-Historical events from I January 1200 to 31 December 1599

 

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(-9999) = Day count to end of World War Two in Europe (day zero = Tuesday). Easter Sundays derived from https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/easter/easter_text2b.htm

 

For dates from 1/1/1600 click here

 

10/12/1599, Wednesday (-126,146) The Assembly of the Convention of States at Edinburgh.

6/6/1599, (-126,333) Diego Velasquez, Spanish painter, was born in Seville.

25/4/1599. Wednesday (-126,377) Oliver Cromwell was born in Huntingdon. He became Lord Protector of England, Britain’s first and only dictator.

8/4/1599, Sunday (-126,394) Easter Sunday.

22/3/1599, (-126,411) Sir Anthony van Dyck, Flemish artist and court painter to Charles I of England, was born in Antwerp, son of a cloth manufacturer.

18/9/1598, (-126,596) Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Japanese statesman (born 6/2/1537) died. A feudal lord of peasant origin, he completed the unification of Japan under Oda Nobunaga. This was accomplished by the defeat of the feudal barons (daimyo). He instituted a rigid system of class divisions, having farmers, merchants, monks and warriors living in different quarters of Japanese towns. In 1592 he attempted to take the Korean Peninsula from China, but his army was too small for this task. In 1597 he tried again, also unsuccessfully. He even harboured ambitions of much wider conquests, including China, the Philippines and India. His death left a power vacuum that plunged Japan into civil war.

13/9/1598. (-126,601) King Philip II of Spain died after a reign of over 40 years, aged 71. Spain had acquired great wealth from its conquest of South America, but had squandered it in a series of wars, and had suffered the defeat of the Great Armada. He was succeeded by his fourth wife’s fourth son, Philip III.

4/8/1598, (-126,641) William Cecil, Baron Burghley, chief advisor to Queen Elizabeth I, died.

13/4/1598. Henry IV of France issued the Edict of Nantes, giving Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. See 24/8/1572, and 18/10/1685.

23/4/1598, Sunday (-126,744) Maarten Tromp, Dutch Admiral, was born.

16/4/1598, Sunday (-126,751) Easter Sunday.

20/8/1597, (-126,991) Dutch seafarers brought back spice cargo from Java, see 2/4/1595 and 20/3/1602.

20/6/1597, (-127,051) Dutch navigator Willem Barents who led a team of three to find the North West Passage, and who discovered Spitsbergen on his last voyage, died at sea.

27/3/1597, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

5/2/1597, (-127,186) In Japan, Toyotomi Hideyoshi crucified 26 Christians in Nagasaki, then told all remaining missionaries to leave the country. When most defied the order, Hideyoshi took no action for fear of alienating Portuguese traders.

24/1/1597, (-127,198) Battle of Battle of Turnhout, Netherlands.

29/11/1596. (-127,254) Spain admitted that the Royal Treasury was bankrupt, drained by a series of wars and especially the attempt to invade England. Revolts against Spanish rule in the Americas were also costly. See 24/3/1603.

11/4/1596, Sunday (-127,486) Easter Sunday.

31/3/1596, Wednesday (-127,497) Rene Descartes, French philosopher, was born.

28/1/1596. (-127,560) Sir Francis Drake died of dysentery and was buried at sea off Porto Bello, Panama.

21/7/1595, (-127,751) Alvaro Mendana discovered the Marquesas Islands.

9/6/1595, (-127,793) Battle of Fontaine-Francaise; Huguenot victory.

31/5/1595, (-127,802)

20/4/1595, Sunday (-127,843) Easter Sunday.

2/4/1595, (-127,861) The Dutch launched an expedition to try and open up a trade route to the East Indies, or Spice Islands, independent from the Spanish.  Before the Union of Spain and Portugal in 1580/81, the Dutch commanded most of the spice trade between Lisbon and northern Europe.  After this date, the Spanish shut the Portuguese out from this trade.  This voyage was marred by losses, but the survivors who reached Texel on 20/8/1597 brought back valuable cargo, plus a treaty with the Sultan of Bantam, in Java.  See 20/3/1602.

21/2/1595. (-127,901) Robert Southwell, English poet and Jesuit martyr, was hanged, drawn, and quartered at Tyburn.

9/12/1594, (-127,975) Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, was born.

5/12/1594, (-127,979) Gerard Mercator, Flemish geographer and cartographer, died in Duisberg, aged 82. He projected the world map onto a flat surface using lines of longitude and latitude.

9/8/1594, (-128,097)

31/5/1594, (-128,167) Tintoretto, his real name being Jacopo Robusti, one of the great Italian painters, died in Venice, aged 76.

13/4/1594, Saturday (-128,215)

31/3/1594, Sunday (-128,228) Easter Sunday.

13/3/1594, Wednesday (-128,246)

2/2/1594, (-128,283) The composer Palestrina died in Rome (born ca. 1525).

30/12/1593, (-128,319)

9/8/1593, (-128,462) The author Izaak Walton was born at Stafford.

18/4/1593, Wednesday (-128,575) Shakespeare’s first published work, the poem Venus and Adonis, was entered into the Stationer’s Register.

15/4/1593, Sunday (-128,578) Easter Sunday.

30/12/1592, (-128,684)

3/9/1592, (-128,802) Robert Greene, dramatist, died.

9/8/1592, (-128,829)

21/5/1592, (-128,907) Parma escaped Protestant forces at Coudebec and marched south east to resupply forces at Paris.

17/5/1592, (-128,911) The Duke of Parma withdrew from besieging Coudebec. His forces had been reduced to 15,000, and the Dutch Protestants were able to resupply Coudebec by sea, sailing up the River Seine.

21/4/1592, (-128,937) The Duke of Parma raised the siege by Protestants of Catholics holding out at Rouen.

27/3/1592, Monday (-128,962) Henry of Navarre, Protestant, restarted the siege of Catholics holding Rouen.

26/3/1592, Sunday  (-128,963) Easter Sunday.

24/3/1592, Friday (-128,965) The Duke of Parma, Catholic, began a siege of Protestants holding the town of Coudebec, on the lower Seine.

29/2/1592  Tuesday (-128,989)

9/2/1592, Wednesday (-129,009) Parma attacked Protestants at Neufchatel.

4/2/1592, Friday (-129,014) Military skirmish at Aumale, west of Amiens, between Catholics and Huguenot Protestants.

16/1/1592, Sunday (-129,033) The Catholic Duke of Parma marched south west from Amiens with 30,000 men.

30/12/1591, Thursday (-129,050) Pope Innocent IX died.

3/12/1591. Friday (-129,077) The earliest recorded fire insurance policy. 101 persons, mainly brewers, agreed to pay out a maximum of 10 thalers to any fellow member  whose property was damaged by fire.

29/10/1591, Friday (-129,112) Pope Innocent IX became the 230th Pope.

16/10/1591, Saturday (-129,125) Pope Gregory XIV died.

27/8/1591, (-129,175)

24/5/1591, (-129,270) Sir John Norreys, leading an expeditionary force sent by Queen Elizabeth I, took the town of Guincamp after a brief siege, to assist the Protestant King Henry of Navarre, in his fight against Catholics in France.

6/4/1591, Tuesday (-129,318)

4/4/1591, Sunday (-129,320) Easter Sunday.

13/3/1591, (-129,342) At the Battle of Tondibi, Moroccan forces under the Saadi Dynasty, led by Judar Pasha, defeated the Songhai Empire, despite being outnumbered at least 5 to 1.

20/2/1591, (-129,363)

30/12/1590, (-129,415)

20/12/1590, (-129,425) Ambroise Pare, known as the father of modern surgery, died in Paris.

29/10/1590, (-129,477)

27/8/1590, (-129,540) Pope Sixtus V (227th Pope) died.

17/8/1590, Monday (-129,550) John White, Governor of Roanoke Island, returned to find the British colony deserted and the first European child born in America vanished. The word ‘Croatoan’ was left behind. See 18/8/1587.

6/6/1590, (-129,622)

24/5/1590, (-129,635)

19/4/1590, Sunday (-129,670) Easter Sunday.

6/4/1590, Monday (-129,683) Sir Francis Walsingham, diplomat and creator of Elizabeth I’s secret service, died.

14/3/1590, Saturday (-129,706) Battle of Ivry; Huguenot victory.

21/9/1589, (-129,880) The Battle of Arques, NW France; Huguenot victory.

1/8/1589, (-129,931) Henry III, King of France, murdered by a mad Dominican monk.

1/7/1589, (-129,962) Christopher Plantin, printer, died.

30/3/1589, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

5/1/1589, (-) Catherine di Medici, Italian wife of King Henry II of France, died.

18/12/1588, (-130,157)

18/10/1588, (-130,218) The Polish postal service was created, when king Zygmunt August established a permanent postal route from Kraków to Venice.

15/9/1588, (-130,251) The remnants of the Spanish Armada limped back into Spanish ports.

4/9/1588. (-130,262) The death of Queen Elizabeth’s favourite, Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester.

8/8/1588, (-130,289) Queen Elizabeth I reviewed her troops at Tilbury.

29/7/1588. (-130,299) The Spanish Armada under Medina Sidonia was defeated. (See 19/5/1588). On the night of the 28 July the English sent fireships amongst the 130 ships of the Armada sent by Philip II to invade England, as they were anchored off Calais. This caused panic amongst the Spanish, who cut anchor, one ship running aground. By now the Spanish had lost several of their best ships and, whilst maintaining good order, were demoralised. The Spanish sent a signal to Parma to put his ships to sea from Dunkirk but he could not as he was closely blockaded by the British. On 29 July the English decimated the Spanish with broadside fire, preventing the Spanish closing and boarding, which would have been their only chance of success. The Spanish soldiers were outgunned and had inferior seamanship to the English sailors. The Spanish were nearly driven aground off The Netherlands on 30 July but a sudden change of wind saved them, with only 6 fathoms below them, and they were able to sail northwest into the North Sea. The English, running low on food and ammunition, followed them as far as the Firth of Forth, then returned south, satisfied that the Spanish would not return via the Straits of Dover. The Armada, short of both food and fresh water, encountered further problems with strong westerly winds as they attempted to sail around the north of Scotland and south to Spain. Many ships were wrecked at open sea or off the coasts of Scotland and Ireland. Only half the ships that left Spain returned home; death and sickness took a great toll of the crews. The failure of the Armada checked the naval growth of Spain and assisted the Netherlands to gain independence. Two further Armadas prepared by Spain, in 1596 and 1597, were disrupted by bad weather.

19/5/1588. Sunday (-130,370) The Spanish Armada set sail from Lisbon. The Armada consisted of 130 vessels, containing 7,000 sailors and 17,000 soldiers, commended by the Duke of Medina, sent by King Philip II. It arrived off the Lizard, Cornwall, on 19/7/1588, and off Plymouth on 20/7/1588. The English Navy was only just able to get out to sea and avoid being blockaded in Plymouth harbour. On 23 July the English and Spanish fleets clashed off Portland, and again on 25 July off the Isle of Wight. The defeat of the Armada was on 29 July, see 29/7/1588.

7/4/1588, Sunday (-130,412) Easter Sunday

5/4/1588, Friday (-130,414) Thomas Hobbes, philosopher, was born.

4/4/1588, Thursday (-130,415) Frederick II, King of Denmark, died, aged 53. He was succeeded by his 10-year old son, Christian IV.

20/10/1587, (-130,582) Battle of Coutras; Huguenot victory.

22/9/1587, (-130,610)

18/8/1587. (-130,645) Virginia Dare became the first child born of English parents in America. She was born on Roanoke Island, North Carolina, seven days after Sir Walter Raleigh’s second expedition landed. The parents were called Ananias and Ellinor Dare, and named the child Virginia in honour of the virgin Queen of England and the fledgling colony. See17/8/1590.

25/7/1587. (-130,669) (1) The Japanese Emperor Hideyoshi banned Christianity, and ordered the Jesuits to leave within 20 days. The Jesuits were accused of selling the Japanese as slaves.

(2) The Spanish Armada and the English navy engaged off the Isle of Wight. There were fears that the Spanish planned to seize the island as a base.

25/5/1587, (-130,730)

19/4/1587. Wednesday (-130,766) Sir Francis Drake led his convoy of ships into Cadiz, where the Spanish Armada was being prepared to attack England, and, taking the Spanish completely by surprise, looted, burnt, and sank many ships. He also looted the harbour stores and managed to escape with no casualties. This adventure became known as ‘the singeing of the King of Spain’s beard’. Sir Francis Drake also brought back 2,900 barrels of ‘sack’, a wine made in the Jerez region of Spain, so named from the Spanish word ‘sacar’, meaning ‘to take out, or export’. This was the forerunner of today’s sherry drink. Sack had been popular abroad since a Spanish law passed in 1492 exempting wine made for export from taxes; it was a robust wine that did not go off easily.

16/4/1587, Sunday (-130,769) Easter Sunday.

8/2/1587. (-130,836) Mary Queen of Scots was beheaded in the Great Hall of Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire, after nearly 19 years in prison. She had been implicated in a Catholic plot to overthrow her cousin Queen Elizabeth I. The leader of the plot, Anthony Babington, had planned to free Mary, and rally support amongst English Roman Catholics for a Spanish invasion force. Mary married the French Dauphin in her teens and was Queen of France for a year until he died. Her second marriage was to Lord Darnley. After Darnley’s murder, in which Mary may have been implicated, she married the Earl of Bothwell. Mary was defeated in battle in Scotland and fled to England, but her cousin Elizabeth I had her imprisoned. Elizabeth had been reluctant to execute Mary, because this might bring reprisals from Catholic Europe, and might legitimate her own execution at some future point; however Francis Walsingham persuaded Elizabeth to order the execution.

12/12/1586, (-130,894) Stephen Bathory of Poland died suddenly, aged 53. He was succeeded by the 12-year old son of the Swedish King  as Sigismund II.

22/11/1586, (-130,914)

22/9/1586, (-130,975) The Battle of Zutphen. British and Dutch forces defeated the Spanish.

20/9/1586, (-130,977) Chidiock Tichborne, one of the conspirators in the Catholic Babington Plot to murder Queen Elizabeth I, was executed at the Tower of London.

28/8/1586, (-131,000)

28/7/1586. (-131,031) The first potatoes arrived in Britain, brought from Colombia by Sir Thomas Harriott. They were to be used to feed livestock.

3/4/1586, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

9/9/1585, (-131,353) Cardinal Richelieu French politician and chief minister of King Louis XIII from 1624, who was ruthless at crushing all opposition to the monarchy, was born near Chinon.

10/8/1585, (-131,383) Elizabeth I of England signed the Treaty of Nonsuch, promising 64,000 foot soldiers, 1,000 cavalry, and 600,000 florins a year to support Protestant rebels in The Netherlands against Spain. Although Elizabeth disliked involvement in foreign European wars, the Spanish presence in The Netherlands was too close to England to ignore. King Philip II of Spain, who had laid siege to Antwerp in 1584, saw this Treaty as a declaration of war.

28/7/1585, (-131,396)

7/7/1585. (-131,417) King Henry III of France bowed to Catholic pressure and revoked the tolerance allowed to Hugenots.

25/5/1585, (-131,460)

7/5/1585, Friday (-131,478)

11/4/1585, Sunday  (-131,504) Easter Sunday.

10/4/1585, Saturday (-131,505) Pope Gregory XIII died.

7/4/1585, Wednesday (-131,508)

9/9/1584, (-131,718)

12/7/1584, (-131,777) William the Silent, Prince of Orange, was murdered by a fanatical Catholic. His youngest son, Maurice of Nassau, was elected stadtholder of Zeeland and Holland in his place, subsequently also of Utrecht, Overyssel and Gelderland also. Maurice became Commander of the Netherlands Army and succeeded in driving the Spanish entirely out of the United Provinces (Netherlands). A 12-year truce with Spain was concluded in 1609, whereby Spain acknowledged the independence of the United Provinces. However in 1621 Spain again attempted to reassert control over the United Provinces, only to be evicted later on.

12/5/1584, (-131,838)

19/4/1584, Sunday (-131,861) Easter Sunday.

18/3/1584. (-131,893) Czar Ivan IV, Ivan the Terrible, died aged 54, whilst about to play a game of chess. He may have died of grief for his son, whom he had killed in a mad fit of rage three years previously.

9/9/1583, (-132,084) Sir Humphrey Gilbert (see 5/8/1583) was drowned when his ship, The Squirrel, sank off The Azores drowning all on board.

5/8/1583. (-132,119) Sir Humphrey Gilbert landed on Newfoundland and claimed it for Britain.  He founded the colony of St Johns there.

18/6/1583. (-132,167) The first life insurance policy was sold in London. William Gibbons took out a policy whereby his relatives would be paid £383 if he died within 12 months of the policy date; the policy was underwritten by 16 individuals. Gibbons did indeed die in May 1584, and Richard martin then disputed the policy and refused to pay out. The courts decided he had to pay. Many more such life policies were issued but it was not until 1923 that the Life Insurance Companies Act was passed.

11/6/1583, (-132,174) Sir Humphrey Gilbert sailed from Plymouth, with the approval of Queen Elizabeth I, to found a British colony in America.

10/4/1583, Wednesday (-132,236) Hugo Grotius (De Groot), jurist, was born.

31/3/1583, Sunday (-132,246) Easter Sunday.

9/2/1583, (-132,296)

9/12/1582, (-132,358)

27/11/1582, (-132,370) William Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway at the age of 18.

5/10/1582. (-132,423) (see also 3/9/1752 when Britain adopted the Gregorian calendar). Pope Gregory XIII cancelled 10 days from the 5th to the 15th October 1582 to bring back the Spring Equinox to the 21st March and ensure that Easter fell on the proper date. Under the old Julian calendar, established in 46 BC, the calendar gained a whole day every 128 years. The new system cut out three leap years every 400 years to maintain accuracy.

10/8/1582. (-132,479) After 25 years of conflict, Russia made peace with Poland and gave up its claim on the Baltic state of Livonia.

15/4/1582, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

24/2/1582, (-132,646) Pope Gregory XIII announced a change from the Julian calendar to the new Gregorian calendar, entailing a forward move of 11 days, see 5/10/1582.

24/12/1581, (-132,708)

1/12/1581. (-132,731) The Jesuit martyr Edmund Campion was hanged at Tyburn, for distributing an anti-Anglican pamphlet in Oxford.

26/9/1581, (-132,797)

26/7/1581. (-132,859) (see 8/11/1576). The Estates General (Parliament) of The Hague deposed Philip II of Spain as the ruler of the Seven Provinces of the Union of Utrecht; effectively declaring UDI against Spain.

26/5/1581, (-132,920)

4/4/1581. Tuesday (-132,972) Queen Elizabeth I knighted Francis Drake on his ship The Golden Hind at Deptford, London, after he completed his circumnavigation of the world. See 26/9/1580. En route, Drake had captured and plundered several Spanish galleons; Spain demanded that Elizabeth I hang Drake for piracy, but Drake was a hero in England.

26/3/1581, Sunday  (-132,981) Easter Sunday.

21/11/1580, (-133,106)

26/9/1580. (-133,162)  Sir Francis Drake arrived back in Plymouth in the 100 ton Golden Hind (originally The Pelican) after 33 months, the first Englishman to circumnavigate the world. See 13/12/1577 and 4/4/1581.

17/6/1580, (-133,263)

6/4/1580, Wednesday (-133,335) An earth tremor damaged several old London churches, including the old St Paul’s Cathedral.

3/4/1580, Sunday (-133,338) Easter Sunday.

21/11/1579, (-133,472) Sir Thomas Gresham, who founded the Royal Exchange, died.

17/6/1579. (-133,629) Sir Francis Drake anchored the Golden Hind just north of what was to become San Francisco Bay; he named the area New Albion, claiming it for Britain.

19/5/1579, (-133,658) Treaty of the Malcontents, between Catholic nobles in The Netherlands and the Prince of Parma.

19/4/1579, Sunday (-133,688) Easter Sunday.

19/3/1579, (-133,719)

29/1/1579, (-133,768) Under the Treaty of Utrecht, the Northern Provinces were united to form what is now The Netherlands.

6/1/1579, (-133,791) Union of Arras. The southern Netherlands principalities of Artois, Hainault and Douai signed a Union in opposition to the northern Netherlands, with the intention of returning to the Catholic rule of Philip II of Spain. Later in January 1579 the northern Netherlands provinces, opposed to Catholic Spain, formed the Union of Utrecht.

6/11/1578, (-133,852)

6/9/1578, (-133,913)

4/8/1578, (-133,946) Sebastian, King of Portugal, was killed in the Battle of Al Kasr al Kebir.

4/6/1578, Wednesday (-134,007)

19/5/1578, Monday (-134,023)

14/4/1578, Monday (-134,058) Philip III, King of Spain, was born.

1/4/1578, Tuesday (-134,071) William Harvey, British anatomist who discovered the circulation of the blood, was born at Folkestone.

30/3/1578, Sunday (-134,073) Easter Sunday

31/1/1578, (-134,131) Battle of Gemblours. Farnese attacked and defeated a Dutch force.

13/1/1578  (-134,149)

13/12/1577. (-134,180) Sir Francis Drake left Plymouth on his voyage round the world. See 26/9/1580.

8/11/1577, (-134,215)

13/10/1577, (-134,241)

13/8/1577, (-134,302)

28/6/1577, (-134,348) Peter Van Rubens, Flemish painter, was born in Siegen, Westphalia, the son of a lawyer.

7/4/1577, Sunday (-134,430) Easter Sunday.

