Chronography of Great Britain to 31/12/1899
Click here for
Great Britain from 1/1/1900
Click here for London history
See also Ireland
See also Economy & Prices
See also Sports and Games
See also Royal Family from 1760
SCOTLAND � Click here for events up to Act of
Union 1707 relating solely to Scottish history.
For other dates e.g. birth and death dates, of
lawyers, Judges, Lord Chancellors, politicians, statesmen, diplomats, the
nobility, the clergy, and military personnel, click here.
�As for Britain, it is set in the Sea of Darkness.
It is a considerable island, whose shape is that of the head of an ostrich, and
where there are flourishing towns, high mountains, great rivers and plains.
This country is most fertile; its inhabitants are brave, active and
enterprising, but all is in the grip of perpetual winter." Muhammad Al Idrisi,
12th century Arab
For MSOA-based maps of England and Wales, click
To order scans of Ordnance Survey 1940-60 maps
annotated with historical changes and dates, e.g. new roads, railway and canal
opening/closure dates, urban growth, coastal erosion, click
here to access map index and order sheets and go to �Images of UK Historical changes maps
Nomis datasets, https://www.nomisweb.co.uk/query/construct/submit.asp?forward=yes&menuopt=201&subcomp=
Joseph Rowntree Foundation, https://www.jrf.org.uk/
Happisburgh village website,
coastal erosion, history and more, http://happisburgh.org.uk/
19/5/1898, William Ewart Gladstone, born 29/12/1809, four
times Liberal Prime Minister, died at Hawarden Castle, north Wales, aged 88.
15/11/1897, British Labour leader Aneurin Bevan was born in Tredegar, Wales.� He was one of 13 children, son of a miner.
23/9/1893, Thomas Hawkesley, English engineer, died (born
21/5/1897, Sir Augustus Franks, English antiquary, died
12/6/1897, Anthony Eden, Conservative Prime
Minister, was born at Windlestone Hall, Bishop Auckland, Durham.� He later became the Earl of Avon.
27/12/1896, Sir John Brown, Sheffield armour plate
manufacturer, died (born 6/12/1816).
1895, The National Trust was founded, to �preserve lands and buildings of
historic interest or natural beauty for public access and benefit�.
29/12/1895. Leander Starr Jameson, an agent of the British South
Africa Company, invaded the Boer Republic of Transvaal with 470 men. On
surrendered At Doorn Kop after a defeat at Krugersdorp. On 3/1/1896 Kaiser William
II sent a telegram to Paul Kruger
congratulating him on the defeat of Jameson.
This caused outrage in Britain, which saw the telegram as an attempt by Germany
to expand its influence in Africa. Britain mocked the German Navy, saying
it would be �child�s play� for the British Navy to wipe it out. Wilhelm I
now decided on a course of massive expansion of the German Navy, seeing Britain
no longer as an ally but a potential threat.
See South Africa
for events of Boer War
who founded Whitaker�s Almanac in 1869, died.
24/1/1895, Lord Randolph Churchill, founder of the
British Conservative Party, died.
1894, The Trafford Park industrial estate, Manchester,
opened. By 1939 it was the largest in the country, with 200 works on 1,200
acres employing 50,000 people.
Tower opened. It is a 500 foot high replica of the Eiffel Tower.
1/9/1894, The first use of postcards with adhesive stamps in
The Featherstone Massacre. In Yorkshire, striking miners campaigning for a
living wage were fired upon; soldiers killed 2 and wounded 16.
(2) Leslie Hore-Belisha, British Liberal politician, was born in
14/1/1893, The UK Labour Party was founded in
Bradford, W Yorks.
16/9/1892, Edward Neale, British Co-operative promoter,
18/8/1892. In Britain, William Ewart Gladstone formed his fourth Liberal Government after his election defeat of the Conservatives under Lord Salisbury.
11/8/1892, (1) The Marquess of
Salisbury left office as Prime Minister.
(2) Hugh McDaimid, Scottish poet
and founder of the Scottish Nationalist
Party, was born.
18/7/1892, Pioneer travel agent Thomas Cook died.
15/7/1892, Thomas Cooper, Chartist, died (born
4/7/1892, James Kier Hardie, standing in the General
Election at Holytown, Lanarkshire, became the first Socialist to win a seat
in the British Parliament. He was MP for the London docklands area of West
Ham. He was elected as an independent socialist but planned to form a Labour
party to represent the workers. See 14/1/1893.
28/6/1892, Sir Harry Albert Atkinson, British politician,
13/4/1892, Sir Arthur (Bomber) Harris,
RAF Marshal was born. He joined the
Royal Flying Corps in 1915, and was appointed Commander in Chief of the RAF
Bomber Command in 1942. From 1942 on he
developed and applied the technique of �saturation bombing� to Axis occupied
cities, totally demolishing them.
2/3/1892, Sir John Coode, British engineer, died (born
10/12/1891, Earl Alexander, British Army Commander in
North Africa, and Italy in World War II, was born in County Tyrone, Ireland.
8/10/1891, The first street collection for charity
took place in Britain. It was on the streets of Manchester and Salford, for
6/10/1891, Death of W H Smith, the bookseller.
25/9/1891, The foundation of Blackpool Tower was laid.
2/6/1891, Sir John Hawkshaw, British engineer, died
31/5/1889, Britain passed the Naval Defence Act in response to the growing naval power of both
Russia and France.
24/4/1889, Sir Stafford Cripps, the Labour Chancellor
who introduced austerity measures in Britain after the Second World War, was
12/1/1889, Churchill Babington, English archaeologist,
died in Suffolk (born in Roecliffe, 11/3/1821).
6/8/1888, Elected County Councils were established in
Britain through the local Government Act.
9/7/1888, Simon Marks, British retailer, was born in Leeds.
1887, Victoria Park, 16 acres
was laid out in Salisbury.
8/6/1886, In Britain the Liberal Government�s Irish Home
Rule Bill was defeated when 95 Liberal Unionists sided with the Conservative
opposition. The Conservatives won the resulting General Election of 24/7/1886.
A second Salisbury
Government was formed, which lasted until 1892 and included Salisbury�s
James Balfour as Chief Secretary for Ireland.
Gladstone resumed office as Prime Minister.
28/1/1886, The Marquess of
Salisbury left office as Prime Minister.
22/10/1885, James Fraser,
English Bishop, died (born 18/8/1818). He did much to secure the provision of
churches for the rapidly-growing population of Manchester, exceeding even the
efforts of his predecessor, James Lee, who had consecrated 130 Manchester
23/6/1885, The Marquess of
Salisbury took up post as Prime Minister.
Gladstone left office as Prime Minister.
1884, The Fabian Society
was founded. Named after the Roman General Fabius Maximus Cunctator (The
Delayer), noted for his cautious military tactics, the Fabians adopted a
gradualist approach to socialist reform. The movement was closely associated
with the founding of the British Labour
Franchise Act, or Third
Parliamentary Reform Act was passed, giving almost all adult males the
vote. However domestic servants, bachelors living with their parents, and those
of no fixed address were still voteless. This measure increased the electoral
roll by some 2 million, four times the number added in 1832.
26/12/1883, Thomas Holloway,
English philanthropist, died (born 22/9/1800).
4/10/1883, Sir William Alexander Smith founded the Boys Brigade in Glasgow.
3/10/1883, Burnham Beeches was dedicated to public use
for all time.
1/8/1883, Inland parcel
post began in Britain.
24/4/1882, Lord Dowding, British Air Force Commander who won the Battle of Britain, was born in
26/7/1881, George Borrow, English traveller, died (born
in East Dereham, Norfolk 5/7/1803).
19/4/1881, Benjamin Disraeli, British Conservative Prime Minister, died. He was
buried at Hughenden, near High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire. Robert Gascoyne Cecil, Lord Salisbury,
was chosen to replace him as leader of the Conservative Party.
7/3/1881, Ernest Bevin, Labour Party politician, was
born in Winsford, Somerset.
22/12/1880, George Elliot died.
28/11/1880, Mark Firth, British steel maker and
philanthropist, died (born 25/4/1819).
13/9/1880, In Britain, Parliament passed the Employer�s Liability Act, giving
compensation to employees injured at work.
15/4/1880, In Britain the Liberals won the General Election.
Prime Minister William Gladstone took
over from Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of
18/9/1879, Blackpool�s first annual illuminations were
23/4/1879, First Royal Shakespeare Theatre opened in Stratford
on Avon (replaced by a new one on 23/4/1932).
14/12/1878, Mary Alice Maud, 3rd child of Queen Victoria, died
(born 25/4/1843 in Buckingham Palace).
Town Hall opened.
23/8/1877, Britain passed the Merchandise Act, obliging exporters to indicate the place of
manufacture of their goods.
13/8/1877, Birkenhead, near Liverpool, became a
Laird was the first Mayor.
20/9/1876, Sir Titus Salt, born 20/9/1803, died.
3/8/1876, Stanley Baldwin, British Prime Minister in the
1920s and 30s, was born.
7/5/1876, Samuel Courtauld, British industrialist and arts patron, was born in Braintree,
25/8/1875, Matthew Webb, 27, from Shropshire, became the first person to
swim the English Channel. He took 21 hours 45 minutes, using the
breast-stroke,� from Admiralty Pier,
Dover, to Calais.
8/7/1875, John Cairnes, British political economist,
died (born 1823).
26/12/1874, Boxing Day was first recognised as a Bank
Holiday in the UK.
30/11/1874, Sir Winston
Churchill was born at Blenheim Palace,
15/9/1874, The Prince of Wales visited France. This was the
first visit there by a member of the British Royal Family since the French
Park, the first publically-funded park in Britain and model for Central
Park, New York, opened.
21/2/1874, Disraeli became UK Prime Minister; he served
Gladstone left office as Prime Minister.
6/9/1873, Austin Reed, men�s outfitter, was born in Newbury, Berkshire.
9/5/1873, Howard Carter, who discovered Tutankhamun�s tomb in 1922,
was born at Swaffham, Norfolk.
1872, Hastings Pier opened.
18/7/1872, Britain passed the Ballot Act, providing for secret ballots at elections.
24/10/1871, The Aurora
Borealis was seen as far south as southern England.
18/6/1871, The Test Act allowed students at Oxford and
Cambridge universities to gain degrees and fellowships without subscribing to
any particular religion.
29/5/1871, Whit Monday,
became the first Bank Holiday in Britain.
25/5/1871, The House of Commons passed the Bank Holiday Act,
creating public holidays on Easter Monday, Whit Monday, and Christmas Day.
18/3/1869, Neville Chamberlain,
British Conservative Prime Minister
1937 to 1940 was born in Birmingham.
10/12/1868. The first edition of Whitakers Almanack was
9/12/1868. Following a Liberal
General Election victory, William Ewart Gladstone formed the next UK
government, defeating Disraeli.�
This was the first of Gladstone�s four
terms of office as Prime Minister.
8/11/1868, Viscount Lee of Fareham, who gave the
Buckinghamshire country house Chequers
to the nation in 1921, was born.
12/7/1868, The Scottish Reform Act was passed.
28/3/1868. The Earl of Cardigan, who led the Charge of the Light Brigade (25/10/1854) to disaster at
Balaclava, in the Crimean War, died. He
is best remembered for the woollen garment named after him.
17/2/1868. Ill health caused the resignation of the Conservative Prime Minister Lord Derby.
He was succeeded by Benjamin Disraeli
Conservative Party held their first Annual Parry Conference, in a London pub,
the Freemasons in Great Queen Street.
15/8/1867. By a Parliamentary
Reform Act, one million more voters were added to the UK electorate, mostly
urban ratepayers. Those who owned house and paid rates, or lodgers paying more
than �10 a year rent, could now vote.�
The enfranchised population of the UK now stood at 7.9%.
3/8/1867, Stanley Baldwin, British Conservative and three
times Prime Minister between 1923 and 1937, was born at Bewdley, Worcestershire,
the only son of a wealthy industrialist and member of parliament. The author Rudyard Kipling
was Baldwin's cousin on his mother's side of the family
1866, Britain passed the Metropolitan Commons Act, prohibiting any further enclosure (for
private housing development) of urban commons lands. This Act was largely the
result of disputes over development of common lands around London, Hampstead Heath, Wimbledon and
Epping Forest in particular. The rapid expansion of Britain�s towns and cities
put great pressure on common lands. In London the Lord of Hampstead Manor in
the early 19th century, Sir Thomas Maryon Wilson, had fought a legal
battle from 1829 onwards to be allowed to build on Hampstead Heath. After the
passage of the Metropolitan Commons Act, and the death of Sir Thomas Wilson in 1868, his
heir withdrew from the legal fight. The Metropolitan Board of Works then bought
the rights to Hampstead Heath for �45,000 (Sir Thomas Wilson had been asking for
�400,000) and Hampstead Heath became public property.
12/10/1866. Ramsay MacDonald,
who in 1924 became Britain�s first Labour Prime Minister, was born in
Lossiemouth, Morayshire, Scotland.
6/7/1866, In Britain, Lord Derby formed a government following the
resignation of Lord
John Russell over the defeat of his Reform Bill.
11/5/1866, London was hit by a financial panic, �Black
18/10/1865. Lord Palmerston
died, two days short of his
81st birthday. He was staying at his wife�s house, Brockett Hall in
Welwyn,� Hertfordshire, when struck by
fever. He was Secretary for War, Foreign Secretary, and then Prime Minister
during a time when Britain was the richest and most powerful nation on Earth. �When he
was born, on 20/10/1784, Britain had a population of 9 million, 80% of whom
worked in agriculture. When he died, Britain had a population of 29 million,
60% of whom worked in manufacturing.
22/9/1865, George Elkington, founder of the Birmingham electroplating
11/3/1864, The Dale Dyke Dam in Yorkshire burst, flooding
Sheffield from the Bradfield Reservoir and killing 240 people
1/2/1864, Austrian and Prussian troops under the command of
Friedrich von Wangle invaded Schleswig, Denmark. Although the British monarch, Queen Victoria,
was pro-German, the British Prince Edward, the future King Edward VII � who had only
months earlier married Alexandra of Denmark � was shocked; they
supported Denmark. The Second Schleswig War began. This event ensured that
Edward VII�s reign, British foreign policy was pro-Danish,
anti-German, and Britain formed a triple
entente with France and Russia
16/10/1863, Sir Austin Chamberlain, British politician,
was born in Birmingham.
asylum for the criminally insane at Crowthorne, Berkshire was opened.
13/10/1861, Sir William Cubitt, British engineer, died
19/6/1861, Earl Haig, British military commander in WWI, was born.
23/4/1861, Viscount Allenby, British World War One Army Commander, was born in
for British colonisation of India
20/2/1861, In a gale, the 82 metre high spire of Chichester
3/2/1861, Edwin Cannan, British economist, was born.
25/2/1860, James William Ashley, English economist, was
born in London.
23/1/1860, Britain and France signed a Treaty of Reciprocity,
establishing free trade between them.
first dog show in the UK took place at Newcastle on Tyne Town Hall, with 60
entries split between two classes, Pointers and Setters.
18/6/1859, Lord Palmerston became Prime Minister.
21/2/1859, Viscount Palmerston left office as Prime Minister.
24/11/1858, A legal case in Dorset caused the UK
Parliament to standardise time to GMT across the country. A judge in a land
case in Dorset ruled against a man who had failed to turn up for a 10,00 am
case, at 10.06. Two minutes later he turned up and claimed he was on time, by
the station clock of his home town, Carlisle in Cumbria. At that time all towns
set their clocks by their own, local, noon, meaning accurate rail
timetables were problematic. By 1850 the rail companies all used London
time, adding to confusion as provincial clocks often had two minute hands, one
for local time, one for London time. The case was re-tried, and in 1880
Parliament ordered the entire country keep Greenwich Mean Time.
1/1/1858, John Britton,
English antiquary died (born 7/7/1771).
11/1/1857. Birth of Henry Gordon Selfridge,
founder of Britain�s first large department store. Also on this day was born
the champion jockey Fred Archer.
1856, An Army Staff College was set up at Sandhurst.
15/8/1856, Kier Hardie, Labour leader, was born near Holytown, Lanarkshire.� He
helped found the Labour Party.
18/4/1856, Aldershot Camp was publically inaugurated by Queen Victoria.
29/1/1856. Queen Victoria instituted the Victoria
Cross, Britain�s highest military decoration. Awarded for conspicuous
bravery or great devotion to duty. The
award was backdated to 1854 to cover the Crimean War; on 26/6/1856
62 men were given the Victoria Cross for deeds during this war. The VC has been
awarded 1,354 times since then, to 2002, but has only been given posthumously
since 1920. It has been awarded only 11 times since 1945, the last 2 being in
the Falklands War of 1982. The medal is
made of metal from Russian guns captured in the
19/2/1855. Bread riots broke out in Liverpool.
9/2/1855, Mysterious hoof-prints appeared in the snow in
Devon, as if a two legged creature had walked 100 miles over fields, walls, and
roof-tops. No explanation was ever found.
6/2/1855, The Whig/Liberal
Palmerston became Prime
Minister. He succeeded Lord Aberdeen, who resigned on 20/1/1855.
War see Russia
1854, The UK Govermnent purchased a large tract of
moorland known as Aldershot Heath, to set up Aldershot Camp. This was to enable
military practices in a large enough area to allow for brigade and divison
manoeuvres in peacetime, since this had not been done since the Napoleonic Wars
26/9/1854, Thomas Denman, English Judge, died (born
21/6/1854, The first Victoria Cross was awarded, to Charles Lucas,
Irishman who threw an unexploded Russian bomb overboard, whilst on HMS Hecla
at Bomarsund in the Baltic.
9/1/1854, Lady Randolph Churchill, mother of Winston Churchill, was born.
Manchester, UK, was constituted a city.
26/10/1852, Henry Elkington, founder of the Birmingham
electroplating industry, died.
Birth of Lilly Langtry, actress and
mistress to King Edward VII.
14/9/1852, The Duke of Wellington,
victor at Waterloo, died at Walmer Castle, Kent, aged 83, as Lord Warden of the
Saltaire Village, near Shipley,
Yorkshire, was opened by Sir Titus Salt as model housing for his workers The
solid stone houses were served by a wash-house, hospital, library, concert
hall, gym and science laboratory.
Britain the Window Tax was abolished.
8/7/1851, Sir Arthur John Evans,
British archaeologist who excavated Knossos on Crete, was born.
19/4/1850, The Clayton-Bulwer Treaty between the USA
and UK was signed. It was an agreement on the terms for building a canal across
Nicaragua; under this treaty, neither party would exercise exclusive control
over such a canal or fortify it. The US
and the UK each had territorial interests in Central America, and were
suspicious of each other�s activities in the region. Ultimately this Treaty
was superseded by a similar neutralisation policy regarding the Panama Canal under the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty of 1902.
29/12/1849, William Cunningham,
English economist, was born.
26/6/1849, Britain repealed the Navigation Acts, protectionst legislation favouring
the Merchant Navy that dated back to the mid-17th century.
13/2/1849, Lord Randolph Churchill, British Conservative
politician and father of Winston Churchill, was born at Blenheim
Palace, Woodstock, Oxfordshire.
31/1/1849, Britain�s Corn
Laws were abolished.
1848, Manchester prohibited the
construction of back-to-back housing. However such accommodation was still
being constructed in Leeds until after 1900.
19/1/1848, Matthew Webb, the first person to swim the English Channel, was born in Dawley,
Shropshire, the son of a doctor.
1847, The British Army replaced
service for life by a minimum ten-year term.
16/5/1845, Charles Chubb, English locksmith and
13/5/1845, Alexander Baring Ashburton, English baron and
19/2/1845, Sir Thomas Buxton, English philanthropist,
died (born 1/4/1786).
6/8/1844, Albert Ernst Albert, 4th child of Queen
Victoria (died 30/7/1900) was born at Windsor Castle.
25/4/1843, Mary Alice Maud, 3rd child of Queen Victoria,
was born in Buckingham Palace (died 14/12/1878).
1842, The first public laundry opened, in Manchester. It was not a place for
1841, Norfolk Park, Sheffield,
was laid out as a public park.
28/8/1841, The Conservative leader Sir Robert Peel succeeded the
William Melbourne, as Prime Minister. Under Peel�s second term in office, he
intended to reduce import duties to
promote free trade.
28/1/1841, Henry Stanley, British explorer and
journalist, was born at Denbigh, north Wales, as John Rowlands.
30/3/1840, Beau Brummel,
Regency Dandy, died at Caen in a pauper�s
lunatic asylum. He had fled Britain to escape gambling debts.
1/7/1837, The first Register of
Births, Deaths, and Marriages was begun in England and Wales. The first entry was for the birth of a baby
girl, Mary Ann Aaaron, born in Dewsbury, Yorkshire.
landslide at Lewes, Sussex, swallowed up houses and killed 8 people.
See Economy & Prices for more events
related to Chartist Movement
17/8/1836, Registration of all births, marriages, and
deaths in Britain was required under the Registration Act.
9/9/1835, The Municipal Corporation Act in Britain
reformed city and town government in line with the major population shifts
brought on by the Industrial Revolution. The old ruling oligarchies of borough
councils were replaced by elected councils, elected by all rate paying
householders of three year�s standing. Tory lawyers, Anglican clergy, and the
aristocracy lost power to small shopkeepers, businessmen, Non-conformists, and
better off members of the working class. This
paved the way for public improvements like street widening, public utilities
such as gas and water, and a municipal fire service.
18/4/1835, In Britain, William Lamb, Lord Melbourne, formed a new
Whig administration after the resignation of Sir Robert Peel.
10/12/1834, Following the resignation of UK Whig Prime
Melbourne, Sir Robert Peel became PM.
16/7/1834, In Britain, Lord Melbourne, Whig, became Prime Minister.
9/7/1834, In Britain, Lord Grey resigned as Prime Minister.
Helena became a British colony.
and electoral reform
29/1/1833, The Reform Parliament of Great Britain
Representation of the People Act received Royal Assent. It introduced electoral reform in Britain. Smaller
property owners were given the vote (tenant farmers paying �50 or more a year
in rent), extending the electorate to 20% of adult males, twice as many as
before. However the ballot was till not secret, until 18/7/1872. Landlords
often evicted tenants who failed to vote for the candisate the landlord
supported. Furthermore, 56 �rotten
boroughs� with a total population of 2,000 were abolished, and some rural
areas lost one of their two MPs. New constituencies were created in the expanding industrial towns of
Manchester, Birmingham, and elsewhere. There
was resistance in the House of Lords from 21 bishops.
31/10/1831, Riots in
Bristol raised fears of revolution breaking out across Britain. Four
of the rioters were executed.
10/10/1831, Three days of rioting in Derby (8-10 October)
following the defeat in the House of Lords of the Reform Bill. This Bill, which passed its Third reading in the
Commons in September 1831, would have enlarged the electorate. Further riots
in Bristol, 29-31 October. In April 1832 a second Reform Bill was passed by the House of Lords.
10/8/1831, George Goschen, British statesman, was born
8/1830, The Swing Revolt https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swing_Riots
got underway in Kent, spreading rapidly to other counties in the South East.
�Captain Swing� was the pseudonym used by the rebels when they threatened the
destruction of machinery unless wages were raised or tihe payments cut.
workers destroyed 387 threshing machines and 26 other agricultural machines
across 22 counties between now and September 1832. Machinery worth �20,000 was
destroyed, and a further �100,000 damage done through arson. See Luddites
Agricultural wages were raised, at least temporarily, and the spread of
labour-saving threshing machines was curbed. However the Swing Revolt resulted
in the execution of 19 labourers and the transportation to Australia of nearly 500 more.
13/4/1829. The Catholic Emancipation Act became law. Catholics were allowed to hold every public office
except those of Regent, Lord Chancellor, and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.
This was a concession reluctantly granted by the British Conservative
government of the Duke of Wellington, following Catholic
agitation in Ireland by Daniel O�Connell and the Catholic Association.
26/1/1828, The Duke of Wellington became Tory Prime
25/1/1828. The Duke of Wellington and Robert Peel
formed a Conservative government.
13/8/1827, The first giraffe
arrived in Britain.
16/7/1827, Pottery expert Josiah Spode died.
17/2/1827, The Earl of Liverpool left post as Prime Minister,
paralysed by a stroke.
17/1/1827, The Duke of Wellington was appointed Commander in
Chief of the British Army.
10/11/1826, Joseph Arch, English politician and founder of
the National Agricultural Labourers Union, was born in Barlford, Warwickshire.
20/3/1826, Sir Augustus Franks, English antiquary, was
born (died 212/5/1897).
24/6/1825. William Henry
Smith, English newsagent and bookseller, was born. He joined his father�s
news agency business and took full control in 1846, building the biggest chain of newsagents in Britain.
1824, The UK Government
standardised official weights and measures across Britain.
22/3/1824, The British Government agreed to spend �57,000 to
purchase 38 paintings to establish a national collection.
25/11/1823, Brighton�s Chain Pier was opened.
14/2/1822, The increasing popularity of Valentines Cards
forced the Post Office to employ extra sorters. See 14/2/1477.
