 1851, Thomas Gallaudet, US educator of the deaf and dumb, died (born 10 December 1787).
14 August 1851, Doc Holliday, US Western gunfighter, was born.
13 August 1851, Felix Adler, US educationalist (died 24 April 1933) was born.
19 April 1850, The Clayton-Bulwer Treaty between the USA and UK was signed. It was an agreement on the terms for building a canal across Nicaragua; under this treaty, neither party would exercise exclusive control over such a canal or fortify it. The US and the UK each had territorial interests in Central America, and were suspicious of each other�s activities in the region. Ultimately this Treaty was superseded by a similar neutralisation policy regarding the Panama Canal under the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty of 1902.
10 May 1849, In New York, 22 died and 56 were injured as troops fired on anti-British riots sparked by Irish gangs. The mob, armed with bricks and clubs, had gathered outside the Astor Place Opera House to revile the British actor Charles Macready, who had scorned the vulgarity of Americans.
5 March 1849, The US Departmwent of the Interior was created, to administer the large areas added to the US by the Louisiana Purchase and the Oregon Territories. It became custodian of the nations�s resources.
29 May 1848, Wisconsin became the 30th State of the Union.
29 March 1848, John Jacob Astor, US fur merchant and philanthropist, died in New York City (born 17 July 1763 in Walldorf, Germany).
19 March 1848, Wyatt Earp, American law enforcer, was born in Monmouth, Illinois.
1847, The southern portion of the District of Columbia (see 1790, 1801), south of the Potomac River and neglected by Washington DC including Alexandria City, voted to return to Virgina State.
5 September 1847. Jesse James, American outlaw, was born near Kansas City. With his elder brother, Frank, he led the first gang to carry out train robberies.
10 July 1847, The first Chinese migrants arrived in the USA. They came on the ship� Kee Ying, from Canton (Guangzhou).
26 January 1847, John Clark, US economist, was born.
28 December 1846. Iowa was admitted as the 29th (non-slave) State of the USA.
12 December 1846. The USA and Colombia agreed to grant the USA transit rights on the narrow isthmus of Panama between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
10 August 1846, The Smithsonian Institute was founded in Washington DC; it was established by a bequest from the British scientist James Smithson.
30 July 1846, The USA moved towards a free trade policy, with Congress passing the Walker Tariff Act. This lowered import duties and increased the range of duty-free goods, encouranging growth in US trade.
15 June 1846. Britain agreed with the USA that Oregon was US territory. All land west of the Rockies and below the 49th parallel was to be US territory.
26 February 1846, Buffalo Bill, American Army Scout and showman, was born on a farm in Scott County, Iowa, as William Frederick Cody.
1845, The US Naval Academy was founded in Annapolis, Maryland.
29 December 1845, Texas became the 28th State of the Union.
29 March 1845, The UK and France laid proposals before Mexico, that Texas should become independent but should not seek to ally with any other country; they were concerned about the rapid growth of the US (see 1 March 1845).
28 March 1845. Mexico severed relations with the USA following America�s ratification of the annexation of Texas on 1 March 1845, after an almost unanimous vote in favour by the Texas electorate. On 29. December 1845 Texas became the 28th state of the USA.
1 March 1845, US President Tyler approved the decision to annex Texas to the United States, just three days before the accession of President James K Polk. Both the UK and France were now concerned at the great expansion of the USA. See 29 March 1845.
26 April 1844, Robert Keep, US educator, was born (died 3 June 1904).
7 March 1844, Anthony Comstock, US moralist, was born in Connecticut (died 21 September 1913 in New York).
28 May 1843, Noah Webster, American lexicographer who first compiled Webster�s Dictionary in 1828, died in New Haven, Connecticut aged 84.
22 May 1843, The first wagon train, with over 1,000 people, left Missouri for Oregon. Travellers believed that paradisiacal conditions awaited them. Some 700 reached Oregon alive.
1 April 1843, John Armstrong, US soldier and politician (born 25 November 1758 in Carlisle, Pennsylvania) died in Red Hook, New York.