1/4/1577, Monday (-134,436)

1/3/1577, (-134,467)

1/2/1577, (-134,495)

13/12/1576, (-134,545)

8/11/1576. (-134,580) Spanish soldiers rampaged through Antwerp, killing some 7,000 people, and looting, in response to a rebellion against the tax imposed by the Spanish governor, the Duke of Alba. This caused a brutal repression, in 1572, against this rebellion, and some Spanish soldiers mutinied; some soldiers had also not been paid. Now leaders of the Catholic and Protestant Hapsburg Netherlands agreed to sink their differences and unite against the Spanish. See 26/7/1581.

12/10/1576, (-134,607) The Holy Roman Emperor Maximillian II died, aged 49. He was succeeded by his son Rudolf.

27/8/1576. (-134,653) Titian (Tiziano Vecelli) died, of bubonic plague, in Venice. His age was uncertain, but was believed to be over 90.

11/8/1576, (-134.669) Martin Frobisher entered ‘Frobisher Strait’, Baffin Island. Now known as Frobisher Bay, the long inlet was then thought to be a strait separating two islands.

8/8/1576, (-134,672) The first purpose-built observatory was constructed in Denmark.

22/6/1576, Friday (-134,719) Queen Elizabeth’s Prayer Book was issued.

22/5/1576, Tuesday (-134,750)

22/4/1576, Sunday (-134,780) Easter Sunday.

16/12/1575, (-134,908) A large earthquake at Valdivia.

15/12/1575, (-134,909) Stephen Bathory became King of Poland.

10/10/1575, (-134,975) The Battle of Dormans.  Catholic forces under Duke Henry of Guise defeated the Protestants, capturing Philippe de Mornay amongst others.

17/5/1575, Tuesday (-135,121) Matthew Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury, died.

3/4/1575, Sunday (-135,165) Easter Sunday.

5/3/1575, Saturday (-135,194) William Oughtred, mathematician and inventor of the slide rule, was born at Eton.

14/2/1575, Monday (-135,213) Henry III of France married Louise de Lorraine-Vaudemont.

13/2/1575, Sunday (-135,214) Henry III of France was crowned at Reims.

12/12/1574, Sunday (-135,277) Selim II, Sultan of Turkey, died, aged 50. He was succeeded by his eldest son, 27-year old Murad III, who had his brothers strangled in his presence.

12/11/1584, Friday (-135,307)

3/10/1574, Sunday (-135,347) The relief of Leyden. William of Orange broke a dyke to flood the polders and then sailed his ships right up to the besieged city of Leyden to bring relief food, bread and herrings.

6/5/1574, (-135,497) Pope Innocent X was born.

14/4/1574, Wednesday (-135,519) Battle of Mookerheyde, Netherlands.

11/4/1574, Sunday (-135,522) Easter Sunday.

28/2/1574, The Spanish Inquisition burnt at the stake two Englishmen and an Irishman for ‘Lutheran heresy’. These were the first European victims of the Inquisition in the New World; previously only native Indians had been burnt, for ‘Aztec paganism’. A further 68 Englishmen were publically lashed and given long terms as galley-slaves. These men were from a fleet headed by Sir John Hawkins and Sir Francis Drake that had brought slaves from Africa to sell in the Caribbean, in defiance of a Spanish ban; Drake and Hawkins escaped but had to abandon two ships and crew.

7/10/1573, (-135,708) William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, was born.

7/8/1573, (-135,769)

15/7/1573, (-135,792) The architect Inigo Jones was born in London.  He was the son of a clothmaker.

11/6/1573, (-135,826) In Britain, a Puritan pamphlet calling for the abolition of episcopacy was suppressed by Parliament.

15/5/1573, Friday (-135,853)

26/4/1573, Sunday (-135,872) Marie de Medici, Queen of France, was born.

22/3/1573, Sunday (-135,907) Easter Sunday.

7/3/1573. Saturday (-135,,922) Venice concluded a peace with the Turks by which Venice recognised Turkey’s sovereignty over Cyprus.

6/1/1573, (135,982)

24/11/1572. (-136,025) John Knox, father of the Scottish reformation, died in Edinburgh. He had returned to Scotland after the rebellion against the Catholic Mary Queen of Scots.

23/11/1572, (-136,026) The painter Bronzino died in Florence, aged 69.

11/11/1572. (-136,038) The astronomer Tycho Brahe saw a ‘new star’, a supernova, in the constellation of Cassiopeia. The fixed stars were meant to be eternal, unchanging. Along with Copernicus’ assertion that the Sun, not the earth, is the centre of the Universe, this undermined traditional church cosmology.

11/10/1572, (-136,069)

24/8/1572. (-136,117) The St Bartholomew’s Day Massacre took place in Paris. Thousands of French Huguenots were killed by order of the Catholic French court. See 13/4/1592.  Gaspard de Coligny, Huguenot leader, was killed. This was 6 days after the marriage of Catholic Marguerite de Valois, daughter of Henry II of France, also known as Catherine de Medici, to the Protestant Henri de Bourbon, King of Navarre. The bride’s mother , Catherine was anxious over the influence of Protestants on the couple.

6/7/1572, (-136,166) Sigismund II, King of Poland, died.

15/6/1572, Thursday (-136,218) Jeanne III, Queen of Navarre, died.

1/5/1572, Thursday (-136,232) Pope Pius V died.

6/4/1572, Sunday (-136,257) Easter Sunday.

1/4/1572, Tuesday (-136,262) Resistance fighters (the ‘Beggars’) against the Spanish rule of King Philip II over the Netherlands took the Dutch port of Brill and environs. This encouraged the spread of the anti-Spanish revolt across the Netherlands.

1/3/1572, Saturday (-136,293)

27/1/1572, (-136,327)

27/12/1571, (-136,358) Johannes Kepler, astronomer, was born. He discovered that planets have elliptical orbits

7/10/1571. (-136,439) The Ottoman Turkish fleet under Ali Pasha was defeated by the navies of Spain, Venice, and the Pope at the Battle of Lepanto, in the Gulf of Corinth. Christendom was concerned at the fall of Cyprus to Turkey, under Selim II, Suleiman the Great’s successor. This was the last battle fought between galleys. The Turks used ramming tactics, but allied ships used firepower to defeat the Turks. Although Ottoman Turkey retained control of Cyprus, its western expansion in the Mediterranean was halted. The Ottomans lost 230 galleys to the Christian’s 17.

15/4/1571, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

25/2/1571, (-136,663)

23/1/1571. (-136,696) The Royal Exchange, founded by financier Sir Thomas Gresham, was opened by Queen Elizabeth I as a bankers meeting house. Its foundation stone was laid on 7/6/1566.

13/12/1570, (-136,737) The Peace of Stettin ended the war between Sweden and Denmark, recognising Swedish independence.

2/11/1570. (-136,778) A tidal wave in the North Sea destroyed sea walls from Holland to Jutland; over a thousand were killed.

7/10/1570, (-136,804)

7/8/1570, (-136,865)

25/7/1570, (-136,878) Ivan the Terrible had many of his advisers and ministers publicly executed in Moscow.

26/3/1570, Sunday  (-136,999) Easter Sunday.

25/2/1570. Saturday (-137,028) Queen Elizabeth I was excommunicated by Pope Pius V who declared her a usurper.

20/2/1570, Monday (-137, 033) The Northern Rebellion ended. In November 1569 the Catholic Earls of Northumberland and Westmoreland had started the rebellion against Queen Elizabeth I, motivated by the flight of (Catholic) Mary Queen of Scots to England, also by the arrest of Thomas Howard, 9th Duke of Norfolk, in October 1569. In November 1569 Northumberland had seized Durham Cathedral to celebrate Catholic Mass. The Earls now marched south to fight Thomas Radcliffe, Earl of Sussex, at York. However their elevated social position, and religious fervour, failed to inspire enough foot soldiers to follow them and their march petered out. After a battle at Naworth, Cumbria, this day, 20/2/1570, the Earls fled to Scotland. Government reprisals against Catholics were harsh and Protestantism became more firmly established in England.

23/1/1570, Monday (-137,061) The Royal Exchange, London, was opened by Queen Elizabeth I.

3/10/1569, (-137,173) At the Battle of Moncountour, Royalist forces of Tavannaes and Anjou defeated Coligny’s Huguenots.

24/8/1569, (-137,213) At the Battle of Orthez, Huguenot forces under Gabriel de Montgomery defeated Royalist forces under General Terride in French Navarre.  Catholics surrendered on condition that their lives would be saved.  The Huguenots agreed but then massacred them anyway.

1/7/1569, (-137,267) The Union of Lublin united the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Treaty was signed at Lublin Castle. This strengthened Poland against possible attacks from Russia.

10/6/1569, Friday (-137,288) German Protestant troops reinforced Gaspard de Coligny, near Limoges.

10/5/1569, Tuesday (-137,319)

10/4/1569, Sunday (-137,349) Easter Sunday.

13/3/1569, (-137,377) At the Battle of Jarnac, Royalist troops under Marshal Gaspard de Tavannes defeated the Huguenots under the Prince of Conde, who was captured and murdered.  A large number of Huguenot troops escaped, under Gaspard de Coligny.

11/1/1569. (-137,438) The first State Lottery was held in England. 40,000 lots at 10 shillings each were available from the west door of St Paul’s Cathedral.  Proceeds were used to repair harbours and for other public works.

1568. Prices in Europe have risen tenfold since 1500; this unprecedented rise due to the inflow of gold bullion from the New World.

31/12/1569, (-137,449)

30/11/1568, (-137,480)

30/9/1568, (-137,541) King Eric XIV of Sweden was deposed  after several years of worsening insanity. He was succeeded by his 31-year-old brother who reigned until 1592 as John III.

29/7/1568, (-137,604)

21/7/1568, (-137,612) Battle of Jemmingen, Netherlands. Spanish soldiers under the Duke of Alba lured Dutch rebels into an open position, then massacred them.

23/5/1568, (-137,671) Battle of Heiligerlee, Netherlands.

16/5/1568. (-137,678) Mary Queen of Scots escaped from Loch Leven Castle. She had been imprisoned there on 16/6/1567. She sailed from Point Mary, crossing the Firth of Forth to begin her exile in England. See 8/2/1587, 24/7/1567, and 29/7/1565.

18/4/1568, Sunday (-137,706) Easter Sunday.

16/3/1568, Tuesday (-137,739)

16/2/1568. (-137,768) The death sentence was passed on an entire country when the Spanish Inquisition condemned The Netherlands for heresy. During the first week of the plan to kill 3 million people, 800 were hanged, burnt, or killed by other means.

29/7/1567, (-137,970) James VI, then 12 months old, was crowned King at Stirling.

24/7/1567, (-137,975) Mary Queen of Scots abdicated, after being defeated by Protestants at Carberry Hill.

15/5/1567, Mary Queen of Scots was married to the Earl of Bothwell.

30/3/1567, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday

9/2/1567, (-138,140) Lord Darnley, second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, and father of James IV of Scotland and I of England, was murdered at his house near Edinburgh.

9/12/1566, (-138,202)

9/10/1566, (-138,263)

6/9/1566. (-138,296) Suleiman the Magnificent, leader of the Ottoman Empire for 46 years, died. He had brought the Ottoman  Empire to the peak of its power, ruling an area from Hungary to Mesopotamia, and promoting justice and culture. His eldest surviving son, the incompetent drunkard Selim, succeeded him. All other potential rivals had been eliminated by intrigue and murder.

4/9/1566, (-138,298) Queen Elizabeth I visited Oxford, to consolidate her acceptance by the University and Town as Supreme Head of the Church

2/7/1566, (-138,362) Nostradamus died – did he foresee this?

19/6/1566. (-138,375) James VI of Scotland, later James I of England, the first Stuart King, was born in Edinburgh Castle.  Hew as the only son of Mary, Queen of Scots, and Lord Darnley.

7/6/1566, (-138,387) Sir Thomas Gresham laid the foundation stone of the first Royal Exchange in London.

9/5/1566, Thursday (-138,416)

14/4/1566, Sunday (-138,441) Easter Sunday

9/3/1566, (-138,477) Lord Darnley killed the secretary of Mary Queen of Scots, David Riccio (born 1531?). Mary I, six months pregnant with the future James VI of Scotland, witnessed the murder. Mary had romantic feelings for Riccio, and the nobility feared the rising influence of Riccio upon the royal court.

9/2/1566, (-138,505)

8/1/1566, (-138,537) Pope Pius V acceded. Formerly Cardinal Michaele Ghisleri (1504 – 1572)

9/12/1565, (-138,567) Pope Pius IV died.

9/10/1565, (-138,628)

8/9/1565, (-138,659) The Great Siege of Malta was raised.

29/7/1565. (-138,700) Mary Queen of Scots married her cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, in the Old Abbey Chapel at Holyrood, Edinburgh.

18/5/1565. Friday (-138,772) The Ottoman Turks arrived at Malta to try and capture it, see 21/12/1522. However the island held out until relieved by a Christian fleet from Sicily arrived in September 1565. Casualties had been heavy for both the Turks and the Maltese; however the Turks had been riven by disputes between their naval and army commanders. The Turks returned to Istanbul, their hopes of dominating the western Mediterranean dashed.

22/4/1565, Sunday (-138,798) Easter Sunday.

1/3/1565. (-138,850) The Portuguese established a colony at Rio de Janeiro.

13/1/1565, (-138,897)

13/11/1564, (-138,958) The Tridentine Creed was promulgated.

28/7/1564, (-139,066)

27/5/1564, Saturday (-139,128) John Calvin, French theologian who helped spread the Protestant revolution, died.

23/4/1564, Sunday (-139,162) William Shakespeare was born in Stratford on Avon. He was the third of eight children.  His father, John Shakespeare, was a glove maker and alderman, and his mother, Mary Arden, was a daughter of the gentry.

2/4/1564, Sunday (-139,183) Easter Sunday.

18/2/1564. (-139,227) Michelangelo Buonarotti died in Rome, aged 89.

15/2/1564, (-139,230) Galileo Galilei was born in Pisa, Italy.

6/2/1564, (-139,239) Christopher Marlowe, English poet, was born in Canterbury, son of a shoe maker.

26/1/1564, (-139,250) Pope Pius IV confirmed the declarations of the Council of Trent

4/12/1563, (-139,303) The Council of Trent was dissolved. It reaffirmed all major Catholic doctrines and declared the Apocrypha to be canonical along with the rest of the Bible.

1/6/1563, (-) Robert Cecil, English statesman, was born.

23/4/1563, Friday (-139,528) King Philip II of Spain began construction of El Escorial.

13/4/1563, Tuesday (-139,538)

11/4/1563, Sunday (-139,540) Easter Sunday.

18/3/1563, (-139,564)

18/2/1563, (-139,592) Francis, Duke of Guise, was assassinated whilst besieging Orleans.

1/2/1563, (-139,609) Sarsa Dengel succeeded his father Menas as Emperor of Ethiopia.

19/12/1562, (-139,653) The Battle of Dreux; Catholics defeated the Huguenots.

19/10/1562, (-139,714)

20/9/1562, (-139,743) The Treaty of Hampton Court was signed.

20/7/1562, (-139,805)

20/5/1562, (-139,866)

29/3/1562, Sunday (-139,918) Easter Sunday.

9/3/1562. Monday (-139,938) Kissing in public was banned in Naples, contravention being punishable by death. This was an attempt to halt the spread of the plague.

1/3/1562, Sunday (-139,946) Hugenots massacred at Wassy.

1/2/1562, Sunday (-139,974)

18/1/1562, Sunday (-139,988) The Council of Trent reconvened, after a suspension of ten years.

18/11/1561, (-140,049)

9/10/1561, (-140,089) The Colloquy of Poissy broke up.

19/8/1561, (-140,140) Mary Queen of Scots returned from France. She arrived at Leith, near Edinburgh, in thick fog; this may have saved her life, because her half-brother, James Stuart Earl of Moray, wanted to rule Scotland and was waiting for her in English ships.

6/4/1561, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

22/1/1561, (-140,349) Francis Bacon, author, philosopher, and statesman, was born at York House in The Strand, London.

20/12/1560, (-140,382) The first assembly of the Church of Scotland.

5/12/1560, (-140,397) Francis II, King of France, died, aged 16, he was succeeded by his brother, 10-year old Charles IX.

10/11/1560, (-140,422)

29/9/1560, (-140,464) Gustavus Vasa, King of Sweden, died.

6/7/1560, (-140,549) The Treaty of Edinburgh was signed. This ended French interference in Scottish affairs. French troops in Scotland had tried to support Mary Queen of Scots claim to the throne.

25/6/1560, Gustavus I of Sweden abdicated, aged 64. He was succeeded by his son, Charles IX.

14/4/1560, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday

25/12/1559, (-140,743) Pope Pius IV (born 31/3/1499), acceded (died 1565).

10/11/1559, (-140,788) Queen Elizabeth I confirmed the Charter of the Stationer’s company.

10/9/1559, (-140,849)

18/8/1559, (-140,872) Pope Paul IV died, aged 83. In Rome his statue was torn down, the prisoners of the Inquisition freed, and Inquisition records destroyed.

10/7/1559, (-140,911) Henry II, King of France, died aged 40. He was succeeded by his 14-year old son, Francois II. The Duc de Guise and the Cardinal of Lorraine were Regents.

1/7/1559, (-140,920) Missing Church in Britain incurred a fine of one shilling (5p). However by 1581 this penalty had been raised to a swingeing £20 a month.

8/5/1559, Monday (-140,974) The Act of Uniformity was signed by Queen Elizabeth I. This enshrined the monarch as head of the Church in England, ensuring the supremacy of Protestantism under Queen Elizabeth I.

17/4/1559, Monday (-140,995) The Act of Supremacy was partly re-enacted in England.

2/4/1559, Sunday (-141,010) (France-Germany, Spain) The Peace of Cateau-Cambresis, ending the wars of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in Europe. Italy was recognised as a Spanish sphere of influence, and Franche Comte was to be part of the Spanish monarchy. French possession of Metz, Toul and Verdun was confirmed. A strategic marriage was arranged between King Philip II of Spain and Elizabeth Valois, daughter of King Henry II of France.

26/3/1559, Sunday  (-141,017) Easter Sunday.

15/2/1559, Wednesday (-141,056)

15/1/1559. Sunday (-141,087) Queen Elizabeth I crowned. She was born on 7/9/1533 at Greenwich Palace. Daughter of King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, she ruled from 1558 to 1603 and was one of England’s greatest rulers, succeeding her Catholic  half-sister Mary Tudor. She cleverly preserved England’s independence from Catholic Europe whilst also outflanking the more radical Puritans, and her reign saw the emergence of England as a major sea power through Drake and others.  This was also a time when the arts thrived. She died on 24/3/1603.

1/1/1559, Sunday (-141,101) Christian III, King of Denmark and Norway, died aged 55 after a reign of nearly 24 years. He was succeeded by his 24-year-old son as Frederick II, who reigned for 29 years.

14/12/1558, Wednesday (-141,119) Funeral of Queen Mary of England.

17/11/1558. Thursday (-141,146) Queen Mary of England (Bloody Mary), daughter of Henry VIII, died in St James Palace London at the age of 42.  Born in 1516 to Catharine of Aragon, she outmanoeuvred Lord Dudley’s attempt to put Lady Jane Grey on the throne, on the death of her half-brother King Edward VI. Mary’s marriage to Philip II of Spain dragged England into the war between France and Spain, and caused the loss to England of Calais, an English outpost since the reign of Edward III. Under her five-year reign Catholicism was restored and Protestants persecuted.  On Mary’s death, her half-sister Elizabeth, daughter of Anne Boleyn, became Queen Elizabeth I.

21/9/1558. (-141,203) Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor from 1519 to 1556, died. His reign was marked by almost constant wars with France, through which he gained control of Italy in 1529 at the Peace of Cambrai.

7/8/1558, (-141,248)

24/4/1558, Sunday (-141,353) Mary Queen of Scots, aged 16, married the Dauphin of France.

10/4/1558, Sunday (-141,367) Easter Sunday.

27/2/1558, (-141,409) Russia’s first trade mission to England reached London.

7/1/1558. (-141,460) Calais, the last English possession on mainland France, was taken by the French under the Duke of Guise. The English had captured Calais in 1346 after a year besieging it.

1/1/1558, (-141,466)

7/11/1557, (-141,521)

1/9/1557, (-141,588) Jacques Cartier, French explorer of the North American coast and the St Lawrence river (born 1491), died in St Malo.

10/8/1557, (-141,610) (France, Italy, Spain) The Battle of St Quentin. Spanish forces under the Duke of Savoy defeated the French under the Constable of Montmorency. The French were driven out of Italy.

16/7/1557, (-141,635) Anne of Cleves, 4th wife of King Henry VIII, died.

19/6/1557, (-141,662)

6/6/1557, (-141,675) John III, King of Portugal, died on his 55th birthday. He was succeeded by his 3-year old grandson, Sebastian.

18/4/1557, Sunday (-141,724) Easter Sunday.

6/4/1557, Tuesday (-141,736)

6/3/1557, (-141,767)

27/2/1557, (-141,774) The first Russian Embassy in London opened.

27/1/1557, Wednesday (-141,805)

1/1/1557, Friday (-141,831)

27/12/1556, Sunday (-141,836)

1/12/1556, Tuesday (-141,862)

5/11/1556, Thursday (-141,888) Jalal-ud-Din, Moghul Emperor Akbar, defeated a Hindu army at the Battle of Panipat in the Punjab. He regained the Hindustani Empire.