7/8/1821, Caroline, Queen of King George IV of Britain, died
11/3/1821, Churchill Babington, English archaeologist,
was born in Roecliffe, Leicestershire (died 12/1/1889 in Suffolk).
demands for political reform
16/8/1819, At St Peters Fields, or Peterloo, Manchester, a meeting
demanding parliamentary reforms was dispersed by the military. There was a crowd of 60,000 present to hear the
speech of the pugnacious reformer Henry Hunt, who also demanded an end to the
Corn Laws. 11 demonstrators were killed and 600 injured by the Manchester
Yeomanry. After this the UK government issued the Six Laws, in 1819, banning
any gathering of over 50 people, and any flag-bearing procession, authorising
the arrest of anyone carrying a firearm, and imposing a tax on newspapers.
10/3/1817, Several hundred
Manchester weavers set out from St Peters Fields, Manchester, to march
to Westminster, demanding Parliamentary Reform. They were
called the Blanketeers, as they carried blankets to keep
warm at night. Troops
stopped most of them at Stockport but some reached Derbyshire, and one made it
as far as London.
This march later inspired the Jarrow March.
25/4/1819, Mark Firth,
British steel maker and philanthropist, was born (died 28/11/1880).
18/8/1818, James Fraser,
English Bishop, was born (died 22/10/1885). He did much to secure the provision
of churches for the rapidly-growing population of Manchester, exceeding even
the efforts of his predecessor, James Lee, who had consecrated 130 Manchester
8/2/1817, Francis Horner,
British economist, died (born 12/8/1778).
6/12/1816, Sir John Brown,
Sheffield armour plate manufacturer, was born (died 27/12/1896).
11/11/1816, Sir John Coode,
British engineer, was born (died 2/3/1892).
24/8/1816, Tristan da
Cunha, four islands in the south Atlantic, were annexed and garrisoned by
29/3/1815, Sir Henry Frere, British colonial
administrator, was born (died 29/5/1884).
15/1/1815, Emma, Lady Hamilton, mistress of Lord Nelson,
died in poverty in Calais.
1814, Sheerness Naval Dockyard opened.
21/4/1814, Angela Burdett-Coutts, English philanthropist,
was born (died 30/12/1906).
7/6/1812, The Earl
of Liverpool took up post as Prime Minister.
11/5/1812, Spencer Perceval became the only British Prime
Minister so far to be assassinated as he entered the House of Commons, by a
bankrupt broker, Francis Bellingham,� who blamed the Government for his woes.
12/4/1812, 150 masked
Luddites attacked Cartwright�s Mill, between Leeds and Huddersfield.
The mill owner had been forewarned and had prepared defences, including vats of
acid. 40 Luddites
were injured in the affray and 2 subsequently died. It took some time to
discover the identity of the attackers but a trial was eventually held at York
Assizes in January 1813, at which 8 were sentenced to death.
8/1/1812, Two British regiments were called out to
control outbreaks of Luddite rioting.
3/1811, The Luddite movement, distressed
textiles workers smashing machinery, began in Nottinghamshire and spread across
the Midlands and Yorkshire. Britain had lost access to continental markets
because of the Napoleonic Wars, and this was exacerbated by
the collapse of the American
market in 1811. The machine breakers took up the name �Ned Lud�, and used large
sledgehammers, nicknamed �Enoch�, to smash their way into textiles mills.
Between March 1811 and February 1812 the Luddites destroyed some 1,000 frames, valued
at �6,000 to �10,000, In February 1812 Parliament made frame-breaking a capital
offence. See also wages of textiles workers (decline 1805-31). See Swing Revolt
28/2/1810, Sir Robert Rawlinson, English engineer was
born (died 31/5/1898).
4/101809, Spencer Perceval, Tory, succeeded the Duke of
Portland as British Prime Minister.
21/9/1809, Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh, Minister
of War, was affronted by the resignation of George Canning, British Foreign
Secretary, and challenged him to a duel. Canning was wounded.
21/7/1809, Daniel Lambert, Englishman famous for his
great size, died (born 13/3/1770).
22/11/1808, Pioneer travel agent Thomas
Cook was born in Melbourne, Derbyshire.� He died in 1892.
15/10/1808, James Anderson, Scottish economist (born 1739)
9/9/1809, George Canning, British Foreign
Secretary, resigned, complaining about the mismanagement of the Peninsular War.
2/9/1807, Britain bombarded and
destroyed the Danish fleet at Copenhagen, to prevent its use by France or
7/9/1808, William Lindley, English
engineer, was born (died 22/5/1900).
21/8/1808, British troops under Wellington
defeated the French under General Junot.� This was at the Battle of Vimiero, during the Peninsular War.� The Peninsular War absorbed
some 300,000 of Napoleon�s best troops,
and� was ended when Napoleon heard reports that Austria, backed by Britain, was arming against him.
Hawkesley, English engineer, was born (died 23/9/1893).
24/3/1807, In Britain, King George III dissolved Parliament rather
than grant civil rights to British Roman Catholics. The Whig Ministry of all the
Talents fell, and the Duke of Portland, a Whig, became the (largely
nominal) prime Minister of a fractious Tory administration.
Roger Newdigate, English philanthropist, died (born 30/5/1719).
10/2/1806, In Britain, following the death of Pitt the Younger, the Ministry
of all the Talents was formed. Lord Grenville was Prime Minister and Charles James
Fox was Foreign Secretary.
23/1/1806, William Pitt the Younger, twice Prime Minister
(the first when only 24), died at Putney aged 47. He was buried in Westminster
was still strong in Europe. Prussia, who had been reluctant to join the Allies,
now had to live with French domination of the puppet state of the Confederation
of the Rhine.
9/1/1806, The funeral and burial of Admiral Lord
Nelson at St Paul�s Cathedral.
21/10/1805, Battle of Trafalgar. Death of Nelson. Nelson blockaded the combined fleets of France
and Spain in Cadiz. The French Admiral, Villeneuve, attempted to break out, but
British ships sank or captured most of the French and Spanish ships. The
French had planned to link up with the Spanish fleet in the West Indies and so
lure the British into giving chase across the Atlantic. However Nelson
guessed at the French tactics and the Admiralty was warned. A British fleet
under Calder found the French fleet off Cape Finistere and they put into
Spanish harbours. The French fleet later emerged to sail, not for Britain, but
to return to the Mediterranean. The French were intercepted off Cape Trafalgar,
and destroyed in the Battle of Trafalgar.
for events connected to Napoleon
18/5/1802, Britain declared war on Napoleonic France.
20/2/1797, Nelson was made a Knight of the Bath and
promoted to Rear Admiral for his action in the Battle of Cape St Vincent.
3/1787, Horatio Nelson married Nisbet,
at Nevis in the Caribbean. He was frustrated at being put on half pay and out
of service for the next five years.
Nelson (1758-1805) was appointed captain of the Hinchinbrooke.
D�Israeli, British statesman, was born.
10/5/1804, William Pitt
the Younger resumed office as Prime Minister.
7/3/1804, John Wedgwood, son of the famous Midland
pottery manufacturer, and uncle to Charles Darwin, founded the Royal Horticultural Society. John�s
mother�s garden inspired his interest in plants and in 1801 he wrote to William Forsyth,
gardener to George
III, suggesting the formation of a horticultural society. Forsyth
passed the idea on to the Royal Society President, Sir Joseph Banks, and the
society was founded three years later. The inaugural meeting was at the London
Hatchard, at 187 Piccadilly. In 2003 the Royal Horticultural Society
had over 300,000 members who have access to over 80 gardens in the UK. It
organises the Chelsea Flower Show, runs courses at Wisley in Surrey, and
organises over 1,000 lectures and talks annually.
5/7/1803, George Borrow, English traveller, was born in
East Dereham, Norfolk (died 26/7/1881).
21/2/1803, Edward Despard, conspirator against King
George III, was executed.
5/12/1802, James Baird, Scottish ironmaster, was born in
Kirkwood, Lanarkshire (died in Ayrshire 20/6/1876).
17/10/1801, George Elkington, founder of the Birmingham
electroplating industry, was born.
29/6/1801, The figures
from Britain�s first census were
published. Britain�s population was set at 8,872,000.
Britain�s first census was held.
14/3/1801, William Pitt
the Younger left office as Prime Minister.
1/1/1801, The Act of Union between Britain and Ireland came into force. Irish MPs could sit at Westminster. However some
smaller Irish boroughs were disenfranchised so as to limit the number of Irish
MPs to 100,
25/12/1800,� Britain�s first Christmas Tree was
erected at Windsor by Queen Charlotte.
7/10/1799, The bell was salvaged from the Lutine,
which sank off the island of Vlieland, off the coast of Holland. It was
presented to Lloyds of London. Known as the Lutine Bell, it has been
rung ever since to mark a marine disaster.
Mutiny at Spithead
1797, Following Britain�s naval
mutinies, the Mutiny Act was passed
making it a treasonable offence to incite disaffection amongst the armed
forces. Meanwhile the army and navy received pay rises.
naval mutiny at The Nore, led by Richard Parker, was put down.� It had started as a protest against poor food
and low pay.
British navy mutinied at Spithead, near Portsmouth, over poor pay, bad
food, and arduous blockade duty. On 2/5/1797 the mutiny spread to the North Sea
17/4/1797, Britain�s first prisoner of war camp opened at
Norman Cross Depot, near Stilton, Huntingdonshire. Prior to this, PoWs had
been confined in civil prisons, floating hulks, or fortresses, but by 1796 the
number of French PoWs was so large other accommodation had to be found.
12/2/1797, The last
invasion of Britain. The Irish-American General William Tate landed at Fishguard,
Pembrokeshire with 1,400 French troops, who soon surrendered.
23/2/1795, Sir Josiah Mason, English entrepreneuer and
philanthropist, was born (died�
1/6/1794, The Battle
of the Glorious 1st June. The British fleet under Lord Howe defeated the French
Villaret-Joyeuse, 700km west of Ushant.
1/2/1793, Britain declared war on France. The British economy entered
1792, In Britain, a barracks building programme began to
house troops in ports and major industrial centres. Often the least affluent
areas of town were chosen to site the barracks, in the event of urban riots
breaking out there.
14/7/1791, In Birmingham, England,
rioters destroyed the home and labarotory of Joseph Priestley, who discovered
oxygen, because he supported the French Revolution. In 1794 Priestley
left Britain for America.
3/1/1791, George Rennie, English civil engineer, was
born in Surrey.
Death of the last Jacobite Catholics
George Gordon, British anti-Catholic agitator and leader of the Gordon Riots in 1780, died in Newgate Prison,
London. He had been convicted of libelling Marie Antoinette.
5/3/1790, Flora Mac Donald, the Scottish
Jacobite heroine who helped Prince Charles Edward (The Younger Pretender)
to escape from the island of Benbecula, died.
31/1/1788, Prince Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie), the Young
Pretender and leader of the Jacobite
Rebellion, aimed at deposing King George II,
died in exile in Rome.
2/6/1780, The Gordon Riots, anti-Catholic �No Popery� demonstrations
named after Lord George Gordon, broke out in London. Lord Gordon had called his
supporters to St Georges Fields and led them to protest against removal of some restrictions on Roman Catholics
under the Catholic Relief Act of 1778.
1/1/1766, James Stuart, the Old Pretender, and father of Bonnie Prince
Charlie, died in Rome.
22/2/1790, French soldiers landed at Fishguard, Wales,
but were soon captured.
26/2/1789, Eaton Hodgkinson, British engineer, was born
1788, Cheltenham became famous as a spa town with the six-week visit of
King George III. The spa waters had
first been commercially exploited by Captain Henry Skillicorne (born 1678, died
1763) in 1738, though some locals had drunk the water before then.
26/8/1786, Britain and France agreed the Eden Treaty, reducing trade barriers between the two countries.
1/4/1786, Sir Thomas Buxton, English philanthropist, was
born (died 19/2/1845).
1784, A window tax was introduced in Britain. To save money, many
householders bricked up some of their wondows.
30/5/1784, Sir William Brown, financier, was born (died
7/12/1783, William Pitt the
Younger became the youngest
Prime Minister of Britain, aged 24.
British Parliament voted to discontinue
the American War.
oldest Chamber of Commerce was
established, in Glasgow.
20/3/1782, Lord North
left office as Prime Minister.
19/9/1781, Tobias Furneaux,
English navigator, died (born 21/8/1735).
6/4/1780, Lord Ashburton
brought a resolution in the British Parliament to condemn the King, George III,
for supporting the Government of Lord North.
12/8/1778, Francis Horner, British economist, was born
1777, Dolly Pentreath,
the last known person to speak the Cornish language only, and no English, died.
1773, An Assay
Office was established in Sheffield due to the amount of silver cutlery being
10/5/1773, The USA passed the Tea
Act, reducing the amount of duty paid on tea imported into Britain. This was to
help the east India Company, which had a surplus of unsold tea. However the
full duty was retained on tea shipped to the American colonies.
7/7/1771, John Britton, English antiquary, was born
27/11/1770, Horatio Nelson joined the Royal
Navy as a 12-year-old moidshipman on the HMS Raisonnable.
13/3/1770, Daniel Lambert, Englishman
famous for his great size, was born (died 21/7/1809).
1765, The Cyfarthfa iron works at Merthy Tydfil was set up.
16/7/1765, In Britain, George Grenville resigned as Prime
Minister, and was replaced by the Marquess of Rockingham.
7/5/1765, HMS Victory was launched. She is now in dry dock
in Portsmouth. Nelson
was on board when killed by a musket shot.
26/4/1765, Emma, Lady Hamilton, mistress of Lord Nelson,
was born in Ness, Cheshire.
10/2/1763, The end of the Seven Years War. France
ceded Canada to Britain at the Treaty of Paris. See 26/7/1758 and 13/9/1759.
The same treaty gave Florida to Britain in exchange for Britain returning Cuba,
which it had invaded on 12/8/1762, to Spain; Spain also regained Louisiana and
the Philippines. Britain gained all of America east of the Mississippi. Britain
also gained Minorca, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, Tobago, St Vincent, Grenada,
Dominica, and Senegal, as well as becoming pre-eminent in India; Britain
therefore became the world�s major colonising power. Frederick of Prussia
retained Silesia, which set Prussia on the road to also becoming a major
concluded a peace with France at Fontainbleau. See 10/2/1763.
For main events of Seven
Years War see France-Germany, Russia, and East Europe
English dandy and gambler Richard �Beau� Nash died.
declared war on Spain, three months after William Pitt resigned (see 5/10/1761).
resigned because Britain would not declare war on Spain; France was trying to
bring Spain into its war on Prussia and Britain, with France allied to Austria
and Russia. Britain virtually abandoned support for Prussia.
George II died suddenly at 8am, in Kensington, London, aged
76. His successor George III was
inclined to concentrate on British, not Hanoverian, interests, and disliked William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, who had
promoted the Anglo-Prussian Alliance. Without British help, Prussia could not
British-French conflict in Canada, 1700s, see Canada
23/7/1759, Work began on the Royal Navy�s 104 gun
battleship HMS Victory at Chatham, Kent, built with the wood of 2,200
Nelson was born in Burnham Thorpe rectory, Norfolk.� He was the son of a clergyman, one of 11
children.� He died in battle in 1805.
18/5/1756, Britain declared war on France. This was
the start of the Seven Years War. See France-Germany,
Russia, East Europe.
6/1/1756. George II
secured an agreement, the Convention of
Westminster, by which Frederick of Prussia guaranteed to help
England if Hanover was attacked, and England promised to help Prussia if
Silesia was attacked.� This guaranteed
the neutrality of the Prussian states under Frederick II in the escalating
Anglo-French dispute.� However it was also alarming to Russia, who saw the Treaty as a potential
Anglo-Prussian alliance against them. See 1/5/1756.
14/10/1755, Thomas Charles, Welsh educationalist, was born
27/4/1750, Sir Thomas Bernard, English social reformer,
was born in Lincoln (died 1/7/1818).
1/8/1747, After the Jacobite Rebellion, the British
Parliament banned the wearing of tartan, on pain of prison, to suppress the
cultural identity of the Highlands.
Scottish Jacobite Lord Lovat was executed by beheading at the Tower of London
for High Treason.� He was the last person
to be executed this way in Britain.� Only
persons of high rank were beheaded; lesser persons were hanged. After this
date, all were hanged. Hanging, drawing, and quartering for treason was not
abolished until 1870.
20/9/1746, Prince Charles
Edward escaped capture by dressing as a girl and sailing to France
on the ship L�Heureux.
rebellious Scottish Jacobite Lords, the Earl of
Kilmarnock and Lord Balmeniro, were beheaded at the
Tower of London.
passed the Dress Act, banning the wearing of Scottish Highland
Dress, including the kilt, from 1/8/1747.�
This was an attempt to suppress
Scottish Highland culture.
Jacobite rebellion defeated, Charles flees
16/4/1746, Bonnie Prince Charlie and his 5,000 Jacobite soldiers were decisively defeated at Culloden, near Inverness, by the Duke of
Cumberland and an army of 9,000 regulars. Fought on flat ground, the
battle gave the advantage to Cumberland�s latest artillery. This ended the Jacobite Rebellion and the hopes of the Stuart dynasty of any return to power in
Britain. On 27/6/1746 Charles escaped over the sea to Skye,
disguised as the Irish maid Betty Burke, with Flora MacDonald.� In Scotland, the Highlanders were disarmed
and forbidden to wear their tartan kilts. The hereditary jurisdiction of the
Highland Chiefs over their clans was abolished. This was the last battle fought in Britain.
17/1/1746, At the Battle of Falkirk, Charles and the Jacobites defeated the English under General Hawley. This was the last Jacobite success.
8/1/1746, Bonnie Prince
Charlie occupied Stirling.
18/12/1745, Battle of Clifton Moor.� The
Jacobites won a victory over the English at Penrith.
Marching south, Charles�s forces
reached Derby. However they were faced there by the superior forces of General Wade and William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland. The Jacobite army retreated, to be finally defeated at
9/11/1745, Battle of
Carlisle, Jacobite Rebellion. The Young Pretender, Charles Edawrd Stuart
(Bonny Prince Charlie), defeated
the Duke of Cumberland.
31/10/1745, Charles led his 5,000-strong army into England hoping, in vain,
for popular support.� Not gaining this,
he returned to Scotland.
21/9/1745. Bonnie Prince Charlie (Charles Stuart) and his Jacobite army defeated the English under Sir John Cope at the Battle of Prestonpans.�
11/9/1745. The Jacobites under the Young Pretender occupied Edinburgh,
with 2,000 men.
19/8/1745, To claim
the English throne, Prince Charles raised his father�s flag at Glenfinnan,
after travelling from France.
25/7/1745, Prince Charles
(Edward Stuart), the Young Pretender, landed in Scotland. He
proclaimed his father as King James VIII of Scotland and James III of England.
Highland clans rose in support of him.
11/5/1745, The Battle of Fontenoy took place in
Belgium, during the War of the Austrian
de Saxe won a French
victory over British and Allied forces. William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, had been
sent with Austrian, British, Dutch and Hanoverian troops to relieve Tournai,
Belgium, under siege by the French. Cumberland�s army was beaten back with
casualties of 7,000 and forced to retreat during the night towards Brussels.
The British suffered further setbacks in Flanders and as troops were called
back to fight the Young Pretender, Charles Edward Stuart. The
British made peace with France at Aix la Chapelle in 1748.
27/8/1743, Henry Pelham
took up office as Prime Minister.
16/6/1743, The last battle in which a British monarch
commanded an army on the battlefield. George II
defeated the French at the Battle of Dettingen, in Bavaria, during the War of the Austrian Succession.
Robert Walpole, Prime Minister
8/2/1742, Sir Robert
Walpole left office as Prime Minister.
In the House of Commons, Sir Robert Walpole first used the phrase �Balance of Power� to describe Britain�s
approach to foreign policy.
22/9/1735, Sir Robert Walpole became the first
Prime Minister to move into 10 Downing Street. The office of �Prime Minister� was not officially recognised, and some
considered it unconstitutional. However Walpole had widespread support of
both the King and Parliament. Walpole was educated at Eton and Cambridge, and
at age 24 inherited a country estate, which gave him the means of
self-sufficiency to enter politics. In 1701 he became the Whig member for
castle rising in Norfolk. An excellent speaker, he rose rapidly within the
party. In 1717 he resigned amid in-party fighting, returning as Paymaster
General in 1720.
1740, In Sheffield, Thomas Boulsover developed a method of plating
a copper ingot with silver; this could then be rolled into �Sheffield Plate�
1/8/1740, Rule Britannia, written by Scotsman James Thomson, with music by
Arne, was heard for the first time, at the Prince of Wales� country
home at Cliveden.
2/7/1740, Thomas Baker, English antiquary,
died� (born in Lanchester, Durham,
wife of King
George II of Britain, died (born 1/3/1683).
21/8/1735, Tobias Furneaux, English navigator, was born
28/12/1734, Rob Roy,
Scottish outlaw (real name Robert McGregor, nicknamed �Roy�, Gaelic for
�red� because of his ruddy complexion and red hair, died at his home in the
Scottish Highlands. Born in 1671, he became famous for his sword-fighting
skills and was chosen as head of the MacGregor clan in 1693. His business was
selling Scottish black cattle to England; he was declared an outlaw in 1712 after
defaulting on a business debt owed to the Duke of Montrose. He then gathered a group of
armed followers and harassed the estates and tenants of the Duke of
Montrose. In 1722 he surrendered to the English authorities and was
imprisoned. He was nearly transported, but was pardoned and allowed to return
home. He was also noted for his generosity to the poor, at the expense of the
4/6/1730, King George III of Britain was born. His
mental health was unstable, and his mishandling of the American colonies led to
3/9/1729, The Treaty of Hanover was signed between
Britain, France and Prussia. It was to counterbalance the Treaty of Vienna, between Spain and Austria, which treaty had
broken the Quadruple Alliance. The Vienna treaty was intended to restore the
Stuarts to the English throne and to compel Britain to return Gibraltar and
Minorca to Spain. The Treaty of Hanover was a mutual defence pact, in case any
signatory was attacked.
11/10/1727, Coronation of King
22/6/1727, King George I, the first Hanoverian King, died of
apoplexy, aged 67, in Osnabruck castle where he was born, on route to Hanover.
His son, 44-year old George II, succeeded him.
7/11/1724, John Kyrle, English philanthropist, died (born
17/5/1723, Christopher Layer was hung, drawn and quartered
for treason, for a plot to kill King George I and restore the Catholic Stuart
Francis Edward Stuart, son of James II, would have become James III. In
England the military was reinforced and put on standby against a possible
Catholic invasion of the country; this was paid for by a �100,000 tax (�313
million in 2015 prices) on Catholic estates. This was the Atterbury plot, named
Atterbury, Bishop of Rochester, who was exiled for his part in it.
16/6/1722, John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, British
General famous for his victories in the Spanish
War of Succession, died at Windsor aged 72.
�blacking� was becoming a problem for British landowners. Large deer parks established
by the landed gentry were excluding commoners from their traditional grazing
lands where they could also gather peat and firewood. The commoners would black
their faces and raid these parks. In response to this Parliament passed the Black Act in May 1723, making it a
hanging offence to black one�s face and carry weapons, many other offenders
were transported under this Act. The Black Act was not repealed until 1824.
3/4/1721,� Sir Robert Walpole was appointed First Lord of
the Treasury and Chancellor of the Exchequer, effectively making him Britain�s first Prime Minister. He held
this office until 12/2/1742.
31/12/1720, Bonnie Prince Charlie, Charles Edward Stuart, was born in Rome, the
elder son of James,
the �Old Pretender�.
2/10/1720, Elizabeth Montagu, English socialite, was born
30/5/1719, Sir Roger Newdigate, English philanthropist,
was born (died 23/11/1806).
11/8/1718, Admiral Byng
destroyed the Spanish fleet off Cape Passaro.
2/8/1718, A Quadruple Alliance was formed between
Britain, France, Holland, and Austria, against Spain, after Spain seized Sardinia
and Sicily, threatening another European war. Under the Treaty of Utrecht
(11/4/1713) Sardinia had been assigned to Austria and Sicily to Savoy (see also
17/2/1720).� However King Philip V of Spain,
influenced by his wife Elizabeth Farnese of Parma and her advisor Giulio Alberoni,
seized these islands. Admiral Byng was sent to defend Sicily, with
Austrian troops. In a sea battle off Cape Passaro, he totally destroyed the Spanish
fleet. Meanwhile French troops occupied northern Spain. The purpose of the Quadruple Alliance were, to maintain
the terms of the Peace of Utrecht, for Spain to renounce any claim to the
French throne, and to guarantee the Protestant succession in Britain. The four
powers would also assist each other if any were attacked. Spain initially
backed a Jacobite invasion of Britain, but after the dismissal of Cardinal
Alberoni in December 1719 Spain changed policy and joined the
Alliance, which provided a forum to discuss territorial disputes in Europe.
5/6/1718, Thomas Chippendale, English
furniture maker, died.
The first copper smelting works was set up in
the Tawe Valley, Swansea, area. By 1860 the previously wooded rural valley was
smelting over 50% of all copper imported into the UK.