11 January 1843, Francis Scott Key, the American lawyer and poet who wrote the words of the US national anthem The Star Spangled Banner in 1814, died.
See also Mexico for events with USA at this time
4 November 1842, Abraham Lincoln married Mary Todd, member of a slave-owning family in Kentucky.
9 August 1842, The USA and Britain settled a dispute over the US-Canada border in the Maine region.����
2 January 1842, The first wire suspension bridge in the USA opened, spanning the Schuykill River near Philadelphia.
for map of growth of the USA.
1840, From New York to Boston took 6 hours by train, or an overnight steamer journey; cost of the journey was 7 US$. From New York to Philadelphia by train and ferry took 6 � hours, down from 3 days in 1817. However if the Delaware river froze over the journey time was longer as passengers had to walk across the ice rather than use the ferry.
8 July 1839, John D Rockerfeller, American philanthropist, was born in Richford, New York State.
1 September 1838, William Clark, US explorer, died (born 1 August 1770)
11 July 1838, John Wanamaker, US merchant, was bgorn in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
4 July 1838, The territory of Iowa was established, with Robert Lucas as governor.
10 May 1838, John Wilkes Booth, American actor who assassinated President Abraham Lincoln, was born in Baltimore, Maryland.
1837, Atlanta, Georgia, was founded as a railhead.
25 November 1837, Andrew Carnegie, US industrialist and philanthropist, was born in Dunfermline, Scotland.
10 May 1837, Financial crisis in New York as banks suspended payments. Hundreeds of busniesses closed and unemployment soared.
17 April 1837, John Morgan, US financier, was born.
26 January 1837. Michigan became the 26th State of the USA.
7 December 1836, Stephen Austin, US pioneer, died.
2 July 1836, US Congress passed an Act approving the founding of Dubuque, Iowa.
15 June 1836, Arkansas became the 25th State of the Union.
27 May 1836, Jay Gould, US financier, was born (died 2 December 1892).
4 March 1836, John Lowell, US founder of the Lowell Institute, died.
18 August 1835, Marshall Field, US merchant and philanthropist, was born (died 16 January 1906).
21 April 1835, Samuel Slater, key founder of the US textiles industry, died in Webster, Massachusetts (born 9 June 1768 in Belper, Derbyshire, UK)
1 April 1834, James Fisk, US financier, was born (killed 6 January 1872).
20 March 1834, Charles William Eliot, US educator, was born in Boston, Massachusetts (died in� Maine, 22 August 1926).
29 January 1834, Workers constructing the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal (started 1828) rioted. President Jackson ordered Secretary of War James Cass to send in Federal troops to restore order.
24 May 1833, Brooklyn Bridge in New York was opened.
1 March 1833, US Congress passed the Compromise Tariff Act. This ended a conflict between the cotton producing sourhern States which objected to high tariffs, and the industrial northern States. By 1842, no tariff was to be over 20% of the value of the good.
1832, The US Army daily liquor ration was abolished.
19 November 1832, South Carolina issued an Ordinance of Nullification, rejecting the reduction in tariffs legislated for by Congress on 14 July 1832.
14 July 1832, US Congress reduced some of the tariffs set in the 1828 Tariff of Abominations, but the US remained generally Protectionist.
13 July 1832, An expedition led by Henry Schoolcraft discovered the source of the Mississippi River.
26 June 1832, Mexico began to assert a more authoritarian rule over the US colonists in its territory of Texas. On this day the US colonists rebelled, and captured the Mexican Army fort of Velasco.
1 May 1832, Captain Benjamin de Bourneville started on a 3-year expedition to explore the Rocky Mountains.
25 January 1832, The State of Virginia rejected the abolition of slavery.
26 December 1831, Stephen Girard, US financier and philanthropist, died (born 20 May 1750).
See also Mexico for events with USA at this time
28 November 1831, John MacKay, US industrialist, was born (died 20 July 1902)
21 April 1831, Texans defeated the Mexicans at the Battle of San Jacinto.
21 December 1829, Laura Bridgman, US blind deaf mute, was born (died24 May 1889).
27 June 1829, James Smithson, British scientist whose bequest established the Smithsonian Institute at Washington to encourage scientific research, died in Genoa.