25/10/1556, Sunday (-141,899) Charles V, King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor, retired to a Spanish monastery, dividing his possessions between his son and his brother.

16/10/1556, Friday (-141,908)

1/10/1556, Thursday (-141,923)

1/9/1556, Tuesday (-141,953)

1/8/1556, Saturday (-141,984)

31/7/1556, Friday (-141,985) Ignatius Loyola, Spanish soldier and priest, and founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), died.

1/7/1556, Wednesday (-142,015) In Winchester, England, a pound of beef cost 4d. A pound of candles cost 4d. A pound of butter cost 4d. A pound of cheese cost 4d. 2 eggs cost 1d. A whole sheep cost £1.

19/6/1556, Friday (-142,027) King James I of England, son of Mary Queen of Scots and Lord Darnley, the first Stuart King of England and Ireland, also King James VI of Scotland, was born.

1/6/1556, Monday (-142,045)

1/5/1556, Friday (-142,076)

5/4/1556, Sunday (-142,102) Easter Sunday.

1/4/1556, Wednesday (-142,106)

21/3/1556, (-142,117) (Britain) Thomas Cranmer, first Protestant Archbishop of Canterbury, was burnt at the stake in Oxford as a heretic and a traitor, under the Catholic rule of Queen ‘Bloody’ Mary. He had been deprived of his office on 11/12/1555. He had assisted in having the marriage of Mary’s parents, King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, annulled.

27/1/1556, (-142,173) The Moghul Emperor Humayun died after falling from his library roof in Delhi. He was succeeded by his 14-year old son, Jalal-ud-Din, who returned from exile.

23/1/1556. (-142,177) An earthquake in China’s Shanxi province killed an estimated 830,000 people.

16/1/1556, (-142,182) The Emperor Charles V abdicated.

1/1/1556, (-142,197)

16/11/1555, (-142,243)

16/10/1555. (-142,274) Bishops Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley, British Protestant martyrs and Oxford reformers, were burnt at the stake for heresy.

25/9/1555, (-142,295) (Christian, Germany) The Peace of Augsburg was signed between Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and the Schmalkaldic League, at the city of Augsburg. It cemented the division within Christendom between Catholicism and Protestantism, and allowed German states to choose either Roman Catholicism or Lutheranism as their State Religion.

1/8/1555, (-142,350)

12/7/1555, (-142,370) The Jewish Ghetto in Rome was created, on the orders of Pope Paul IV.

30/4/1555, Tuesday (-142,443) Pope Marcellus II (formerly Cardinal Marcello Cervino) died, aged 54. He was succeeded by Pope Paul IV. Paul ordered that the Jewish quarter in Rome be walled, creating the Ghetto of Rome. Palestrina was appointed a member of the Pontifical Choir by Paul IV without examination creating resentment amongst the other choir members.

14/4/1555, Sunday (-142,459) Easter Sunday

10/4/1555, Wednesday (-142,463) Pope Marcellus II was elected Pope.

23/3/1555, (-142,481) Pope Julius III died, aged 67. He was succeeded by Pope Marcellus II,

1/3/1555, (-142,503) Nostradamus published his famous book of predictions.

1/2/1555, (-142,531)

1/1/1555, (-142,562)

14/12/1554, (-142,580)

30/11/1554, (-142,594) Cardinal Pole pardoned England for its Protestant heresy and welcomed the country back into the Roman Catholic Church.

25/7/1554. (-142,722) Mary I, Bloody Mary, married Philip II of Spain, son and heir of Charles V, in Winchester. This was her second marriage; the first had been when, aged three, she was married to the King of France, then nine months old. Catholicism returned to England. See 17/11/1558.

20/7/1554, (-142,727) Philip II of Spain arrived in Southampton, having crossed the Channel during a terrible storm.

19/5/1554, (-142,789) Queen Elizabeth was released from the Tower of London.

25/3/1554, Sunday (-142,844) Easter Sunday.

18/3/1554, Sunday (-142,851) Elizabeth was imprisoned in the Tower of London for alleged complicity in a plot against Mary led by Sir Thomas Wyatt; she was released on 19/5/1554.

11/2/1554, (-142,886) Lady Jane Grey and her husband Lord Guildford Dudley were executed on Tower Green, Tower of London, for high treason; she was aged 16. Lady Grey became Queen on 10/7/1553 but was deposed nine days later by her cousin Mary Tudor who then became Queen of England. The Protestant King Edward VI had proclaimed Jane Queen above her half sister Mary because that kept England away from Catholic Spain. Mary delayed executing Jane but changed her mind when Jane’s father attempted a revolution.

9/1/1554, (-142,919) Pope Gregory XV born.

20/12/1553, (-142,939) In England, Protestant Church services were ruled illegal.

14/12/1553, (-142,945) Henry IV, King of France, was born.

27/10/1553, Friday (-142,993) Michael Servetus, theologian, was burnt at the stake.

1/10/1553, Sunday (-143,019) Mary Tudor was crowned Queen of England.

1/9/1553, Friday (-143,049)

2/8/1553, Wednesday (-143,079) Battle of Marciano. A French army invading Tuscany was defeated.

19/7/1553. Wednesday (-143,093) Lady Jane Grey, a Protestant, was deposed, aged 16, after a reign of only nine days. She was sent to the Tower of London and beheaded on 12/2/1554. Mary Tudor (Bloody Mary), a Catholic, half sister of Edward VI, was proclaimed Queen, but died on 17/11/1558.

10/7/1553. Monday (-143,102) Following the death of Edward VI, Lady Jane Grey was proclaimed Queen of England.

6/7/1553, Thursday (-143,106) King Edward VI died in Greenwich of tuberculosis.

26/6/1553, Monday (-143,116) Christ’s Hospital London was founded on the site of the former Greyfriars Monastery by King Edward VI, as a hospital for poor children.

21/5/1553, Sunday (-143,152) Lady Jane Grey was forced to marry Lord Guildford Dudley; Dudley had ambitions to be King of England.

14/5/1553, Sunday (-143,159) Marguerite de Valois, Queen of Navarre, was born.

2/4/1553, Sunday (-143,201) Easter Sunday.

3/12/1552. (-143,321) (Christian) Death of Francis Xavier, Basque Jesuit missionary, called ‘the apostle of the Indies’, who helped Ignatius Loyola found the Jesuits.  He died near Canton, China.

2/10/1552, (-143,383) Ivan the Terrible took the Tartar city of Kazan, using artillery to break down the city walls. The Volga became a Russian river.

17/9/1552, (-143,398) Pope Paul V was born.

20/8/1552, (-143,426) Ivan IV (The Terrible) began an attack on Kazan with an army of 150,000 men, after a faction in Kazan promised him the Khanate.

18/7/1552, (-143,459) The Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolf II, was born.

14/5/1552, (-143,524)

17/4/1552, Sunday (-143,551) Easter Sunday.

14/3/1552, Monday (-143,585)

14/1/1552, (-143,645)

21/11/1551, (-143,699) Papal Legate Francis Xavier and fellow Jesuits returned from a two-year missionary trip to Japan. The Mikado was at first unimpressed with Xavier’s humble dress, but when he returned in more suitable attire, with gifts, he was even granted a disused Buddhist monastery for his work. Xavier left behind a community of 2,000 Christians, and was impressed with Japanese society.

2/10/1551, (-143,749)

19/9/1551, (-143,762) Henry III, King of France, was born.

20/8/1551, (-143,792)

14/7/1551, (-143,829)

14/5/1551, (-143,890)

29/3/1551, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

11/1/1551, Ketumati, Burma, was conquered by Bayinnaung.

21/7/1550, (-144,181) The Society of Jesus, or Jesuits, was approved by Pope Julius III.

27/6/1550, (-144,211) Charles IX, French monarch who ordered the massacre of the Hugenots on St Bartholomew’s Day in 1572, was born.

14/5/1550, Wednesday (-144,255)

4/5/1550, Sunday (-144,265)

6/4/1550, Sunday (-144,293) Easter Sunday.

7/12/1549, (-144,413) Robert Kent, rebel leader, was hanged.

10/11/1549, (-144,440) Pope Paul III died.

10/10/1549, (-144,471)

21/9/1549, (-144,490) Marguerite d’Angoulmeme, Queen of Navarre, died.

15/8/1549, (-144,527) (Christian, Japan) Francis Xavier entered the Japanese port of Kagoshima to begin a conversion work.

9/8/1549. (-144,.533) England declared war on France.

12/7/1549, Friday (-144,561) Robert Kett, with 16,000 men, camped on Mousehold Heath outside Norwich and demanded an audience with Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, who was Protector of England during the minority years of King Edward VI. Kett’s demands concerned rising rents, rising food prices and the increase in sheep farming (which demanded enclosure whereas crop farming did not). Somerset ordered Kett’s mob to disperse, with a pardon for any crimes committed up to that point; Kett refused. Somerset now ordered William Parr, Marquis of Northampton, to defeat Kett. Parr marched into Norwich with 1,800 men, unopposed, but a surprise night attack by Kett’s men routed Parr’s force. Parr retreated to London and Kett was unable to follow, as his men had no wish to extend the dispute out of their native Norfolk. Somerset now ordered John Dudley, Earl of Warwick, south from Scotland, with 6,000 foot soldiers and 1,500 cavalry. Dudley surrounded Kett in Norwich, and the two leaders began negotiations. However some of Kett’s hotheads opened a fight with Dudley; Kett’s men were massacred with nearly 50 hanged.

20/6/1549, Thursday (-144,583) Kett’s Rebellion against enclosure of common land began when a group of men led by Robert Kett, a smallholder and tanner, tore down the new hedges and fences at Attleborough near Norwich. Copycat mobs sprang up all across Suffolk and Norfolk. In particular they resented the enclosure activities of landowner Edward Flowerdew.

9/6/1549. Sunday (-144,594) The Church of England adopted the Book of Common Prayer, compiled by Thomas Cranmer. In Devon, where the abolition of the chantries had caused economic hardship, there was considerable opposition.

20/5/1549, Monday (-144,614) From this date, only the new Book of Prayer was allowed to be used in English churches.

21/4/1549, Sunday (-144,643) Easter Sunday

8/4/1549, Monday (-144,656)

20/3/1549. (-144,675) Death of Thomas Seymour, Lord High Admiral of England. He married King Henry VIII’s widow, Catherine Parr. When she died, he planned to marry Queen Elizabeth I, but was arrested for treason and executed.

15/2/1549, (-144,708) Major earthquake hit Qayin, Iran, killing 3,000.

11/1/1549, (-144,743)

10/12/1548, (-144,775)

10/11/1548, (-144,805)

5/9/1548, (-144,871) Catherine Parr, 6th wife of Henry VIII, died in childbirth.  By then she was the wife of Lord Seymour, at Sudeley castle, near Cheltenham, Gloucestershire.

1/4/1548, Sunday (-145,028) Easter Sunday. Sigismund I, King of Poland, died aged 81, after a reign of 42 years. He was succeeded by his 28-year old son, Sigismund II who ruled for 24 years.

11/2/1548, (-145,078) English churches were ordered to remove all images of saints, as the Reformation proceeded.

2/12/1547, (-145,149) Hernando Cortez, Spanish conqueror of Mexico in 1521, died near Seville.

2/10/1547, (-145,210)

10/9/1547. (-145,232) The English won a major victory over the Scots at Pinkie.

21/6/1547, (-145,313) Moscow was destroyed by a fire which consumed 25,000 of the city’s wooden houses. 1,700 people died and 80,000 were made homeless.

23/4/1547, Saturday (-145,372) Battle of Muhlberg. Charles (1500-58), who became King of Spain in 1516 and Holy Roman Emperor in 1519, was opposed to the growth of Lutheranism (Protestantism).  At Muhlberg, Charles defeated the Protestant princes, allowing him to impose the Interim of Augsburg (1548) which was a temporary compromise making minimal concessions to these Protestants. Many German Protestants who felt these concessions were inadequate fled to England, assisting the Reformation there.

10/4/1547, Sunday (-145,385) Easter Sunday.

31/3/1547, (-145,395) King Francis I of France died aged 52.

20/2/1547, (-145,434) King Edward VI, aged 9, crowned as King at Westminster Abbey.

16/2/1547, (-145,438) King Henry VIII was buried at Windsor.

28/1/1547. (-145,457) King Henry VIII, born 28/6/1491, died aged 56, probably of kidney and liver failure. King Edward VI, the only son of Henry VIII, by Jane Seymour, born 12/10/1537 and now aged 9, ascended the throne on 20/2/1547. However he died on 9/7/1553 at the age of 15. He was succeeded by Lady Jane Grey, see 19/7/1553.

19/1/1547, (-145,466) Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, was beheaded at the Tower of London for treason.

16/1/1547. (-145,469) Ivan the Terrible, first Russian to assume the title of Tsar, was crowned.

14/12/1546, (-145,502) Tycho Brahe, Danish astronomer and mathematician, was born in Knudstrup.

25/4/1546, Sunday (-145,735) Easter Sunday.

25/3/1546, Thursday (-145,766)

18/2/1546. Thursday (-145,801) Martin Luther, Augustinian friar and instigator of the Reformation, died (see 31/10/1517), at his birthplace of Eisleben, Germany, at the age of 63, apparently of overwork.

13/12/1545, (-145,868) The Council of Trent began.

7/12/1545, (-145,874) Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, was born.

13/10/1545, (-145,929)

13/8/1545, (-145,990)

19/7/1545. (-146,015) The Mary Rose, pride of Henry VIII’s battle fleet, keeled over and sank in the Solent with the loss of 700 lives. It was raised on 11/10/1982 and taken to Portsmouth Dockyard.

26/6/1545. (-146,038) A botanical garden was established in Padua. This, or the garden in Pisa, is the oldest such garden in Europe.

20/4/1545. Monday (-146,105) The Waldensians were massacred in Provence.

5/4/1545, Sunday (-146,120) Easter Sunday.

25/2/1545.(-146,159) The English were defeated by the Scots at Ancrum Moor. See 24/11/1542. In September 1545 the English again invaded Scotland.

25/12/1544, (-146,221)

25/10/1544, (-146,282)

14/9/1544. (-146,323) Henry VIII of England captured Boulogne. On 7/6/1546 the English and French signed the Peace of Ardres. This said Boulogne was to remain in English hands for another eight years.

19/7/1544, (-146,380) Henry VIII laid siege to the French town of Boulogne, in revenge for French military assistance to Scotland.

12/7/1544, (-146,387)

13/4/1544, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday

19/1/1544, (-146,562) Francis II, King of France, was born.

14/12/1543, (-146,598)

12/7/1543. (-146,753) King Henry VIII married his sixth wife, Katherine Parr.

24/5/1543. Thursday (-146,802) The Polish astronomer, Nicolas Copernicus died of apoplexy.  Born on 19/2/1473, in Torun, Poland, Copernicus is regarded as the founder of modern astronomy.  When his father died, Copernicus’ uncle Lucas Waczenrode became his guardian.  In 1491 Copernicus went to the University of Krakow to study Latin, mathematics, astronomy, geography, and philosophy.  He returned home after 4 years without a degree, and studied Canon Law at the University of Bologna so as to have a church career. From a turret on the walls of Bologna Cathedral, Copernicus studied the stars, and in 1530 produced a 400 page treatise, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium (On the revolutions of the celestial spheres). This put forward the idea that the earth rotated on its own axis daily and annually around the Sun. It was published in the year of his death, 1543, and greeted with a hostile reception as it challenged the ancient teaching that the earth was the centre of the Universe.

24/4/1543, Tuesday (-146,832)

27/3/1543, Tuesday (-146,860)

25/3/1543, Sunday (-146,862) Easter Sunday.

14/12/1542, Thursday (-146,963) James V, King of Scotland, died, aged 30. He was succeeded by his baby daughter, Mary Queen of Scots.

7/12/1542, Thursday (-146,970) Mary Queen of Scots, cousin of Queen Elizabeth I, was born in Llinlithgow Palace, daughter of King James V of Scotland.

24/11/1542. Friday (-146,983) The English defeated the Scots at Solway Moss as Henry VIII fought to gain control of Scotland. On 1/7/1543 England and Scotland sign the Peace of Greenwich, but this is repudiated by the Scottish Parliament on 11/12/1543. England invaded Scotland again in 1544, pillaging Edinburgh, but failed to gain a surrender from Scotland. See 25/2/1545.

16/9/1542, Saturday (-147,052) The French King, Francois I, was prescribed a new food by his Ottoman Turkish doctor. This food was yoghurt.

24/8/1542, Thursday (-147,075) Spanish explorers from Quito, Peru, pushed on over the Andes and explored the river they called the Amazon, after the women warriors they met there. However this territory was claimed by Portugal under the Treaty of Tordesillas.

30/7/1542, Sunday (-147,100)

21/7/1542, Friday (-147,109) Pope Paul III established the Universal Inquisition in order to halt the Reformation by repression.

21/5/1542, Sunday (-147,170) Hernando de Soto, the first European to cross the Mississippi, died on the return journey.

6/5/1542, Saturday (-147,185) (Christian, India) Francis Xavier arrived at the Portuguese colony of Goa, India, to begin his work of converting the indigenous inhabitants to Christianity.

15/4/1542, Monday (-147,206) Leonardo da Vinci was born.  His father, Piero da Vinci, was a notary and his mother, Caterina da Vinci, was a peasant.

9/4/1542, Sunday (-147,212) Easter Sunday.

13/2/1542. (-147,267) Catherine Howard, the fifth wife of Henry VIII, was beheaded. She stood accused of adultery. Her last words were ‘I die a queen but I would rather have died the wife of Culpepper’.

13/12/1541, (-147,329)

18/10/1541, (-147,387) Margaret, Queen of Scotland, died.

18/8/1541, (-147,446)

26/6/1541, (-147,499) Francisco Pizarro, Conquistador, was assassinated in Lima, by followers of a rival explorer, Almagro. The two had disputed over the area each was to control.

8/5/1541, Sunday (-147,548) The River Mississippi was first seen by Europeans. The Spanish Conquistador, Hernando de Soto, reached the River in the area where Arkansas City is now sited.

22/4/1541, Friday (-147,564)

17/4/1541, Sunday (-147,569) Easter Sunday.

12/2/1541, (-147,633) The Spaniards founded Santiago, Chile.

27/9/1540, (-) The Society of Jesus was founded.

2/9/1540, (-) Dawit II, Emperor of Ethiopia, died.

28/7/1540. (-147,832) Thomas Cromwell, Chancellor to Henry VIII, was beheaded on Tower Hill for promoting the King’s failed marriage to Anne of Cleves. (See 6/1/1540). On the same day Henry VIII married his fifth wife, Catherine Howard. She was beheaded on 13/2/1542.

9/7/1540. (147,851) Henry VIII divorced his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves. She was his fourth wife; nicknamed ‘The Flanders Mare’, she at least kept her head.

9/5/1540, (-147,912)

28/3/1540, Sunday (-147,954) Easter Sunday

23/3/1540. Tuesday (-147,959) The Crown seized Waltham Abbey. It was the last of the great monasteries to be seized by Henry VIII, bringing to an end a four-year campaign that had seen some 550 church properties, with their gold and jewels, pass to the King. The total income from these properties was around £132,000 a year and Henry VIII gave some of this to his supporters.

9/2/1540. (-148,002) The first recorded horse-racing meeting in Britain took place on Roodeye Field (now Roodee), Chester.

6/1/1540. (-148,036) King Henry VIII’s ill-fated marriage to his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves (see 28/7/1540). Anne was born on 22/9/1515; her father was leader of the German Protestants and so Anne was regarded as a suitable wife for Henry VIII by Cromwell. However she had no looks, spoke only her own language, and had no dowry. Her only recommendations were her proficiency in needlework and her meek and mild temper. The marriage contract was signed on 24/9/1539; she landed at Deal on 27/12/1539, and Henry VIII met her at Rochester on 1/1/1540. On 2/1/1540 Henry VIII openly said about her looks, “She is no better than a Flanders mare”. On the wedding morning, 6/1/1540, he said nothing would have persuaded him to marry her but the fear of driving the Duke of Cleves into the arms of the Holy Roman Emperor. Soon after Henry regretted identifying so closely with the German Protestants. Henry then declared the marriage non-consummated and so null and void, on 9/7/1540. Anne lived the rest of her life happily in retirement in England, dying on 28/7/1557; she was buried at Westminster Abbey.

6/11/1538, (-148,097)

7/9/1539, (-148,157) Guru Angad Dev became the second Guru of the Sikhs.

4/9/1539, (-148,160) King Henry VIII contracted to marry Anne of Cleves.

10/8/1539. (-148,185) King Francis of France orders that all legal documents are henceforth to be drawn up in French, not Latin. He also ordered all priests to keep records of baptisms and deaths.

10/6/1539, (-148,246)

30/5/1539, (-148,257) Hernando de Soto landed in Florida, with 600 soldiers, in search of gold.  He also introduced pigs into North America.

6/4/1439, Sunday (-143,311) Easter Sunday

30/3/1539, Sunday (-148,318)

12/1/1539, (-148,395) The Treaty of Toledo was signed by Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor, and King of Spain), and Francis I (King of France).  Each agreed to make no further alliances with England.  The origin of this Treaty was the dispute between King Henry VIII of England and Pope Paul III.

30/11/1538, (-148,438) (1) In England, Byland Abbey was dissolved.

(2) Sucre, Bolivia, was founded under the name of Ciudad de la Plata de la Nueva Toledo.

28/10/1538, (-148,471) The first University in the Americas, the Universidad Santo Tomas de Aquino, was founded.