24/2/1716, The leaders
of the Jacobite
uprising I November 1715 captured at Preston were executed.� Some escaped to France.� The Pretender himself also escaped.� The
aim of the rebels was to overthrow the Hanoverian dynasty ands restore the Stuarts to the throne.
22/12/1715. James Stuart, the �Old
Pretender�, son of King James II, deposed Roman Catholic King of England, landed at Peterhead after his exile
in France. However he was forced to leave on 5/2/1716 for France again with the
Earl of Mar,
as the Jacobite
Army, defeated, dispersed.
13/11/1715, A Royalist
army defeated the Jacobites at Preston, Lancashire. On this day Mar
also failed to dislodge the Royalists under Argyll from Sheriffmuir, north
6/9/1715, The Earl of Mar
raised the Stuart Standard at Braemar, starting the Jacobite Rebellion.
Accession of King George I
20/10/1714, Coronation of King
18/9/1714, George I landed in England.
1/8/1714. Queen Anne,
the last Stuart monarch, died childless.�
King George I, Elector
of Hanover, Prince George Louis, son of the Electress Sophia, daughter of
Elizabeth, daughter of James I, became King under the 1701 Act of Settlement. Unfortunately he spoke no English.
of Shrewsbury was appointed Lord
10/4/1710, The Copyright Act came into effect in
Britain. This allowed authors to hold exclusive rights to their work for up to
50 years after their death.
Netherlands signed a second Barrier
Treaty, modifying the terms of the first such Treaty (see 29/10/1709). The
number of �barrier towns� to be fortified by Britain against France was
29/10/1709, Britain and The Netherlands signed the
Barrier Treaty. The Netherlands guaranteed to support the Protestant
Hanoverian succession in Britain, and Britain guaranteed to maintain a
�barrier� of towns in southern Netherlands against possible French aggression.
Cleveland, mistress to King Charles II of England, died (born 1641).
For events in the War of the Spanish Succession, see Spain-Portugal,
Act of Union, England and Scotland
1/5/1707, Act of
Union between England and Scotland. The Union of the English and Scottish
crowns was on 24/3/1603, when James VI of
Scotland also became King of
England. Scotland failed economically, and England put pressure for Union
on the Scottish Parliament. Scottish aristocrats were offered compensation and
voted for Union. Coinage, taxation,
sovereignty, and parliament became one, but Scotland retained its own legal and
religious system. The Union Jack was adopted as the National Flag.
31/12/1705, Catherine of Braganza, queen consort of King Charles II
of England, died (born 1638).
12/7/1705, Death of Anglican priest Titus Gates, the anti-Catholic
conspirator who alleged the existence of
a plot to assassinate King Charles II
and place his Catholic brother James
on the throne, thus causing the execution of 35 suspects and the
exclusion of Catholics from the British Parliament.
27/12/1703, The Methuen Treaty was signed.
12//9/1703, The Hapsburg Archduke Ferdinand
was proclaimed King of Spain, War of the
Spanish Succession began. France had already, in 1701, begun to occupy key
fortresses in the Spanish Netherlands, following the death of the Spanish
II on 2/10/1700, with no heir.
Accession of Queen Anne
The coronation of Queen
8/3/1702, King William
III died when his horse, Sorrel, stumbled on a molehill in the
grounds of Hampton Court Park. He had no children, and the Crown passed to Queen Anne. second
daughter of James II, who was born on 6/2/1665 in London, and
brought up as a strict Protestant. By the time Anne became Queen she had
already had 17 children, and seen them all die in childhood. She died on
1/8/1714, and was succeeded by King George I.
12/6/1701, The Act of Settlement was passed in London.
It settled the Royal accession on the Protestant descendants of Sophia of
Hanover and barred Roman Catholics from
the English throne.
30/7/1700, William, Duke of Gloucester, died aged 11. He
was the only surviving child of Queen Mary, so the succession to the English
throne passed to the Electress Sophia of Hanover.
20/9/1697, The Treaty
of Ryswick ended the Nine Years War. This Treaty led to the Barrier Treaties (1709-15) between
Britain and the Netherlands, with the idea that Britain would assist The
Netherlands to maintain a line of fortresses against any future French attacks.
These fortresses included Ypres, Lille, Tournai, Valenciennes and Namur. In
return the Dutch promised to send 6,000 troops to help Britain resist a
Jacobite uprising, which they did supply in 1715.
28/1/1697, Sir John Fenwick, Jacobite conspirator against
Navigation Act forbade the Colonies
in America from exporting directly to Ireland or Scotland.
18/3/1696, Robert Charnock,
conspirator to kill King William III of England near Turnham Green
London, and restore a Stuart monarchy, was hanged.
28/12/1694. Queen Mary II died from smallpox (born 1662),
III to reign alone.
11/4/1694, The Dukedom
of Bedford was created.
18/5/1692, Elias Ashmole,
founder of the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, died (born 23/5/1617).
13/2/1692. Massacre at Glencoe. 40
members of the MacDonald
clan were massacred by the Campbells. This
massacre was on the orders of William III, because of their Jacobite
sympathies of the MacDonalds and their delay in swearing an oath
of allegiance. On 27/8/1691 a proclamation was issued offering indemnity
to all who took the oath of allegiance before 1/1/1692. All Scottish chiefs
took the oath except MacIan, chief of the MacDonalds of Glencoe, who
postponed the submission until 31/12/1691. He then could not take the oath
until 6/1/1692 because there was no magistrate at Fort William. This
irregularity gave Breadalbane (John Campbell, First Earl of Breadalbane)
the excuse to destroy the clan that had for generations plundered the lands of
himself and his neighbours. The Macdonalds were in fact giving hospitality to
their murderers when they rose up and killed them.� Breadalbane managed to prevent most of the
evidence against him from being presented; he was imprisoned for a short time
in Edinburgh Castle on the grounds of earlier negotiations with the Highland
chiefs, but was released when it was known he was acting with the knowledge of King William.
29/10/1691, William Hulme, English philanthropist, died.
30/6/1690. The Battle
of Beachy Head. An allied force of 37 British ships and 22 Dutch ships
was at anchor off Beachy head whilst a French
fleet of 70 ships waited off to the south-west, waiting to co-operate with an
anticipated Catholic Jacobite uprising in England. The English
commander, Torrington, wished to retire to the mouth of the Thames till he
could be reinforced, but the Council of Regency ordered him to remain where he
was, and fight if he could secure an advantageous position. Torrington took this as an order to fight
the French and bore down on them; however with inferior numbers, there were
gaps between the British ships. The Anglo-Dutch fleets began to suffer heavy
losses from French fire. But the tide turned from flood to ebb during the
engagement, and whilst the Anglo-Dutch ships dropped anchor, the French did
not, and were carried away westwards on the current. Some of the most damaged
British ships were abandoned in Pevensey Bay. Torrington was tried for his conduct but acquitted.
27/7/1689. The Scottish Jacobites, supporters of the deposed James II, won the Battle of Killiecrankie,
near Pitlochry, against the English under William III. However the Jacobite leader John Graham,
Earl of Dundee, was killed.
24/5/1689. The English
Parliament passed the Act of Toleration exempting dissenting Protestants
from certain legal penalties so long as they have sworn oaths of allegiance to
the Crown. Catholics were specifically
excluded from this relief.
Jeffreys died in The Tower of London, aged 44, before he could be tried.
A Protestant, he had been hired by King James II to set up a court to deal with
Rebellion of 1685. He was the Lord
Chancellor who was notorious for the harshness of his sentences at the �Bloody Assizes�. 300 of Monmouth�s
peasant followers were sentenced to hang and a further 800 sent to forced
labour in Barbados . After the trials, Jeffreys was made Lord Chancellor by James II,
a position he held until the Glorious Revolution of 1688. See 19/8/1685.
12/12/1688, Judge Jeffreys took refuge from a mob in the
Tower of London.
19/8/1685. Judge Jeffreys began
sentencing people to death at what became known as the Bloody Assizes. This
followed the Monmouth Rebellion, see
of King William III and Queen Mary
11/4/1689, The coronation of King William III and Queen
Mary as joint sovereigns (see 13/2/1689). The Bishop of London
performed the service, as the Archbishop of Canterbury refused to participate.
13/2/1689. William and
Mary ascended the English throne. Mary was the daughter of James II;
William was born in The Hague. This ended the �Glorious Revolution� (see
6/6/1685 and 6/7/1685); James II fled to
France on 22/12/1688.
They were crowned by the Bishop of London, because the Archbishop of Canterbury
refused to do this (see 11/4/1689). James II�s support for
the Catholic cause had made him unpopular.
22/1/1689, The Convention
Parliament agreed that Charles II had abdicated by fleeing to France
(on 22/12/1688) and that the throne was vacant, for William and Mary to accede.
5/11/1688, William of Orange landed at Torbay, having been invited by Whig
and Tory leaders to save Britain from Catholicism on 30/6/1688;
accepted this invitation on 5/11/1688. See 30/6/1688. William had some 40,000 troops
in 463 ships but they were not necessary. James prepared to fight him, but was unsettled
by defections in his army. The English population welcomed William. They almost missed
Torbay, due to poor navigation, and the next port was Plymouth, strongly
guarded by James
II�s garrison. However the wind turned and Wiliam�s fleet was able to make
landfall at Torbay as planned. James later fled to France.
30/6/1688, William of
Orange was invited to England.
10/6/1688, A son (James Stuart, the �Old Pretender�) was born to
up the possibility of a line of Catholic Kings to rule England.� He was James II�s only son; his mother was Mary of Modena.
13/11/1687. Nell Gywnne, actress, died,
aged in London aged 37. The mistress of Charles II, who had borne him two sons, was
perhaps the best known orange seller of all time.
14/4/1687. Having failed to
persuade Parliament to repeal the 1673 Test
Act (forbidding a� Catholic from being the monarch of England),
James II issued a Declaration of
Indulgence. This granted toleration to
Catholics and to non-conformists.
10/2/1686, Sir William Dugdale, English historian, died
(born 12/9/1605). In 1641 he was commissioned by Sir Christopher Hatton (who foresaw
the destruction of the Civil War) to make exact drafts of the monuments at all
of England�s major cathedrals.
15/7/1685, The Duke of Monmouth, illegitimate
son of King
Charles II and Lucy Walter, was executed on Tower Green, London, for leading a Protestant rebellion
on the accession of King James II.
II�s troops defeated the Duke of Monmouth at Sedgemoor,
Somerset, the last battle fought on English soil. Monmouth�s troops had
attempted a night attack late on 5/7/1685 but the King�s troops under John Churchill, later Duke of Marlborough, successfully
counterattacked at dawn. The
rebel Duke of Monmouth, an illegitimate son of King Charles II, was executed on
15/7/1685. See 13/2/1689.
11/6/1685, An abortive
rebellion against King James II, by the same faction as promoted
the Rye House Plot of 1683 (21/7). Monmouth, having been expelled from
Holland upon the accession of James II, landed at Lyme Regis, Dorset, and
issued a proclamation claiming the throne of England. He gathered a small army
of 3-4,000, mainly of middle social class status, and managed to capture
Taunton before being defeated by pro-Royal troops at Sedgemoor on 6/7/1683.
6/6/1685. James II
became King of England. See 13/2/1689.
7/2/1685; Charles II,
brother, died after suffering an apoplectic fit on 2/2/1685, see 6/6/1685.
Dukedom of St Albans was created.
10/11/1683, George II,
King of England, was born in Hanover, Germany, the only son of George I.
21/7/1683, Algernon Sidney and William Russell were executed for their part
on the Rye House Plot. Along with
the Earl of
Wessex (who cheated the
executioner by committing suicide in gaol), they planned to ambush King Charles II
and the Duke
of York (future James II)
on their return from Newmarket to London at a narrow point at Rye House, near
Hoddesdon, and assassinate them. The plot failed because the monarch left
Newmarket early. The Government took advantage of the plot to implicate others
whose loyalty to Charles II was questionable.
6/6/1683. Elias Ashmole opened the first public museum,
the Ashmolean, in Broad Street,
Oxford. Exhibits included stuffed animals and a dodo.
1/3/1683, Caroline, wife of King George II of Britain, was
born (died 20/11/1737).
Dukedom of Beaufort was created.
22/6/1679, The Battle of Bothwell Bridge. The Duke of
Monmouth defeated the Scottish Covenanters, who had rebelled against
the policies of John
Maitland, Duke of Lauderdale.
1/6/1679, At the Battle of Drumclog, Scottish
Covenanters defeated a small government force.
Corpus Act � King vs. Parliamemnt, again
27/5/1679. The Habeas Corpus Act, stating that
nobody could be held in prison without a trial, was passed. The rights of a
prisoner were mentioned as early as the 14th century in England, but
it was Lord Shaftesbury who suggested such an Act on the statute books. Charles I
believed himself to be above Parliament so the Act was passed to counter his
rulings. This enabled political prisoners of the King to demand a trial,
and to obtain bail if prison was not justified. Habeas Corpus can only be
suspended in times of war or a terrorist threat.
6/3/1679, In England the Habeas Corpus Parliament, or First
Exclusion Parliament, assembled for the first time.
24/1/1679, King Charles II of England dissolved the Cavalier Parliament.
12/8/1678, Titus Oates� Popish plot was revealed to King Charles II.
4/11/1677, King William II married his cousin Princess Mary
Mary II of England), the eldest daughter of King James II and Anne Hyde.
Dukedom of Grafton was created.
Dukedom of Richmond (Lennox & Gordon) was created.
18/10/1674, Richard (Beau)
Nash, Master of Ceremonies at Bath, who established the city as a
centre of fashion, was born.
19/2/1674, The Treaty of Westminster ended the Third
17/3/1672, The Third
Anglo-Dutch war began, because Charles II was bound under the secret provisions
of the Treaty of Dover to support Louis XIV. The Treaty of Dover, 1670, was concluded between Charles II
XIV of France, following negotiations begun back in
1668. However the weaker Dutch fleet held back the English, who were facing
difficulties in financing this war. In
1673 the English Parliament agreed to raise taxes to fund the conflict in
return for the passing of the Test Act. This Act required all holding civil or
military office to accept the Church of England sacrament and reject the Catholic doctrine of Transubstantiation. The
subsequent resignation of the Duke of York (the future James II) and others betrayed
the presence of Catholics in the English high office. Meanwhile in August 1672
a revolution in the Netherlands brought William of Orange (future King William III) to power. In
August / September 1673 Spain, Austria and Brandenburg, and in January 1674 Denmark,
all declared war on France. The Dutch encouraged the belief amongst the English
that the war constituted a betrayal of Protestant interests by Catholics in
high office. In 1674 England concluded a separate peace with The Netherlands,
the Treaty of Westminster.
1/6/1670, Two Treaties of Dover � one
public, one secret � were made by
with Louis XIV. Charles II secretly
agreed to declare his conversion to Catholicism and subsequently to restore it
to Britain. Charles
II did not announce his
conversion, to the annoyance of Louis XIV.� The public
Treaty committed Britain and France to declare war on Holland � if this war
was successful, Britain would receive Zeeland and the port of Ostend. Britain
would assist Louis
XIV�s claim on the Spanish throne. The private Treaty, known only to Charles II and a select few of his government ministers,
stated that Charles
would re-establish Catholicism in Britain in return for �150,000 from France
and the use of 6,000 French troops to cope with any �internal resistance�.
13/1/1668. The Triple Alliance was formed between England,
Holland, and Sweden to defend The Netherlands from the ambitions of the French
XIV, who was pursuing a claim based on his wife�s rights as Spanish
Infanta. This was the War of Devolution which was ended on 2/5/1668 by the Peace of Aix la Chapelle.
30/8/1667, King Charles II dismissed the Lord Chancellor Edward Hyde
over the humiliating terms imposed on Britain by Holland in the Treaty of
Peace of Breda ended the war between England and the Netherlands
(Second Anglo-Dutch War).� Trade laws
were modified in favour of the Dutch, who also gained Surinam but recognised
British possession of New York.� See
18/6/1667 and 2/2/1665. The English sought peace with the Dutch in order to
curb the growing military power of (Catholic) France. In the �War of
Devolution� France had already seized the Spanish Netherlands and
Franche-Comte; Holland and England now sought to mediate in this war between
France and Spain. The other principal
Protestant power in Europe, Sweden, then joined with (Protestant) Holland and
Britain in a Triple Alliance (formalised by the Treaty of Aix la Chapelle, 2/5/1668). However (Catholic) King Charles II regretted this
Triple Alliance against France and began negotiations with Louis XIV that led to the
Treaties of Dover (1/6/1670).
Dutch humiliated the English by breaking through a defensive chain in the
Thames Estuary at Chatham and sailing up The Thames to burn or capture English
ships. The English flagship Royal Charles was captured and carried
off. See 31/7/1667.
15/10/1666. King Charles II,
according to Pepys,
wore the first waistcoat this day.
31/8/1666, Maria Henrietta,
wife of Charles I of
England, daughter of Henry IV of Framce, died (born 25/11/1609).
6/2/1665, Queen Anne
was born at St James Palace, the second daughter of James II by his first wife,
Anne Hyde. She was the last Stuart
monarch of Britain.
28/10/1664, The Admiral�s Regiment was formed, later known as
the Royal Marines.
Dukedom of Buccleuch was created.
20/5/1662, King Charles II
of England married Catherine of Braganza, starting a fruitful
alliance with Portugal.
30/4/1662, Mary II
of England was born.
19/4/1661, Postmarks were introduced in Britain by the Post
16/4/1661, Charles Montagu, founder of the Bank of
England, was born.
6/1/1661, The Royal Horse Guards Regiment was formed, by
24/12/1660, Mary, daughter of Charles I, died..
12/11/1660. John Bunyan, 32, author
of Pilgrim�s progress, was arrested for preaching without a licence, and
not in a parish church. He was put in Bedford gaol.
13/10/1660, Thomas Harrison, Civil War Parliamentarian who
opposed the Absolutist rule of Cromwell,was executed.
of English Monarchy
23/4/1661, The coronation of King Charles II.
30/1/1661, The body of Oliver Cromwell (died 3/9/1658)
was exhumed, hanged and beheaded, and reburied at Tyburn.
29/5/1660, King Charles II entered London; he landed at Dover on 26/5/1660.
26/5/1660. The British monarchy was restored with Charles II, born 29/5/1630,
as king.� He was crowned on
23/4/1661, ending an exile of nearly
nine years.� On 29/5/1660, his 30th
birthday, Charles II rode into London to scenes of great rejoicing.� Everyone
was glad to see the end of the kill-joy Puritan regime that had banned
Christmas, maypoles, and theatre; a regime that had run out of steam after Cromwell died.�
The bodies of Cromwell and his chief associates were dragged from
Westminster Abbey and buried beneath Tyburn Gallows.� Other regicides were executed.
23/5/1660, King Charles II sailed from Scheveningen, to
return to England, ending his exile. See 16/3/1660.
English Parliament voted for the restoration of the Monarchy, see
16/4/1660, Sir Hans Sloane, physician and collector, was
28/3/1660, George I, first
Hanoverian king of England, was born at Osnabruck Castle in Hanover.
16/3/1660, England�s Long Parliament was dissolved after sitting for 20 years (with a
break, 1653-59), throughout the Civil War. This was an
important step towards the restoration
of the monarchy and the House of Lords. See 23/5/1660.
21/2/1660, The Rump (Long) Parliament, recalled on
7/5/1659, was rejoined by surviving MPs that had been purged on 6/12/1648.
Oliver Cromwell -- Brief succession of Richard Cromwell
12/7/1712, Richard Cromwell, second Lord Protector, son
of Oliver Cromwell, died.
Cromwell resigned as Lord Protector.
7/5/1659, The Long (Rump) Parliament was recalled
(see 20/4/1653). It called for Cromwell�s resignation.
Cromwell dissolved the English Parliament, at the request of the
Cromwell died of pneumonia.
A Puritan, he was aged 60 and had ruled England for 5 years. His son Richard
succeeded him as Protector. However
Richard lacked the authority of his father.
27/5/1657, Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell refused an offer to make him King of
England. To have accepted the Crown would have lost him the loyalty of the
17/9/1656, (-105,412) Cromwell�s Third Parliament
14/9/1656, Thomas Baker,
English antiquary, was born in Lanchester, Durham (died 2/7/1740).
30/5/1656, The Grenadier
Guards, the senior regiment of the British Army, was formed.
control of Parliament
ordered the exclusion of Members of Parliament that were hostile to him.
3/9/1654, In the
English Parliament, the Republican, Vance, questioned the pre-eminence of Cromwell.
Cromwell became Lord
Protector of England, effectively an uncrowned King.� He ruled for over four years.
13/12/1653, The Barebones Parliament� ended.
4/7/1653, The Barebones Parliament began sitting.
20/4/1653, Cromwell dissolved the Long Parliament (Rump
Parliament) due to its slowness in implementing Cromwellian reforms. It was
recalled on 7/5/1659, after Cromwell�s
War. See Netherlands for main histrory
1/10/1660. The English reinforced the Navigation Act
by insisting that certain colonial goods were only to be shipped to Britain. This was
directed against the Dutch but caused resentment in the British colonies.
16/4/1654, The Peace
of Westminster ended the First
Anglo-Dutch war between England and The Netherlands, but the Navigation Act which led to the war was
retained. See 6/10/1651.
6/10/1651. The English issued a commercial
challenge to the Dutch by passing the Navigation
Act; this prohibited the import of goods into England from America,
Asia, or Africa in any except British or colonial ships; with a crew at least
half-English. This was a challenge to
Amsterdam�s status as Europe�s leading port. This was an attempt to revive
the English economy, depressed by three years of plague and bad harvests. In 1652 England declared war on The Netherlands (First
Anglo-Dutch War) after an incident where a Dutch fleet refused to be
searched by the British. See 15/4/1654, and 1/10/1660.
King Charles II continues English Civil War. Lands in Scotland, defeated at
3/9/1651. Oliver Cromwell�s army
defeated the Royalist army at Worcester. Charles
II, destitute and
friendless, spent the night in an oak tree at Boscobel to evade capture, and
fled to France on 17/10/1651.
Cromwell�s troops hauled twenty large boats upstream to make a pontoon bridge,
crossing the Severn into the Royalist side.�
The battle concluded with fighting inside Worcester itself.� Some 3,000 Royalist forces were killed, and
10,000 taken prisoner, many of whom were transported to New England as
slaves.� The Parliamentarian forces lost
only 200 men.� This was the final
battle for the Royalist cause.
28/8/1651, The Parliamentarians captured Upton Bridge, 10 miles south of Worcester.� The Royalist
Massey was badly wounded.� Cromwell�s
forces occupied the west bank of the
Severn with 11,000 troops, so cutting off any support for Charles II from
Wales, and aiming to attack Worcester from
25/8/1651, A force of Lancashire Royalists raised
the Earl of Derby was crushed by Colonel Robert Lilburne at Wigan.� Cromwell returned to England via the east
coast from Scotland; harassing Charles II�s
rearguard.� Cromwell marched on Worcester with a force of around
28,000 regular troops plus a further 3,000 militiamen who were against the
Scots.� Lilburne blockaded Charles
route back into Scotland. Charles hoped to draw extra forces from Wales
and the south-west.
22/8/1651,� Charles II
occupied the loyal Royalist city of Worcester, but his army numbered less than 16,000 troops.� See 25/8/1651.
5/8/1651, King Charles II began a march south
into England, crossing the border from Scotland this day.� His plan was to march through
the traditionally Royalist regions of Lancashire and the Welsh border, picking
up troops along the way.� However the
English Royalists and Presbyterians failed to join him, due to anti-Scots
propaganda from the Cromwellian camp.� See 22/8/1651.
2//8/1651, Cromwell�s army took Perth.
1/1/1651, Charles II was crowned King of Scotland
at Scone Palace. He then marched south into England (see 5/8/1651).
19/12/1650, Cromwell�s army took Edinburgh Castle.
3/9/1650, The Battle of Dunbar; Cromwell�s army marched into Scotland and
defeated a Scottish Royalist Persbyterian army under David Leslie twice its size. This battle,
along with Worcester (3/9/1651), put an end to Charles I�s Royalist cause.
24/6/1650, Charles II landed in Scotland and was proclaimed King.
27/4/1650, Battle of Carbisdale, English Civil War. The Marquis of
Montrose was captured by Parliamentarian forces, and executed in May
King Charles II continues English Civil War. Lands in Scotland, defeated at
4/11/1650, William III,
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland, was born in The Hague, Holland, son of William II of Orange.
20/4/1650, William Bledloe, English adventurer, was born
in Chepstow (died in Bristol 20/8.1680)
See Ireland for Cromwell�s activities in Ireland
15/9/1649, Birth of Titus Gates,
English Anglican priest who successfully stirred up anti-Catholic sentiments by
creating a �Popish plot�.
5/1649, The Levellers were defeated at Burford, Oxfordshire. The Levellers,
led by John Lilburne (ca, 1614-1657), Richard Overton (ca. 1631-1664) and� William Walwyn (1600-1680),� were a radical political movement calling for
all but the very poorest to be enfranchised, religious toleration, the end of
the monarchy and the abolition of the House of Lords. They were supported by
�agitators; from the Parliamentarian ranks.