15 May 1829, US Congress declared the slave trade to be piracy.
24 May 1828, US Congress passed a Reciprocity Act, charging lower duties on imports from countries which reciprocated with the US, but opposition to the Tariff of Abominations remained.
9 May 1828, Charles Cramp, US shipbuilder, was born
21 April 1828, The American Dictionary of the English language was published. This both standardised American English and put cultural difference between it and British English.
19 April 1829, In the USA the protectionist Tariff of Abominations was signed by President John Quincy Adams. It raised duties to protect farmers in the West and Northern manufacturers, but did not help Southern cotton farmers.
10 February 1827, Edward Atkinson, US economist, was born in Brookline, Massachusetts (died in Boston 11 December 1905).
19 June 1826, Charles Brace, US philanthropist, was born I Litchfield, Connecticut (died in Campfer, Tirol, 11 August 1890).
26 October 1825, The Erie Canal, linking New York with the Great Lakes via Niagara and the Hudson River, begun 4 July 1817, was completed. Influenced by Governor DeWitt Clinton the New York state legislature agreed to fund the US$ 7 million project. The canal, 363 miles long, 40 foot wide, 4 foot deep, with 82 locks, would make New York the principal port of America.
24 May 1824, US President James Monroe signed a Bill establishing the US Army Corps of Engineers, to assist in building civilian transport infrastructure as well as in military campaigns.
8 May 1824, William Walker, US adventurer, was born in Nashville, Tennessee (executed in Honduras 12 September 1860)
4 May 1824, Rufus Putnam, who pioneered the European settlement of Ohio, died in Marietta, Ohio (born 9 April 1738 in Sutton, Massachusetts
2 December 1823, President Monroe of the USA declared that no part of the Americas is now �res nullius�, or open to further European colonisation, although existing European influences would be tolerated. This was the basis of the Monroe Doctrine.
5 June 1823, George Angell, US philanthropist, was born in Southbridge, Massachusetts (died 16 March 1909 in Boston)
10 August 1821, Missouri became the 24th State of the Union.
8 May 1821, William Henry Vanderbilt, son of Cornelius Vanderbilt and philanthropist, was born in New Jersey (died 8 December 1885 in New York)
26 September 1820, Death of US frontiersman Daniel Boone. He explored the Kentucky area.
23 May 1820, James Eads, US engineer, was born (died 8 March 1887).
15 May 1820, Congress in the USA designated the slave trade as a form of piracy.
15 March 1820, Congress reached a compromise on the slavery issue by admitting Maine (23rd state of the Union) to the Union as a free state and Missouri as a slave state. This measure was to keep the number of slave and non-slave states equal.
9 March 1820, The USA passed the Land Act, paving the way for westward expansion by rich land speculators.
14 December 1819, Alabama became the 22nd State of the USA.
21 April 1819, Oliver Evans, US industrialist, died (born 1755).
1 March 1819, Alexander Bell, US educationalist, was born (died 1905).
22 February 1819, The US concluded the Adams-Onis Treaty with Spain substituting the River Sabine (present day boundary between Louisiana and Texas) for the Rio Grande as boundary between them. Spain/Mexico thereby gained the right to govern what is now Texas. The USA also gained Florida from Spain.
1818, With the number of US States growing, the US passed the Third Flag Act (see 1794), returning to the original thirteen stripes, with an extra star for each new State. The exact pattern of the stars was still variable, see 1912.
3 December 1818, Illinois became the 21st State of the USA.
20 October 1818, The USA and Britain agreed the border between the USA and Canada to be the 49th parallel.
23 August 1818, The first steamship service began on the Great Lakes, North America.
20 May 1818, William Fargo, co-founder of the freight carrier Wells Fargo, was born.
10 May 1818, Paul Revere, who made the famous ride from Charlestown to Lexington to warn US militia of British troops, died aged 83 in Boston, Massachusetts.