28/9/1538, (-148,501) At the Battle of Preveza, the Turkish fleet under Suleiman the Magnificent, commanded by Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha, defeated the Holy League forces of Charles V, commanded by Andrea Doria.

6/8/1538, (-148,554) Bogota, Colombia, was founded by Gonzalo Jimenez de Quesada.

18/6/1538, (-148,603) The Truce of Nice; peace was declared between Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and King Francis I of France.

26/4/1538, Friday (-148,656) At the Battle of Los Salinas, Almagro was defeated by Francisco Pizarro, who then seized Cuzco.

21/4/1538, Sunday (-148,661) Easter Sunday.

24/2/1538, (-148,717) The Treaty of Nagyvarad; peace was declared between King Ferdinand and the Turks.  John Zapolya was recognised as King of Hungary, whilst Ferdinand retained northern and western Hungary and was recognised as heir to the Hungarian throne.

1/1/1538, (-148,771) German and Swiss states introduced the Gregorian Calendar.

24/12/1537, (-148,779)

24/10/1537.(-148,840)  Jane Seymour, third wife of Henry VIII, died, of the all-too-common childbed fever.

12/10/1537. (-148,852) Edward VI, son of Henry VIII and his third wife Jane Seymour, was born at Hampton Court Palace, London. He succeeded his father at the age of 9 but died aged 15. Henry intended him to marry Mary, daughter of King James V of Scotland. In 1543 the Treaty of Greenwich provided for this marriage when Edward reached the age of 10; however the Scottish Parliament rejected this Treaty.

25/8/1537, (-148,900) The Honourable Artillery Company, the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army and the second most senior, was founded.

15/8/1537, (-148,910) Asunción was founded by Juan de Salazar y Espinoza.

25/7/1537. (-148,931)

2/6/1537, (-148,984) (Christian, Race Equality) A Papal Bull issued by Pope Paul III prohibited enslavement of American Indians, contrary to King Charles V’s policies. Paul excommunicated Catholic slave traders.

25/5/1537, (-148,992)

1/4/1537, Sunday (-149,046) Easter Sunday.

12/3/1537, Monday (-149,066) The Portuguese founded the city of Recife, Brazil

6/2/1537, Tuesday (-149,100) Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Japanese statesman, was born (see 18/8/1598).

6/1/1537, Saturday (-149,131) Alessandro de Medici was assassinated.

6/12/1536, Wednesday (-149,162)

6/11/1536, Monday (-149,192)

16/10/1536, Monday (-149,213) York was occupied by rebels against the takeover of the Church by King Henry VIII. This was the Pilgrimage of Grace. Much of northern England, from Lincolnshire to north Yorkshire, was in uproar at this takeover, the valuation of Church property, the suppression of smaller monasteries, and the cancellation of some Saints day holidays. Led by Robert Aske, rebels seized northern towns. Henry VIII made peace with the rebels and issued a pardon, only to go back on this on a pretext in January 1537 and execute the leaders of the Pilgrimage of Grace, including Aske.

6/10/1536, Friday (-149,223) William Tyndale, English religious reformer and translator of the Bible, was burned at the stake as a heretic in Vilvarde, Brussels, on the orders of King Henry VIII.

6/9/1536, Wednesday (-149,253)

6/8/1536, Sunday (-149,284)

12/7/1536, (-148,309) Desiderus Erasmus, Renaissance philosopher, died.

16/6/1536, (-149,335) The St Lawrence River was named by explorer Jacques Cartier.

30/5/1536. (-149,352) King Henry VIII married Jane Seymour, his third wife, in the Queen’s Chapel, Whitehall, eleven days after the execution of Anne Boleyn.

19/5/1536. (-149,363) Anne Boleyn, the second wife of Henry VIII, mother of Queen Elizabeth I, was beheaded at Tower Green, in the Tower of London, aged 29.  She was accused of adultery – Henry VIII was already flirting with his third wife Jane. Elizabeth was declared illegitimate and lost her right of succession to the English throne.

6/5/1536, (-149,378) King Henry VIII ordered a copy of The Bible to be placed in every English church.

2/5/1536, (-149,380) Anne Boleyn was charged with incest and adultery, and taken to the Tower of London.

30/4/1536, The Inquisition was implemented in Portugal.

16/4/1536, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

2/3/1536, (-149,441)

7/1/1536, (-149,496) Catharine of Aragon died at Kimbolton Palace, Huntingdonshire. She was the first of Henry VIII’s six wives, and the mother of Queen Mary I.

7/11/1536, (-149,559)

24/10/1535, (-149,571) Francesco Sforza II, Duke of Milan, died aged 45 without a successor. Milan became a suzerainty of Charles V.

4/10/1535, (-149,591) The first English Bible was printed, translated and published by Miles Coverdale.

4/8/1535, (-149,652)

6/7/1535, (-149,681) (UK, Russia) Sir Thomas Moore was beheaded in London, for refusing to accept Henry VIII as head of the Church of England. Thomas More was born in 1477 in London. He published Utopia in 1515 which described a pagan, communist, city state in which the institutions and policies are governed entirely by reason. His ideas contrasted with the self-interest and greed for power seen in Europe’s Christian states.

6/5/1535, (-149,742)

28/3/1535, Sunday (-149,781) Easter Sunday

6/3/1535, Saturday (-149,803)

11/2/1535, Thursday (-149, 826) Pope Gregory XIV was born.

21/1/1535, Thursday (-149,847) Henry VIII appointed Cromwell as vice-regent in spiritual or vicar-general. Cromwell now set about assessing the value of England’s monasteries.

18/1/1535, Monday (-149,850) Lima, Peru, was founded by Francisco Pizarro.

15/1/1535, Friday (-149,853) The Act of Supremacy was passed in England. This made King Henry VIII head of the Church.

31/12/1534, Thursday (-149,868) The Ottoman army captured Baghdad. By 1546 they controlled Yemen, gateway to the Red Sea.

30/11/1534, Monday (-149,899)

30/10/1534, Friday (-149,930)

25/9/1534, Friday (-149,965) Pope Clement VII (219th Pope) died after eating poisonous mushrooms (born 1475). Pope Paul III (220th Pope), formerly Cardinal Alessandro Farnese (1468-1549) acceded.

30/8/1534, Sunday (-149,991)

24/7/1534, Friday (-150,028) Jacques Cartier landed in Canada, claiming the territory for France.

13/7/1534, Monday (-150,039) Ottoman armies captured Tabriz in north western Persia.

1/7/1534, Wednesday (-150,051) Frederick II, King of Denmark, was born.

10/5/1534, Sunday (-150,103) Jacques Cartier explored Newfoundland while searching for the Northwest Passage.

20/4/1534, Monday (-150,123) Jacques Cartier sailed from St Malo, to explore the Canadian coast.

5/4/1534, Sunday (-150,138) Easter Sunday.

1/4/1534, Wednesday (-150,142)

1/3/1534, Sunday (-150,173)

2/2/1534, Monday (-150,200) The Great Swabian League was dissolved.

2/1/1534, Friday (-150,231)

2/12/1533, Tuesday (-150,262)

15/11/1533, Saturday (-150,279) Pizarro entered Cuzco.

15/10/1533, Wednesday (-150,310)

2/10/1533, Thursday (-150,323)

7/9/1533, Sunday (-150,348) Queen Elizabeth I was born at Greenwich Palace in London, the daughter of Henry VIII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn (married 25/1/1533). Elizabeth was recognised as heir to the English throne ahead of her half sister Mary, daughter of Henry VIII’s first wife Catherine of Aragon. See 19/5/1536.

29/8/1533, Friday (-150,357) The end of the Inca Empire. Francisco Pizarro has arranged for Atahualpa to be tried on charges of murder, sedition and idolatry. Found guilty this day, Atahualpa was executed by strangulation.

29/7/1533, Tuesday (-150,388)

11/7/1533, Friday (-150,406) Henry VIII was excommunicated by Pope Clement VII.

11/6/1533, Wednesday (-150,436)

23/5/1533, Friday (-150,455) The marriage of Henry VIII and Catharine of Aragon was annulled.

11/5/1533, Sunday (-150,467)

24/4/1533, Thursday (-150,484) William the Silent, Prince of Orange, was born at Dillenburg Castle, Nassau, Germany.

13/4/1533, Sunday (-150,495) Easter Sunday

24/3/1533, Monday (-150,515)

23/2/1533, Sunday (-150,544)

25/1/1533, Saturday (-150,573) King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn were secretly married by the Bishop of Lichfield, and became the future parents of Queen Elizabeth I on 7/9/1533. Anne Boleyn was crowned at Westminster on 1/6/1533, shortly after Thomas Cranmer (who was appointed as Archbishop of Canterbury on 30/3/1533) had declared Henry VIII’s marriage to Catherine of Aragon null and void. On 23/5/1533 Henry VIII actually divorced Catherine of Aragon, resulting in a break between England and the Church of Rome.

17/12/1532, Tuesday (-150,612)

25/11/1532, Monday (-150,634)

16/11/1532, Saturday (-150,643) Francisco Pizarro and his army arrived at the Inca city of Cajamarca, and forced the Inca Emperor, Atahualpa, to hand over much gold and silver.

16/10/1532, Wednesday (-150,674)

1/9/1532, Sunday (-150,719) Lady Anne Boleyn was created Marquess of Pembroke by her fiancé, King Henry VIII.

13/8/1532, Tuesday (-150,738) Union of Brittany and France: The Duchy of Brittany was absorbed into the Kingdom of France.

13/7/1532, Saturday (-150,769)

25/6/1532, Tuesday (-150,787) Suleiman I attempted another invasion of Hungary, but failed.

25/5/1532, Saturday (-150,818)

16/5/1532, Thursday (-150,827) Sir Thomas More resigned as Lord Chancellor of England. This was in protest at King Henry VIII’s break with Rome.

13/5/1532, Monday (-150,830) Francisco Pizarro landed on the northern coast of Peru.

13/4/1532, Saturday (-150,860)

31/3/1532, Sunday (-150,873) Easter Sunday.

13/3/1532, (-150,891)

13/2/1532, (-150,920)

18/1/1532, (-150,956) English Parliament banned payment by English churches to Rome.

17/12/1531. Sunday (-150,978)

17/11/1531, Friday (-151,008)

11/10/1531, Wednesday (-151,045) Ulrich Zwingli, Swiss Church reformer, was killed in a fight with soldiers from the Catholic-supporting Forest Cantons at Kappel, near Zurich. Zwingli was Chaplain to the Protestant troops from Zurich.

11/9/1531, Monday (-151,075)

11/8/1531, Friday (-151,106)

11/7/1531, Tuesday (-151,137)

25/6/1531, Sunday (-151,153)

25/5/1531, Thursday (-151,184)

25/4/1531, Tuesday (-151,214)

9/4/1531, Sunday (-151,230) Easter Sunday.

13/3/1531, Monday (-151,257)

25/2/1531. Saturday (-151,273) A severe earthquake killed an estimated 20,000 people in Lisbon.

11/2/1531, Saturday (-151,287) King Henry VIII was recognised as official head of the Church of England.

27/1/1531, Friday (-151,302)

27/12/1530, Tuesday (-151,333) Spanish ships under Pizarro set sail from Panama into the Pacific to capture the gold and silver of the Inca Empire.

23/12/1530, Friday (-151,337)

11/12/1530, Sunday (-151,349)

29/11/1530. Tuesday (-151,361) Cardinal Wolsey died after being arrested as a traitor. He died at Market Harborough whilst being taken from York to London.

26/10/1530, Wednesday (-151,395) The Knights of Malta were formed when the Knights Hospitaller were given Malta by Charles V.

29/9/1530, Thursday (-151,422)

23/9/1530, Friday (-151,428)

25/8/1530, Thursday (-151,457) Ivan the Terrible of Russia was born. As Ivan IV, he killed over 3,000, including the royal heir.

25/7/1530, Monday (-151,488)

25/6/1530, Saturday (-151,518) The Confession of Augsburg was read to the Diet.

22/5/1530, Sunday (-151,552)

22/4/1530, Friday (-151,582)

17/4/1530, Sunday (-151,587) Easter Sunday.

22/3/1530, Tuesday (-151,613)

23/2/1530, Wednesday (-151,640) (Spain, Italy, Germany) Carlos I of Spain was crowned Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire and King of Italy by Pope Clement V.

19/1/1530, Wednesday (-151,675) Francisco Pizarro sailed from Spain, with a commission to conquer Peru. He sailed to Panama, and from there to Peru in 12/1530.

23/12/1529, Thursday (-151,702)

23/11/1529, Tuesday (-151,732)

17/10/1529, Sunday (-151,769) Henry VIII of England dismissed Cardinal Wolsey as Lord Chancellor, replacing him with Thomas Moore.

15/10/1529. Friday (-151,771) The Ottoman Turks withdrew from their siege of Vienna, as winter approached.

23/9/1529, Thursday (-151,793) Turkish forces began a siege of Vienna.

8/9/1529, Wednesday (-151,808) (1) The city of Maracaibo, Venezuela, was founded by Ambrosius Ehinger.

(2) Invading Turkish forces captured the city of Buda.

25/8/1529, Wednesday (-151,822)

5/8/1529, Thursday (-151,842) The Treaty of Cambrai was signed, between Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and King Francis I of France.  France abandoned its claims in Italy, but kept Burgundy.

21/7/1529, Wednesday (-151,857)

21/6/1529, Monday (-151,887) John Skelton, tutor to the King Henry VIII as a boy, died.

27/5/1529, Thursday (-151,912) Ad-Din Barbarossa completed his conquest of Algeria, bringing the Ottoman Empire to its peak.

10/5/1529, Monday (-151,929) The Turkish Army under Suleiman I left Constantinople to invade Hungary.

22/4/1529, Thursday (-151,947) The Treaty of Saragossa divided the eastern hemisphere between Spain and Portugal, along a north-south line 17 degrees 9297.5 leagues) east of the Moluccas.

19/4/1529, Monday (-151,950) At the Diet of Speyer, an alliance of German principalities and city states protested against the reinstatement of the Diet of Worms, so beginning the Protestant movement.

28/3/1529, Sunday (-151,972) Easter Sunday.

7/3/1529, Sunday (-151,993) At the Battle of Shimbra Kure, Imam Ahmad Ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi defeated the forces of Lebna Dengel, Emperor of Ethiopia.

29/8/1528, (-152,183)

31/7/1528, (-152,212)

12/4/1528, Sunday (-152,322) Easter Sunday

6/4/1528. (-152,328) Albrecht Durer, German artist and engraver, died in Nuremberg, aged 57.

29/2/1528, (-152,365) Patrick Hamilton, Scottish martyr, was burnt at the stake.

29/8/1527, (-152,549)

31/7/1527, (-152,578) The Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II was born.

26/7/1527, (152,583) The (Spanish) Council of the Indies granted Francisco Pizarro, 54, the right to conquer and take riches from the Panama area.

22/6/1527. (-152,617) Nicolo Macchiavelli died in Florence, Italy, aged 58.

17/6/1527, (-152,622) The Protestant Reformation began in Sweden.

6/5/1527, Monday (-152,664) German mercenaries sacked the city of Rome, an event considered by many to mark the end of the Renaissance. This occurred during warfare between the Holy League and the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V.

21/4/1527, Sunday (-152,679) Easter Sunday.

14/4/1527, Sunday (-152,686) King Philip of Spain was born; in 1588 he sent an Armada against England but was defeated.

16/3/1527, Saturday (-152,715) The Battle of Khanwa. Barbur continued his conquest of northern India.

29/8/1526, (-152,914) (Turkey, East Europe) The Battle of Mohacs.  The Turkish army under Suleiman I defeated the Hungarians under King Louis II, who was killed whilst retreating.  Suleiman took Buda, whilst Archduke Ferdinand of Austria and John Zapolya, Prince of Transylvania, disputed over the succession.  As a result of this dispute, Dubrovnik achieved independence, although it recognised Turkish overlordship. The Hapsburgs now ruled Bohemia and Hungary.

24/7/1526, (-152,950) The Spanish captured Milan.

9/6/1526, Saturday (-152,995) Emperor No-Gara became ruler of Japan.

22/5/1526, Tuesday (-153,013) France repudiated the Treaty of Madrid, and formed the League of Cognac, against Charles V.  This League included the Pope, Milan, Venice, and Florence.

21/4/1526, Saturday (-153,044) The First Battle of Panipat.  Barbur became first Moghul (Mughal) Emperor of India.  He captured Delhi, and northern India, beginning the Moghul Empire, which lasted until 1857.

1/4/1526, Sunday (-153,064) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1526, (153,104)

14/1/1526, (-153,141) The Peace of Madrid; Francis I of France agreed to cede Burgundy to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.  France also abandoned all claims to Flanders, Artois, Naples, and Milan.

14/10/1525, (-153,233)

13/7/1525, Christ Church College, Oxford, founded by Thomas Wolsey.

15/5/1525, (-153,385) The Battle of Frankenhausen.

7/5/1525. (-153,393) The Peasant’s Revolt in Germany was defeated. It had begun in 1524 when the peasants demanded abolition of feudal dues, serfdom, and tithes.

16/4/1525, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

7/3/1525, (-153,454)

24/2/1525. (-153,465) (France-Germany, Italy, Spain,  Science-Tech) The Battle of Pavia. Pavia, held by the French, had been under siege by Spanish forces since October 1524. Italy itself was a territory being fought over by the rival powers of France, Germany, Turkey and Spain. The French under King Charles VIII defended Pavia with cavalry and cannon, but the Spanish had adopted the arquebus or hackenbushe, an early version of the handgun; this weapon replaced the Spanish crossbow. The arquebus meant an unskilled infantryman could kill a skilled knight and Pavia was the start of the dominance of the handgun as a military weapon.

24/12/1524. (-153,527) The Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama, who discovered the sea route from Europe to the East, died on his second voyage after landing in Cochin, on the Malabar coast of India. See 22/11/1497.

19/11/1524, (-153,562)

20/10/1524, (-153,592) Thomas Linacre, physician to King Henry VII and VIII and founder of the Royal College of Physicians in 1518, died.

8/7/1524, (-153,696) Verrazzano's expedition returned to Dieppe.

23/5/1524, Monday (-153,742) Shah Ismail of Persia died aged 38. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Tahmasp, aged 10.

17/4/1524, Sunday (-153,778) Verrazzano's expedition makes the first European entry into New York Bay and sights the island of Manhattan.

27/3/1524, Sunday (-153,799) Easter Sunday.

19/11/1523, (-153,928) Pope Clement VII succeeded Pope Adrian VI as the 219th Pope.

14/9/1523, (-153,994), Pope Adrian VI, Adrian Dedel, Dutch, (218th Pope) died, aged 64. The last non-Italian Pope until John Paul II (acceded 1978), he allied with the Holy Roman Emperor, Venice and England against France. This split the forces of Christendom, resulting in the loss of Rhodes to the Ottoman Turks.

14/7/1523, (-154,056)

6/6/1523, Saturday (-154,094) Gustav Vasa, aged 27, was elected King of Sweden, finally established full independence from Denmark.

19/5/1523, Tuesday (-154,112)

5/4/1523, Sunday (-154,156) Easter Sunday.

19/3/1523, (-154,173)

19/1/1523, (-154,232) Huldreich Zwingli published his 67 Articles in Zurich. They attacked the authority of the Pope, and the concept of Transubstantiation.

21/12/1522. (-154,261) Rhodes, formerly the base of the Knights of St John, was conquered by the Ottoman Turks, led by Suleiman, after a six-month siege.  The Knights of St John, driven out of Rhodes, were given permission by Emperor Charles V in 1530 to settle in Malta.  See 18/5/1565.

18/12/1522, (-154,264) The Turks finally broke into Rhodes, but the Knights continued fierce resistance in the streets.

18/11/1522, (-154,294)

15/10/1522, (-154,328) Spanish Emperor Charles V promoted Herman Cortes to Governor-General of the new colony of Mexico, founded in 1521.

6/9/1522, (-154,307) Ferdinand Magellan’s ship, the Vittoria, under the command of Juan Sebastian Del Cano, arrived in San Lucar, Spain, after completing the first circumnavigation of the world.  Magellan himself was killed on the Philippine island of Mactan.

13/8/1522, (-154,391) Emperor Cuauhtemotzin surrendered Mexico City to the Spanish under Cortezs.

28/7/1522, (-154,407) Ottoman Sultan Suleiman I began a siege of the Knights of St. John in Rhodes.

19/7/1522, (-154,416)

19/5/1522, (-154,477)

20/4/1522, Sunday (-154,506) Easter Sunday.

19/3/1522, (-154,538)

19/2/1522, (-154,566)

9/1/1522, (-154,607) Pope Adrian VI (218th Pope) acceded (died 1523).

13/12/1521, (-154,634) Manuel I, King of Portugal, died aged 52. He was succeeded by his son, Joao III.

1/12/1521, (-154,646) Pope Leo X died.

11/10/1521. (-154,697) Pope Leo X conferred the title of Defender of the faith on King Henry VIII.  Twelve years later Henry VIII broke with Rome to marry Anne Boleyn.

31/8/1521, Saturday (-154,738) The major city of Tenochtitlan in Central America was conquered by Cortez after an 85-day battle.

15/8/1521, Thursday (-154,754) King Henry VIII of England and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V signed the Treaty of Bruges against France, in contrast to the Anglo-French friendship at the Field of the Cloth of Gold (6/6/1520). This Treaty involved English forces in long campaigns in northern Europe.