10/5/1649, Isaac Dorislaus, Anglo-Dutch lawyer and
diplomatist, was murdered by English Royalist refugees in The Hague. Born 1595
in Alkmaar, Holland, he moved to England in ca. 1627 and helped prepare treason
charges against King
9/3/1649, James Hamilton, English Civil war Royalist,
was executed (born 19/6/1609).
Final trial and execution of King Charles I. England now a Republic
16/3/1649. Oliver Cromwell, (born 25/4/1599 in Huntingdon,
died 3/9/1658) declared England to be a republic, and abolished the monarchy
and the House of Lords.
9/2/1649, King Charles I was buried at St George�s
5/2/1649, King Charles I�s son, 18 years old, was proclaimed Charles II.
30/1/1649. Charles I, convicted of treason on 29/1/1649 (see 22/8/1642), was beheaded outside the
Banqueting House in Whitehall. He stepped on to the scaffold at 2pm. Four
years had passed since the decisive Royalist defeat at Naseby (14/6/1645).
Since then Charles I had sought the
support of the Irish and the Roman Catholics and even the Pope, all in vain. The Scots, too, were sceptical of his
promises to re-establish Presbyterianism and handed him over to the English. The executioner, Richard Brandon,
received �30 for a job well done. Charles I�s funeral and burial was in St
George�s Chapel on 9/2/1649.
20/1/1649 - 27/1/1649, At the week-long trial
of Charles I, no defence witnesses
Final defeat and capture of King Charles I
6/12/1648, Pride�s purge of Parliament. Oliver Cromwell�s troops
surrounded Parliament and refused to admit the 200 Presbyterian MPs, purging the whole of the majority that was
opposing Cromwell�s Independents. The remaining 50 MPs, all Independents,
then voted for Cromwell�s purge. They then discussed the fate of King Charles,
was holding prisoner on the Isle of Wight. The Presbyterian faction had tried
to make a deal with the King, and Cromwell�s swift solution was unexpected. The
remaining MPswere dubbed the Rump
17/8/1648. Cromwell�s army victorious at the Battle of Preston, against a small and
poorly-trained force of Scottish soldiers under the Duke of Hamilton.
14/3/1648, Fairfax of Cameron, British Parliamentary General,
15/1/1648, The British parliament renounced allegiance to the King and voted to have no further communication with him.
This was because of his secret treaty with Scotland.
24/12/1647, The British Parliament presented Charles
I with four Bills to sign. One gave Parliament control of
the army for 20 years, another required all declarations of Parliament so far
to be recalled, a third excluded all peers created by Charles I from sitting in
the Lords, and the last allowed the two Houses to adjourn at their own pleasure.
11/11/1647, Charles I fled from Hampton Court to the
Isle of Wight. He was arrested and detained in Carisbrooke Castle. He signed a secret treaty with
the Scottish, who promised to restore him by force.
4/6/1647, At Holmby House in Northamptonshire, Charles
I was seized by the Army, and taken to Hampton Court.
14/10/1645,� Battle of Basing House, near
could not risk fighting here in case Parliamentarian forces cut him off from Oxford, so he retreated back towards Newbury.
23/7/1645, The Royalist town of Bridgewater fell to the Parliamentarians.
10/7/1645, Battle of Langport (Somerset), English Civil War. The
Parliamentarians under Thomas Fairfax defeated the Royalists under Lord Goring.
Final defeat and capture of King Charles I
Initial successes by Royalists in Soctland but then fortunes reversed.
30/1/1647, The Scottish
agreed to hand over Charles I to the English
Army for the sum of �400,000.
5/5/1646, Charles I surrendered to the Scots at
Newark, ending the military phase of the Civil War
13/9/1645, The Battle of Philiphaugh, at which Montrose�s army, supporting Charles I,
was routed by General
Leslie�s forces. Montrose escaped to the Continent.
15/8/1645, Battle of Kilsyth, English Civil War. The
Royalists under the Marquis of Montrose defeated the Covenanters
2/7/1645, At the Battle
of Alford, Royalists beat the Covenanters.
9/5/1645, Battle of Auldearn, English Civil War. Royalists under the Marquis of
Montrose defeated the Covenanters east oif Nairn.
2/2/1645, At the Battle of Inverlochy, Royal Highlanders under the Marquess of
Montrose defeated the Covenanters under the Earl of Argyll.
13/9/1644, Battle of Aberdeen, English Civil War. Royalists under the Marquis of
Montrose defeated the Covenanters under Lord Burleigh.
1/9/1644, At the Battle of Tippamuir, Royalist Highlanders beat the Covenanters.
Initial successes by Royalists in Soctland but then fortunes reversed.
Royalists lose the North of England also
3/2/1646, Chester fell to Parliamentarian forces.
14/6/1645. Battle of Naseby,
in the Civil War. 10,000 Royalists (Cavaliers), under Prince Rupert,
were heavily defeated by 14,000 Roundheads under Cromwell and Fairfax, and effectively lost the Civil War.
The Royalists had lost their best officers as well as artillery and other
weaponry they could ill-afford to lose. The Royalists successfully attacked Cromwell�s left wing, but then made the fatal mistake of pursuing
the fleeing soldiers. Cromwell regrouped the right wing of his cavalry
to rout Prince Rupert�s army.
13/6/1645, Cromwell arrived at Naseby, raising the morale of
the Parliamentary troops there.
11/6/1645, Cromwell�s New Model Army marched northwards from its siege of Oxford,
travelling from Stony
Stratford to Wootton, three miles from Northampton. Rainy weather
hampered their progress, turning dirt roads into mud.
30/5/1645, A Royalist Army, 10,000 strong
led by Prince
Rupert attacked and besieged Parliamentarian forces in Leicester.
The Parliamentarians, 480 soldiers, 900 armed townsmen, and 150 volunteers from
the rest of Leicestershire, were heavily outnumbered. Moreover the city�s walls
had been badly maintained and had to be hurriedly bolstered with earthen banks.
Nevertheless the Royalists suffered heavy losses as they finally took the city;
they then brutally slaughtered the defenders. Ultimately, Charles� treatment of the
defenders of Leicester proved to be a turning point in his popularity amongst
27/10/1644, The second Battle
of Newbury was indecisive. After it, Charles escaped to Oxford.� The
Parliamentarian Army under Charles Montagu, Duke of
Manchester failed to prevent a Royalist force relieving the siege of
3/10/1644, The London-based Parliamentarian regiments defending Reading deserted back home, leaving
Essex too weak to defend the town, which was recaptured by the Royalists this
8/9/1644, Sir John Coke, English politician, died (born
2/9/1644, Royalists defeated the Roundheads at the Battle of Lostwithiel
now planned an advance on London.
2/7/1644. Battle of Marston Moor, near York, in the Civil War. The Royalists were crushed, and Cromwell�s forces took some 1,500
prisoners and kill 4,000 Royalist troops.�
This was the turning point in the Civil War;
the Royalists had effectively lost the north of England.
1/7/1644, Prince Rupert lifted the siege of York.
30/6/1644, Prince Rupert reached Knaresborough, near York.
29/6/1644, Battle of Cropredy Bridge, English Civil War. Royalists
I defeated the Parliamentarians under Sir William Wallers near Banbury.
15/6/1644, Essex, Parliamentarian, relieved the
siege of Lyme
Regis, and occupied Weymouth. Elsewhere in the South,
Parliamentarian forces were pressing closer to Oxford, although Charles was able to manoeuvre
skilfully in an area around Oxford Gloucester, Abingdon,
avoiding total defeat by the Parliamentarian forces.
16/5/1644, Prince Rupert left Shrewsbury and fought his way
across hostile country to Lancashire, where he hoped to drum up more
support for the Royalists. He took Stockport and Liverpool, then swung towards
Yorkshire, intending to relieve the siege of York. Once York was relieved, or if it was
lost before he arrived, Rupert was to head back south to the Woircester
area to help the Royalist forces there. See 1/7/1644.
13/4/1644, Fairfax and Leven commenced a siege of the
Royalist forces in York.
11/4/1644, Fairfax, Parliamentarian, stormed into
Yorkshire from Lancashire, occupying Selby this day. The Marquis of Newcastle,
Royalist, had to retreat from fighting the Scots in Durham and consolidate his
position in York.
Royalists lose the North of England also
1643-44, Scottish forces join the Parliamentarians; Royalists losing in southern
29/3/1644, Battle of Cheriton, a few miles east of Winchester,
Royalist, was defeated. Although he had the advantage in the initial stages of
this battle, indiscipline and bad coordination undermined his efforts, and Waller
gained the final victory. However Waller suffered desertions from his army and
was therefore unable to capitalise on this victory, and retired to Farnham.
22/3/1644, Newark capitulated to Prince Rupert.
captured a large quantity of armaments. However he was being too thinly stretched,
with Royalists in the North of England, Lancashire and the South all needing
25/1/1644, Royalists were defeated at the Battle of Nantwich.
22/1/1644, King Charles summoned a �Counter Assembly�,
a rival Parliament to the London one, �at
He was pleased to find that 83 Peers and 175 MPs attended. However there was bad news for Charles
on the military front, with the arrival on the Parliamentarian side of a Scottish army of
18,000 foot soldiers and 3,000 horsemen. London agreed to pay the Scots �31,000 a month plus
cost of equipment for this military assistance. From the Scottish point of
view, they were being invited to invade a larger country, at its own expense,
and would gain considerable influence over its religious affairs. The Marquis of
Newcastle, Royalist now faced an attack on two fronts, north and
6/1/1644, Waller, Parliamentarian, recaptured
Arundel (see 9/12/1643).
13/12/1643, Parliamentarians under Waller made a surprise attack on a Royalist
force at Alton (Hampshire) (see 15/9/1643).
9/12/1643, Lord Hopton captured Arundel for the
Royalists. See 6/1/1644.
8/12/1643, Pym, Parliamentarian English politician, died.
1643-44, Scottish forces join the Parliamentarians; Royalists losing in
1643, The tide turns once more against the Royalists. Charles� Irish troops
20/9/1643. The First
Battle of Newbury was indecisive.� The Royalist Army was attempting to block
the path of the Parliamentarians
Devereux, Earl of Essex, who were returning to their base at Reading after raising the siege of Gloucester.�� Essex�s Army failed to break through the Royalist position but made such an
impact that the Royalists withdrew
anyway. The Royalists withdrew back into Newbury, and Essex reached Reading on 22/9/1643 with only a minor
rearguard skirmish at Aldermaston.
18/9/1643, Eastern Association Parliamentary forces reinforced Hull with more
infantry and ammunition supplies, against the Royalists attacking the town from
the rural East Riding. Meanwhile cavalry released from Hiull (by the arrival of
the Parliamentarian infantry) � the sea routes from the town were open �
crossed the Humber and defeated the Royalists at Winceby this day, just east of Horncastle,
Lincolnshire. Parliamentarian forces subsequently captured Lincoln and Gainsborough.
16/9/1643, Parliamentary �Eastern Association� forces moved into Lincolnshire and
besieged Royalist Kings Lynn, which surrendered this day. See
15/9/1643, King Charles made a truce with rebels in Ireland,
to free up more forces for the Civil War. However these troops proved less than
reliable fighters for Charles, and at Alton (13/12/1643) many
defected to the Parliamentarian side.
5/9/1643, In the face of Essex�s newly arrived army, now at Cheltenham,
the Royalists suddenly raised the siege of Gloucester and withdrew to Painswick.
The danger to Gloucester now over, Essex�s men now began a march back to their
headquarters at Reading; hiowever see 20/9/1643.
26/8/1643, Parliamentarian forces under Essex began a march westwards to relieve the
siege of Gloucester.
Moving through Aylesbury
and then by-pasing Royalist Oxford to the north, going via Stow on the
Wold, Essex�s forces successfully withstood both food shortages
and flanking skirmishes by Royalist forces from Oxford. See 5/9/1643.
1643, The tide turns once more against the Royalists. Charles� Irish troops
- Summer of successes for the Royalists
10/8/1643, Royalist forces began a siege of
Gloucester. The city constituted a vital
strategic link between the Royalist areas of Wales and Oxfordshire, and its
governor, the Parliamentarian Massey, was rumoured to be ready to switch
hoped to capture Gloucester, consolidating his position across southern
Rngland and the South Midlands, and then later capture Hull and Plymouth, which were still
thorns in his side, holding out for Parliament. However
Charles could instead have taken his army against London where the
Parliamentarian Army had suffered desertions and disease, and riots had broken
out against them.� A possible opportunity
to win the peace movement in London and so end the civil war with a Royalist
victory was foregone.
26/7/1643, Prince Rupert, Royalist, captured Bristol after a 4-day siege. Waller,
with his forces badly mauled, was powerless to intervene from his headquarters
The Royalists now overran all of Dorset.
25/7/1643, Roger Pierrepoint, Royalist who had been taken
prisoner by the Parlianentarians whilst defending Gainsborough, Lincolnshire,
was accidentally killed whilst being taken to Hull.
13/7/1643. Wallers Parliamentarian forces
attempted to surround and capture Devizes, along with Hopton�s army and guns defending
the town. However the Royalists fought back strongly, and Royalist
reinforcements soon arrived from Oxford. Waller�s forces were detstroyed, and the
Royalists now advanced on Parliamentarian-held Bristol.
6/7/1643, Royalist forces, having failed to make a breakthrough at Bath, and with
badly wounded, moved east to Devizes, closely followed by Parliamentarian soldiers.
5/7/1643, Waller, Parliamentarian commander
to avoid being surrounded, engaged the Royalists at Lansdown, just north of Bath.
Neither side really won this battle, having fought to exhaustion all day, and Hopton
was severely injured next day by the explosion of an ammunition wagon.
6/1643, Royalist forces from Devon and Wiltshire joined up
at Chard and moved towards Parliamentarian-held Bath. The Royalists avoided the
Mendips by swinging east towards the Avon Valley, which threatened the
Parliamentarians in Bath with being cut off from London
and surrounded. See 5/7/1643. However
Plymouth was still held by the Parliamentarians, and was just the same threat
to the Royalists in the southwest as Hull was to the Royalists in Yorkshire.
30/6/1643, Fairfax�s Parliamentarian forces were
decisively defeated at the battle of Adwalton (Atherton) Moor, near Bradford, Yorkshire,
This led to the fall of the West Riding clothing towns to the Royalists.
24/6/1643, John Hamden, Parliamentarian commander,
died after eing wounded in the shoulder by gunfire at the Battle of Chalgrove.
18/6/1643, An epidemic had weakened Essex�s Parliamentarian forces holding Reading, and this day the
Parliamentarian forces were routed, and their commander John Hampden mortally
wounded at the Battle of Chalgrove Field (Chiselhampton, between Wallingford
and Oxford). When Essex obtained reinforcements and attempted to
take Oxford from the Aylesbuty side he found his men demoralised
and withdrew from Rupert�s Parliamentarian cavalry over towards Bedfordshire, in
16/5/1643, Hopton, Royalist, virtually
annihilated Parliamentarian forces in a battle at Bradock Down, near Stratton,
Cornwall/Devon border. Royalist forces west of Oxford now attempted a link-up with those in
Devon, and the Parliamentarians were forced to take forces from the
Gloucestershire area to hold back the Royalist advance through Devon eastwards.
The Parliamentarians had to be content with still holding Reading.
- Summer of successes for the Royalists
Turnaround for the better in Parliamentary fortunes, but�
plan for victory was now to tie down Essex�s forces with the Royalist stronghold in
area whilst other Royalist forces fought their way towards London from the
North and West. London
would ultimately be surrounded and starved into surrender. However this plan
failed due to the number of towns still held by the Parliamentarians, even as
the Royalists controlled the countryside around. Places like Hull,
Parliamentarian-held, tied up Royalist forces and thwarted Charles� plans. However this day Parliamentarian forces
captured Reading, an important part of the
Royalist Oxford defence perimeter, a
development which, although not fatal to Charles�
plans, would severely delay him.
25/4/1643, Hopton�s Royalist forces were defeated
Dukedom of Hamilton was created.
24/3/1643, The Parliamentarian position was improving somewhat after a bad winter
1642/3. Parliament had feared foreign intervention in support of Charles, and had to impose taxation, alienating
some, whilst others in London wanted peace at almost any cost. Parliament was
considering calling in the Scots to help against Charles.. However this day Sir William
Waller defeated the Royalists at Highnam, just west of Gloucester,
reinforcing the Parliamentarian hold on Gloucester. Parliament still held the West
Riding of Yorkshire, and Hampshire and Wiltshire were cleared of Royalist
forces. Some of Charles�
supporters too wanted to negotiate a peace.
19/3/1643, An indecisive battle at Hopton Heath,
7/3/1643, Prince Rupert attempted to capture Bristol but failed.
He then marched northeast, attacked Birmingham, then continued to recapture Lichfield,
which had been taken by the Parliamentarians earlier in the year.
forces from Oxford captured Cirencester,
widening the area they controlled in the south Midlands. In the lower Severn
Valley, the Parliamentarians still controlled the garrison towns of Gloucester
7/11/1642, Sir Henry
Montagu, 1st Earl of Manchester, died.
28/1/1642, Sir William Brereton, Parliamentarian, captured Nantwich. However the
Royalists were dong well in the region, extending their area of influence from
Shropshire and Staffordshire over to Ashby de la Zouch, into Leicestershire and
Nottinghgamshire, linking up with Royalist forces in Newark.
16/1/1643, Hopton, Royalist, defeated the Parliamentarians under the Earl of
Stamford at Bradock Down, near Liskeard.
Turnaround for the better in Parliamentary fortunes, but�
1642, campaigns in the Midlands and South-East.
12/11/1642, Charles I marched on London, defeating Royalist forces at Brentford, but was turned back at Turnham Green. The Royalists retired west to Reading. Over the following winter,
1642/3, with fighting in abeyance, tye Royalist forces consolidated their
position around Oxford whilst the Parliamtarians
established a position at Windsor. The Royalists established a defensive ring with outposts
at Reading, Wallingford, Abingdon, Brill, Banbury and Marlborough. However Civil War
conflicts continued over the winter in the North of England. Newcastle�s
Royalist forces defeated Hotham in the North Riding of Yorkshire, then
linked up with Royalist forces in York. Fairfax retreated his Parliamentarian forces
to the region between Selby and Hull. Newcastle now prepared to attack the �Puritan
clothing towns� of Leeds, Halifax and Bradford, but the townspeople
there put up stiff resistance, and in 1/1643 Newcastle gave up the attack.
marched south, over to Newark, to link up with Royalist forces in
Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire and Leicestershire. Local small bands of
Parliamentarian supporters in the Newark and Ashby de la Zouch areas were
West, 11/1642, Hopton�s
forces drove out the Parliamentarians from Cornwall and succeeded in occupying Devon
also. The Earl
of Stamford took his Parliamtarian forces out of south Wales to
who retreated back into Cornwall. See 16/1/1643.
24/10/1642, Essex retured from the battle scene
at Edgehill, leaving the Royalists to claim victory. The Royalists now
continued towards London, taking Banbury and Oxford, London started quickly
erecting defences, although some Londoners wanted to sue for peace..
23/10/1642. The Royalists narrowly beat the Roundheads
at the Battle of Edgehill, the first
of the English Civil War. The Royalists had bee lured down from their strong
hilltop position, as they needed to engage the Parliamentarians, or face a long
slow attrition. Both sides, exhausted and battered, claimed victory.
22/10.1642, Essex, marching at full speed,
just 7 miles from the Royalist headquarters at Edgecote.
12/10/1642, Prince Rupert, Royalist, found many of his
army in Shrewsbury
keen to attack the Parliamentarians under Essex at their new headquarters at Worcester.
However the road from Shrewsbury to London was now open and the
Royalists decided to take it, anticipating that Essex would intercept them. They
were keen to attack the Parliamentarian forces before they grew too strong.
This day the Royalist Army left Shrewsbury gaining two days start on the
Parliamentarians, moving south east via Bridgnorth, Birmingham and Kenilworth.
Parliament in London
became alarmed and ordered Essex to find and defeat Charles.
23/9/1642, A cavalry skirmish at Worcester between the retreating Royalists,
moving north, and an advance guard of Parliamentarian cavalry The Royalists
won, raising their morale.
13/9/1642, King Charles marched west from Nottingham
to marshal his supporters and their
armouries in Derbyshire and Staffordshire, and to link up, via Chester,
with his regiments in Ireland. The Parliamentarian forces shadowed this move,
also moving west from Northampton towards Worcester.
22/8/1642. The English Civil War began,
between the Cavaliers who supported King
Charles I and the Roundheads who supported Parliament,
when the King raised his standard at Nottingham.
Parliament raised an army of 20,000; the nobility and gentry supported the
King, fearing a Parliament of commoners. Small-scale skirmishes between
Parliamentarians and Royalists were already in progress, to secure or to deny
to the enemy country houses, loyalty, men, territory, arms and wealth. King Charles managed to bolster up his army of 1,500 to
nearer 15,000, which was almost as large as the Parliamnterian Army, 20,000
strong, although the latter was much better armed.
1642, campaigns in the Midlands and South-East.
Prelude to Civil War
1/6/1642, Parliament presented nineteen
propositions (demands) to Charles I.
These asked for Parliamentary control of the military, the Church, and of the
tutors of the Royal children
10/3/1642, Parliament requested the Lord
High Admiral to appoint Robert Rich, Earl of
Warwick, as commander of the fleet. Simultaneously Charles told him to appoint the Royalist Sir John Pennington. Warwick was appointed, and Charles had lost the
10/1/1642, Charles I withdrew from London, to Hampton Court. The Commons,
emboldened, prepared Bills excluding bishops from the House of Lords and giving
Parliament control of the army.
I entered Parliament and attempted to arrest five members for treasonable
correspondence with the Scots. He failed; the five were in hiding, and
Parliament refused to back the arrests. The five MPs were John Hampden, Arthur
Haselrigg, Denzil Holles, John Pym and William Strode.
This was the first time a monarch had entered the Commons, with militia, in
defiance of convention. Charles left the Commons, angry, and five days later left London and began raising an army against
22/11/1641, The Long Parliament
passed the Grand Remonstrance, part of a series of measures to curb the
excesses of King
Charles I�s absolutist ambitions.
Prelude to Civil War
Charles I, start of dispute with Parliament over revenue
Cromwell was elected MP for Cambridge. He supported Parliament�s
greivances against King Charles I.
3/11/1640, In Britain,
the Long Parliament assembled. It lasted until 1660, due to the Civil
order to raise money for a war against Scotland, Charles
I convened Parliament for the first time since 1629. This �short
parliament� was dissolved on 4/5/1640 after refusing to give the King any
9/10/1636, King Charles I issued a third writ for ship money
4/8/1635, King Charles I issued a second writ for ship money (see 11/2/1628), again the writ was resisted.
10/3/1629, King Charles I of England dissolved Parliament, starting the Eleven Years Tyranny.
11/2/1628, King Charles I demanded �ship money� of �173,000 to
secure Britain against French invasion.�
Ship money could be levied by The Crown without Parliamentary consent,
although it was of dubious legality.,�
However on this occasion the demands caused serious unrest but Charles I
was determined to rule without parliamentary consent.� See 4/8/1635.
England, King James I disbanded the Parliament.
8/1/1639, Henry, son of Charles I, was born.
14/10/1633, James II
was born at St James Palace, the second son of Charles
I and Henrietta Maria.
16/5/1633, Charles I was crowned King of Scotland at Edinburgh.
4/11/1631, Mary, daughter of Charles I, was born.
29/5/1630, King Charles II
28/11/1628, John Felton, assassin of the 1st Duke of
Buckingham, was hanged.
23/8/1628, The Duke of Buckingham, courtier and royal
favourite of James
I, was assassinated in Portsmouth
11/5/1625. Charles I
Maria, daughter of Henry IV of France.
27/3/1625. Charles I
5/3/1625, King James I, the �wisest fool in Christendom� died suddenly at Theobalds Park,
Hertfordshire.. He had been born in Edinburgh Castle on 19/6/1566, and was originally King
James IV of Scotland. As King James I of England he was the first Stuart King.
3/5/1621, The Lord
Francis Bacon, was charged with accepting bribes to grant monopolies,
25/3/1619, Peter Mews,
English Royalist, was born (died 9/11/1706).
29/10/1618. Sir Walter
English seafarer and once a favourite of Queen Elizabeth I - he named Virginia after
her � was beheaded at Whitehall after being falsely accused of treason.� The
execution was to appease Spain. Elizabeth
was possessive towards Raleigh and when she found he had married she sent him
and his wife to The Tower of London. However Raleigh bought their release
and went adventuring overseas, plundering Spanish possessions. His aggression
towards Spain led� the new monarch, James I,
to believe Raleigh was plotting to overthrow him. However again Raleigh escaped
in 1616 when the death sentence was lifted at the last minute, without,
however, an official pardon. It was now re-invoked when Raleigh returned
empty-handed from a gold-seeking expedition in Guiana, and at this time a
Spanish settlement had been burnt by Raleigh�s men.
23/5/1617, Elias Ashmole, English antiquarian and founder
of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, was born in Lichfield (died 18/5/1692).