13 February 1818, George Clarke, US frontiersman, died (born 19 November 1752).
10 December 1817, Mississippi became the 20th State of the USA.
10 August 1817, Francis Lowell, US cotton industrialist, died (born 7 April 1775).
8 March 1817, Tbe New York Stock exchange was founded.
11 December 1816, Indiana became the 19th State of the USA.
8 December 1816, August Belmont, US financier, was born in Prussia (died in New York 24 November 1890)
4 August 1816, Russell Sage, US financier, was born in New York State (died 22 July 1906 in New York City)
30 June 1815, Faced with US threats to bombard Algeirs, the Dey agreed to cease piracy and release US prisoners.
3 March 1815, The USA, angered by piracy in the Mediterranean, authorised hostility against the Bey of Algiers.
31 July 1814, Amos Lawrence, US philanthropist, was born (died 22 August 1886).
7 September 1813, The term �Uncle Sam� was coined by a newspaper in Troy, New York, to describe the United States.
21 January 1813, John Fremont, explorer of the US Midwest, was born (died 13 July 1890).
30 April 1812, Louisiana became the 18th State of the Union.
4 April 1812. The territory of Orleans became the 18th state of the USA, to be known as Louisiana.
1811, The grid plan street pattern of New York was begun, to provide orderly expansion beyond the random pattern of the oldest streets. However it was anticipated that industry would concentrate on the shores of Manhattan Island, so more east-west streets were built (to facilitate commuting to work) and fewer north-south avenues were built. However the enormous growth of the city has resulted in greater demand for north-south travel.
18 December 1811, Horace Chaflin, US merchant, was born (died 14 November 1885).
6 December 1811, A severe earthquake hit the Mississippi Valley. This was a geological animaly,being far from any known plate boundary.
11 October 1811, The first steam-powered ferry began operations between New York and Hoboken, new Jersey.
2 February 1811, US President James Madison demanded that Britain stop harassing neutral US shipping in the war with France.
24 January 1811, Henry Barnard, US educationalist, was born in Hartford, Connecticut (died in Hartford, Connecticut 5 July 1900).
8 December 1810, Elihu Burritt, US philanthropist, was born (died 9 March 1879).
2 November 1810. President Madison re-established freedom of trade with France, after assurances that European ports would be open to American trade.
27 October 1810. President Madison of the USA sends troops to claim the western part of West Florida after a rebellion there against Spanish rule.
24 December 1809, Kit Carson, US soldier and fur trapper who did much to open up the West to White settlers, was born in Kentucky (died 23 May 1868).
11 October 1809, Meriwether Lewis, explorer of the US Midwest, died (born 18 August 1774).
7 December 1808, Hugh McCulloch, US financier, was born (died 24 May 1895).
8 June 1809, Thomas Paine, American revolutionary, died.
22 December 1807, US President Thomas Jefferson signed the Embargo Act, to reduce imports from Britain where the goods could be produced domestically or sourced form another country. Desigtned to hit back at British and French wartime restrictions on US trade with enemy countries, the move in fact harmed the US econmy.
2 July 1807, US President Jefferson closed all US ports to British warships.
19 February 1807, Former US Vice-President Aaron Burr was acquitted of treason. He had been accused of wanting to establish a new country comprising Mexico and parts of Louisiana.
26 October 1806, Timothy Dexter, US merchant, died (born 22 February 1747).
3 September 1806, In the USA, the Lewis and Clarke expedition (1805) returned to St Louis, Missouri.
6 June 1806, John Augustus Roebling, US engineer, was born in Prussia (died 22 July 1869 in Brooklyn)
1805, The Indiana Territory was subdivided to create the Territory of Michigan, which later became a State.
29 December 1805, Asa Packer, US industrialist ad philanthropist, was born in Connecticut (died 17 May 1879 in Philadelphia).
7 November 1805,� 18 months after they set out from St Louis, Captain Merriwether Lewis and William Clark reached the Pacific coast of Oregon.