30/7/1521, Tuesday (-154,770)

19/7/1521, Friday (-154,781)

19/6/1521, Wednesday (-154,811)

19/5/1521, Sunday (-154,842)

27/4/1521. Saturday (-154,864) Natives on the island of Mactan, Philippines, killed the Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan. He was on a voyage around the world.

20/4/1521, Saturday (-154,871)

18/4/1521, Thursday (-154,873) Martin Luther ended his defence at the Imperial Diet of Worms with the words “I cannot and will not recant anything.  God help me.  Amen”.

17/4/1521, Wednesday (-154,874) Martin Luther, 38 years old, was excommunicated at the Diet of Worms.

16/4/1521, Tuesday (-154,875) Martin Luther arrived at the Diet of Worms.

7/4/1521, Sunday (-154,884) Ferdinand Magellan arrived at Cebu.

31/3/1521, Sunday (-154,891) Easter Sunday

16/3/1521, Saturday (-154,906) Ferdinand Magellan sighted the Philippine Islands.

15/2/1521, Friday (-154,935)

28/1/1521, Monday (-154,953) The Diet of Worms began.

3/1/1521, Thursday (-154,978) Pope Leo X issued a Papal Bull excommunicating Martin Luther, after a deadline by which Luther had been ordered to recant his ‘heretical’ views expired. Martin Luther had condemned the sale of Indulgences (Papal forgiveness for sins) to raise funds for the Papacy.

28/12/1520, Friday (-154,984)

28/11/1520, Wednesday (-155,014) After navigating through the South American strait, three ships under the command of Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan reached the Pacific Ocean, becoming the first Europeans to sail from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific (the strait was later named the Strait of Magellan).

4/11/1520, Sunday (-155,038) Christian was crowned King of Sweden.

21/10/1520, Sunday (-155,052) The islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon were discovered by Portuguese explorer João Álvares Fagundes off Newfoundland. He named them "Islands of the 11,000 Virgins" in honour of Saint Ursula.

11/10/1520, Thursday (-155,062)

30/9/1520, Sunday (-155,073)

21/9/1520, Friday (-155,082) Ottoman Sultan Selim died, aged 53. He was succeeded by his 24-year old son, Suleiman I (The Magnificent).

13/9/1520, Thursday (-155,090) William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, Lord High Treasurer to Queen Elizabeth 1st, was born in Bourne Lincolnshire.

30/8/1520 Thursday (-155,104)

31/7/1520, Tuesday (-155,134)

10/7/1520, Tuesday (-155,155) In Mexico, Cortez was driven out of Tenochtitlan by the Aztec leader, Cuauhtemoc. Cortez retreated to Tlaxcala.

30/6/1520. Saturday (-155,165) Montezuma II, the last Aztec ruler, was killed by his own people in Mexico City during the Spanish conquest of Mexico under Cortez.

6/6/1520. Wednesday (-155,189) Henry VIII and Francis I of France met in a glittering ceremony at The Field Of The Cloth Of Gold near Calais. However see 15/8/1521.

6/5/1520, Sunday (-155,220)

8/4/1520, Sunday (-155,248) Easter Sunday.

6/4/1520. Friday (-155,250) The painter Raphael died on his 37th birthday.  He was born in Urbino, Italy, on 6/4/1483.

6/2/1520, (-155,310)

6/12/1519, (-155,372)

8/11/1519, (-155,400) Hernán Cortés entered Tenochtitlan and the court of Aztec ruler Moctezuma.

8/10/1519, (-155,431)

20/9/1519. (-155,449) The Portuguese-born navigator Ferdinand Magellan started on a voyage to cross the Pacific Ocean and circumnavigate the world. He had a fleet of five small ships; Trinidad, San Antonio, Concepcion, Vittoria, and Santiago. On 28/11/1520 Magellan discovered a strait at the southern tip of South America and entered the Pacific. Magellan was killed on 27/4/1521 by natives of the Philippines. Magellan’s ship, the Vittoria, arrived alone in San Lucar, Spain, on 6/9/1522 under the command of Del Cano, to become the first ship to circumnavigate the world.

15/8/1519, (-155,485) Panama City was founded.

11/8/1519, (-155,489) Johann Tetzel died in Leipzig Priory, aged 54. He defended the Church practice of selling indulgences (forgiveness), promoted by the Archbishop of Mainz as a  way of raising money for rebuilding St Peters in Rome.

11/7/1519, (-155,520)

24/6/1519, (-155,537) Lucrezia Borgia, Italian noblewoman from a corrupt family, illegitimate daughter of Pope Alexander VII, died.

24/5/1519. Tuesday (-155,568) Leonardo Da Vinci died, at the Chateaux Cloux near Amboise, aged 67.

24/4/1519, Sunday (-155,598) Easter Sunday. Montezuma II, the Aztec Emperor, sent envoys to attend the first Easter Mass to be celebrated in the Americas.

22/4/1519, Friday (-155,600)

6/4/1519 Wednesday (-155,616)

12/3/1519, Saturday (-155,641)

12/1/1519, Wednesday (-155,700) The Holy Roman Emperor, Maximillian I, died aged 59. He had been King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor from 1493. He was succeeded by Spain’s Carlos I, elected Holy Roman Emperor as Charles V.

30/11/1518, Tuesday (-155,743) Andrea Palladio, Italian architect, was born.

27/11/1518, Saturday (-155,746) Daniel Bomberg completed the Rabbinical Bible.

29/9/1518, (-155,805) Tintoretto, Venetian painter, was born as Jabobi Robusti, the son of a dyer.

20/9/1518, (-155,814)

4/4/1518, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

31/10/1517. Martin Luther, born 10/11/1483 in Eisleben, Germany, nailed his 95 Theses to the church  door at Wittenburg, so starting the Reformation. He died on 18/2/1546. These theses condemned the sale of indulgences granting forgiveness of sin. On 15/6/1520 Pope Leo X condemned Luther’s theses as ‘heretical and scandalous’.

12/4/1517, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday

16/3/1517, The Fifth Lateran Council ended.

20/1/1517, The Ottomans conquered Cairo, Egypt.

6/4/1516, Sunday (-156,711)

23/3/1516, Sunday (-156,725) Easter Sunday.

6/3/1516, Thursday (-156,742)

23/2/1516, Saturday (-156,754)

18/2/1516, Monday (-156,759) Queen Mary I, Mary Tudor (Bloody Mary), was born at Greenwich Palace, the daughter of Henry VIII and Catharine of Aragon. She was known as Bloody Mary due to her relentless persecution of the Protestants.

23/1/1516, Wednesday (-156,785) Ferdinand V, King of Castile and Leon, also Ferdinand II of Aragon, died aged 63. He was succeeded by his 16-year old grandson, Carlos I, then a student in Flanders

15/11/1515, Thomas Wolsey is invested as a Cardinal.

22/9/1515, Anne of Cleves, one of King Henry VIII’s wives, was born.

13/9/1515, The French beat the Swiss at the Battle of Marengo (Marignano).

5/7/1515. The Ottoman Turks, led by Sultan Selim, invaded Egypt. The Mameluke dynasty was destroyed.

16/4/1515, Monday (-157,067) Roman Catholic mass was banned in Zurich as the Lutheran Revolution spread across Europe.

8/4/1515, Sunday (-157,075) Easter Sunday.

28/3/1515, (157,086) St Teresa of Avila was born. A Spanish noblewoman, she joined the Carmelite nuns in 1533, and reformed the order.

6/2/1515, (-157,136) Death of Aldus Manutius, the first publisher of paperbacks and inventor of italics.

1/1/1515. (-157,172) King Louis XII of France was succeeded by his nephew, Francis, who continued France’s policy of attempting to invade Italy.

9/10/1514, Louis XII, King of France, married Mary Tudor.

15/9/1514, Thomas Wolsey was appointed Archbishop of York.

8/9/1514, At the Battle of Orsha, a combined force of Poles and Ukrainians defeated the Russians.

23/8/1514, At the Battle of Chaldiran, Selim I defeated the Persians under Shah Ismail I.

16/4/1514, Sunday (-157,432) Easter Sunday.

11/4/1514, Tuesday (-157,437) Italian architect Donate Bramante died whilst still building St Peters in Rome, which he had begun in 1506.

11/10/1513, The Church reformer Huldrych Zwingli died (born 1/1/1484). He was killed, as Army Chaplain for the forces of Zurich, in battle during the War of Kappel, against the Forest Cantons.

25/9/1513. The Spaniard Vasco Nunez de Balboa became the first European to see the Pacific from the Americas. Leaving his base near Darien he headed west across the Isthmus of Panama in a gruelling 25 day trek across 45 miles of almost impenetrable jungle. Hostile natives were an added hazard.

9/9/1513. Battle of Flodden Field, at Branxton, Northumberland. The Scots were defeated by the English, under Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey, and James IV of Scotland was killed. James IV had abandoned his alliance with Henry VIII and attempted an invasion of England. Margaret, the sister of King Henry VIII, became regent for her one year old son, James V.

16/8/1513, The Battle of the Spurs. King Henry VIII defeated the French.

8/4/1513. Friday (-157,805) The Spaniard, Juan Ponce de Leon, claimed Florida, which he believed to be an island, for Spain. He called it Florida because of the abundance of wild flowers there and because it was discovered close to the religious festival Pasqua de Flores.

27/3/1513, Sunday (-157,817) Easter Sunday.

21/2/1513, Pope Julius II died.

9/2/1513, The Portuguese explorer Pedro Mascarenhas discovered the island of Reunion.

27/12/1512. Spain enacted the Laws of Burgos, giving New World natives legal protection against abuse but authorising slavery of Black people.

1/11/1512. Michelangelo unveiled his painting on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.

3/5/1512, The Fifth Lateran Council began.

11/4/1512, Sunday (-158,167) Easter Sunday.

10/4/1512, Saturday (-158,168) James V, King of Scotland, born.

2/4/1512, At the Battle of Ravenna, French forces defeated a Spanish – Papal army.

5/3/1512, Gerardus Mercator, Flemish cartographer, was born in Flanders, as Gerhard Kremer.

22/2/1512. The Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci, who gave America his name, died in Seville.

4/8/1511, Alfonso de Aberquerque captured Malacca.

20/4/1511, Sunday (-158,524) Easter Sunday.

10/4/1511, Thursday (-158,534)

25/10/1510, Giorgione, painter, died.

6/10/1510, John Caius, founder of Caius College Cambridge, was born.

17/5/1510. Friday (158,862) Death of the Florentine painter Sandro Botticelli, aged 65, whose work included The Birth of Venus.

10/4/1510, Wednesday (-158,899)

31/3/1510, Sunday (-158,909) Easter Sunday

1/3/1510, Friday (-158,939) Francesco de Almeida, the first Portuguese viceroy to India, died.

11/9/1509, Portuguese Fidalgo Diogo Lopes de Sequeira became the first European to reach Malacca, having crossed the Gulf of Bengal.

10/9/1509, Istanbul earthquake destroyed 109 mosques and killed an estimated 10,000 people.

10/7/1509, John Calvin, French priest who spread the Reformation, was born at Noyon, Picardy.

1/7/1509, Because the Queen of England customarily did not breastfeed her children, a ‘wet nurse’ was appointed, a woman who had recently given birth herself, was appointed. The salary for this post in 1509 was £20 a year.

24/6/1509, King Henry VIII of England was crowned.

11/6/1509. King Henry VIII, aged 18, married his sister in law, the Spanish princess Catharine of Aragon, aged 24. She was the first of his six wives.

21/4/1509. Saturday (-159,253) King Henry VII died in Richmond, Surrey, probably from tuberculosis. His second son, Henry VIII, succeeded him. The coronation of Henry VIII was on 24/6/1509.

8/4/1509, Sunday (-159,266) Easter Sunday.

24/12/1508, London houses received piped water for the first time.

8/8/1508, Juan Ponce de León, a lieutenant under Columbus, founded the first Spanish settlement on Puerto Rico, Caparra, on August 8, 1508.

23/4/1508, Sunday (-159,616) Easter Sunday.

4/4/1508. Tuesday (-159,635) The first book was printed in Scotland.

20/8/1507, Guru Nanak Dev became the first guru and leader of the Sikh religion.

1/7/1507, (-) The earliest records of coal-mining at Nailsea, near Bristol. Coal was being transported to Yatton for household fireplaces. By the late 19th century coal mining had died out south of Bristol as the industry migrated to the richer seams of south Wales.

29/4/1507, Thursday (-159,976) Louis XII, King of France, led his troops into Genoa.

4/4/1507, Sunday (-160,001) Easter Sunday.

1/4/1507, Thursday (-160,004)

12/3/1507, Cesare Borgia died at the siege of Viana in Navarre.

25/9/1506, Philip the Handsome, King of Spain, died suddenly aged 28, at Burgos. His wife went mad after his death. Her father Ferdinand II of Aragon ruled as Regent of Castile, as Ferdinand V.

13/9/1506, Andrea Mantegna, Italian painter, died in Mantua.

5/8/1506. Death of King Alexander of Poland. Born in 1461, he succeeded his brother Albert to the Polish throne in 1501.His power was greatly eroded by the Polish nobility and senate. Consequently, because of lack of funds, Alexander was unable to restrain much the expansion of the Muscovy or the Teutonic Order in Prussia.

20/5/1506. Christopher Columbus, Italian navigator who discovered the New World in 1492, died aged 55 in Valladolid, Spain. See 3/8/1492. He was virtually penniless. However his discovery of favourable winds in both directions across the Atlantic opened up the way for European exploration of the New World.

12/4/1506, Sunday (-160,358) Easter Sunday

7/4/1506, Tuesday (-160,363) St Francis Xavier, Spanish Jesuit missionary, was born near Sanguesa.

27/10/1505.  Ivan the Great (Ivan III), Czar of Russia, died aged 65. He was succeeded by his 26-year-old son who ruled as Basil III Ivanovitch until 1553.

7/4/1505, Monday (-160,728)

23/3/1505, Sunday (-160,743) Easter Sunday.

24/11/1504, Isabella, Queen of Castille and Leon, died aged 53. She was succeeded by her daughter Juana and Juana’s husband, Philip. However they remained in Flanders, and Ferdinand ruled instead.

8/9/1504. Michelangelo, 29, unveiled his statue of David in Florence. The 13 foot high marble statue had taken him three years to carve.

6/8/1504. Matthew Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury, was born.  He had a very long nose, and was extremely inquisitive, hence the expression ‘nosey parker’.

7/4/1504, Sunday (-161,093) Easter Sunday.

7/3/1504, Thursday (-161,124)

29/2/1504,  Thursday (-161,131) A total eclipse of the Moon. Christopher Columbus was stranded in Jamaica and needed provisions but the locals were reluctant to help him. Columbus knew the eclipse was due and warned the tribal leaders that his God would turn the Moon blood-red if they did not help him. The locals did not comply but when the Moon turned red as Columbus had foretold they did give him necessary provisions.

29/1/1504, Monday (-161,162)

17/1/1504, Wednesday (-161,174) Pope Pius V was born.

29/12/1503, Friday (-161,193) At the Battle of Garigliano, near Gaeta, Italy, Spanish forces under Gonzalo Fernandez de Cordoba defeated a French-Italian mercenary army under Ludovico II, Marquis of Saluzzo.  French forces withdrew to Gaeta.

14/12/1503. Thursday (-161,208) The French astrologer Nostradamus was born, as Michel de Nostradame.  He wrote his book of prophecies in 1555.

2/11/1503, Columbus discovered Panama. He also observed the inhabitants playing with a heavy black bouncing ball, made of a substance new to him, rubber.

31/10/1503, Pope Julius II succeeded Pope Pius as 216th Pope.

30/10/1503, Queen Isabella of Spain banned violence against native tribes.

18/10/1503, Pope  Pius III died.

22/9/1503, Pope Pius III (Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini) succeeded Pope Alexander VI as 215th Pope.  However he died on 18/10/1503.

18/8/1503. Death of Pope Alexander VI, or Rodrigo Borgia, aged 74. See 10/8/1492.

8/8/1503, The marriage of King James IV of Scotland and Margaret Tudor, daughter of King Henry VII, took place at Holyrod Palace, Edinburgh.

28/5/1503, (-161,408) The Treaty of Everlasting Peace between Scotland and England was signed; peace actually lasted ten years.

13/5/1503, (-161,423) The Spanish captured Naples.

10/5/1503, Monday (-161,426) Christopher Columbus discovered the Cayman islands, he called them Las Tortugas, after the numerous sea turtles there.

16/4/1503, Sunday (-161,448) Easter Sunday.

21/4/1503, (-161,445) The Battle of Cerignola.  The Spanish under Gonzalo Fernandez de Cordoba defeated the French under the Duc de Nemoura, who was killed.  This was the first battle considered to have been won by gunpowder and small arms.

22/3/1503, (-161,475)

23/2/1503, (-161,502) At the Battle of Ruvo, the Spanish defeated the French.

20/1/1503, (-161,536) Seville, in Castille, was awarded exclusive rights to trade with the New World.

18/9/1502, Christopher Columbus landed at Costa Rica.

6/6/1502, Monday (-161,764) John III, King of Portugal, was born.

21/5/1502, Saturday (-161,780) The Portuguese explorer Joao de Nova discovered the island of St Helena, in the south Atlantic.

11/5/1502. Wednesday (-161,790) Christopher Columbus left on his fourth voyage of exploration, returning on 7/11/1504.

8/5/1502, Sunday (-161,793)

2/4/1502, Saturday (-161,829) Arthur, eldest son of King Henry VII, died after an illness.

27/3/1502, Sunday (-161,835) Easter Sunday.

12/2/1502. Spain expelled all Moors who had not been baptised as Christians.  See 30/3/1492.

7/1/1502, Pope Gregory XIII born

21/5/1501, (-162,145) The island of St Helena was first visited by the Portuguese, on St Helena’s Day.

10/5/1501. Monday (-162,156) Amerigo Vespucci set sail for what is now called South America.  On 1/1/1502 his fleet entered the bay of Guanabara, where Rio de Janeiro now stands.

11/4/1501, Sunday (-162,185) Easter Sunday.

25/3/1501, Ascension Island was first sighted by the Portuguese navigator, Joao de Nova Gallego. He named it Ilha de Nossa Senhora de Conceicoa in honour of the Annunciation. It was rediscovered by Alfonso D’Albuquerque on Ascension Day 1503, and thereby acquired its p[resent name.

29/5/1500, Bartholomew Diaz, the Portuguese explorer who discovered the Cape of Good Hope in 1488, was drowned during a storm at sea.

22/4/1500. (-162,539) The Portuguese explorer Pedro Alvarez Cabral discovered the coast of Brazil. He claimed this territory for Portugal, which he named Vera Cruz or ‘true cross’ but which was to be called Brazil, after the red-coloured brazil-wood, which grew there.

19/4/1500, Sunday (-162,542) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1500, (-162,601) Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, was born.

26/1/1500, (-162,626) The explorer Vincente Yanez Pinson discovered Brazil, and claimed it for his native Portugal.

23/11/1499. (-162,690) Perkin Warbeck was executed at the Tower of London.  He was a Flemish impostor, the son of a boatman from Tournai, claiming to be Richard of York, son of Edward II, whom he closely resembled. Initially treated leniently after his attempt on the throne (see 31/7/1495), he then attempted to escape the Royal Palace and team up with another usurper, Edward Earl of Warwick.

22/9/1499, Sunday (-162,752) Under the Treaty of Basel, Maximilian granted the Swiss independence. Formal independence was not achieved for another century.

8/9/1499, Sunday (-162,766)

8/8/1499, Thursday (-162,797)

22/7/1499, Monday (-162,814) The Battle of Dornach. Swiss Confederation forces defeated the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian. This was the last battle between Switzerland and the Holy Roman Empire.

8/7/1499,  Monday (-162,828)

8/6/1499, Saturday (-162,858)

8/5/1499, Wednesday (-162,889)

8/4/1499, Monday (-162,919)

31/3/1499, Sunday (-162,927) Easter Sunday. Pope Pius IV was born.

19/12/1498, Andreas Osiander, religious reformer, was born.

16/9/1498, Tomas de Torquemada, Inquisitor-General, died.

31/7/1498, (-163,166) Christopher Columbus arrived at an island he called Trinidad.

7/6/1498. (-163,224) Christopher Columbus left on his third journey of exploration.

23/5/1498. Monday (-163,239) Vasco da Gama (Food, India) arrived at Calicut, southern India, after discovering a route via the tip of southern Africa. , proving the feasibility of a sea route from Portugal to India and the Spice Islands. This meant Europe could buy spices independent from Venetian and Muslim middlemen.

15/4/1498, Sunday (-163,277)) Easter Sunday.

14/4/1498, Saturday (-163,278) Vasco da Gama arrived at the trading city of Malindi, east Africa, after putting in at Kilwa and Monbasa.

8/4/1498, (-163,284) Charles VIII of France died suddenly, aged 27. He was succeeded by his cousin, the Duc d’Orleans, as Louis XII

25/1/1498, Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama visited Quelimane and Mozambique in south-eastern Africa.

25/12/1497, The Portuguese explorer Vasco Da Gama reached the part of South Africa which he called Natal.

5/12/1497, King Manuel I of Portugal proclaimed an edict in which he demanded that Jews convert to Christianity or leave the country.

22/11/1497. The Portuguese explorer Vasco Da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope in his search for a route to India. His fleet comprised the St Gabriel, the St Raphael, the Berrio, and a store ship. See 24/12/1524. He had set sail from Lisbon on 8/7/1497.