17/12/1616, Sir Roger L�estrange, English Royalist
pamphleteer, was born.
1614, Sheffield now had 182
Master Cutlers. In 1624 the Company of Cutlers in Hallamshire was established.
7/6/1614, In England, the Addled Parliament was
dissolved by James I without having passed a single Bill since it first sat
on 5/4/1614, hence its name.
5/4/1614, The �Addled
Parliament� began sitting. It was dissolved on 7/6/1614 without passing a
single Bill, hence its name.
22/5/1611, King James I created the title �Baronet�.
25/11/1609, Maria Henrietta, wife of Charles I of England, daughter
of Henry IV
of Framce, was born (died 31/8/1666).
19/6/1606, James Hamilton, English Civil war Royalist,
was born (executed 9/3/1649).
12/4/1606, The Union Jack was adopted as the flag of
England, Wales, and Scotland.
Guy Fawkes Plot
31/1/1606, Guy Fawkes and co-conspirators
trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators began.
5/11/1605, Guy Fawkes attempted to blow up King James I
and the Houses of Parliament with 36 barrels of gunpowder (see 11/12/1604). His
trial was at Westminster Hall on 27/1/1606. This was part of a Catholic plot to overthrow the Protestant English
monarchy BUT see 11/12/1604.� However
the gunpowder barrels were discovered in the cellars of Parliament before they
were detonated.� Lord Monteagle, a Catholic peer, had received a letter
warning him to stay away from the State Opening of Parliament and hinting at an
and the Lord Chamberlain investigated the cellars below the House of Lords and
discovered a man piling wood, who gave his name as Guy Fawkes, and claimed that the
wood belonged to his master, Lord Percy. They let him go but after further
investigating the wood pile they found 36 barrels of gunpowder underneath. Guy Fawkes,
a 36-year-old Yorkshireman, was arrested when he returned at midnight to make
final preparations for the explosion. Guy Fawkes was hung, drawn, and quartered on
31/1/1606.� Sir Everard Digby, Thomas Winter,
Bates, other conspirators, were hung, drawn, and quartered on
11/12/1604, Guy Fawkes
began digging a tunnel from a house he had rented near the Houses of Parliament
(see 5/11/1605). His plan was to reach the cellars under the House and fill it with
gunpowder to blow it up. They reached the foundations of the House by Christmas
1604, but then the opening of Parliament was unexpectedly postponed, from
7/2/1605, first to 3/10/1605 and then to 5/11/1605. This was lucky for Guy
Fawkes because the foundations, 12 foot thick, were difficult to dig through,
and then the coal merchant who had been renting the House cellars gave up his
lease. Allegedly a roaring noise above the tunnelers first alarmed them, then
alerted them to the vacated rent, the noise being due to the removal of the
coal stored there. The conspirators quickly took up the rent themselves. However
some historians have doubted elements of this story, such as the tunnel being
dug under a busy part of London; it is possible that the entire episode was in
fact a Protestant scheme to discredit English Catholics.
In 2005, at the Spadeadam
military research centre in Cumbria, a mock-up of the 1605 Houses of
Parliament, with the approximately 1 tonne of gunpowder in the 36 barrels, was
created and set off. The force of the explosion would have destroyed
Parliament, demolishing 7 foot thick stone walls.
13/4/1570, Guy Fawkes,
who tried to blow up Parliament, was born.
12/9/1605, Sir William Dugdale, English historian, was
born (died 10/2/1686). In 1641 he was commissioned by Sir Christopher Hatton
(who foresaw the destruction of the Civil War) to make exact drafts of the
monuments at all of England�s major cathedrals.
Treaty of London was signed ending the Anglo-Spanish War.
convention was established in the UK Parliament by Speaker Phelips that a motion
cannot be repeatedly brought back before the House when it has been defeated
and has not been substantially changed. This little-known convention became
significant in March 2019 when Conservative Prime Minister Theresa May faced
the possibility that Speaker Bercow would not allow her to submit
Plan for a third time to the Commons without substantive changes.
14/1/1604, The Hampton Court Conference began.
30/11/1603, William Gilbert, physician to Queen Elizabeth
I, died (born 24/5/1544).
17/11/1603, Walter Raleigh went on trial for treason.
25/7/1603, Coronation of King
James I of England.
27/3/1603. King James VI of
Scotland halted in Berwick, on his way to also become King James I of
England. He attended a church service at Berwick to �give thanks for his
peaceful entry into his new dominions. He attempted, unsuccessfully, to ban the
use of the word �borders� and replace it by �middle shires�. However frontier fortresses in both England
and Scotland were dismantled and their garrisons reduced to nominal strength.
James I� left Berwick on 5/4/1603, and
entered London on 7/5/1603.
24/3/1603. Queen Elizabeth I died at Richmond
Palace aged 69; her funeral was on 28/3/1603. She ruled as Queen for nearly
45 years. See 13/1/1559. This was the Union of the Scottish and English
crowns. The Scottish
King James VI, who then became King
James I of Britain, succeeded her. The Act of Union between
England and Scotland was on 1/5/1707.
30/11/1601, Queen Elizabeth I made her last
address to Parliament, see 24/3/1603.
25/2/1601, Robert, Earl of Essex, favourite
Elizabeth I, was executed.
19/11/1600. Charles I, who believed in the Divine Right of Kings to rule but who was beheaded after losing the Civil War, was born in Fife.� He was the second son of King James I and Anne of Denmark.
Cromwell was born in Huntingdon. He became Lord Protector of
England, Britain�s first and only dictator.
4/8/1598, William Cecil, Baron Burghley,
chief advisor to Queen Elizabeth I, died.
22/11/1594, English explorer Sir Martin
Frobisher died this day in Plymouth.
15/2/1594, In England, William Harrington
was hung drawn and quartered for being a Catholic priest.
6/4/1593, John Greenwood, English
religious activist, was hanged.
4/9/1588. The death of Queen Elizabeth�s favourite, Robert Dudley,
Earl of Leicester.
8/8/1588, Queen Elizabeth I reviewed her
troops at Tilbury.
Spanish Armada defeated, 1587-88
5/11/1588, The St Juan de Sicilia, a ship of the Spanish Armada that had taken
refuge off the coast of Tobermory (see 23/9/1588) blew up. An English agent,
John Smollett, had detonated the ship�s poweder store, although at one time the
Irish or an accident was blamed. The English wanted to avoid a detachment of
several hundred Spanish soldiers landing in neutral Scotland. Smollett, acting as double
agent, ingratiated himself with the Spanish, supplying them with new sails.
Secrecy was important as although Scotland was neutral, relations with England
were tense after the execution of Mary Queen of Scots in 1587. Most of the
Spanish were at the time helping the islanders of Tobermory besiege a castle on
the mainland; those still on board were killed, and their supplies and
ammunition were now destroyed.
23/9/1588, A Spanish ship, the St Juan de Sicilia, was spotted off
15/9/1588, The remnants of the Spanish Armada
limped back into Spanish ports.
2/8/1588, The Spanish Armada passed the Firth
of Forth, sailing around Scotland. The English left off the pursuit and
29/7/1588. The Spanish Armada under Medina
Sidonia was defeated. (See 19/5/1588). On the night of the 28 July
the English sent fireships amongst the 130 ships of the Armada
sent by Philip
II to invade England, as they were anchored off Calais. This caused
panic amongst the Spanish, who cut anchor, one ship running aground. By now the
Spanish had lost several of their best ships and, whilst maintaining good
order, were demoralised. The Spanish
sent a signal to Parma to
put his ships to sea from Dunkirk but he could not as he was closely blockaded
by the British. On 29 July the English decimated the Spanish with broadside
fire, preventing the Spanish closing and boarding, which would have been their
only chance of success. The Spanish soldiers were outgunned and had inferior
seamanship to the English sailors. The Spanish were nearly driven aground off
The Netherlands on 30 July but a sudden change of wind saved them, with only 6
fathoms below them, and they were able to sail northwest into the North Sea.
The English, running low on food and ammunition, followed them as far as the
Firth of Forth, then returned south, satisfied that the Spanish would not
return via the Straits of Dover. The Armada, short of both food and fresh water,
encountered further problems with strong westerly winds as they attempted to
sail around the north of Scotland and south to Spain. Many ships were wrecked
at open sea or off the coasts of Scotland and Ireland. Only half the ships that left Spain returned home; death and sickness
took a great toll of the crews. The
failure of the Armada checked the naval growth of Spain and assisted the
Netherlands to gain independence. Two
further Armadas prepared by Spain, in 1596 and 1597, were disrupted by bad
26/7/1588, The Spanish Armada anchored off
Calais, unable to fight further without new supplies of ammunition. Medina Sidonia
requested Parma to come to his assistance, but Parma was unable to leave Bruges
because of a blockade by the Dutch fleet under Justinian of Nassau. Meanwhile Howard
did not risk coming close enough to the Spanish ships to do serious damage as
that would put his own ships at risk of boarding by Spanish soldiers.
25/7/1588, The Spanish Armada and the English
navy engaged off the Isle of Wight. There were fears that the Spanish planned
to seize the island as a base.
23/7/1588, Second engagement between
the Spanish and English, off the Isle of Portland.
21/7/1588, The English fleet first
engaged with the Spanish Armada near Eddystone Rocks, south of Plymouth.
20/7/1588, Lord Howard of Effingham,
Commander in Chief of the Fleet, saild from Plymouth to engage the Armada.
19/7/1588, English scout ships first
spotted the Armada off Lizard head.
12/7/1588, The Spanish Armada left
Corunna, where it had put in to take refuge from a storm and make some repairs
on vessels that had proved unseaworthy.
28/5/1588. The Spanish Armada set sail from Lisbon. The Armada consisted of 130 vessels, containing
7,000 sailors and 17,000 soldiers, commended by the Duke of Medina, sent by King Philip II.
It arrived off the Lizard, Cornwall, on 19/7/1588, and off Plymouth on
20/7/1588. The English Navy was only
just able to get out to sea and avoid being blockaded in Plymouth harbour.
On 23 July the English and Spanish fleets clashed off Portland, and again on 25
July off the Isle of Wight. The defeat
of the Armada was on 29 July, see
19/4/1587. Sir Francis Drake led his convoy of ships into
Cadiz, where the Spanish Armada was being prepared to attack
England, and, taking the Spanish
completely by surprise, looted, burnt, and sank many ships. He also looted the
harbour stores and managed to escape with no casualties.
became known as �the singeing of the King of Spain�s beard�. Sir Francis
Drake also brought back 2,900 barrels of �sack�, a wine made in the
Jerez region of Spain, so named from the Spanish word �sacar�, meaning �to take
out, or export�. This was the forerunner of today�s sherry drink. Sack had been
popular abroad since a Spanish law passed in 1492 exempting wine made for
export from taxes; it was a robust wine that did not go off easily.
8/2/1587. Mary Queen of Scots was beheaded
in the Great Hall of Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire, after nearly 19
years in prison. She had been implicated
in a Catholic plot to overthrow her cousin Queen
Elizabeth I. The leader of the plot, Anthony Babington, had planned to free Mary, and rally support amongst
English Roman Catholics for a
Spanish invasion force. Mary married the French Dauphin in her teens and
was Queen of France for a year until
he died. Her second marriage was to Lord Darnley. After Darnley�s murder, in which
Mary may have been implicated, she married the Earl of Bothwell. Mary was
defeated in battle in Scotland and fled to England, but her cousin Elizabeth I
had her imprisoned.
had been reluctant to execute Mary, because this might bring reprisals from
Catholic Europe, and might legitimate her own execution at some future point;
Walsingham persuaded Elizabeth to order the execution.
Tichborne, one of
the conspirators in the Catholic Babington Plot to murder Queen Elizabeth I, was executed
at the Tower of London.
10/8/1585, Elizabeth I of England signed
the Treaty of Nonsuch, promising 64,000 foot soldiers, 1,000 cavalry, and
600,000 florins a year to support Protestant rebels in The Netherlands against
Spain. Although Elizabeth
disliked involvement in foreign European wars, the Spanish presence in The
Netherlands was too close to England to ignore. King Philip II of Spain, who had laid
siege to Antwerp in 1584, saw this Treaty as a declaration of war.
1584, A copper smelting works was set up at Neath, south Wales, an early forerunner of industrialisation there.
1/12/1581. The Jesuit martyr Edmund Campion was hanged at Tyburn, for
distributing an anti-Anglican pamphlet in Oxford.
4/4/1581. Queen Elizabeth I knighted Francis Drake on his ship The Golden Hind
at Deptford, London, after he completed his circumnavigation of the world. See
26/9/1580. En route, Drake had captured and plundered several Spanish
galleons; Spain demanded that Elizabeth I hang Drake for piracy, but Drake was
a hero in England.
16/1/1581, The English Parliament
declared Catholicism illegal.
16/5/1578, Sir Everard Digby, Gunpowder
Plot conspirator, was born (executed 31/1/1606).
7/3/1578, Margaret Lennox, grand-daughter
of King Henry VII of England, died (born 8/10/1515).
11/6/1573, In Britain, a Puritan pamphlet
calling for the abolition of episcopacy was suppressed by Parliament.
10/3/1573, Dudley Dorchester, English statesman, was born
24/11/1572. John Knox, father
of the Scottish reformation, died
in Edinburgh. He had returned to Scotland after the rebellion against the Catholic Mary
Queen of Scots.
6/4/1571, John Hamilton, Scottish
political activist, was hanged.
25/2/1570. Queen Elizabeth I was excommunicated
by Pope Pius
V who declared her a usurper.
20/2/1570, The Northern Rebellion ended. In November 1569 the Catholic Earls of Northumberland and Westmoreland
had started the rebellion against Queen Elizabeth I, motivated by the flight of
(Catholic) Mary Queen of Scots to England,
also by the arrest of Thomas Howard, 9th Duke of Norfolk,
in October 1569. In November 1569 Northumberland had seized Durham Cathedral to celebrate Catholic
Mass. The Earls now marched south to fight Thomas Radcliffe, Earl of Sussex,
at York. However their elevated social position, and religious fervour, failed
to inspire enough foot soldiers to follow them and their march petered out.
After a battle at Naworth, Cumbria,
this day, 20/2/1570, the Earls fled to Scotland. Government reprisals against Catholics were harsh and Protestantism
became more firmly established in England.
5/9/1569, Edmond Bonner, Bishop of London,
died in the Marshalsea Prison.
2/1/1568, Luisa de Carvajal, Catholic
missionary in England, was born (died 2/1/1614).
26/1/1567, Nicholas Wotton, English
visited Oxford, to consolidate her acceptance by the University and Town as
Supreme Head of the Church.
13/7/1566, Sir Thomas Hoby, English
diplomat, died (born 1530).
20/4/1566, Sir John Mason, English
17/3/1565, Alexander Ales, Scottish
clergyman, died in Leipzig (born 23/4/1500 in Edinburgh).
20/9/1562, The Treaty of Hampton
Court was signed.
10/11/1559, Queen Elizabeth I confirmed the
Charter of the Stationer�s company.
8/5/1559, The Act of Uniformity was
signed by Queen Elizabeth I. This
enshrined the monarch as head of the Church in England, ensuring the supremacy
of Protestantism under Queen Elizabeth
17/4/1559, The Act of Supremacy was partly re-enacted in England.
15/1/1559. Queen Elizabeth I
crowned. She was born on 7/9/1533 at Greenwich Palace. Daughter of King Henry VIII
Boleyn, she ruled from 1558 to 1603 and was one of England�s
greatest rulers, succeeding her Catholic� half-sister Mary Tudor. She cleverly preserved
England�s independence from Catholic Europe whilst also outflanking the more
radical Puritans, and her reign saw the
emergence of England as a major sea power through Drake
and others.� This was also a time
when the arts thrived. She died on 24/3/1603.
Mary of England.
Mary of England (Bloody Mary), daughter of Henry VIII, died in St James Palace
London at the age of 42.� Born in 1516 to
Aragon, she outmanoeuvred Lord Dudley�s attempt to put Lady Jane Grey
on the throne, on the death of her half-brother King Edward VI. Mary�s
marriage to Philip
II of Spain dragged England into the war between France and Spain,
and caused the loss to England of Calais, an English outpost since the reign of
Under her five-year reign Catholicism
was restored and Protestants persecuted.�
death, her half-sister Elizabeth,
daughter of Anne
Boleyn, became Queen Elizabeth I.
24/4/1558, Mary Queen of Scots, aged 16, married the Dauphin of France.
7/1/1558. Calais, the last English possession on mainland
France, was taken by the French under the Duke of
Guise. The English had captured Calais in 1346 after a year
16/7/1557, Anne of Cleves, 4th wife of King Henry VIII,
19/6/1556, King James I of England, son of Mary Queen of Scots and Lord Darnley, the first Stuart King of England and Ireland, also King James VI of Scotland,
Cranmer, first Protestant Archbishop of Canterbury, was burnt at the stake in Oxford
as a heretic and a traitor, under the Catholic
rule of Queen
�Bloody� Mary. He had been deprived of his office on 11/12/1555. He
had assisted in having the marriage of Mary�s parents, King Henry VIII and Catherine of
16/10/1555. Bishops Hugh Latimer
Ridley, British Protestant
martyrs and Oxford reformers, were burnt at the stake for heresy.
30/11/1554, Cardinal Pole pardoned England for its Protestant heresy and
welcomed the country back into the Roman Catholic Church.
I, Bloody Mary, married Philip II of Spain, son and heir of Charles V, in Winchester.
This was her second marriage; the first had been when, aged three, she was
married to the King of France, then nine months old. Catholicism returned to England. See 17/11/1558.
20/7/1554, Philip II of Spain arrived in Southampton, having
crossed the Channel during a terrible storm.
19/5/1554, Queen Elizabeth was released from the Tower of London.
10/5/1554, Thomas Goodrich, English ecclesiastic, died.
18/3/1554, Elizabeth was imprisoned in the Tower of London for alleged
complicity in a plot against Mary led by Sir Thomas Wyatt; she was
released on 19/5/1554.
Jane Grey and her husband Lord Guildford
Dudley were executed on Tower Green, Tower of London, for high
treason; she was aged 16. Lady Grey became Queen on 10/7/1553 but was
deposed nine days later by her cousin Mary Tudor who then became Queen of England.
The Protestant King
Edward VI had proclaimed Jane Queen above her half sister Mary
because that kept England away from Catholic Spain. Mary delayed executing Jane
but changed her mind when Jane�s father
attempted a revolution.
20/12/1553, In England, Protestant Church services were ruled illegal.
was crowned Queen of England.
Jane Grey, a Protestant, was deposed,
aged 16, after a reign of only nine days. She was
sent to the Tower of London and beheaded
on 12/2/1554. Mary Tudor (Bloody
Mary), a Catholic, half sister of Edward IV, was proclaimed Queen,
but died on 17/11/1558.
10/7/1553. Following the death of Edward
VI, Lady Jane Grey was proclaimed Queen of England.
21/5/1553, Lady Jane Grey was forced to marry Lord Guildford Dudley; Dudley had ambitions to be King of England.
9/8/1549. England declared war on France.
7/12/1549, Robert Kett, rebel leader, was hanged.
12/7/1549, Robert Kett, with 16,000 men,
camped on Mousehold Heath outside Norwich and demanded an audience with Edward Seymour,
1st Duke of Somerset, who was Protector of England during
the minority years of King Edward VI. Kett�s demands concerned rising
rents, rising food prices and the increase in sheep farming (which demanded
enclosure whereas crop farming did not). Somerset ordered Kett�s mob to disperse, with a
pardon for any crimes committed up to that point; Kett refused. Somerset now
Parr, Marquis of Northampton, to defeat Kett. Parr marched into Norwich with
1,800 men, unopposed, but a surprise night attack by Kett�s men routed Parr�s
retreated to London and Kett was unable to follow, as his men had no
wish to extend the dispute out of their native Norfolk. Somerset now ordered John Dudley,
Earl of Warwick, south from Scotland, with 6,000 foot soldiers and
1,500 cavalry. Dudley
in Norwich, and the two leaders began negotiations. However some of Kett�s
hotheads opened a fight with Dudley; Kett�s men were massacred with nearly 50
20/6/1549, Kett�s Rebellion against enclosure of common land began when a
group of men led by Robert Kett, a smallholder and tanner, tore
down the new hedges and fences at Attleborough near Norwich. Copycat mobs
sprang up all across Suffolk and Norfolk. In particular they resented the
enclosure activities of landowner Edward Flowerdew.
9/6/1549. The Church of England adopted the Book of Common Prayer, compiled by Thomas Cranmer.
In Devon, where the abolition of the chantries had caused economic hardship,
there was considerable opposition.
20/3/1549. Death of Thomas Seymour, Lord High Admiral of England.
He married King
Henry VIII�s widow, Catherine Parr. When she died, he planned to marry Queen Elizabeth
I, but was arrested for
treason and executed.
5/9/1548, Catherine Parr,
6th wife of Henry VIII, died in
childbirth.� By then she was the wife
Seymour, at Sudeley castle, near Cheltenham, Gloucestershire.
20/2/1547, King Edward VI,
aged 9, crowned as King at Westminster Abbey.
Henry VIII was buried at Windsor.
King Henry VIII
28/1/1547. King Henry VIII, born 28/6/1491, died aged 56, probably
of kidney and liver failure.. King Edward VI, the only son of Henry VIII,
by Jane Seymour, born 12/10/1537 and
now aged 9, ascended the throne
on 20/2/1547. However he died on 9/7/1553 at the age of 15. He was succeeded by Lady Jane Grey, see 19/7/1553.
19/1/1547, Henry Howard,
Earl of Surrey, was beheaded at the Tower of London
19/7/1545, The Mary Rose, pride of Henry VIII�s
battle fleet, keeled over and sank in
the Solent with the loss of 700 lives. It was raised on 11/10/1982 and
taken to Portsmouth Dockyard.
2/3/1545, Sir Thomas Bodley, founder of
Library, Oxford, was born in Exeter (died in London 28/1/1613).
14/9/1544, Henry VIII of
England captured Boulogne. On 7/6/1546 the English and French signed the
Peace of Ardres. This said Boulogne
was to remain in English hands for another eight years.
24/5/1544, William Gilbert, physician to
Queen Elizabeth I, was born (died 30/11/1603).
12/7/1543, King Henry VIII married
his sixth wife, Katherine Parr.
Howard, 5th wife
Howard, the fifth wife of Henry VIII, was beheaded. She stood accused of
adultery. Her last words were �I die a queen but I would rather have died the
wife of Culpepper�.
9/11/1541, Catherine Howard, 5th wife of King Henry VIII,
was confined to the Tower of London
Cromwell, Chancellor to
Henry VIII, was beheaded on
Tower Hill for promoting the King�s failed marriage to Anne of Cleves. (See 6/1/1540). On the
same day Henry
VIII married his fifth wife, Catherine
Howard. She was beheaded on
Cleves, 4th wife
9/7/1540, Henry VIII divorced his fourth wife, Anne of
24/6/1540, Henry VIII ordered Anne of Cleves to leave the
6/1/1540, King Henry VIII�s ill-fated marriage to his fourth wife,
Anne of Cleves (see
was born on 22/9/1515; her father was
leader of the German Protestants and so Anne was regarded as a suitable wife
for Henry VIII by Cromwell. However she had no looks, spoke only her own
language, and had no dowry. Her only recommendations were her proficiency in
needlework and her meek and mild temper. The marriage contract was signed on
24/9/1539; she landed at Deal on 27/12/1539, and Henry VIII met her at Rochester
on 1/1/1540. On 2/1/1540 Henry VIII openly said about her looks, �She is no better than a Flanders mare�.
On the wedding morning, 6/1/1540, he
said nothing would have persuaded him to marry her but the fear of driving the
Duke of Cleves into the arms of the Holy Roman Emperor. Soon after Henry
regretted identifying so closely with the German Protestants. Henry
then declared the marriage
non-consummated and so null and void, on 9/7/1540. Anne lived the rest of her life
happily in retirement in England, dying on 28/7/1557; she was buried at
4/9/1539, King Henry VIII contracted to marry Anne of Cleves.
of the Monasteries
16/7/1546, Protestant martyr Anne Askew
was burnt at the stake.
30/7/1540, Thomas Abel, English priest, was
executed for denying the Royal supremacy in the Church.
23/3/1540, The Crown seized Waltham
Abbey. It was the last of the great monasteries to be seized by Henry
VIII, bringing to an end a four-year campaign that
had seen some 850
church properties, monasteries friaries and convents, with their gold and
jewels, pass to the King. The total income from these properties was around
�132,000 a year and Henry VIII gave some of this to his supporters.
22/8/1538, John Lambert,
English Protestant martyr, died.
1536, The Dissolution
of the smaller monasteries, the 374 houses with income under �200,000 a year,
began. In 1538 the Dissolution of the 186 �Great and solemn monasteries� began,
continuing until this process was complete in 1540.
had become notorious for the bad behaviour of their residents in the locality,
and for tolerating gambling, sexual immorality and financial misdealings. Local
people were npot sad to see them go. Initially the dissolution of the smaller
Houses and the reallocation of their residents to larger institutions was seen
as a reform, but the process did not stop with the smaller monasteries.