6/8/1497. The Genoese navigator John Cabot returned from an expedition across the Atlantic. King Henry VII financed his travels. Though he was Genoese and had Venetian citizenship, Cabot came to England in 1487 to raise support for a transatlantic voyage and settled in Bristol. He sailed from Bristol on 2/5/1497 and landed on 24/6/1497 on the coast of Labrador. There he planted the Tudor banner, in defiance of the Treaty of Tordesillas, which divided up the western world between Spain and Portugal (see 6/12/1492, Papal backing for gold to finance a war against the Moslems). Under this treaty, signed on 7/6/1494, all land west of a line in the western Atlantic would belong to Spain; any land east of it would be Portuguese. He explored the coastline from Labrador to Cape Breton.

8/7/1497, Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama set sail from Lisbon to attempt to find a sea passage to India.

24/6/1497, John Cabot, in his exploration of north America, arrived at Cape Breton Island.

8/5/1497, (-163,619)

2/5/1497,  (-163,625) John Cabot set sail from Bristol.

26/3/1497, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

7/9/1496, Ferdinand II, King of Naples, died.

12/5/1496, Friday (-163,979) Gustavus Vasa, King of Sweden, was born.

8/5/1496, Sunday (-163,984)

3/4/1496, Sunday (-164,019) Easter Sunday.

3/1/1496, Leonardo da Vinci unsuccessfully tested a flying machine.

25/12/1495, At the Second Battle of Acentejo, Spanish forces crushed the natives of the island of Tenerife, destroying the last bastion of resistance on the Canary Islands.

18/12/1495, Alfonso II, King of Naples, died.

30/10/1495, An explosion at Vyborg castle deterred Russian forces who were invading Sweden through Karelia.

25/10/1495, King Manuel I became rule of Portugal, on the death of King Joao II, aged 40.

6/7/1495, At the Battle of Fornovo, the French Army secured its retreat from Italy by defeating a combined Milanese-Venetian force under Giobvanni Francesco Gonzaga, Marquis of Mantua.

3/7/1495, The Pretender to the English throne, Perkin Warbeck, landed at Deal, Kent, with 150 men. He hoped to gather enough supporters to overthrow King Henry VII. However his force was routed and he went on to Ireland, where he was again unsuccessful at besieging the pro-Henry town of Waterford. Warbeck then fled to Scotland. See 23/11/1499.

28/6/1495, At the Battle of Seminara, Cordoba and Ferrante were defeated by a French army under Bernard Stewart, Lord of Aubigny.

1/6/1495, Friar John Cor recorded the first known batch of Scotch whisky.

26/5/1495, A Spanish army under Gonzalo de Cordoba landed in Calabria, to oust the French and restore Ferrante II to the throne of Naples.

8/5/1495, (-164,350)

19/4/583, Sunday (-164,369) Easter Sunday.

22/2/1495, King Charles VIII of France entered Naples to claim the city’s throne.  A few months later he returned to France with most of his army, leaving a force under his cousin, Gilbert Count of Montpensier as viceroy.

5/11/1494, Hans Sachs, poet and dramatist, was born.

12/9/1494, Francis I, King of France, was born.

7/6/1494, Saturday (-164,685) The Treaty of Tordesillas was signed. In 1493, Pope Alexander VI had set a line at 100 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands from north to south Pole; Spain had the rights to colonise west of this line, Portugal to the east. The 1494 Treaty moved this line a further 270 leagues to the west.

8/5/1494, Thursday (-164,715)

4/5/1494. Sunday (-164,719) Christopher Columbus landed on an island he called Santa Gloria, now known as Jamaica.

8/4/1494, Tuesday (-164,745)

30/3/1494, Sunday (-164,754) Easter Sunday

17/12/1493, Paracelsus, scientist and occultist, was born. He died on 24/9/1541.

19/11/1493, Christopher Columbus discovered Puerto Rico, and claimed it for Spain.

3/11/1493, Christopher Columbus, on his second expedition, sighted the island now known as Dominica.

25/9/1493. Christopher Columbus left Spain on a second voyage of exploration with a fleet of 20 ships.

8/5/1493, Wednesday (-165,080)

8/4/1493, Monday (-165,110)

7/4/1493, Sunday (-165,111) Easter Sunday.

4/3/1493. Monday (-165,145) Christopher Columbus arrived back in Lisbon, then travelled to Spain.

6/2/1493, (-165,171) Maximilian I of Germany became Holy Roman Emperor.

4/1/1493. (-165,204) Christopher Columbus left America on the return voyage to Spain in the Nina.

31/12/1492, (-165,208) About 100,000 Jews were expelled from Sicily.

6/12/1492. (-165,233) Christopher Columbus landed on an island he called Hispaniola, now Haiti, in search of gold. He had won backing from Spain for his expedition on condition he found gold to finance another war by Christian Spain against the Moors. Many Christians also believed that Christ’s second coming would not occur until all pagans had been converted to Christianity or at least defeated by Christendom.

5/12/1492, (-165,234) Christopher Columbus discovered the island of Santo Domingo.

5/11/1492, (-165,264)

28/10/1492. (-165,272) Christopher Columbus arrived in Cuba, believing it to be Japan.

12/10/1492. (-165,288) Christopher Columbus first saw land; it was not Asia but the continent of America. He called it San Salvador.  Christopher Columbus landed in the Bahamas.

12/9/1492, (165,318)

10/8/1492. (-165,351) Pope Innocent VIII was succeeded by Rodrigo de Borgia. He took the name Pope Alexander VI. Rodrigo Borgia had bribed enough cardinals to ensure his election as Pope. See 18/8/1503.

3/8/1492. (-165,358) Christopher Columbus left Palos de la Frontera, Andalusia, south-west Spain, on his first voyage to search for a passage to the Far East via the Atlantic. He actually found the Americas.  He sailed in the Santa Maria, accompanied by the Nina and the Pinta. Columbus had delayed his sailing until after 2/8/1492 as that was the deadline for Jews to leave Spain; therefore Columbus was now departing from a ‘cleansed’ Spain.

24/7/1492, (-165,368) Pope Innocent VIII died.

28/6/1492, (-165,394)

8/5/1492, Tuesday (-165,445)

22/4/1492, Sunday (-185,461) Easter Sunday.

11/4/1492, Wednesday (-165,472) Marguerite d’Angoulmeme, Queen of Navarre, was born.

8/4/1492. Sunday (-165,475) Lorenzo de Medici, patron of learning and the arts, died aged 43, after a 23 year reign of cultural enlightenment.

30/3/1492. Friday (-165,484) The Jews were expelled from Spain by edict of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella unless they agreed to convert to Roman Catholicism. Under the Moslem rule, the Jews had benefited from tolerant Arab rulers. But the last Moslem state was conquered by Christian Spain on 2/1/1492 when Granada fell. On 30/3/1492 the 150,000 strong Jewish community was ordered out by Queen Isabella and her husband Ferdinand. Urban anti-Semitism in Spain had been growing for years, and the Spanish Inquisition, founded in 1487, made things worse. See 12/2/1502.

14/3/1492, Wednesday (-165,500)

14/2/1492, Wednesday (-165,528)

30/1/1492, (-165,544)

2/1/1492. (-165,572) The Spanish Army under Queen Isabella recaptured Granada from the Moors.  This had been the last remaining Moslem territory in Spain.  See 30/3/1492.

31/12/1491, (-165,574) Jacques Cartier, French explorer of the St Lawrence area of north America, was born in St Malo, northern France.

24/12/1491, (-165,581) Ignatius Loyola, Spanish priest who founded the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), was born in Azpeitia.

21/12/1491, (-165,584) A five-year truce between England and Scotland was declared at Coldstream.

25/11/1491, (-165,610) The siege of Granada, last stronghold of the Moors in Spain, began.

25/9/1491, (-165,671)

17/7/1491, (-165,741)

28/6/1491. (165,750) Henry VIII, best known for his six wives and religious split from Rome, was born at Greenwich. He was the son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York.

8/5/1491, Sunday (-165,811)

3/5/1491, (-165,816) The ruler of the Kingdom of Kongo, Nkuwu Nzinga, was baptised by Portuguese missionaries, adopting the baptismal name of João I.

3/4/1491, Sunday (-165,846) Easter Sunday.

19/12/1490, Anne of Brittany married Maximillian I, Holy Roman Emperor, by proxy.

17/7/1490, (-166,106) Lightning struck an old Greek church in Constantinople in which the Ottoman Turks were storing gunpowder; the ensuing explosion killed 5,000.

8/5/1490, Saturday (-166,176)

11/4/1490, Sunday (-166,203) Easter Sunday.

6/4/1490, (-166,208) Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary, died suddenly, aged 50. He was succeeded by Ladislas II of Bohemia.

4/12/1489. The fall of Baza, in southern Spain. The Catholic Spanish army had besieged this town, held by the Muslims; both siege and defence were financed by the sale of the jewels of the ladies on both sides. Baza had been a bishopric since at least before 302, when its bishop was recorded as attending the Council of Elvira.

2/7/1489. Thomas Cranmer, Henry VIII’s first reformed Archbishop of Canterbury, was born at Aslockton, Nottinghamshire. He produced the Book of Common Prayer in 1549.

8/5/1489, Friday (-166,541)

19/4/1489, Sunday (-166,560) Easter Sunday.

14/4/1489, The Queen of Cyprus, Catherine Cornaro, sold her kingdom to Venice.

9/9/1488, Anne of Brittany became Duchess of Brittany at the age of 11.  Her marriage to King Charles VIII in 1491 effectively ended Breton independence from France.

28/7/1488, At the Battle of Saint Aubin du Cornier, troops loyal to King Charles VIII of France defeated forces led by the rebel Duke of Orleans and Duke of Brittany  in the main engagement of the Mad War.

11/6/1488, James III, King of Scotland, was assassinated.  He was succeeded by his son, James IV.

8/5/1488, Thursday (-166,906)

6/4/1488, Sunday (-166.938) Easter Sunday

14/2/1488, The Great Swabian league was formed.

3/2/1488, Bartholomew Diaz of Portugal landed in Mossel Bay, after rounding the Cape of Good Hope.  He was the first known European to travel this far south.

8/1/1488, The present Netherlands Royal Navy was founded, by decree of Maximillian I of Austria.

10/9/1487, Pope Julius III was born.

16/6/1487, The Battle of Stoke Field.  The rebellion of the Pretender Lambert Simnel to the English throne, led by John de la Pole, earl of Lincoln, and Francis Lovell, 1st Viscount Lovell, was crushed by troops loyal to Henry VII.

24/5/1487, Lambert Simnel was crowned ‘King Edward VI of England’ in Christchurch cathedral.  He claimed to be Edward, Earl of Warwick, and challenged Henry VII for the throne of England. He was actually the son of a carpenter from Oxford who went to France and won the backing of one of Warwick’s aunts, who had never actually met the real Warwick. He then went to Ireland where he was welcomed, and from where he planned to invade England.

8/5/1487,  Tuesday (-167,272)

15/4/1487, Sunday (-167,295) Easter Sunday.

29/1/1487, Richard Foxe became Bishop of Exeter.

19/9/1486, King Henry VII’s son Arthur was born.

31/8/1486, The Portuguese explorer Bartholomew Diaz set sail for India.

9/5/1486,  Tuesday (-167,636)

1/5/1486. Monday (-167,644)The navigator Christopher Columbus persuaded Queen Isabella of Spain to grant him funds to find a western sea passage to the Indies.

1/4/1486, Saturday (-167,674)

26/3/1486, Sunday  (-167,680) Easter Sunday.

18/3/1486, Saturday (-167,688)

18/2/1486, Saturday (-167,716)

18/1/1486, (-167,747) In England, the houses of York and Lancaster were united by the marriage of King Henry VII to Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Edward IV.

16/12/1485, (-167,780) Catherine of Aragon, first wife of King Henry VIII, was born, the fourth daughter of Ferdinand Isabella.

16/11/1485, (-167,810)

30/10/1485. (-167,827) (1) Coronation of King Henry VII, aged 28

(2) King Henry VII established the Yeoman of the Guard.

22/9/1485, (-167,965)

22/8/1485. (-167,996) Battle of Bosworth Field, 12 miles west of Leicester. The two sides met at White Moor, on the slopes of Ambien Hill, some two miles from the market town of Market Bosworth. Richard had a force twice the size of Henry’s, but the Stanleys, the Earl of Derby and his brother, defected to Henry’s side. King Richard III, (White Rose, Yorkist) the last Plantagenet king, born 2/10/1452 at Fotheringay, was killed as he tried to reach the usurper to the English throne, Henry Tudor, (Red Rose, Lancastrian) now Henry VII. Henry, exiled to France, had landed at Milford Haven on 7/8/1485 and reached Shrewsbury on 15/8/1485, gathering only moderate support along the way. He then passed through Newport (Shropshire), Stafford, Lichfield, Tamworth, and reached Atherstone on the borders of Leicestershire on 20/81485. Here he linked up with the Stanley brothers, both anti-Yorkist. The night of the 21st, Henry encamped at White Moors, south west of what was to be the battlefield. Richard and his army halted three miles away on high ground at Sutton Cheney. Both sides attempted to occupy Ambien Hill, midway between the two armies. The Stanleys moved against the Yorkist flanks , and the Yorkist Duke of Northumberland, at the rear, failed to intervene. Richard was unhorsed and killed, and the Yorkist army melted away, unpursued.

7/8/1485, (-167,011) Henry Tudor (Henry VII) landed at Milford Haven, Wales.

1/8/1485, (-167,017) Henry Tudor (Henry VII) set sail from France for Wales. He had been advised by Rhys ap Thomas (a powerful Welsh landowner), wrongly as it turned out, that the whole of Wales would rise up in his favour.

1/7/1485, Friday (-167,048)

21/6/1485, Tuesday (-167,058) King Richard III, anticipating a challenge for his rulership, issued a proclamation against ‘Henry Tydder’ and other rebels.

8/6 1485, Wednesday (-167,971)

8/5/1485,  Sunday (-168,002)

3/4/1485, Sunday (-168,037) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1485, The English Parliament set aside £14,000 for the King’s Household Expenses. This eventually became the Civil List, which the present British Royal Family still live on.

5/12/1484, Pope Innocent VIII issued the Papal bull Summis desiderantes affectibus giving the inquisition a mission to hunt heretics and witches in Germany, led by Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Sprenger.

21/9/1484, Treaty of Nottingham: Three-year truce between the kingdoms of England and Scotland signed.

12/8/1484, Pope Sixtus V died, and was succeeded by Pope Innocent Innocent VIII/

8/5/1484, Monday (-168,367)

18/4/1484, Sunday (-168,387) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1484, The Church reformer Huldrych Zwingli was born in Switzerland (died 11/10/1513).

10/11/1483, Martin Luther, German religious reformer, leader of the Protestant Reformation, was born in Eisleben, the son of a miner.

30/8/1483, Louis XI, King of France, died, aged 60. He unified France after the Hundred Years War. He was succeeded by his 13-year old son, Charles VIII.

17/8/1483. The date on which the two young princes, the uncrowned Edward V and his brother Richard, Duke of York, are believed to have been murdered by their uncle and successor, Richard III, in the Tower of London. See 9/4/1483.

9/8/1483. Pope Sixtus IV celebrated the first mass in the Sistine Chapel, which was named after him.

6/7/1483. The coronation of King Richard III.

28/6/1483, The Dukedom of Norfolk was created.

26/6/1483, Richard III became King of England.

8/5/1483, Thursday (-168,733)

29/4/1483, Tuesday (-168,742) Gran Canaria, the main of the Canary Islands was conquered by the Kingdom of Castile, an important step in the expansion of Spain.

9/4/1483. Wednesday (-168,762) King Edward IV died at Windsor. During his second reign he re-established peace after the Wars of the Roses, but his heir, Edward V, was only aged 12. See 17/8/1483.

30/3/1483, Sunday (-168,772) Easter Sunday

28/3/1483, Friday (-168,774) Raphael, Italian painter, was born in Urbino as Raffaello Sanzio or Santi.

1/1/1483, Jews were expelled from Andalusia.

23/12/1482. Burgundy and Picardy were absorbed into France by the Treaty of Arras.

25/8/1482, Margaret of Anjou, Queen of England, died.

8/5/1482, Wednesday (-169,098)

7/4/1482, Sunday (-169,129) Easter Sunday.

26/12/1481, At the Battle of Westbroek, Holland defeated the troops of Utrecht.

10/9/1481, Alphonso II of Naples recaptured the city of Otranto.

29/8/1481, John II of Portugal began to rule in his own right.

21/5/1481, Monday (-169,450) Christian I, King of Denmark and Norway, died aged 49. He was succeeded by his son John (1481-1513).

8/5/1481, Tuesday (-169,463)

3/5/1481, Thursday (-179,468) Mehmed II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, died and was succeeded by his 34-year old son Bayezid II.

22/4/1481, Sunday (-169,479)

28/7/1480, (1) An Ottoman Army landed near Otranto, Italy.  Pope Sixtus IV called for a crusade to drive them out.

(2) Mohammed II failed in an attempt to take Rhodes from the Knights of Rhodes.

10/7/1480, Rene, Count of Anjou, died without an heir. Louis XI annexed his territory.

8/5/1480, Monday (-169,828)

2/4/1480, Sunday (-169,864) Easter Sunday.

18/4/1480, Lucrezia Borgia, Italian noblewoman, illegitimate daughter of Rodrigo Borgia (later Pope Alexander VI) was born in Rome.

6/3/1480, The Treaty of Toledo: Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain recognised the African conquests of Alphonso of Portugal, and he ceded the Canary Islands to Spain.

13/10/1479, The Battle of Kenyermezo.  The Hungarian army under Pal Kinizsi and Istvan Bathori defeated the Ottoman army in Transylvania, Hungary.

7/8/1479, The Battle of Guinegatte. A French army attempting to invade The Netherlands was defeated by Maximilian of Austria, with Flemish foot soldiers.

8/5/1479, Saturday (-170,194)

11/4/1479, Sunday (-170,221) Easter Sunday.

24/1/1479, The Republic of Venice and the Ottoman Empire signed a peace treaty.  Venice ceded Argo, Negroponte, Lemnos, and Scutari, and agreed to pay an annual tribute of 10,000 golden ducats.

20/1/1479, Ferdinand II took the throne of Aragon and ruled together with his wife Isabella, Queen of Castile, over most of the Iberian Peninsula.  In 1492 they conquered Granada, ending 700 years of Moorish rule.

22/7/1478, Philip II, King of Spain, was born. Son of Emperor Maximilian I and Mary of Burgundy, he married Joanna the Mad; she inherited the throne of Castile in 1504 but due to her insanity Philip assumed full control in 1506.

8/6/1478, Monday (-170,528)

8/5/1478, Friday (-170,559)

21/4/1478, Tuesday (-170,576)

22/3/1478, Sunday (-170,606) Easter Sunday

7/2/1478, Sir Thomas Moore, Lord Chancellor to King Henry VIII, was born in London, the son of a judge. He was executed for refusing to deny the authority of the Pope.

14/11/1477. William Caxton issued the first dated, printed, book from his printing press in Westminster. It was Dictes or Sayengis of The Philosophres.

18/8/1477, The Hapsburgs gained possession of the Netherlands through the marriage of the son of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III, Maximillian, with Mary, daughter of Charles the Bold.

8/5/1477, Thursday (-170,924)

6/4/1477, Sunday (-170,956) Easter Sunday.

27/2/1477, The Swedish University of Uppsala was founded, becoming the first university in Sweden and all of Scandinavia.

14/2/1477. A man in Norfolk received the world’s first known Valentine. Margery Brews sent her fiancée John Poston a letter saying ‘To my right welbelovyd Voluntyne’. She explained that she had asked her mother to put pressure on her father to increase her dowry but also said that if he loved her, she would marry him anyway. The Romans, around 600 BC, celebrated a February festival with romantic games and dancing. When the Roman Empire was converted to Christianity, the festival was linked to the martyrdom of St Valentine on 14 February, ca. 270 AD, by the Roman Emperor Claudius. Another possible origin is the medieval belief that birds traditionally pair off on 14 February. Oliver Cromwell’s government banned St Valentine’s day but it was restored when Charles II came to the throne in 1660. See 14/2/1822.

5/1/1477, Battle of Nancy. Swiss pikemen defeated the Duke of Burgundy’s cavalry. The 43-year old Duke was killed in the battle, and his body was found later, half-eaten by wolves.

28/6/1476, Pope Paul IV born.

22/6/1476, The Battle of Morat.

8/5/1476, Wednesday (-171,289)

14/4/1476, Sunday (-171,313) Easter Sunday

11/12/1475, Pope Leo X was born.

8/5/1475, Monday (-171,655)

18/4/1475,Tuesday  (-171,675)

4/4/1475, Tuesday (-171,689)

26/3/1475, Sunday (-171,698) Easter Sunday.

6/3/1475, Monday (-171,718) Michelangelo, Italian painter and sculptor, was born in Capresse, Tiuscany, as Michelagniolo di Lodovico Buonarroti.

8/9/1474, Ludovic Ariosto, poet, was born.

8/5/1474, Sunday (-172,020)

10/4/1474, Sunday (-172,048) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1473, Saturday (-172,385)

18/4/1473, Sunday (-172,405) Easter Sunday.

8/4/1473, Thursday (-172,415)

17/3/1473, (-172,437) James IV, King of Scotland, was born.

19/2/1473, (-172,463) Nicolaus Copernicus, Polish astronomer, was born in Torun, Poland.

8/6/1472, Monday (-172,719)

8/5/1472, Friday (-172,750)

8/4/1472, Wednesday (-172,780)

29/3/1472, Sunday (-172,790) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1472, Orkney and Shetland were given by Norway to Scotland, due to a defaulted dowry payment. King Christiaan of Norway and Denmark wanted to form an alliance with Scotland by marrying his daughter Margaret to James III. However Christiaan lacked money for a dowry, so Orkney and Shetland were temporarily handed over in lieu. The dowry was never paid so these islands became part of Scotland.

25/7/1471, Pope Paul II died, aged 54. He was succeeded by Pope Sixtus IV.

21/5/1471. (1) King Henry VI died, in the Tower of London.  He was probably murdered, and was succeeded by Edward IV.

(2) Albrecht Durer, German artist and engraver, was born in Nuremberg. He was the son of a goldsmith.

8/5/1471, Wednesday (-173,116)

4/5/1471. Saturday (-173,120) The Yorkists under Edward IV defeated the Lancastrians under Margaret of Anjou at the Battle of Tewkesbury. The Lancastrians were attempting to cross the River Severn to join  with Welsh troops under Jasper Tudor. The death of Margaret’s son, Prince Edward, as he fled the battlefield extinguished the House of Lancaster.

14/4/1471, Sunday (-173,140) Easter Sunday. Yorkists under King Edward IV defeated the Earl of Warwick’s Lancastrians at the Battle of Barnet.

2/11/1470, Edward V, King of England, was born.

9/10/1470. Lancastrian King Henry VI was restored to the English throne after having been deposed nine years earlier. The power behind the throne here was held by Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, a former Yorkist who abandoned the cause when his protégé, Edward IV, strong-willed, secretly married the woman he wanted to, the young widow Elizabeth Woodville, rather than undertake an arranged marriage to a French Princess. Henry VI, a weak character, was accustomed to abdication of political responsibilities so an alliance with power-hungry Warwick suited them both. However Henry VI’s weak reign was blamed for the wars that had split England for the previous 15 years, and the loss of English lands in France, and Henry’s days seemed numbered.

30/7/1470, (-) Hongzhi, Emperor of China, was born.

15/5/1470, (-173,474) Charles VIII, King of Sweden, died

8/5/1470, Tuesday (-173,481)

22/4/1470, Sunday (-173,497) Easter Sunday

19/10/1469, The Crowns of Castile and Aragon were joined with the marriage of Prince Ferdinand of Aragon and the Infanta Isabella of Castile

8/10/1469, Fra Filippo Lippi, painter, died.

26/7/1469, (-) Battle of Edgecote, Northamptonshire, Wars of the Roses

8/5/1469, Monday (-173,846)

3/5/1469. Wednesday (-173,851) Niccolo Machiavelli, Italian statesman and historian, was born in Florence.

2/4/1469, Sunday (-173,882) Easter Sunday.

7/10/1468, Sigismondo Malatesta, tyrant and soldier, died.

8/5/1468, Sunday (-174,211)

17/4/1468, Sunday (-174,232) Easter Sunday.

28/2/1468, Pope Paul III was born.

3/2/1468, Johann Gutenberg, German inventor of printing from moveable type, died.

15/6/1467, Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, died, aged 71, after a 48-year reign. He was succeeded by his son, Charles the Bold, who began a 10-year power struggle with Louis XI of France.

8/5/1467, Friday (-174,577)

29/3/1467, Sunday (-203,471) Easter Sunday.

13/12/1466, Donatello, sculptor, died.

19/10/1466, (Poland, Germany) King Casimir IV signed the Second Peace of Thorn, ending the  warfare which began in 1454 when Casimir IV agreed to help the Prussian Confederation against the Teutonic Knights.

8/5/1466, Thursday (-174,942)

6/4/1466, Sunday (-174,976) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1465, Wednesday (-175,307)

14/4/1465, Sunday (-175,331) Easter Sunday

14/8/1464, Pope Pius II died.

1//8/1464, Cosimo de Medici died aged 75 in Florence. He was succeeded as head of the banking family by his son, Piero.

8/5/1464, Tuesday (-175,672)

25/4/1464, Wednesday (-175,885) At Hedgeley Moor, near Alnwick, Northumberland, the Lancastrians in northern England were defeated.

8/4/1464, Sunday (-175,702)

1/4/1464, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1463, Sunday (-176,038)

10/4/1463, Sunday (-176,066) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1462, Saturday (-176,403)

18/4/1462, Sunday (-176,423) Easter Sunday.

15/8/1461, Saturday (-176,669) The Ottomans took Trebizond.

24/7/1461, Friday (-176,691) Charles VII of France died aged 58. He was succeeded by his son, Louis XI.

28/6/1461, Sunday (-176,717) Coronation of Yorkist King Edward IV.

17/6/1461, Wednesday (-176,728) Vlad the Impaler, or Dracula, massacred an Ottoman army, killing 15,000, near Targoviste, capital of Wallachia.

8/5/1461, Friday (-176,768)

5/4/1461, Sunday (-176,801) Easter Sunday.

29/3/1461, Sunday (-176,808) The Battle of Towton (North Yorkshire) took place, during the Wars of the Roses, in a snowstorm. It was the bloodiest battle ever on British soil; over 28,000 died. The Lancastrians were heavily defeated and the position of King Edward IV was secured.

5/3/1461, Thursday (-176,832) Henry VI was deposed as King of England. Edward IV (Duke of York) succeeded him.

17/2/1461, Tuesday (-176,848) The Second Battle of Barnet. Margaret of Anjou’s Lancastrian forces defeated the Yorkist Earl of Warwick. Warwick, defending the Yorkists in London, was taken by surprise and fled in disarray, failing to take King Henry VI with him.

3/2/1461, Tuesday (-176,862) At Mortimer’s Cross, Richard’s son, Edward, Earl of March, defeated the Lancastrian forces.

17/1/1461, Saturday (-176,879)

3/1/1461, Saturday (-176,893)

30/12/1460, (-176,897)  The Battle of Wakefield. A superior Lancastrian force caught Yorkists, foraging, by surprise, and the Duke of York was killed. This would have ended the Yorkist cause but for the Battle of Mortimer’s Cross, 3/2/1461.

13/11/1460, (-176,944) Prince Henry the Navigator died, aged 66.

13/10/1460, (-176,975)

13/9/1460, (-177,005)

3/8/1460. (-177,046) James II, King of Scotland, killed during the siege of Roxburgh Castle by the English.

10/7/1460. (-177,070) The Yorkists defeated the Lancastrians in the Wars of the Roses and captured King Henry VI at the Battle of Northampton.

10/6/1460, (-177,100)

8/5/1460, Thursday (-177,133)

13/4/1460, Sunday (-177,138) Easter Sunday

4/4/1460, (-177,167) The University of Basle opened.

23/9/1459, (-) The Battle of Blore Heath, during the Wars of the Roses. The Yorkists under Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury, defeated the Lancastrians under Lord Audley. Salisbury was now able to join forces with the Yorkists at Ludlow.

8/5/1459, Tuesday (-177,499)

25/3/1459, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

22/3/1459, Thursday (-) Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian was born.

6/8/1458, Pope Calistus III died.

12/6/1458. (-177,829) Magdalen College, Oxford, was founded.

8/5/1458, Monday (-177,864)

2/4/1458, Sunday (-177,900) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1457, Sunday (-178,229)

17/4/1457, Sunday (-178,250) Easter Sunday.

8/3/1457, (-178,290)

8/2/1457, (-178,318)

28/1/1457, (-178,329) Henry VII born at Pembroke Castle. The start of the Tudor dynasty. He was the son of Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond, and of Margaret Beaufort.

17/12/1456, (-178,371)

17/10/1456, (-178,432) The University of Greifswald was established.

22/9/1456, (-178,457)

22/7/1456, (-178,519) John Hunyadi, King of the Hungarians, defeated an invading Ottoman Turkish army at Belgrade. This halted the ambitions of Sultan Mahomet II to occupy Vienna and then Rome, which Mahomet regarded as still the ‘capital of Europe’.

8/7/1456, (-178,533)

8/5/1456, (-178,594)

28/3/1456, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

22/5/1455. (-178,946) The First Battle of Barnet.  In the Wars of the Roses, Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, Yorkist, fought his way into the Lancastrian camp because Henry VI had refused Richard of York’s demand that Simon Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, be imprisoned. The Yorkists won, killing their principal enemies, Somerset, Northumberland and Clifford.

8/4/1455, Tuesday (-178,990) Pope Callixtus III (born 1378) acceded (died 1458).

6/4/1455, Sunday (-178,992) Easter Sunday

24/3/1455, Monday (-179,005) Pope Nicholas V died.

21/7/1454, Juan II of Castile died and was succeeded by his son, Enrique.

8/5/1454,  Wednesday (-179,325)

21/4/1454, Sunday (-179,342) Easter Sunday.

9/4/1454. Tuesday (-179,354) Three rival Italian powers – Venice, Milan, and Florence – agreed to unite in an ‘Italian league’. Rome and Milan also seemed likely to join.

9/3/1454, (-179,386) Amerigo Vespucci, Italian explorer who discovered the mouth of the Amazon and gave his name to America, was born.

17/7/1453. The end of the Hundred Years War, when the French defeated the English at Castillon. Now only Calais remained in English hands; in 1449 England occupied nearly a third of France.

29/5/1453. (-179,669) (Roman Empire, Turkey)The Turks conquered Constantinople, following a siege of over a year. The end of the Byzantine Empire.

12/5/1453, The Ottoman Sultan ordered the walls of Constantinople be bombarded with huge cannon balls fired from an 8 metre long, 1.05 metre calibre, cannon.

6/4/1453, The Turkish attack on Constantinople began..

1/4/1453, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

2/10/1452, Richard III, King of England, was born.

21/9/1452, Girolamo Savonarola, Church reformer, was born.

8/5/1452, Monday (-180,055)

9/4/1452, Sunday (-180,084) Easter Sunday.

26/4/1452. Wednesday (-180,067) Leonardo Da Vinci, Italian painter, sculptor, architect, musician, engineer, scientist, and inventor, was born into The Renaissance.

8/4/1452, Saturday (-180,085)

1/4/1452, Saturday (-180,092)

19/3/1452, Frederick, King of Germany, was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Nicholas.

3/2/1452, (-181,150) The Duke of York accused the Beaufort family, who backed the Lancastrian King Henry VI, of incompetence and ineptitude and of thereby losing the English territories in France.

20/8/1451, (-181,317) The French captured Bayonne, the last English stronghold in Guyenne.

30/6/1451, (-181,368) French troops under the Comte de Dunois invaded Guyenne and captured Bordeaux.

25/4/1451, Sunday (-180,434) Easter Sunday.

22/4/1451, Thursday (-180,437) Isabella, Queen of Castile and Leon was born.

7/1/1451, (-180,542) Glasgow University was founded.

3/11/1450, (-180,607) The University of Barcelona was founded.

5/10/1450, (-180,636)  Jews were expelled from Lower Bavaria by order of Ludwig IX.

12/8/1450, (-180,690) Cherbourg, the last English territory in Normandy, surrendered to the French.

12/7/1450, (-180,721) Cade had been promised a free pardon and had disbanded his army. However he was then hunted down by Government forces and killed this day.

6/7/1450, (-180,727) Caen surrendered to the French.

4/7/1450, (-180,729) Jack  Cade entered London. Henry VI had left London for Kenilworth, allowing Cade’s men to enter the capital and execute unpopular courtiers. However Cade proved unable to maintain discipline amongst his followers and Londoners turned against him.

27/6/1450. Saturday (-180,736) Jack Cade, an Irish born physician, led an insurrection march of 40,000 through Kent to London to protest against the high taxes of King Henry VI. The English Government was unpopular after its defeat in the Hundred Years War. Meanwhile Henry VI’s courtiers blamed the Men of Kent for the murder of William de la Pole in May 1450 and wanted reprisals, sparking the Kentish rebellion. Pole had been involved in the disastrous English military campaign in France that culminated with the loss of Normandy to the French; Parliament had him sent to The Tower on charges of treason. King Henry VI, to save Pole from a trial with a foregone conclusion, declared him innocent but banished him from England for five years. As Pole left Dover, his ship was intercepted, and Pole was forcibly dragged into a small boat and beheaded.

28/5/1450, Thursday (-180,766)

8/5/1450. Friday (-180,786)

15/4/1450, Wednesday (-180,809) The Battle of Formigny. Fought near Caen, the French defeated an English force sent to halt King Charles VII’s reconquest of Normandy.

5/4/1450, Sunday (-180,819) Easter Sunday.

29/10/1449, The French recaptured Rouen from the English.

8/5/1449, Thursday (-181,151)

13/4/1449, Sunday (-181,176) Easter Sunday

6/1/1449, Constantine XI was crowned Byzantine Emperor at Mistra. He was the last in a line of rulers that can be traced to the founding of Rome.

17/10/1448, Battle of Kosovo: Hungarian forces under John Hunyadi were defeated by the Turks.

8/5/1448, Wednesday (-181,516)

24/3/1448,  Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

15/6/1447, The Inquisition was revived in Spain.

8/5/1447, Monday (-181,882)

15/4/1447, Saturday (-181,905)

9/4/1447, Sunday (-181,911) Easter Sunday.

23/2/1447, Pope Eugene IV died.

8/5/1446, Sunday (-182,247)

17/4/1446, Sunday (-182,268) Easter Sunday.

16/4/1446, Saturday (-182,269) Filippo Brunelleschi, the Florentine architect and sculptor who designed the city’s cathedral, died.

8/5/1445, Saturday (-182,612)

28/3/1445, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

11/12/1444, The earliest mention of the Welsh town of Bridgend, in a legal document, as Bruggen Eynde. The older

market town of Kenfig had been abandoned due to coastal flooding and encroachment by sand dunes, and a bridge over the River Ogmore was constructed to the new town site.

10/11/1444, Ladislas VI, King of Poland, died.

8/5/1444, Friday (-182,977)

12/4/1444, Sunday (-183,003) Easter Sunday

8/5/1443, Wednesday (-183,343)

21/4/1443, Sunday (-183,360) Easter Sunday.

27/3/1443, (-183,385) Matthius Corvinus, King of Hungary, second son of John Hunyadi, was born.

27/1/1443, (-183,444)

27/11/1442, (-183,505)

30/9/1442, (-183,563) Johannes Gutenberg’s Bible became the first book to be printed using moveable metal type.

30/7/1442, (-183,625)

8/5/1442, Tuesday (-183,708)

28/4/1442, Saturday (-183,718) King Edward IV was born in Rouen, son of Richard, Duke of York.

8/4/1442, Sunday (-183,738)

1/4/1442, Sunday (-183,745) Easter Sunday.

9/6/1441, (-184,041) Dutch painter Jan van Eyck, equerry to Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, died.

8/5/1441, Monday (-184,073)

16/4/1441, Sunday (-184,095) Easter Sunday.

26/10/1440, Gilles de Rais, Marshal of France, was hanged.

20/9/1440. Eton School was founded by Henry VI for poor and needy scholars. Prefects were warned to watch out for ill-kempt beards, unwashed faces, and foul clothes.

8/5/1440, Sunday (-184,438)

10/4/1440, Sunday (-184,466)

27/3/1440, Sunday (-184,480) Easter Sunday.

21/2/1440, The Prussian Confederation was formed.

27/10/1439. Death of King Albert II of Hungary at Langendorf. He reigned less than two years and spent this in the defence of Hungary against the Turks.

6/7/1439, The Decree of Union (Laetentur Caeli) formally uniting the Latin and Greek churches was issued.

29/5/1439, Friday (-184,783) Pope Pius III died.

8/5/1439, Friday (-184,804)

5/4/1439, Sunday (-184,837) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1438, Thursday (-185,169)

13/4/1438, Sunday (-185,194) Easter Sunday

9/12/1437, The Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund died.

8/5/1437, Wednesday (-185,534)

8/4/1437, Monday (-185,564)

31/3/1437, Sunday (-185,572) Easter Sunday.

20/3/1437, Wednesday (-185,583)

20/2/1437. Wednesday (-185,611) James I, King of Scotland, aged 42, was assassinated by a group of dissident nobles led by Sir Robert Graham, who wanted a rival on the Scottish throne. James had become King in 1424, executing many of the nobility to establish control. James was staying at the Dominican Friary at Perth when murdered.

8/5/1436, Tuesday (-185,899)

8/4/1436, Sunday (-185,929) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1435, Sunday (-186,265)

17/4/1435, Sunday (-186,286) Easter Sunday.

11/2/1435, Joanna II, Queen of Naples, died.

19/10/1434, The University of Catania was founded in Italy.

1/6/1434, Tuesday (-186,606) Ladislas V Jagiello, (born ca. 1362), King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, died aged 84 after a 38-year reign. He was succeeded by his 10-year-old son who ruled as Ladislas VI until his death in 1444.

8/5/1434, Saturday (-186,630)

8/4/1434, Thursday (-186,660)

28/3/1434, Sunday (-186,671) Easter Sunday.

11/8/1433, John I, King of Portugal, died.

8/5/1433, Friday (-186,995)

12/4/1433, Sunday (-187,021) Easter Sunday

8/5/1432, Thursday (-187,360)

20/4/1432, Sunday (-187,378) Easter Sunday.

16/12/1431. The Bishop of Winchester, Henry Beaufort, crowned King Henry VI King of France.

30/5/1431. Wednesday (-187,704) Jeanne D’Arc, a peasant girl from Donremy, was burned at the stake in Rouen for heresy. She had been taken prisoner by the Burgundians in May 1430 and handed over to Pierre Cauchon, Bishop of Beauvais. She endured a year of inquisition and torture. She was canonised in 1920 on the anniversary of her death.

8/5/1431, Tuesday (-187,726)

8/4/1431, Sunday (-187,756)

1/4/1431, Sunday (-187,763) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1431, Pope Martin V died.

16/10/1430, James II, King of Scotland, was born.

8/5/1430, Monday (-188,091)

16/4/1430, Sunday (-188,113) Easter Sunday.

8/4/1430, Saturday (-188,121)

23/3/1430, (-188,137) Margaret of Anjou, Queen of England, was born.

21/2/1430, (-188,167)

22/1/1430, (-188,197)

23/12/1429, (-188,227)

23/11/1429, (-188,257)

6/11/1429, (-188,274) The coronation of King Henry VI of England.

7/10/1429, (-188,304)

7/9/1429, (-188,334)

26/8/1429. (-188,346) Jeanne D’Arc made a triumphal entry into Paris.

17/7/1429, (-188,386) Charles VII was crowned King in Reims.

16/7/1429, (-188,387) The French Army reached Reims, which surrendered to Charles VII without a fight.

18/6/1429. Saturday (-188,415) Jeanne D’Arc, 17 years old, defeated the British at the Battle of Patay. Historians are still in dispute over Jeanne D’Arc’s role in the Hundred Years War between Britain and France. Born a peasant’s daughter on 7/1/1412, she believed she was led by divine guidance and her mission was to make sure that Charles VII became King of France and not the English Henry V. The French and the English came face to face at Patay on 18/6/1429 and Jeanne D’Arc had promised the French a greater victory than ever they had seen so far. The English army was indeed routed and also its reputation for invincibility, as the Earl of Salisbury’s 5,000 men were forced back across the River Loire.  She was captured by the English a year later, on 24/5/1430, with the help of French collaborators, and burnt as a witch on 30/5/1431. She was canonised in 1920.

10/5/1429  Tuesday (-188,454)

8/5/1429, Sunday (-188,456)

7/5/1429, Saturday (-188,457) The French captured the English fort of Les Tourelles, inspired by Joan of Arc. This was pone of several strongholds around Orleans lost by the English. The following day, 8/5/1429, the English began retreating, but Joan of Arc forbade the French to pursue because it was a Sunday.

29/4/1429, Friday (-188,465) Joan of Arc arrived to relieve the Siege of Orléans.

27/4/1429, Wednesday (-188,467) French troops mustered at Blois and set off for Orleans. Orleans had been almost surrounded by English troops since 12/10/1428, although it was possible for the French to enter and leave.

27/3/1429, Sunday (-188,498) Easter Sunday.

13/2/1429, Joan of Arc left Vancouleurs, a town loyal to the French Dauphin, and travelled across English-held territory to Chinon to meet the Dauphin. The French nobility were unsure if she was mad or a heretic, but then decided to use her to raise French morale so as to defeat the English at Orleans.

22/11/1428, Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, was born.

11/5/1428, Tuesday (-188,818)

8/5/1428, Saturday (-188,821)

4/4/1428, Sunday (-188,855) Easter Sunday.

30/11/1427, King Casimir IV of Poland was born.

8/5/1427, Thursday (-189,187)

20/4/1427, Sunday (-189,205) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1426, Wednesday (-189,552)

8/4/1426, Monday (-189,582)

31/3/1426, Sunday (-189,590) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1425, Tuesday (-189,917)

8/4/1425, Sunday (-189,947) Easter Sunday.

17/8/1424, (-) Battle of Verneuil. John of Lancaster, Duke of Bedford, defeated a French force, consolidating English conquest of Normandy.

5/8/1424,(-) Emperor Chu Ti, also known as Yung Lo or Ch’eng Tsu, died (born 2/5/1360). Under his rule China sent out exploration fleets, between 1403 and 1433, under the command of the Muslim eunuch Cheng Ho (Zheng He). These expeditions reached Java, southern India, the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea and eastern Africa as far south as Zanzibar. He also maintained peaceable relations with the Mongols and other peoples, as far as the Amur River and west to Herat and Samarkand.