See also History of
16/10/1536, York was occupied by rebels against the takeover of
the Church by King
Henry VIII. This was the Pilgrimage
of Grace (see also Christian, buildings). Much of northern
England, from Lincolnshire to north Yorkshire, was in uproar at this takeover,
the valuation of Church property, the suppression of smaller monasteries, and
the cancellation of some Saints day holidays. Led by Robert Aske, rebels seized
northern towns. Henry
VIII made peace with the rebels and issued a pardon, only to go back
on this on a pretext in January 1537 and execute the leaders of the Pilgrimage of Grace, including Aske.
13/10/1536, The Pilgrimage of Grace began in northern England, protesting at King Henry
VIII�s break from Rome.
14/4/1536, King Henry VIII of Engtland
began expropriating the minor monasteries
21/1/1535, Henry VIII appointed Cromwell
as vice-regent in spiritual or vicar-general. Cromwell now set about assessing the value
of England�s monasteries.
25/8/1537, The Honourable Artillery Company, the
oldest surviving regiment in the British Army and the second most senior, was
1536, The Act of Union with Wales, passed by King Henry VIII.
Holbein became Court Painter to King Henry VIII.
1535, Hurst Castle
was built by King
Henry VIII, to guard the south-western approaches to the Solent.
1534, Henry VIII banned the keeping of
flocks of over 2,000 sheep. This was a measure to reduce the eviction of
tenants by landlords.
Jane Seymour, 3rd
wife. Edward VI born
24/10/1537, �Jane Seymour, third wife of Henry VIII,died, of the all-too-common childbed
12/10/1537, Edward VI,
son of Henry VIII and his third wife Jane Seymour, was born at Hampton Court
Palace, London. He succeeded his
father at the age of 9 but died aged 15. Henry intended him to marry Mary, daughter of King James V of Scotland. In 1543 the
Treaty of Greenwich provided for this marriage when Edward reached the age of 10;
however the Scottish Parliament rejected this Treaty.
30/5/1536. King Henry VIII married Jane Seymour, his third wife, in the Queen�s Chapel, Whitehall, eleven days after the execution of Anne
Anne Boleyn, 2nd
wife, executed; Elizabeth I born
19/5/1536. Anne Boleyn, the second wife of Henry VIII, mother of Queen Elizabeth I, was beheaded at Tower Green, in the Tower of London, aged 29.� She was accused of
adultery � Henry
VIII was already flirting with his third wife Jane. Elizabeth was declared illegitimate
and lost her right of succession to the English throne.
2/5/1536, Anne Boleyn was charged with incest and adultery, and taken to the Tower of London.
7/9/1533. Queen Elizabeth I was born at
Greenwich Palace in London, the daughter of Henry VIII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn.
was recognised as heir to the English throne ahead of her half sister Mary,
daughter of Henry
VIII�s first wife Catherine of Aragon. See 19/5/1536.
6/7/1535. Sir Thomas Moore
was beheaded in London, for refusing to accept
Henry VIII as
head of the Church of England.
was born in 1477 in London. He published Utopia in 1515 which described
a pagan, communist, city state in
which the institutions and policies are governed entirely by reason. His ideas
contrasted with the self-interest and greed for power seen in Europe�s Christian
15/4/1534, Thomas Cromwell was appointed Chief Secretary
Henry VIII of England
16/5/1532, Sir Thomas More resigned as
Lord Chancellor of England. This was in protest at King Henry VIII�s break with
7/2/1478, Sir Thomas Moore, Lord Chancellor to King
Henry VIII, was born in London, the son of a judge. He was executed for refusing to deny the
authority of the Pope.
split from Rome, Catharine of Aragon, 1st
Convocation of the Clergy. English clergy subscribed to the Ten Articles,
beliefs of the English Church under King Henry VIII.
7/1/1536, Catharine of Aragon died at Kimbolton Palace,
Huntingdonshire. She was the first of Henry VIII�s six wives, and the mother of Queen Mary I.
22/6/1535, Cardinal John Fisher was beheaded on Tower
Hill, London, for refusing to acknowledge King Henry VIII as head of the Church of
15/1/1535, The Act
of Supremacy was passed in England. This made King Henry VIII head of the
11/7/1533. Henry VIII was excommunicated by Pope Clement
Archbishop of Canterbury declared the marriage of King Henry VII and Anne Bolryn
to be void.
marriage of Henry
VIII and Catharine of Aragon was annulled.
Carthusian momks from London Chartehouse were hung drawn and quartered at
Tyburn, London, for refusing to acknowledge Henry VIII as head of the Church of
25/1/1533. King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn were officially married by the Bishop of Lichfield, and became the future
parents of Queen Elizabeth
I.. Anne Boleyn was crowned at Westminster on
1/6/1533, shortly after Thomas Cranmer
(who was appointed as Archbishop of
Canterbury on 30/3/1533) had declared Henry VIII�s marriage to Catherine of Aragon null and
void. On 23/5/1533 Henry VIII actually divorced Catherine of
Aragon, resulting in a break
between England and the Church of Rome.
14/11/1532, King Henry VIII
of England seceretly married Anne Boleyn.
1/9/1532, Lady Anne
Boleyn was created Marquess of Pembroke by her fianc�, King Henry VIII.
18/1/1532, English Parliament
banned payment by English church to Rome.
11/2/1531, King Henry VIII was recognised as official head of the Church of England.
5/1/1531, Pope Clement
VII forbade King Henry VIII of� England from remarrying.
7/3/1530, Pope Clement VII rejected Henry VIII�s request tro divorce
Aragon, leading to Henry�s split form Rome.
29/11/1530. Cardinal Wolsey died after being arrested as a traitor. He died at
Market Harborough whilst being taken from York to London.
17/10/1529, Henry VIII of
England dismissed Cardinal Wolsey as Lord Chancellor, replacing
him with Thomas
15/11/1515, Thomas Wolsey
was invested as a Cardinal.
15/9/1514, Thomas Wolsey
was appointed Archbishop of York.
21/6/1529, John Skelton, tutor to the King Henry VIII
as a boy, died.
30/4/1527, King Henry VIII of England signed a treaty at
Wedstminster providing that his daughter, the future Queen Mary I (Bloody Mary), then
aged 11, would marry either King Francis I of France or to his 2nd son Henry Duke of
25/9/1525, Steven Borough, English navigator, was born in
Northam, Devon (died 12/7/1584).
23/4/1523, Henry Clifford, supporter of King Henry VII of
13/9/1521, William Burghley, English statesman, was born
15/8/1521, King Henry VIII of England and Holy Roman
Emperor Charles V signed the Treaty
of Bruges against France, in contrast to the Anglo-French friendship at the
Field of the Cloth of Gold (6/6/1520). This Treaty involved English forces in
long campaigns in northern Europe.
13/9/1520, William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley,
Lord High Treasurer to Queen Elizabeth 1st, was born in
VIII and Francis I of France met in a glittering
ceremony at The Field Of The Cloth Of Gold near Calais. However see 15/8/1521.
18/2/1516, Queen Mary I,
Mary Tudor (Bloody
Mary), was born at Greenwich Palace, the daughter of Henry VIII and
Aragon. She was known as
Bloody Mary due to her relentless persecution of the Protestants.
8/10/1515, Margaret Lennox, grand-daughter
of King henry VII of England, was born (died 7/3/1578).
22/9/1515, Anne of Cleves, one of King Henry
VIII�s wives, was born.
9/10/1514, Louis XII, King of France,
16/8/1513, The Battle of the Spurs. King Henry VIII defeated the
23/1/1510, King Henry VIII of England, then aged 18,
competed incognito in a jousting tournament at Richmond. Having won praise for
his jousting, he then revealed his identity.
24/6/1509, King Henry VIII of England was
11/6/1509. King Henry VIII,
aged 18, married his sister in law, the Spanish princess Catharine of Aragon, aged 24. She was the
first of his six wives.
21/4/1509. King Henry VII died in Richmond, Surrey, probably from tuberculosis.
His second son, Henry VIII, succeeded him. The
coronation of Henry VIII was on 24/6/1509.
18/2/1503, Henry Tudor, the future King Henry VIII, was created
Prince of Wales
2/4/1502, Arthur, eldest son of King Henry VII, died after an
VIII, best known for his six wives
and religious split from Rome, was born
at Greenwich. He was the son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York.
23/11/1499. Perkin Warbeck was executed at the Tower of
London.� He was a Flemish impostor, the
son of a boatman from Tournai, claiming to be Richard of York, son of Edward II,
whom he closely resembled. Initially treated leniently after his attempt on the
throne (see 31/7/1495), he then attempted to escape the Royal Palace and team
up with another usurper, Edward Earl of Warwick.
3/7/1495, The Pretender to the English throne, Perkin Warbeck, landed at Deal,
Kent, with 150 men. He hoped to gather enough supporters to overthrow King Henry VII.
However his force was routed and he went on to Ireland, where he was again
unsuccessful at besieging the pro-Henry town of Waterford. Warbeck then fled to
Scotland. See 23/11/1499.
VIII�s first reformed Archbishop of Canterbury, was born at Aslockton, Nottinghamshire. He produced the Book
of Common Prayer in 1549.
16/6/1487, The Battle of Stoke Field.� The rebellion of the Pretender Lambert Simnel
English throne, led by John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln, and Francis Lovell,
Viscount Lovell, was crushed by troops loyal to Henry VII.
24/5/1487, Lambert Simnel was crowned �King Edward VI of England� in
Christchurch cathedral.� He claimed to be
Edward, Earl of Warwick, and challenged Henry VII for the throne of England. He was actually the son of a carpenter from Oxford who went
to France and won the backing of one of Warwick�s aunts, who had never actually
met the real Warwick. He then went to Ireland where he was welcomed, and from
where he planned to invade England.
Henry VII�s son Arthur was born.
18/1/1486, In England, the houses of York and Lancaster were united by the marriage of King Henry VII
eldest daughter of Edward IV.
16/12/1485, Catherine of Aragon, first wife of King Henry VIII, was born, the fourth daughter
30/10/1485. (1) Coronation of King Henry VII. aged 28.
(2) King Henry VII established the Yeoman of the Guard.
22/8/1485. Battle of Bosworth Field, 12 miles west
of Leicester. The two sides met at White Moor, on the slopes of Ambien Hill,
some two miles from the market town of Market Bosworth. Richard had a force twice
the size of Henry�s, but the Stanleys, the Earl of Derby and his brother, defected to Henry�s side. King
Richard III, (White Rose, Yorkist) the last Plantagenet king, born 2/10/1452
at Fotheringay, was killed as he
tried to reach the usurper to
the English throne, Henry Tudor,
Rose, Lancastrian) now Henry VII.
Henry, exiled to France, had landed at Milford
Haven on 7/8/1485 and reached Shrewsbury on 15/8/1485, gathering only moderate
support along the way. He then passed through Newport (Shropshire), Stafford,
Lichfield, Tamworth, and reached Atherstone on the borders of Leicestershire on
20/81485. Here he linked up with the Stanley brothers, both
anti-Yorkist. The night of the 21st, Henry encamped at White Moors,
south west of what was to be the battlefield. Richard and his army halted three miles away on
high ground at Sutton Cheney. Both sides attempted to occupy Ambien Hill,
midway between the two armies. The Stanleys moved against the Yorkist flanks , and the
Yorkist Duke of Northumberland, at the rear, failed to intervene. Richard was unhorsed and killed, and
the Yorkist army melted
7/8/1485, Henry Tudor (Henry VII) landed at Milford Haven, Wales.
Tudor (Henry VII) set sail from France for Wales. He had been advised by
Thomas (a powerful Welsh landowner), wrongly as it turned out,
that the whole of Wales would rise up in his favour.
Richard III, anticipating a challenge for his rulership, issued a
proclamation against �Henry Tydder and other rebels.
17/8/1483. The date on which the two young princes, the uncrowned
Edward V and his brother Richard, Duke
of York, are believed to have been murdered by their uncle and
III, in the Tower of London. See 9/4/1483.
6/7/1483. The coronation of King
26/6/1483, Richard III
became King of England.
9/4/1483. King Edward IV
died at Windsor. During his second reign he re-established peace after the Wars of the Roses, but his heir, Edward V, was only aged 12. See 17/8/1483.
25/8/1482, Margaret of Anjou, Queen of England, died.
14/2/1477. A man in Norfolk received the world�s first
known Valentine. Margery Brews sent her fianc�e John Poston
a letter saying �To my right welbelovyd Voluntyne�. She explained that she had
asked her mother to put pressure on her father to increase her dowry but also
said that if he loved her, she would marry him anyway. The Romans, around 600
BC, celebrated a February festival with romantic games and dancing. When the
Roman Empire was converted to Christianity, the festival was linked to the martyrdom
of St Valentine on 14 February, ca. 270
AD, by the Roman Emperor Claudius. Another possible origin is the
medieval belief that birds traditionally pair off on 14 February. Oliver Cromwell�s government banned St
Valentine�s day but it was restored when Charles II came to the throne in 1660. See
of the Roses
21/5/1471. King Henry VI died, in the Tower of
London.� He was probably murdered, and
was succeeded by Edward IV.
4/5/1471. The Yorkists under Edward IV defeated the Lancastrians under Margaret of Anjou at the Battle of Tewkesbury.
The Lancastrians were attempting to cross the River Severn to join� with Welsh troops under Jasper Tudor. The death of Margaret�s
Edward, as he fled the battlefield extinguished the House of
Edward IV defeated the Earl of Warwick�s Lancastrians at the Battle of Barnet.
2/11/1470, Edward V, King of England, was born.
King Henry VI was restored to the
English throne after having been deposed nine years earlier. The power behind
the throne here was held by Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, a former
Yorkist who abandoned the cause when his prot�g�, Edward IV, strong-willed,
secretly married the woman he wanted to, the young widow Elizabeth Woodville, rather than
undertake an arranged marriage to a French Princess. Henry VI, a weak character, was
accustomed to abdication of political responsibilities so an alliance with
suited them both. However Henry VI�s weak reign was blamed for the wars
that had split England for the previous 15 years, and the loss of
English lands in France, and Henry�s
days seemed numbered.
of Empingham, Wars of the Roses. King Edward IV routed Sir Robert Welles� rebels.
26/7/1469, Battle of Edgecote, Northamptonshire, Wars of the Roses Lancastrians defeated the Yorkists.
12/8/1464, John Capgrave,
English historian, born 21/4/1393, died.
15/5/1464, Battle of Hexham. Lancastrians defeated
25/4/1464, At Hedgeley
Moor, near Alnwick, Northumberland, the Lancastrians
in northern England were defeated.
28/6/1461, Coronation of Yorkist King Edward IV.
29/3/1461, The Battle of Towton
(North Yorkshire) took place, during the Wars of the Roses, in a
snowstorm. It was the bloodiest battle ever on British soil; over 28,000 died.
The Lancastrians were heavily
defeated and the position of King Edward IV was secured. The
Yorkists were exhausted after a long march, and were fighting up-slope. However
the Yorkists had an advantage as the wind was behind them, causing their arrows
to fly further, whilst the Lancastrians were blinded by snow blowing into their
faces, spoiling their aim and causing their arrows to fall short.
28/3/1461, Battle of Ferrybridge, Wars of the Roses.
The Lancastrians under Lord Clifford defeated the Yorkists under Lord Fitzwalter,
who was killed.
5/3/1461, Henry VI was deposed as King of England. Edward IV (Duke of York) succeeded him.
17/2/1461, The Second Battle of Barnet. Margaret of
Anjou�s Lancastrian forces
defeated the Yorkist
Earl of Warwick. Warwick, defending the Yorkists in London, was
taken by surprise and fled in disarray, failing to take King Henry VI with him.
3/2/1461, At Mortimer�s
Cross, Richard�s son, Edward, Earl of March, defeated the Lancastrian forces.
30/12/1460, The Battle of
Wakefield. A superior Lancastrian
force caught Yorkists, foraging, by
surprise, and the Duke of York was killed. This
would have ended the Yorkist cause but for the Battle of Mortimer�s Cross,
10/7/1460. The Yorkists
defeated the Lancastrians in the Wars
of the Roses and captured King Henry VI
at the Battle of Northampton.
23/9/1459, (-) The Battle of
Blore Heath, during the Wars of the Roses. The Yorkists under Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury, defeated the
Lancastrians under Lord Audley. Salisbury was now able to join forces with the
Yorkists at Ludlow.
28/1/1457, Henry VII
born at Pembroke Castle. The
start of the Tudor dynasty. He was the son of Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond,
and of Margaret
First Battle of Barnet. In the Wars of the Roses, Richard
Neville, Earl of Warwick, Yorkist, fought his way into the
Lancastrian camp because Henry VI had refused Richard of York�s demand that Simon Beaufort,
Duke of Somerset, be imprisoned. The Yorkists won, killing their
principal enemies, Somerset, Northumberland and Clifford.
27/3/1454, Richard was elected Protector by the English
Parliament, during King Henry VI�s first bout of insanity.
17/7/1453. The end of the Hundred Years War, when the French defeated the English at Castillon. Now only Calais remained in English hands; in 1449 England occupied nearly a third of France. By now England was pre-occpied with the Wars of the Roses.
3/2/1452, The Duke
of York accused the Beaufort family, who backed the Lancastrian King Henry VI, of incompetence and ineptitude and of thereby losing the English territories in France.
2/10/1452, Richard III, King of England, was born.
20/8/1451, The French captured Bayonne, the
last English stronghold in Guyenne.
30/6/1451, French troops under the Comte de
Dunois invaded Guyenne and captured Bordeaux.
12/8/1450, Cherbourg, the last English
territory in Normandy, surrendered to the French.
6/7/1450, Caen surrendered to the French.
12/7/1450, Cade had been promised a free pardon and had
disbanded his army. However he was then hunted down by Government forces and
killed this day.
4/7/1450, Jack� Cade
entered London. Henry
VI had left London for Kenilworth, allowing Cade�s men to enter the caoital
and execute unpopular courtiers. However Cade proved unable to maintain discipline
amongst his followers and Londoners turned against him.
27/6/1450. Jack Cade, an Irish born physician, led an
insurrection march of 40,000 through Kent to London to protest against the high
taxes of King
Henry VI. The English Government was unpopular
after its defeat in the Hundred Years War. Meanwhile Henry VI�s
courtiers blamed the Men of Kent for the murder of William de la Pole in May 1450
and wanted reprisals, sparking the Kentish rebellion. Pole had been involved in the disastrous English military campaign in France
that culminated with the loss of Normandy to the French; Parliament
had him sent to The Tower on charges of treason. King Henry VI, to save Pole
from a trial with a foregone conclusion, declared him innocent but banished him
from England for five years. As Pole left Dover, his ship was intercepted, and
was forcibly dragged into a small boat and beheaded.
18/6/1450, Jack Cade�s men ambushed and defeated the
King�s soldiers in an ambush nbear Sevenoaks.
15/4/1450, The Battle of Formigny. Fought near Caen, the French
defeated an English force sent to halt King Charles VII�s reconquest of
29/10/1449, The French recaptured Rouen from the English.
23/4/1445, King Henry VI of England married Margaret of
Anjou at Titchfield Abbey, near Southampton.
11/12/1444, The earliest mention of the Welsh town of Bridgend, in a legal
document, as Bruggen Eynde. The older
market town of Kenfig had been
abandoned due to coastal flooding and encroachment by sand dunes, and a bridge
over the River Ogmore was constructed to the new town site.
28/4/1442, King Edward IV
was born in Rouen, son of Richard, Duke of York.
3/1/1437, Catherine of Valois, Queen of King Henry V of
England, died (born 27/10/1401).
16/12/1431. The Bishop of Winchester, Henry Beaufort, crowned King Henry VI King of France.
23/3/1430, Margaret of Anjou, Queen of England, was born.
6/11/1429, The coronation of King Henry VI of England.
D�Arc, 13 years old,
defeated the British at the Battle of Patay. Historians are still in
dispute over Jeanne D�Arc�s role in the Hundred Years War between Britain and France. Born
a peasant�s daughter on 7/1/1412, she believed she was led by divine
guidance and her mission was to make sure that Charles VII became King of
France and not the English Henry V. The French and the English came face
to face at Patay on 18/6/1429 and Jeanne D�Arc
had promised the French a greater victory than ever they had seen so far. The
English army was indeed routed and also its reputation for invincibility,
as the Earl
of Salisbury�s 5,000 men were forced back across the River
Loire.� She was captured by the English a
year later, on 24/5/1430, with the help of French collaborators, and burnt as a
witch on 30/5/1431. She was canonised in 1920.
17/8/1424, Battle of Verneuil. John of
Lancaster, Duke of Bedford, defeated a French force,
consolidating English conquest of Normandy.
31/8/1422. King Henry V
died in Vincennes, France, struck down by dysentery.. Aged 35, he was just
about to take the crown of both France and England; his son, Henry VI, was just 9 months old, and English
power in France looked uncertain again.
Years War events see also France
6/12/1421, Henry VI was born in Windsor Castle, the only
child of Henry
V and Catherine Valois. Catherine Valois, daughter of Charles IV
of France, had married Henry V on 2/6/1420.
1/12/1420, Henry V made a triumphal entry into Paris, see
25/10/1415 and 21/5/1420.
21/5/1420, Under the Treaty
of Troyes, King
Henry V of England became ruler of France also, following his victory
at Agincourt. Henry V married Catherine de Valois and when
Charles de Valois dies Henry would inherit the throne, so long as Henry and
Catherine produce a male heir. Under
French Salic Law, a woman could not rule France.
19/1/1419, In the Hundred Years' War, Rouen
surrendered to Henry
V of England, which took Normandy under the
control of England.
24/6/1417, The Isle of Man held its first known Tynwald Day; the annual meeting of its
parliament (Tynwald) which has continued every year until the present.
25/10/1415. Battle of Agincourt, 20 miles inland from Boulogne.
The English forces, after the capture by the French of Harfleur, had set out to
march to Calais through Picardy. Their crossing of the River Somme was delayed
by torrential rains and the French set out to block their passage. The French
troops set up at the northern end of a defile of open ground between the woods
of Agincourt and Tramercourt. The English were short of food and supplies and
hunger might have eventually forced their surrender. The French outnumbered the
English three to one.
However King Henry V
was able to use his archers, in the restricted space of the battlefield, to mow
down the French cavalry and so win the battle. Thick mud, from the rains, restricted the movement of the French
cavalry. The English victory gave Henry the finances and reputation to continue
the war. Four years later the whole of Normandy was under British control, and
in 1420 the Treaty of Troyes
as heir to the French throne, see
Glendower Rebellion in Wales
Glyndwr, Welsh independence
fighter, died this day.
10/8/1415, Henry V of England set sail for Normandy with
an army of 12,000 men; two-thirds archers.
. Harfleur was captured in September 1415 and Henry V set out for Paris.
However illness began to thin his military ranks. On 5/10/1415 military
advisers told Henry to return to England via Calais.
19/2/1414, Thomas Arundel,
Archbishop of Canterbury, died (born 1353).
20/3/1413 England�s King Henry IV died, aged 45, after suffering a stroke in the
Jerusalem Chamber at Westminster Abbey. He had earlier prophesied that he would
die in Jerusalem. He was succeeded by his eldest son Henry V, aged 25, who reigned for 9 years. See 30/3/1399.
1/1/1409, The Welsh
surrendered Harlech Castle to the
19/2/1408, The Battle of Bramham Moor. Near Tadcaster,
Yorkshire, forces loyal to King Henry IV defeated rebels under Henry Percy,
Earl of Northumberland. This ended the
leader Owain Glyndwr, having declared
himself Prince of Wales, allied with the French against the English. He later
began holding parliamentary assemblies.
Battle of Shrewsbury. Sir Henry Percy, known as Harry Hotspur, was killed trying
to overthrow King Henry IV.
of Homildon Hill. A Scottish raiding party under the Earl of Douglas was
routhed by the English Northern Nobles under Lord Henry Percy.
8/9/1402, King Henry IV took a large force into Wales to suppress the Glendower rebellion. However as soon as he left
Shrewsbury it began raining incessantly, with hail and even snow. His troops
were cold, drenched, and half-starved. On this day a tornado struck Henry IV�s
tent, collapsing it. Fortunately for him he was wearing his armour at the time
and so survived. Henry�s forces retreated back to England, having never
fought the Welsh.
forces heavily defeated by the Welsh at Bryn Glas, even though the Welsh were
Henry IV now assembled an even larger army, but see 8/9/1402.
27/10/1401, Catherine of Valois, Queen of King Henry V of
England, was born (died 3/1/1437).
16/9/1400, The Owen
Glendower revolt in Wales; Welsh landowners proclaimed Owen King of Wales, and attacked the English in
Flint and Denbigh.
14/2/1400, Richard II was killed whilst being held at
Pontefract Castle, to prevent further rebellions by his followers.
13/10/1399, Coronation of Henry
IV, first Lancastrian
King of England.
11/10/1399. The Order of
the Bath was instituted.
30/9/1399. King Richard II,
born 6/1/1367, was deposed. Unpopular, he had dispossessed many of the
nobility. He was crowned, aged 10, on 22/6/1377. He surrendered to Bolingbroke
without a fight; Bolingbroke became King
Henry IV. Henry IV was born at Bolingbroke Castle, Lincolnshire, on
3/4/1366. He reigned from 1399 to 1413. See 20/3/1413.
4/7/1399, Henry of Lancaster, Henry IV, landed at Ravenspur,
3/2/1399, John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, fourth son
III and father of Henry IV, died (born 24/6/1340).
20/12/1387, The Battle
of Radcot Bridge.� An army raised by
Robert de Vere, Earl of Oxford, to assist Richard II, was attacked as it crossed the
Thames. De Vere escaped and fled the country.
16/9/1387, King Henry V was born at Monmouth Castle, the
eldest of six children of Henry IV. He defeated the French at Agincourt.
24/3/1387, In the Hundred Years War, at the
Battle of Margate: The English
defeated an invading French and Castilian naval force.
15/7/1381, John Ball, one of the leaders of the Peasantt�s Revolt, was hung drawn
and quartered at St Albans.
24/6/1381, Peasants revolt ended in Cambridge, UK,
9/5/1386, The Treaty of
Windsor cemented the alliance between England and Portugal.
15/6/1381. Richard II summoned Wat Tyler,
the first poll tax rebel, and his band, to Smithfield.�
Tyler met the King, grew insolent and abusive, and was killed by Mayor Walworth.
14/6/1381, Richard II rode to Mile End to negotiate with the rebels. They demanded an end to serfdom and limits on rents, and
the execution of Chancellor Sudbury, Treasurer Hales, John of Gaunt, and others.
agreed to all but the executions. However at this time
Kentishmen were breaking into the Tower and beheading Sudbury and Hales. The
deaths of the Chancellor and the Treasurer (who was also the Archbishop of
Canterbury) were followed by a general massacre
of Flemings in the City of London. The rebels attempted to break into all
places where records might be stored, such as chirch buildings and lawyer�s houses,
and to massacre all clerks..
rebels entered London and the King withdrew to the safety of The Tower. The
rebels ransacked and burnt John of Gaunt�s Palace.
rebels reached Blackheath, and Essex rebels reached Mile End.
10/6/1381, Wat Tyler led his rebels into
entered Maidstone and chose Wat Tyler
as their leader.
in the Peasant�s Revolt besieged
Peasants Revolt began.
Rebels attacked Dartford. The poor were protesting over the imposition of a Poll Tax, whilst the peasants wages were held down by the Statute of Labourers
Act, 1351. Peasant�s pay had been rising since the Black Death killed many
1378, A Sheffield-made knife (�thwitle�)was famous across the UK.
16/7/1377, Coronation of Richard II, King of England.
22/6/1377. The 10 year old King Richard II inherited the English throne from his
grandfather, Edward III. Effective
power was with the Royal Council. He was deposed 22 years later on 30/9/1399.
21/6/1377, King Edward III of England died aged 64. He
was succeeded by his 10-year-old grandson, Richard, who ruled until 1399.
8/6/1376. Edward, the Black Prince, son of Edward III
of England, died of illness contracted whilst foighting in Spain. His death
Edward II with no mature heir to the English throne.
29/4/1376, Sir Peter de la Mare took office as first Speaker of the House of Commons.
Edward III appointed the Church reformer, John Wycliffe, to the rectory of
4/12/1370, Battle of Pontvallain, Hundred Years War. The
French won by avoiding a set-piece battle where English archers would have the
advantage, instead harrying the English raiding parties as they headed back
south, unprepared for battle.
30/6/1399, Henry IV, exiled to France
Richard II for treason, landed at Ravenspur, Humberside, to retake
the English throne.
3/4/1367, In the Hundred Years War, the English under the Black Prince defeated a Spanish
and French army at the Battle of Navarrete.
The Spanish Kingdom of Castile was in civil war, between rival claimants for
the throne, Pedro
and his brother Enrique.
The French under Bertrand du Guesclin and the English under Edward the
Black Prince intervened, backing Enrique and Pedro respectively. The French
and English met at Najera (Navarrete), where English longbowmen massacred the
French cavalry. Pedro
gained the throne but never repaid the English for the expense of their army.
The heavy French footsoldier casualties brought some relief to the
countryside,� with fewer unemployed
soldiers roaming and plundering it.
26/6/1396, King Richard II of England married Isabella of
France, daughter of King Charles VI of France. This was intended
to effect a reconciliation between the two countries in the Hundred Years War. However Richard was later dethroned by Henry of
Lancaster (Henry IV), and Anglo-French hsotilities resumed.
2/4/1367, Henry IV,
the first Lancastrian King of England, was born in Bolingbroke castle,
Lincolnshire, the son of John O�Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, and Duchess Blanche.
6/1/1367, King Richard II
was born at Bordeaux, France. He was the son of Edward the Black Prince and the
grandson of King
Years War events see also France
29/9/1364, Battle of Auray. Although
officially at peace after the Treaty of Bretigny, England and France continued
to fight over control of Brittany. French military commander Bertrand du
Guesclin faced English commander John Chandos. The English-backed
de Montfort was contending with Charles du Blois for the Dukedom of Brittany.
In the fighting for the city of Auray, Charles du Blois was killed; however after de Montfort
was installed as Duke of Brittany he changed allegiance and swore fealty to the
King of France. The English gained nothing.
24/10/1360, (-) (Britain, France) The Treaty of Br�tigny was ratified at Calais, marking the end of the
first phase of the Hundred Years' War. Under its terms, King John II of
France, who had been captured at Poitiers, would be released for a
ransom of 3 million Ecus. Calais, Guines, Ponthieu and all of Aquitaine would
be ceded to Edward
III of England. In return Edward, who had besieged Rheims (December 1359
� January 1360) but failed to capture it, promised to renounce claims to the
French Crown when John renounced sovereignty over Aquitaine. In
fact these renunciations never took place and the Hundred Years War
19/9/1356. The English, led by Edward the Black Prince,
defeated the French under King John II, at the Battle of Poitiers, western France,
in the Hundred Years War. Edward III
had been raiding in northern France and was making his way back south when he
learnt that te French were making to intercept him. Laden with baggage, the
English moved more slowly and the French met them 5 km east of Poitiers. The
English found a site with restricted access for the French knights, and English
archers took down many French knights. King John himself was captured, and only
released when a huge ransom was paid in 1360.
29/8/1350, The English under King Edward III defeated a
Spanish fleet off Winchelsea. The Spanish had been fighting as allies of the
French in the Hundred Years War.
10/8/1348, The first investiture ceremony of the Order of the Garter, at St Georges Chapel, Windsor Castle. King Edward III
revived the notion of King Arthur�s Round Table, and had the Round
Tower at Windsor built to house a replica version of the Table. In 1344 Edward III
began holding knightly tournaments and feasts around this Table. Following
British successes in the Hundred Years War against France, Edward III instituted the Order
oif the Garter, with Windsor as the new Camelot.
19/1/1348. Edward III established the Order of the Garter.
17/10/1346, The Battle of Neville�s Cross. An attempted Scottish
invasion of England was routed, west of Durham. Whilst the English King Edward III
was occupied with the siege of Calais, King David II
of Scotland invaded England in support of his French ally. However his army was
heavily defeated by English archers, and David was wounded and captured. Held for 11
years, Scotland had to raise taxes to pay a heavy ransom for his release.
Battle of Crecy
took place, 32 miles south of Boulogne.� The outnumbered army of Edward III, aided by his son Edward the
Black Prince, defeated the French under Philip
IV, who fled,, leaving over 1,500 French dead. On 3/8/1347 the English
captured Calais after nearly a year�s siege, which began on 3/9/1346.� This battle, during the Hundred Years War,
was the first time the English had used longbows
in continental warfare. The crossbow assault at Crecy decimated the
French-Geonese archers and the French knights behind, attempting an attack
through the Genoese, caused a troops jam into which the English longbowmen
continued to fire. The French retreated; Edward decided against pursuing the
survivors but marched on north to attack Calais.
Years War events see also France
12/7/1346, An English invasion force landed
unopposed at St Vaast, western Normandy, with the aim of capturing Paris.
This force was defeated by a superior French army and the English attempted a
retreat back to England, marching west 60 miles in four days. However the
French followed their march just to the south, denying the Seine Valley to the
English. The English needed a port to evacuate their forces. The English now
had to cross the lower Somme between Amiens and the sea, but this tract was
tidal, full of treacherous marches, passable only along narrow causeways for a
few hours a day at low tide. Crossing points to the north of the Somme were
guarded by the French. The English attempted to force a crossing of the Somme
24/6/1340. The English fleet, under Edward
III (see 21/9/1327) defeated the French fleet at Sluys. The French fleet was
virtually destroyed, giving Edward III control of the sea. However both
the French and English rulers were short of money and unable to pay their
troops; so Edward
III, and Philip VI of France, settled at the Treaty of Esplechin.
between England and France had links to the Flemish weavers who rebelled but were defeated on
24/8/1328 by the new Philip VI of
France. Also Philip
VI supported the Scots under David Bruce against the English, see
21/9/1327. In 1336 Edward III renewed his
claim to the French throne. In 1338 Edward
III cut wool exports to Flanders, forcing up wool prices and causing economic hardship to the
weavers there. Edward then lifted the wool embargo, and encouraged
the weavers to rebel again against Philip VI, to secure the unification and
independence of Flanders.
faced famine after torrential rain ruined the harvest.
A wet Autumn 1314 was followed by a wet Summer in 1315. Only the West Country escaped
disaster. On the estates of Bolton Priory in the North, wheat yields were one
fifth of normal. Another wet Summer followed in 1316. There was also a shortage
of salt, causing disease in farm animals, as the salt pans failed to evaporate.
On the Clipston Estate in Nottinghamshire, half the sheep died. Taxes were also heavy, to finance military
campaigns against the Scots, alms were cut. In
Berwick the starving infantry garrison mutinied, and in Sandwich a wheat ship
was attacked by a mob.
1300, England now had about 18
17/3/1337, Edward, the Black Prince, was made the first
Duke of Cornwall, by his father King Edward III.
15/6/1330, Edward, the Black Prince, was born.
21/9/1327. Edward II
was murdered at Berkeley castle in Gloucestershire, to ensure his son Edward III,
aged 15, could ascend the English throne under Isabella�s Regency.. Edward II�s
fate was sealed in 1326 when his wife Isabella
and her lover Roger Mortimer landed
with a band of foreign mercenaries and marched on London. Isabella found
widespread support amongst the barons, among whom Edward had caused dissension
by granting some lands and lordships, but not others. Edward was also resented
after his defeat by Robert the Bruce
in Scotland. See 21/6/1314, and 24/6/1340.
In 1330 Edward III took real power, sending his
mother Isabella into a monastery. He executed her lover, Roger
Mortimer. See 24/6 1340.
25/1/1327, Edward III became King of England.
7/1/1327, King Edward II of England was deposed.
16/3/1322, The Battle of Boroughbridge.�
Forces loyal to the rebel, Thomas of Lancaster, were defeated at the
crossing of the River Ure by an army loyal to King Edward II, led by Andrew Barclay.
then ordered the execution of more than 20 of the rebel leaders, an act that
shocked contemporaries by its severity.
13/11/1312. Edward III, King of England from 1327, was
born in Windsor Castle, son of Edward II.
19/6/1312, Piers Gaveston was beheaded at Deddington on
the orders of the Duke of Warwick.
19/5/1312, After a 2-week siege of Scarborough Castle, Piers Gaveston,
close associate of King Edward II, was taken prisoner.
1310, King Edward II granted a market
charter to the town of Knaresborough. However a market had already been
operating here from 1240.
25/2/1308, Coronation of Edward
II of England.
17/11/1307. William Tell is reputed to have shot an apple
off his son�s head this day.
7/7/1307. King Edward I
of England died in his way north to invade Scotland and was succeeded by his
son Edward II.
29/5/1303, Treaty of Paris restored Gascony to the English.
1/4/1299, Kings Towne on the River Hull (Kingston upon
Hull) was granted city status by Royal Charter of King Edward I
1298, King Edward I financed the �750,000 cost of his war
against France by a �2 tax on sacks of wool.
28/11/1290, Eleanor of Castile, Queen of England, died at
Harby, near Clipstone.
28/8/1297, Edward I of England unsuccessfully invaded Flanders.
25/4/1284, Edward II
was born at Caernarfon Castle, third son of Edward
Welsh rebellion, suppressed
7/2/1301, The first Prince of Wales was created, Edward of
Caernarfon, who later became King Edward II.
Emlyn Castle in Wales was recaptured by English forces, bringing Rhys ap
Maredudd's revolt to an end.
8/6/1287, Rhys ap Maredudd revolted in Wales; the revolt was not suppressed
11/12/1282, At the
Battle of Orewin Bridge in mid-Wales, Llewellyn the Last was killed and the Welsh suffered their final decisive defeat
at the hands of the English. King Edward I took Llewellyn�s head to London on a stake as proof of English triumph
in Wales. Wales had held out against the Norman English for over 200 years
thanks to its remote terrain, enabling the Welsh to simply vanish whenever the
English Armies went in, and its atrocious weather, deterring these armies. The
Welsh also made alliances with England�s natural enemies, the Scots and the
French. From this time on, the Prince of
Wales has always been the eldest son of the ruling monarch of England.
20/7/1280, Neath, Wales,
held its first fair (St Margaret�s Day), granted by Charter.� The local abbey had extensive sheep pasturage
so there was a large trade in wool.
12/11/1276, King Edward II began a decisive campaign to subdue the Welsh. He
marched into Wales with 15,000 troops and nearly 1,000 cavalry. Most Welsh
Lords, suspecting he would win, offered little resistance.
22/4/1275, The first Statute
of Westminster was passed by the English Parliament, establishing a series
of laws in its 51 clauses, including equal treatment of rich and poor, free and
fair elections, and definition of bailable and non-bailable offenses.
of King Edward I.
16/11/1272, Henry III died at Westminster aged 65, after a
reign of 56 years. He was succeeded by his eldest son Edward I. Edward I was in Sicily at
the time on the 8th Crusade.
1267, Cambridge, England, was
granted a Royal Charter.
Second Baron�s War
4/8/1265. Simon De Montfort, who had promoted the power of the barons
against King Henry III, was defeated and killed at the Battle of
Evesham. Royalist forces won, led by the future King
Edward I.� This was during the
Second Barons War. The last Montfortian resistance ceased in 1268.
8/7/1265, Battle of Newport. Simon de Montfort had retreated into
Wales; his effrots vto return to central England were thwarted by Edward�s defence of the River
20/1/1265. England�s first Parliament met in
Westminster Hall, summoned by Simon De Montfort, Earl of Leicester. De Montfort was the
brother-in-law of King Henry III.
14/5/1264, The Battle of Lewes of
the Second Barons' War was fought between Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester and King Henry III
of England in
Sussex. By the end of the battle, de Montfort's forces had captured both King
Henry and his son, future King Edward I, making de Montfort the "uncrowned king of
England" for 15 months before Edward escaped captivity and regained the
11/5/1264, Henry III marched through Kent, captured Tunbridge
Castle, forcing the Cinque Port rebels to submit.� He rested at Lewes.
24/4/1264, After his victory at
Northampton, Henry III
moved south to
deal with De Montfort in London.�
De Montfort had been besieging Rochester Castle, a southern Royalist
stronghold, bit now abandoned the siege to return to protect London.
5/4/1264, Henry III attacked Simon de Montfort�s forces at
Northampton Castle and defeated them, forcing all De Montfort�s forces in the
east Midlands to surrender.� De Montfort
himself was in London,
his other main base of support. The dispute between Henry
and de Montfort
arbitrated in January 1264 by King Louis IX at Amiens, the Mise of Amiens (Mise =
settlement); however de Montfort refused to accept this result.
23/1/1264, The Mise of Amiens. An
arbitration between Henry III of England and the Barons, with Louis IX of France as arbiter. The
decision was in Henry�s favour, although he was to respect established Baronial freedoms. De Montfort rejected the decision.
12/6/1261, King Henry III of England obtained a papal bull releasing him
from his oath to maintain the Provisions of Oxford (1258), setting the stage
for the Second Barons' War (1263�1268).
4/12/1259, Kings Louis IX of France
and Henry III of England agreed to the
Treaty of Paris, in which Henry renounced his claims to French-controlled
territory on continental Europe (including Normandy) in exchange for Louis
withdrawing his support for English rebels.
17/6/1259, Edward I, King of England, was born.
20/5/1259, Britain and France signed the Treaty of Abbeville,
whereby Britain relinquished claims to French territories.
14/12/1251, King Henry III of England granted the town of
Bolton, Lancashire, a charter to hold a fair.
14/12/1247. Robin Hood
is said to have died on this day, aged 87.
17/5/1236, Coronation of Eleanor, wife of King Henry III of England, as
Queen at Westminster Abbey.
24/1/1236, King Henry III of England married Eleanor of
17/5/1220, Full coronation of King Henry III of England at
12/9/1217, First Barons' War in
England ended by the Treaty of Kingston upon Thames: French
and Scots to leave England, and an amnesty was granted to rebels.
24/8/1217, First Barons' War: In
the Battle of Sandwich in the English Channel, English forces destroyed the
French and the French mercenary Eustace the Monk was captured and beheaded.
17/8/1217. A fleet bringing reinforcement for King Louis was defeated in
20/5/1217, First Barons' War in
England: French forces under Louis (21/5/1216) were defeated at the Battle of Lincoln by
English royal troops led by William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke and survivors
forced to flee south. Louis had alienated the English barons who
once supported him as he preferred to bring in French advisors to help him. Louis returned to France.
son of John,
was hurriedly crowned as King Henry III, in the face of the Baron�s War
and the unexpected death of King John.
Reign of King John
19/10/1216. King John died suddenly at Newark Castle, Nottinghamshire, of a
fever, and was buried in Worcester Cathedral.�
He had been King of England since 1199.�
He was succeeded by his nine year old son Henry III; William
Marshall was made Regent. The young Henry III of England was crowned
at Gloucester on October 28.
11/10/1216, King John�s
baggage was lost in The Wash. His attendants had attempted to ford the estuary
of the River Welland as the tide was coming in, rather than take
a long detour inland to reach Newark.
14/6/1216, King Louis captured Winchester and by the end
of June controlled the southern half of England. King John fled north.
21/5/1216, King Louis VIII
of France attempted an invasion of England, landing at Stonor. This was at the request of the
English barons who were disgruntled at King John having got Pope Innocent III to annul the Magna Carta (24/8/1215). Moreover the
barons maintained that John had effectively abandoned his kingship,
as he had technically �abdicated� rulership of England to Pope Innocent III (4/3/1215),
which made the barons enemies of the Church if they resisted John.
was also married to John�s niece, giving him some claim to the
English throne. Louis
entered London with little resistance and was crowned King Louis I of England. King Alexander
II of Scotland also supported this development,
24/8/1215, Pope Innocent
III declared the Magna Carta invalid, at the request of King John.
Carta was sealed by King John at Runnymede,
near Windsor. King John was forced to have the taxation of his subjects
reviewed by a Great Council, which eventually evolved into the Parliament of
today. If the King reneged on the
Charter, a council of 25 barons could take him to war.
22/5/1215, King Philip II Augustus of France
received instructions from the Pope to abandon his invasion of Britain,
following 4/3/1215. King John of England had considerable economic
interests in the District of Flanders, whose cloth merchants received almost
all their wool from England, With English agents in many Flemish towns, France
feared losing influence over the region to England.
17/5/1215, The Barons marched on London, which was thrown open to
them by its Mayor and citizens. King John, realising he had no support in the
capital, hastily withdrew to Windsor.
4/3/1215, King John of England made an oath to Pope Innocent
III as a crusader to gain his support. John also technically passed
authority of his kingdom over to the Pope, thereby making anyone who tried to
depose him an enemy of the Pope and liable to excommunication. This move was a
precaution by John
who was facing rebellion by his barons. This healed the rift between King John
Innocent III, see 15/7/1207.
27/7/1214, The Battle of
Bouvines. Near Lille, France, Philip II Augustus of France defeated an Anglo-German-Flemish alliance.
This dashed the hopes of King John of invading France on two fronts to
recover the Angevin lands, and this humiliation for John brought on the Magna Carta rebellion.
30/5/1213, Battle of Damme:
Innocent III, seeing King John continue in defiance of his wishes (see 23/3/1208) now decided to step up the pressure
He declared John deposed for contumacy, and that the King of France was to
carry out the deposing. On this day the Battle
of Damme took place. King John�s English fleet under William
Longesp�e, 3rd Earl of Salisbury destroyed a French fleet off the
Belgian port of Bruges, in the first major victory for the fledgling Royal
Navy. This forced King Philip II Augustus to abandon plans for the
invasion of England.
12/12/1212, Geoffrey, Archbishop of York, illegitimate som of King
Henry II of England, died. He led the English clergy in their refusal to be
taxed by King John, and had to flee England for Normandy in 1207, where he
23/3/1208, Pope Innocent III put� an interdict upon England (see 1205). This entailed the closure of all
churches, with onlt baptism and extreme unction permitted (to save souls).
Marriages could be conducted, but only outside of Church. Most English priests
obeyed the interdict. Many priests who were obedient to the Pope fled abropad
to escape the wrath of King John. King John in turn outlawed these
clergy, confiscated their lands, and the Royal Treasury was soon so full that
he could dispense with ordinary taxation. King John punished and put to death all who
opposed him, with great barbarity. See 30/5/1213.
18/3/1208, Great Yarmouth
was granted a Royal Charter by King John
1/10/1207, Henry III,
son of King
John, was born at Winchester, Hampshire.
was created a borough by King John. Due to the silting up of the Dee
Estuary Chestetr was declining as a port and Liverpool now became the main
English port for Ireland.
15/7/1207, King John expelled the monks at Canterbury who
were supporters of Stephen Langton. The dispute between John
and Pope Innocent led to King John being excommunicated in 1008; an
interdict was placed upon England, meaning Church services could not officially
be held there. In 1213 Pope Innocent III authorised King Philip II of France to
invade England and depose King John. However see 4/3/1215.
17/6/1207, Pope Innocent III consecrated Stephen Langton
as Archbishop of Canterbury,
following the death of the previous incumbent, Hubert Walter, in 2105. However King John of
England had preferred John de Grey, Bishop of Norwich, to succeed to
the post. King
John wrongly suspected Langton of
being a secret ally of Philip of France..
1205, Hubert� Walter,
Archbishop of Canterbury, died. King John wanted John de Gray, Bishop of Norwich,
to succeed him. However the monks of Christ Church Canterbury met secretly and
their sub-prior, as Archbishop. They then quicklu sent Reginald to Rome to be
consecrated by Pope
Innocent III, whom they knew to be a keen champion of the supremacy
of Church over Monarch. King John, furious, descended on the monks and
compelled them to elect Gray instead. The Pope, seeing his chance to
assert the primacy of the Church, declared both erlections invalid, one for
secrecy, and the other for force majeure. Instead he insisted on a third
candidate, his friend and Englishman Cardinal Stephen Langton. King John refused to
accept Langton and delared that any oriest who supported Langton would be
outlawed and his lands confiscated. See 23/3/1208.
1/4/1204, Eleanor of
Aquitaine, wife of King Henry II of England, died. She was buried at Fonteraud.
In June 1204 England lost Normandy to the French
1202, Crawley, Sussex, received its
Royal Charter from King John.
1200, There were about 6 million sheep in England,
accounting for half its wealth.
8/10/1200, Coronation of Isabella, second wife of King John of England, as Queen.
town of Ipswich,
population ca. 3,000 received its Royal Charter from King John. Under the terms of
the Charter, the burgesses of Ipswich, a thriving fishimg port
with a trade in salt production and in export of grain and wool to the
Netherlands, received the right to govern the town in return for an annual
payment to the Crown of �65.
27/5/1199, King John
became King of England. He also became heir to the Angevin lands in France.
Reign of King John
Reign of King Richard I
6/4/1199. Richard I, Richard Lionheart, died, killed by an arrow in battle
whilst besieging Chaluz Castle, a rebel held castle in France, See
also France, 1190s
17/4/1194, Second coronation of Richard I of England, a ceremony he arranged
after his return from the Crusades, following John�s attempt to usurp the
throne, to re-establish his authority.
26/3/1194, Richard captured Nottingham Castle � the cause
of his brother, John
was lost. However see 6/4/1199.
2/11/1192. Peace was concluded between Richard I (Lionheart) of England and Saladdin of Jerusalem. The Crusades never
achieved their objective of liberating the Holy Land from the Muslims but
because they caused the death of so many noblemen the system of serfdom
and landholding in Europe was gradually dismantled. Feudalism gradually
ended over the period from 1300 to the Thirty Year�s War, 1618-48.
12/5/1191, Berengaria, wife of King Richard I of England, was crowned Queen at St George�s
Chapel, Limassol, Cyprus.
4/7/1190, Richard I set out on a Crusade, leaving his
younger brother John
in Europe. See also France, 1190s
3/9/1189. Richard the
Lionheart (Richard I) was crowned King at Westminster, after his
father Henry II, died. His first act was to free his mother Eleanor of Aquitaine from the
Tower of London where King Henry II imprisoned her 16 years earlier for
supporting their sons, Richard and John, in a rebellion against
Henry. Richard was planning a Third Crusade.
13/8/1189, Richard the
Lionheart arrived in England, to a hero�s welcome.
Reign of King Henry II; first
Plantagenet King of England
6/7/1189, King Henry II,
King of England, died at Chinon, succeeded by his third son, Richard I
11/6/1183, Richard I�s elder brother died. Richard
became heir to the English throne, also the Angevin lands, Normandy and
29/6/1175, King Henry II held a Council at
Gloucester, at which oaths of loyalty were obtained from the Welsh princes.
14/6/1170, King Henry II�s
son was crowned, not as was custom by the Archbishop of Canterbury but by the
Archbishop of York. This was a major snub to Thomas Beckett, and against Papal
instructions. Henry then made verbal reconciliation with Beckett, who,
impatient to return to England, did so without proper guarantees of safety.
sixth and youngest son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, was born
Queen of England, died (born 1102).
1161, The monks at Kirkstead, near Sheffield, had four
7/2/1161, The title
�Confessor� was conferred upon King Edward, by Papal Bull. It signified his
adherence to religious principles in the face of temptation.
wife of King
Richard I, was crowned Queen at Worcester Cathedral.
8/9/1157. King Richard I was born in Oxford, third son of Henry II
of Aquitaine, and later known as Richard the Lionheart.
Although he reigned for nearly ten years he was only in England twice, for a
total of 160 days. He was mostly away on crusades.
son of Henry
II, was born.
19/12/1154. Henry II, adopted son of Stephen, became King of England,
aged 21, on the death of Stephen (aged 54) on 24/10/1154. Henry II
ruled for 35 years, starting the Plantagenet
Dynasty, which endured until
Reign of King Stephen
24/10/1154. King Stephen of
England died at Dover.
25/12/1146, King Stephen
of England arranged a third �coronation�; in reality a demonstration of his
The second coronation of King Stephen of England. He insisted on this
ceremony after his release from prison to re-establish his authority over the
1/11/1141. Following the
death of King
Henry I, Matilda his daughter and her cousin Stephen of
Blois were fighting a civil war for the English throne. Rival barons
robbed and burned villages and abbeys.
14/9/1141, The Battle of
Stephen�s release was secured.
1/8/1141, The siege of
20/2/1141, At the Battle
of Lincoln, King
Stephen was captured. He had been besieging Lincoln Castle, and was
taken by forces under Earl Robert of Gloucester and Earl Ranulf of
Chester. This left Matilda
as de-facto ruler of England.
22/8/1138, At the Battle
of The Standard, a Scottish Highland and Pict army under King David
was defeated near Northallerton by English from Yorkshire and the east Midlands.
wife of King
Stephen of England, was crowned Queen at Westminster Abbey.
22/12/1135, The coronation
Stephen took place.
Reign of Henry I
1/12/1135. King Henry I died, aged 66,
apparently of a surfeit of lampreys, near Rouen. See 1/11/1141.� His nephew Stephen succeeded him. Henry�s
only son, Robert,
had drowned in 1120 and Henry I wanted his daughter Maud
to succeed him; the barons considered it unfitting for a woman to be monarch
and backed the claim of Stephen, Henry�s nephew.
5/3/1133, Henry II, first
Plantagenet King of England, was born near Le Mans, eldest son of Geoffrey Count
of Anjou and Matilda, daughter of Henry I.
Adeliza, second wife of King Henry I of England, was crowned Queen at
25/11/1120, William Aethelney, son and heir of the English King Henry I, drowned when his ship
hit rocks whilst sailing from Normandy to England.
1109, Louis VI
of France declared
war on England.
28/9/1106. King Henry of England defeated his brother Robert at the Battle of Tinchebrai in France
and reunited England and Normandy,
divided since William the Conqueror died, see 5/8/1100 and 9/9/1087.
11/11/1100, Matilda I, first wife of King Henry I of England, was
crowned Queen at Westminister Abbey
5/8/1100, Henry I, youngest
son of William
the Conqueror aged 31, was crowned in Westminster Abbey. The rightful heir, older brother Robert,
was away on the First Crusade and
not expected to return until 1101. Henry I was expected to buy him off with territories in Normandy, see 28/9/1101.
2/8/1100. William Rufus, (William II), king of England
the Conqueror, (see 9/9/1087) was killed in the New Forest by an
arrow in a hunting accident; he was allegedly mistaken for a deer. His brother,
who became Henry
I, was crowned on 5/8/1100, succeeded him. Aged 32, he now ruled for 35 years.
1092, Carlisle Castle built. William II subdued Cumberland.
15/11/1087. Domesday Book completed.
26/9/1087, The coronation of King William II of England.
William the Conqueror
9/9/1087. William the Conqueror died, aged 60, in Rouen,
France, from injuries sustained when his horse stumbled. He had ridden out to
see the ruins of the town of Mantes, having sacked and burnt it in retaliation
for French raids on his territory, but the horse stepped on hot ashes and
was succeeded in Normandy by Robert Curthose
and in England by William Rufus, William II,
who was crowned on 26/9/1087. See 2/8/1100, and 28/9/1106.
25/12/1085, (-) King William I of England ordered a complete
survey of the wealth of the kingdom, known as the Domesday Book.
1079, The Noirmans built a
castle at Newcastle on Tyne as a base
for subjugation of the North.
1075, Richmond Castle, Yorkshire, built.
21/9/1069, The Norman castle of York was attacked and
overran. The defenders were all killed, except for two castellans and their
families, who were held for ransom. William, who had been hunting in the Forest
of Dean, hurried north yet again. Delayed by heavy rain, he eventually arrived
in York to find it a deserted smouldering ruin. The local rebels had withdrawn,
and the Danes returned to their ships on the Humber, unreachable by William�s
soldiers. William now took decisive action. Having paid off the Danes to go
away, he killed and burned large parts of the population and its villages in
the north of England, in what became known as the Harrying of the North, Large regions of Lancashire, Yorkshire,
Cheshire and Staffordshire were devastated. Thousands were made homeless or
19/9/1069, The Norman garrison at York faced further
rebellions by supporters of Edgar Aetheling, assisted by Danish ships under
Asbjorn, brother of King Sweyn II of Denmark. This day the York defenders
attempted to improve their defences by clearing the ground in front of the
castle, but succeeded in starting a fire that badly damaged the city and
destroyed St Peter�s Cathedral.
7/1069, Godwin, son of Harold,
landed in south Devon with a small fleet, probably intending to attack
Tavistock. However he was repelled, with heavy losses, by forces loyal to William.
1/1069, Another anti-Norman
rebellion broke out, this time in Northumbria, against the newly-installed
Robert de Comines. Local rebels stormed Durham and killed any
foreigners they could find; Comines was burnt to death as he sheltered in
the Bishop�s House. The rebellion then spread to York. Norman defenders at York
managed to get a plea for help out to William, who had returned to France after
dealing with Exeter. Worryingly for William, the rebels were proclaiming Edgar Aethling
their king, and seeking alliance with Malcolm, King of the Scots. William
again hurriedly crossed the Channel, rebuilt and expanded York Castle, then
went back south to spend Easter in Winchester.
1068, The first major anti-Norman rebellion broke out in Britain, in Exeter,
Harold�s mother, Gwytha, resided. William risked crossing the
Channel in December to go and deal with the issue. He besieged the city for18
days; it was treated leniently on surrender, with William building a castle there
to keep order. William
then went to ensure the rest of Devon and Cornwall remained obedient to him.
25/12/1066. William the
Conqueror was crowned King of England, in Westminster Abbey.
14/10/1066 Battle of Hastings. William the
Conqueror had landed in England, at Pevensey Bay, seven miles from the
Batlle site, on 28/9/1066. The English lost partly because they left their
strong position on the crest of a hill, and partly because they were exhausted
by the Battle of Stamford Bridge and
the long march south. The Witan chose Edgar Atheling, grandson of Edmund Ironside,
as King. William circled London and approached from the north. At Berkhamsted,
Edgar and other Saxon nobles met William and offered him the crown.
King Edward the Confessor of England (1003-66, see 5/1/1066) had
promised the throne of England to King William of
Normandy upon his death. However in response to a Viking threat, Edward also promised the throne to the Danish King Svein Estrithsson, and Harald Hadraada of Norway had also been promised
the English throne by an earlier King. The English nobility preferred a native
ruler, Harold of Wessex.
Reign of King
2/10/1066, News reached Harold of William�s landing at
Hastings, and he began marching south to confront him.
the Conqueror landed at Hastings.
25/9/1066. King Harold
defeated the Norwegians under Tostig at the Battle of Stamford Bridge, near York, unaware that William of
Normandy was about to invade the south coast. Tostig had begun an invasion of
20/9/1066. Harald Hardraada of Norway and Earl Tostig
defeated the northern English Earls Edwin and Morcar. However the Norwegian forces were
weakened so that they lost to Harold II at Stamford Bridge (25/9/1066). In
turn the noerthen English forces were so weakened by these two battles that
they could not fully assist Harold at Hastings (14/10/1066).
was crowned King of England in succession to Edward the Confessor. Ten months
later he died at the Battle of Hastings
Edward the Confessor
5/1/1066. Death of Edward
the Confessor, said to be England�s most pious king.� Leaving no heir, he recommended Harold
as his successor. See 14/10/1066.
14/4/1053, Godwin, Earl of Wessex, died.
3/4/1043, Edward the
Confessor was crowned.
8/6/1042,� Harthacanute, King of Denmark
and England, died.
King of England, was crowned in Canterbury Cathedral.
17/3/1040, Harold Harefoot, King of England, was born.
6/1/1017, Cnut was crowned King of England in London.
30/11/1016, King Edmund was murdered and Cnut became King of England.
18/10/1016, The Danes
under Canute defeated the Saxons under
Aethelread the Unready (un-Reded, or without counsel, because he did not listen
to his advisers) at the Battle of Assandun (now Ashingdon, Essex)
23/4/1016, Ethelred died and was succeeded by his son Edmund II, Ironside.
Edmund and Cnut fought for the
throne. Edmund agreed to keep Wessex
and leave Cnut ruling over the rest
in England 991 - 1035
12/11/1035. Death of the Danish King of England, Canute
(Cnut), aged 40. His kingdom
disintegrated. Harold I, Cnut�s
son by Aelgifu of Northampton, became
Regent of England whilst his half-brother delayed in Denmark. England split
into the old political pattern of Northumbria and Mercia against Wessex.
3/2/1014, Svein Forkbeard, King of Denmark, Norway and
England, died. In Denmark he was succeeded by his son Harold, and in England by his other son Cnut. Ethelred
the Unready, however, returned from Normandy to displace Cnut, who then left England.
25/12/1013, The Danish King, Swein Forkbeard, invaded England and was
declared its King. However he died 5 weeks later.
13/11/1002. In England, on St Brice�s Day, many leading men of
Viking descent were massacred on th orders of King Ethelred II The Unready, because
he doubted their loyalty. His policy of buying the Vikings off had failed to halt
their raids. In revenge Sweyn returned in 1002 and ravaged Exeter in 1003 and Norwich
and Thetford in 1004. After a
lull in 1005 Viking attacks on English towns resumed and Aethelred bought them
off for a larger sum than ever, �36,000, in 1007. But in 1010 the Vikings were
bought off again, for �48,000 this time. In the 1010s the Vikings made efforts
to gain political control of the English Kingdom of northern and western
called the Unready
as he was without rede or
counsel, had been a weak, improvident, and self-indulgent monarch, and he died
in London on 23/4/1016. His wife Emma subsequently married Canute, and died in retirement
at Winchester on 6/3/1052 after not her son (Hardicanute) but Harold Harefoot
had become king of England.
Battle of Maldon. The Danes under Olaf Tryggvason
attempted a landing at Maldon, Essex, but were pinned down on the causeway from
Northey Island to the mainland, where battle was impossible. They requested to
be aloowed to progress onto the mainland where proper battle could take place,
and for some reason Aerhelred II allowed them to, perhaops out of a sense of
fair play or possibly he was confident he could defeat them. In the event the
Danes won, allowing them to conquer first Essex then much of the rest of
See also Christianity
II (the Unready) was crowned King of England
18/3/978, King Edward the Martyr
was murdered at Corfe castle, and succeeded by Ethelred II (The Unready).
Wales 587 - 994
10/5/994, The Vikings invaded Anglesey.
England invaded the Celtic Kingdon of Gwynedd.
942, Hywel Dda, King of Deheubarth, annexed Gwyedd to become the
ruler of most of Wales.
844, Rhodri Mawr became the first Prince of all Wales.
587, Death of St David, patron saint of Wales.
Kings Athelstan, Edmund I, Eadwig. Edgar; England
975, Edgar, younger son of Edmund I, King of
Mercia and Northumbria 957-75, and King of all England 959-75, died (born 943).
11/5/973, Edgar was crowned King of England at Bath.
of England died, and was succeeded by his brother Edgar, who effectively completed the unification of England when Northumbria
finally submittted to his rule.
Eadwig (Edwy) of England was crowned.
23/11/955, King Eadred
of England died and was succeeded by Eadwig, son of Edred�s brother and former King (Edmund I).
Eadred of England was crowned.
Edmund I of England was murdered by a fugitive
whom he was trying to apprehend.� He was
succeeded by his brother, Eadred.
945, Scotland took the Lake District area from England.
29/11/939, King Edmund I of England was crowned.
27/10/939, King Athelstan of Mercia died. He
was succeeded by his brother Edmund I. Son of Edward the Elder, grandson of Alfred the Great, he was elected King of Wessex and Mercia
on his father�s death in 924.
He invaded Northumbria, thereby becoming the first King of all England in 937.
Mercia and Wessex now merged into one kingdom, England
The Battle of Brunanburh. This probably took place at
Bromborough, on The Wirral. Aethelstan had inherited the thrones of Mercia from
his aunt and of Wessex from his father, making him the first true king of all England. In 934 Aethelstan, as part of a border campaign to secure
his northern frontier, attacked Scotland and the Welsh Kingdom of Strathclyde
(comprising the modern Strathclyde region plus the Lake District). In 937 King Constantine III of Scotland and Owain
map Dynfwal, King of Strathclyde, allied with Olaf (Anlaf) Gothfrithson, the Viking
King of Dublin, and attacked the Kingdom of England.
Aethelstan and his brother Eadmund marched to meet them in battle. Athelstan
won a notable victory at Brunanburh; five northern kings and seven Irish-Viking
earls were killed. This was the first
victory by an English as opposed to an Anglo Saxon King.
4/9/925, Coronation of King Aethelstan of England.
the Elder of England died and was succeeded by his son Aethlstan.
918, Death of Aethelflaed,
eldest daughter of Alfred the Great and Queen of Mercia. Mercia was now fully incorporated into Wessex by King Edward the Elder.
Anglo-Saxon men of Kent defeated the Vikings of East Anglia at the Battle of the Holme
8/1/900, Coronation of Edward the Elder.
on southern England 789-970
Devon, was burned by the Danes.
was burnt by the Danes.
Death of King Alfred the Great (born 849), succeeded by Edward the Elder. Born in 849, he was sent at the
age of 5 to be confirmed by Pope
Leo IV. At this time Alfred had three elder brothers and so
was by no means guaranteed to be the future King of Wessex. Alfred�s two eldest
had short reigns. The third brother, Aethelred, became king in 866. In 868
Aethelrerd and Alfred made an unsuccessful attempt to throw the Danes out of
Mercia. In 870 numerous battles were fought by Aethelred against the Danes; a
Danish defeat at Englefield, Berkshire, on 31/112/870 was followed by a Danish
victory at Reading on 4/1/871. The
Danes lost again at the Battle of Ashdown, near
Compton Beauchamp, Shrivenham, on 8/1/871, but defeated the English on 22/1/871
at Basing, and repeated the Danish victory at Marton, Wiltshire, on 22/3/871.
Aethelred, Alfred�s older brother, died in April 871, and while Alfred was busy
with the funeral the Danes won another victory, and defeated his army once more
at Wilton in May 871.
until 876 the Danes were occupied fighting elsewhere in England but in 876 they
returned to Wessex to occupy Wareham and in 877 managed to take Exeter. Here
the Danes were blockaded by Alfred, and a Danish relief fleet was scattered by
storms. Hence the Danes submitted and
withdrew to Mercia. In early January 878 the Danes suddenly attacked King
Alfred�s Christmas celebrations at Chippenham; most were killed but Alfred and
a few men escaped to the fort at Athelney, from where he made preparations for
attacks on the Danes. By May 878 Alfred was ready and he moved out of Athelney,
joined by armed soldiers from Somerset, Wiltshire, and Hampshire. The Danes
also moved out of their camp at Chippenham and the two armies met at Edington in Wiltshire.The result was a decisive victory for
Alfred; the Danes surrendered, and Guthrum, the Danish King, and 29 of his
chief men, submitted to baptism as Christians. By the Peace of Wedmore, 878,
the Danes were cleared from all of Wessex
and from Mercia west of Watling Street.
There were no more Danish attacks on England until 884 or 885 when a
Danish landing in Kent was successfully repelled; this
nevertheless encouraged an uprising by East Anglian Danes. Alfred then managed
to capture London from the Danes. After a further period of peace, the Danes on
the continent found their position becoming more precarious and in 892 or 893,
attempted to colonise, with their women and children, areas of Kent and the
the Elder of Wessex defeated the Danes of
Northumbria at Tetenhall, Staffordshire. Halfdan, King of
York, was killed.
890, Death of Guthrum, Danish
King of East Anglia from 880. In 871 he led a major Viking omvasion of Britain,
seizing much of the east coast. He attacked Wessex in 878, with initial
success, driving Alfred
into hiding in Wedmore. However by May 878 Alfred had recovered and defeated Guthrum at the
Battle of Edlington. Guthrum
agreed to become a Christian, and to leave Wessex and return to his Kingdom of
of Wessex died in battle against the Danes; he was succeeded by
Battle of Marton (Wiltshire),
between the Danes and Wessex.
Battle of Basing, between
the Danes and Wessex. King
Ethelred of Wessex was defeated.
Battle of Ashdown, between
the Danes and Wessex. King
Ethelred of Wessex defeated the Danes.
Battle of Reading, between
the Danes and Wessex. King
Ethelred of Wessex was defeated.
Battle of Englefirld (Berkshire),
between the Danes and Wessex. King
Ethelred of Wessex defeated the Danes.
The Danes murdered Edmund, King of
East Anglia, when he refused to become their subject. He was succeeded by Oswald, last
English King of East Anglia. The Danes moved south west and camped
at Reading, ready to invade Wessex.
Aelle of Northumbria was killed by the
Vikings, who now established their rule in Northumbria.
Cathedral sacked by the Danes;
rebuilt ca. 950.
Viking raid on Ireland
Viking raid on Scotland.
at Lindisfarne looted by the Danes.
789, First Viking raids on Britain, at
King of All England, was crowned on Whit Sunday by Dunstan, Archbishop of
Canterbury, in the Saxon Abbey on the site of the present Bath Abbey.
13/6/858, Ethelwulf, King of Wessex, died and was succeeded
by his son Ethelbald,
who had been his co-ruler for three years and who married his stepmother Judith.
1/10/856, Aethelwulf, King of Wessex, married Judith, 12 year old daughter of Charles the
was born, in Wantage.
Britons pushed back into Devon and Cornwall; finally
conquered altogether, 429-815
815, King Egbert of Wessex defeated
the Britons of Cornwall.
733, Mercian King Aethelbald conquered the Somerset area from the Britons, pushing them back into
just Devon and Cornwall.
633, King Oswald of Northumbria defeated the Britons at the Battle of Rowley Water,
Cadwallon, driving them out of northwest
616, King Edwin of Northumbria defeated the Britons, in north Wales and Anglesey.
615, Battle of
Aethelfrith of Northumbria defeated the Britons,
reaching the Irish Sea and dividing the Welsh Britons from those in northwest
577, Battle of Deorham (Dryham,
Gloucestershire). The (Saxon) Kingdom of Wessex defeated the Welsh (Britons),
pushing the Britons back into separate regions in Wales and Cornwall.
Saxons captured Aylesbury from the Britons.
Battle of Crayford; the Britons were defeated by Hengest, and gave up Kent to the Jutes.
Jutes and Angles displaced the Picts and Scots from southern England.
King Offa of Mercia; Wessex subdued
Death of King Offa of
Mercia, after a 39-year reign. His kingdom covered much of England
south of a line from the Humber to Preston, and he had subdued the only other kingdom south of this line,
(Hampshire to Cornwall) in 777. on 17/12/796 Offa�s son
and successor Egfrith� died and was succeeded by Cenwulf.
757, Accession of Offa, King of Mercia,
after he had defeated the usurper, Beornred.
733, King Aethelbald of Mercia invaded Wessex
A violent storm separated the Channel island of Jethou from Herm.
15/2/670, Death of King Oswy of
Bernicia (northern England). Born ca. 612, son of King Aedilfrith of Bernicia,, he became
king in 642. He attempted to gain control of the neighbouring Kingdom of Deira.
Death of Penda,
King of Mercia.
Death of Cynegils,
King of the West Saxons. He had succeeded his uncle, Ceowulf, as King
641, Penda, King of Mercia, defeated and killed King Oswald of
Northumbria. Mercia te,mp[orarily became the dominnat kingdom in
England.However Penda was then killed at the Battle of Winwaed
(655) by Oswy (641-670), the younger brother of Oswald.
Northumbria then regained supremacy over Mercia.
14/5/796, Coronation of King Eardwulf of Northumbria, at York.
Aethelbald of Northumbria was assassinated by
his boidyguatrd. He was succeeded by Offa.
Aethelbald of Mercia broke a 60-year-old truce
with Northumbria, attacking it and devastating large areas.
9/5/729, Osric, King of Northumbria, died and was
succeeded by Ceolwulf.
20/5/685, Ecgfrith, King of Northumbria, died at the
Battle of Nechtansmere, north of the River Tay, fighting the Picts. Most of the
Northumbrian army was killed and Northumbria
was now in decline. English settlement was now restricted to south of the
River Forth, with Edinburgh as a border fortress.
King of Northumbria from 634, died in battle against King Penda
Death of Aethelfrith, king of Northumbria; killed in the Battle of the Idle against Raedwald of East
Anglia, Edwin now became the first Christian
King of Northumbria.
603, Scottish invasion of Northumbria,
repelled by Northumbrian King Aethelfrith who defeated King Aidan of the Dalraid Scots at the Battle
4/7/673, Egbert I, King of Kent, died.
20/1/640, Eadbald, King of Kent, died and was succeeded by
his son Earconberht.
Death of Ethelbert,
king of Kent, who was
converted to Christianity by Augustine
Battle of Ardderyd; Cumbria was incorporated in the Kingdom of Strathclyde.
Kentish King Eormenric died
and was succeeded by his son, who ruled until 616 as Ethelbert I.
See also Christianity
for early Church conversion work in Britain
514, The history of Wessex began, when a
band of Saxons, calling themselves the Gewissas, landed at Southampton. Under King Cerdic (519-34) the
Kingdom of Wessex formed from an alliance of the Gewissas and Jutes, becoming
known as the West Saxons. Under King Cynric (534-60) Wessex expanded from Hampshire and the Isle
of Wight to encompass Salisbury Plain and up to the Thames, where the East Saxons held their ground. Under King Ceawlin (560-92) Wessex defeated the Jutes of Kent, and
then pushed northwards from the Thames and up the Severn Valley as far as
Uriconium (The Wrekin, Shropshire), where, however, he was defeated at Faddiley by Mercian forces. Mercia then expanded
southwatds to the Thames Valley. Meanwhile Wessex
bevame Christian in 635, and under King
Cenwealh (643-72) it expended its territory west from the River Axe
to the River Parrett. Further westwards expansion was achieved under King Ine (688-726) . Underr King Cuthred (741-54) Wessex
pushed the Mercians back north, although in 779 King Offa of Mercia (757 � July 796) again pushed Wessex back
south to the Thames. Under King Egbert
(802-839) Wessex defeated Mercia in 829 (under King Wiglaf, who was temporarily forced into exile).
returned in 830 and Mercian power was reasserted, Egbert had captured London and was now known as Bretwald, Lord of all Britain. Wessex
eventually came to dominate all of England.
Roman withdrawal from
Britain; Saxon invasion
436, No Roman troops were now left in Britain.
last Roman legions left Britain, to protect Italy from Germanic invasions.
legions began to leave Britain, forever, see 410.
first Saxon invasion of Britain.
See also Roman Empire
285 AD, Carausius, Roman
Commander of the British Fleet, proclaimed himself independent Emperor of
127, Hadrian�s Wall, Britain, was completed (work began in 122).
330 BCE, The Greek
explorer Pytheas of Massilia (now
Marseilles) reached Britain.
450 BCE, Major
migration of Celtic peoples into the
Building of Stonehenge commenced.
Separation of Britain from mainland Europe, as sea levels rose.
See also Christianity
for early Church conversion work in Britain
See also Roman Empire
Back to top