8/5/1424, Monday (-190,282)

23/4/1524, Sunday (-190,297) Easter Sunday.

3/7/1423, Louis XI, King of France, was born.

8/5/1423, Saturday (-190,648)

4/4/1423, Sunday (-190,682) Easter Sunday.

6/9/1422. Sultan Murat gave up besieging Constantinople.

31/8/1422. King Henry V died in Vincennes, France, struck down by dysentery.. Aged 35, he was just about to take the crown of both France and England; his son, Henry VI, was just 9 months old, and English power in France looked uncertain again.

13/8/1422, William Caxton, England’s first printer, was born.

8/5/1422, Friday (-191,013)

12/4/1422, Sunday (-191,039) Easter Sunday

6/12/1421, Henry VI was born in Windsor Castle, the only child of Henry V and Catherine Valois. Catherine Valois, daughter of Charles IV and Isabella of France, had married Henry V on 2/6/1420.

18/11/1421. 73 villages were flooded and up to 100,000 people killed when a dyke gave way just south east of Dordrecht, Holland. This polder was never reclaimed; today its marshes and lakes make up the Biesbosch national park.

8/5/1421, Thursday (-191,378)

23/3/1421, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

1/12/1420, Henry V made a triumphal entry into Paris, see 25/10/1415 and 21/5/1420.

21/5/1420, Tuesday (-191,730) Under the Treaty of Troyes, King Henry V of England became ruler of France also, following his victory at Agincourt. Henry V married Catherine de Valois and when Charles de Valois died Henry would inherit the throne, so long as Henry and Catherine produced a male heir. Under French Salic Law, a woman could not rule France.

8/5/1420, Wednesday (-191,743)

7/4/1420, Sunday (-191, 774)

8/5/1419, Monday (-192,109)

16/4/1419, Sunday (-192,131) Easter Sunday.

19/1/1419, In the Hundred Years' War, Rouen surrendered to Henry V of England, which took Normandy under the control of England.

8/5/1418, Sunday (-192,474)

27/3/1418, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

14/12/1417, Sir John Oldcastle, prototype of Shakespeare’s Falstaff, was hanged.

18/10/1417, Pope Gregory XII was killed.

24/6/1417, The Isle of Man held its first known Tynwald Day; the annual meeting of its parliament (Tynwald) which has continued every year until the present.

8/5/1417, Saturday (-192,839)

11/4/1417, Sunday (-192,866) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1416, Friday (-193,204)

19/4/1416, Sunday (-193,223) Easter Sunday.

2/4/1416, Ferdinand I, King of Aragon, died.

27/1/1416, The Republic of Ragusa became the first state in Europe to outlaw slavery.

25/10/1415. Battle of Agincourt, 20 miles inland from Boulogne. The English forces, after the capture by the French of Harfleur, had set out to march to Calais through Picardy. Henry V could have simply garrisoned Harfleur and returned the way he had come, by sea, but he decided to march through enemy French territory to the English enclave of Calais to make a political point. Their crossing of the River Somme was delayed by torrential rains and the French set out to block their passage. The French troops set up at the northern end of a defile of open ground between the woods of Agincourt and Tramercourt. The English were short of food and supplies and hunger might have eventually forced their surrender. The French outnumbered the English three to one. However King Henry V was able to use his archers, in the restricted space of the battlefield, to mow down the French cavalry and so win the battle. Thick mud, from the rains, restricted the movement of the French cavalry. The English victory gave Henry the finances and reputation to continue the war. Four years later the whole of Normandy was under British control, and in 1420 the Treaty of Troyes recognised Henry as heir to the French throne, see 1/12/1420.

14/8/1415, Wednesday (-193,472) Henry V’s fleet arrived at Chef de Caux, 10 miles west of Harfleur. Harfleur was a port from which the French had made many raids on the English south coast.

10/8/1415, Saturday (-193,476) Henry V of England set sail for Normandy with an army of 12,000 men; two-thirds archers. Harfleur was captured in September 1415 and Henry V set out for Paris. However illness began to thin his military ranks. On 5/10/1415 military advisers told Henry to return to England via Calais.

9/7/1415, Tuesday (-193,508)

6/7/1415. Saturday (-193,511) Jan Hus, preacher and religious reformer, arrested on 28/11/1414, was burnt at the stake in Constance, Germany.

7/6/1415, Friday (-193,540)

8/5/1415, Wednesday (-193,570)

7/5/1415, Tuesday (-193,571)

9/4/1415, Tuesday (-193,599)

8/4/1415, Monday (-193,600)

31/3/1415, Sunday (-193,608) Easter Sunday.

30/3/1415, Saturday (-193,609)

8/5/1414, Tuesday (-193,935)

8/4/1414, Sunday (-193,965)

8/5/1413, Monday (-194,300)

23/4/1413, Sunday (-194,315) Easter Sunday.

20/3/1413 England’s King Henry IV died, after suffering a stroke in the Jerusalem Chamber at Westminster Abbey. He had earlier prophesied that he would die in Jerusalem. He was succeeded by his eldest son Henry V. See 30/3/1399.

28/10/1412, Margaret, Queen of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, died.

1/7/1412, In southern England the standard rate of pay for a building craftsman was 6d (2.5p) a day; a general labourer earned 4d (1.7p) a day. These rates of pay remained unchanged until the 1530s.

8/5/1412, Sunday (-194,665)

3/4/1412, Sunday (-194,700) Easter Sunday.

6/1/1412, Joan of Arc was born.

8/5/1411, Friday (-195,031)

12/4/1411, Sunday (-195,057) Easter Sunday

15/7/1410. The Poles and Lithuanians defeated the Teutonic Knights at Tannenberg.

18/5/1410, Sunday (-195,386) Rupert, King of Germany, died.

8/5/1410, Thursday (-195,396)

23/3/1410, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

7/8/1409, The Council of Pisa was dissolved.

8/5/1409, Wednesday (-195,761)

7/4/1409, Sunday (-195,792) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1409, The Welsh surrendered Harlech Castle to the English.

8/5/1408, Tuesday (-196,126)

15/4/876, Sunday (-197,149) Easter Sunday.

19/2/1408, (-) The Battle of Bramham Moor. Near Tadcaster, Yorkshire, forces loyal to King Henry IV defeated rebels under Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland. This ended the Percy Rebellion.

8/5/1407, (-196,492)

27/3/1407, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

6/11/1406, Pope Innocent VII died.

8/5/1406, Saturday (-196,857)

11/4/1406, Sunday (-196,884) Easter Sunday.

18/10/1405, Pope Pius II was born.

8/5/1405, Friday (-197,222)

19/4/1405, Sunday (-197,241) Easter Sunday.

17/2/1405, Death of the Mongol leader Tamerlane (Timur-i-Leng) atOtrar, east of the Syr Darya River, whilst en-route to conquer China. He became leader in 1369, and went on to conquer Persia, the Caucasus, and the Tartars (in 1390). In 1398 he subdued northern India.

27/9/1404, William of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester, died.

14/7/1404, Rebel leader Owain Glyndwr, having declared himself Prince of Wales, allied with the French against the English. He later began holding parliamentary assemblies.

27/4/1404, Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, died.

8/5/1404, Thursday (-197,587)

8/4/1404, Tuesday (-197,617)

30/3/1404, Sunday (-197,626) Easter Sunday

22/7/1403, (-197,878) The Battle of Shrewsbury. Sir Henry Percy, known as Harry Hotspur, was killed trying to overthrow King Henry IV.

8/5/1403, Tuesday (-197,953)

15/4/1403, Sunday (-197,976) Easter Sunday.

21/7/1402, The Ottoman Turks were decisively defeated by Timur at the Battle of Ankara. The Ottomans lost control of Anatolia. However they had expanded territorially into Europe, and were able to recover Anatolia after Timur departed.

8/5/1402, Monday (-198,318)

26/3/1402, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

3/4/1401, Sunday (-198,669) Easter Sunday.

20/3/1401, Sunday (-198,683)

25/10/1400. Geoffrey Chaucer, English poet and storyteller, who wrote the unfinished Canterbury Tales, died at his home in Westminster.

16/9/1400, The Owen Glendower revolt in Wales; Welsh landowners proclaimed Owen King of Wales, and attacked the English in Flint and Denbigh.

8/5/1400, Saturday (-199,048)

18/4/1400, Sunday (-199,068) Easter Sunday.

14/2/1400, Richard II was killed whilst being held at Pontefract Castle, to prevent further rebellions by his followers.

13/10/1399, Coronation of Henry IV, first Lancastrian King of England.

11/10/1399. The Order of the Bath was instituted.

30/9/1399. King Richard II, born 6/1/1367, was deposed. Unpopular, he had dispossessed many of the nobility.  He was crowned, aged 10, on 22/6/1377. He surrendered to Bolingbroke without a fight; Bolingbroke became King Henry IV. Henry IV was born at Bolingbroke Castle, Lincolnshire, on 3/4/1366. He reigned from 1399 to 1413. See 20/3/1413.

30/6/1399, Henry IV, exiled to France by King Richard II for treason, landed at Ravenspur, Humberside, to retake the English throne.

4/7/1399, Henry of Lancaster, Henry IV, landed at Ravenspur, Yorkshire.

8/5/1399, Thursday (-199,414)

8/4/1399, Tuesday (-199,444)

30/3/1399, Sunday (-199,453) Easter Sunday

3/3/1399, Monday (-199,480)

3/2/1399, Monday (-199,508) John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, fourth son of Edward III and father of Henry IV, died (born 24/6/1340).

13/1/1399, Monday (-199,529) Delhi was captured and sacked by Tamerlane.

8/5/1398, Wednesday (-199,779)

8/4/1398, Monday (-199,809)

7/4/1398, Sunday (-199,810) Easter Sunday.

8/3/1398, Friday (-199,840)

6/2/1398, Wednesday (-199,870)

7/1/1398, Monday (-199,900)

15/12/1397, (-199,923)

15/11/1397, (-199,953) Pope Nicholas V was born.

18/9/1397, Tuesday (-200,011)

15/9/1397, Saturday (-200,014)

15/7/1397, Sunday (-200,076)

20/6/1397. Wednesday (-200,101) The Union of Kalmar united Denmark, Norway, and Sweden under one monarch.

8/5/1397, Tuesday (-200,144)

22/4/1397, Sunday (-200,160) Easter Sunday.

17/4/1397, Tuesday (-200,165) Geoffrey Chaucer told The Canterbury Tales for the first time.

8/4/1397, Sunday (-200,174)

13/6/1396, Tuesday (-200,473) Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, was born.

8/5/1396, Monday (-200,509)

2/4/1396, Sunday (-200,545) Easter Sunday.

1/7/1395, Ale cost 0.8d a gallon. Bordeaux wine was 3.5d per gallon. Chickens were 2d each. Apples cost 7d per 100. Eggs were 33d for 425. A labourer was paid 3.25d a day, a carpenter made 4.25d a day. A mason earned 6d a day, and the Kings Physician was paid £40 a year.

8/5/1395, Saturday (-200,875)

11/4/1395, Sunday (-200,902) Easter Sunday.

10/12/1394, (-) King James I of Scotland was born.

29/11/1394, The capital city of the Joseon Dynasty in present-day Korea was moved from Gaegyeong (now Gaeseong) to Hanseong (now Seoul).

17/9/1394, King Charles VI of France ordered the expulsion of all Jews from France.

17/7/1394, Turkish troops took Trnovo, a town in Bulgaria 124 miles ENE of Sofia.

8/5/1394, Friday (-201,240)

19/4/1394, Sunday (-201,259) Easter Sunday.

4/3/1394, Prince Henry the Navigator, Portuguese Prince, born.

8/5/1393, Thursday (-201,605)

6/4/1393, Sunday (-201,637) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1392, Wednesday (-201,970)

14/4/1392, Sunday (-201,994) Easter Sunday

5/8/1391, Saturday (-202,247) Anti-Jewish riots spread to Toledo, Spain and Barcelona. Many Jews left Barcelona after the following massacres, though many remained in the city.

6/7/1391, Thursday (-202,277)

6/6/1391, Tuesday (-202,307) Anti-Jewish riots broke out in Seville, Spain. Many thousands of Jews were massacred and the violence spread throughout Spain and Portugal.

8/5/1391, Monday (-202,336)

8/4/1391, Saturday (-202,366)

26/3/1391, Sunday (-202,379) Easter Sunday.

4/3/1391, Saturday (-202,401) Ferrara University was founded.

13/5/1390, Friday (-202,696) Scotland’s first Stuart King, Robert II, died aged 74. His legitimised 50-year-old son succeeded him as King Robert III, and ruled until 1424.

8/5/1390, Sunday (-202,701)

19/4/1390, Tuesday (-202,720) Robert II, King of Scotland 1371-90, died at Dundonald, Ayrshire.

15/6/1389. Serbia was crushed by the Ottoman Turks (see 20/12/1355). At a battle in Kosovo, at the ‘field of the blackbirds’, the entire Serbian nobility was wiped out. The Ottomans had already invaded Bulgaria.

8/5/1389, Saturday (-203,066)

18/4/1389, Sunday (-203,086) Easter Sunday.

10/8/1388, The Battle of Otterburn. A Scottish raiding party led by the Earls of Douglas, March and Moray was confronted by the English at Redesdale, Northumberland. The Scots won, and the English leader, Hotspur, was captured.

10/6/1388, Monday (-203,400)

8/5/1388, Friday (-203,431)

8/4/1388, Wednesday (-203,461)

31/1/1388, Tuesday (-203,469)

29/3/1388, Sunday (-203,471) Easter Sunday.

20/12/1387, (-) The Battle of Radcot Bridge.  An army raised by Robert de Vere, Earl of Oxford, to assist Richard II, was attacked as it crossed the Thames. De Vere escaped and fled the country.

16/9/1387, (-) King Henry V was born at Monmouth Castle, the eldest of six children of Henry IV. He defeated the French at Agincourt.

8/5/1387, Wednesday (-203,797)

7/4/1387, Sunday (-203,828) Easter Sunday.

24/3/1387, (-) In the Hundred Years War, at the Battle of Margate: The English defeated an invading French and Castilian naval force.

18/10/1386, Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg, the oldest university in Germany, was founded.

9/7/1386, Monday (-204,100) The Battle of Sempach.

9/5/1386, Wednesday (-204,161) The Treaty of Windsor cemented the alliance between England and Portugal.

22/4/1386, Sunday (-204,178) Easter Sunday.

14/8/1385, The Battle of Aljubarrota. Portugal secured its independence against Spain.

8/5/1385, Monday (-204,527)

2/4/1385, Sunday (-204,563) Easter Sunday.

31/12/1384, John Wycliffe, religious reformer, died.

8/5/1384, Sunday (-204,892)

1/5/1834, Sunday (-204,899)

10/4/1384, Sunday (-204,920) Easter Sunday.

8/4/1384, Friday (-204,922)

1/4/1384, Friday (-204,929)

22/10/1383, Ferdinand I, King of Portugal, died.

8/5/1383, Friday (-205,258)

1/5/1383, Friday (-205,265)

1/4/1383, Wednesday (-205,295)

22/3/1383, Sunday (-205,305) Easter Sunday.

5/8/1382, (-)

6/4/1382, Sunday (-205,655) Easter Sunday.

1/4/1382, Tuesday (-205,660)

15/6/1381. Richard II summoned Wat Tyler, the first poll tax rebel, and his band, to Smithfield.  Tyler met the King, grew insolent and abusive, and was killed by Mayor Walworth.

14/6/1381, Richard II rode to Mile End to negotiate with the rebels. They demanded an end to serfdom and limits on rents, and the execution of Chancellor Sudbury, Treasurer Hales, John of Gaunt, and others. Richard II agreed to all but the executions. However at this time Kentishmen were breaking into the Tower and beheading Sudbury and Hales. The deaths of the Chancellor and the Treasurer (who was also the Archbishop of Canterbury) were followed by a general massacre of Flemings in the City of London. The rebels attempted to break into all places where records might be stored, such as chirch buildings and lawyer’s houses, and to massacre all clerks.

13/6/1381, The rebels entered London and the King withdrew to the safety of The Tower. The rebels ransacked and burnt John of Gaunt’s Palace.

12/6/1381, Kentish rebels reached Blackheath, and Essex rebels reached Mile End.

10/6/1381, Wat Tyler led his rebels into Canterbury.

7/6/1381, Rebels entered Maidstone and chose Wat Tyler as their leader.

6/6/1381, Rebels in the Peasant’s Revolt besieged Rochester.

4/6/1381, The Peasants Revolt began. Rebels attacked Dartford. The poor were protesting over the imposition of a Poll Tax, whilst the peasants wages were held down by the Statute of Labourers Act, 1351. Peasant’s pay had been rising since the Black Death killed many workers.

20/5/1381. A council was held in Paris to find a way of ending the scandal of two Popes existing at once; Pope Urban VI at Rome and Pope Clement VII at Avignon.

8/5/1381, Wednesday (-205,988)

14/4/1381, Sunday (-206,012) Easter Sunday

16/9/1380, King Charles V of France, aged 43, died at Vincennes after eating poisonous mushrooms. He had ruled since 1356, and was succeeded by his 12-year-old son, King Charles VI, who ruled until 1422 (despite bouts of insanity from 1392 onwards).

8/9/1380. The Russians under Prince Dmitri Donskoi won a major victory over the Mongols at the Battle of Kulikovo. This prevented the Mongols from reaching Moscow, although they made several further attempts in future years.

5/8/1380, (-206,353)

25/3/1380, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

26/11/1379, New College, Oxford, was founded.

8/5/1379, Sunday (-206,719)

10/4/1379, Sunday (-206,747) Easter Sunday.

5/3/1379, (-) The foundation stone of New College, Oxford, founded by William of Wykeham, was laid.

31/12/1378, Pope Callixtus III was born.

29/11/1378, The Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV died aged 62. His lands were divided amongst his three sons.

8/5/1378, Saturday (-207,084)

18/4/1378, Sunday (-207,104) Easter Sunday.

27/3/1378, Saturday (-207,126) Pope Gregory XI died.

2/3/1378, Tuesday (-207,151)

16/7/1377, Coronation of Richard II, King of England.

22/6/1377. The 10 year old King Richard II inherited the English throne from his grandfather, Edward III. Effective power was with the Royal Council. He was deposed 22 years later on 30/9/1399.

21/6/1377, King Edward III of England died.

29/3/1377, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

17/1/1377, The Papal See was transferred back to Rome from Avignon.

8/6/1376. Edward, the Black Prince, son of Edward III of England, died.

29/4/1376, Tuesday (-207,823) Sir Peter de la Mare took office as first Speaker of the House of Commons.

13/4/1376, Sunday (-207,839) Easter Sunday

21/12/1375, Giovanni Boccaccio, writer, died.

22/4/1375, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

13/4/1375, Friday (-208,205)

13/4/1374, Thursday (-208,570)

7/4/1374, Friday (-208,576) King Edward III appointed the Church reformer, John Wycliffe, to the rectory of Lutterworth.

2/4/1374, Sunday (-208,581) Easter Sunday.

17/4/1373, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

28/3/1372, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

6/4/1371, Sunday (-209,673) Easter Sunday.

22/2/1371, King David II of Scotland died; Robert II succeeded him, as the first Stuart King of Scotland.

5/11/1370. King Casimir III of Poland died in a hunting accident, aged 60, after a 30 year reign. He had repulsed a Mongol invasion, annexed Galicia, and encouraged the immigration of Jews to serve as bankers and tax collectors. He founded the University of Cracow, and codified the law and administration.

14/4/1370, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday

5/4/1370, Friday (-210,039)

1/4/1370, Monday (-210,043)

1/4/1369, Sunday (-210,408) Easter Sunday.

23/3/1369, Pedro the Cruel, King of Castile and Leon, was murdered by his brother, Henry.

9/4/1368, Sunday (-210,765) Easter Sunday.

5/4/1368, Wednesday (-210,769)

1/4/1368, Saturday (-210,773)

15/2/1368, The Emperor Sigismund was born.

18/4/1367, Sunday (-211,122) Easter Sunday.

5/4/1367, Monday (-211,135)

3/4/1367, (-) In the Hundred Years War, the English under the Black Prince defeated a Spanish and French army at the Battle of Navarrete.

2/4/1367, (-) Henry IV, the first Lancastrian King of England, was born in Bolingbroke castle, Lincolnshire, the son of John O’Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, and Duchess Blanche.

6/1/1367, King Richard II was born at Bordeaux, France. He was the son of Edward the Black Prince and the grandson of King Edward III.

8/5/1366, Friday (-211,467)

5/4/1366, Sunday (-211,500) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1365, Thursday (-211,832)

13/4/1365, Sunday (-211,857) Easter Sunday

12/4/1365, Saturday (-211,858) Treaty of Guerande. The French House of Blois ceded its rights to Brittany.

8/5/1364, Wednesday (-212,197)

24/3/1364,  Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1363, Monday (-212,563)

2/4/1363, Sunday (-212,599) Easter Sunday.

12/9/1362, Pope Innocent VI died.

8/5/1362, Sunday (-212,928)

17/4/1362, Sunday (-212,949) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1361, Saturday (-213,293)

28/3/1361, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

24/10/1360, (-) (Britain, France) The Treaty of Brétigny was ratified at Calais, marking the end of the first phase of the Hundred Years' War. Under its terms, King John II of France, who had been captured at Poitiers, would be released for a ransom of 3 million Ecus. Calais, Guines, Ponthieu and all of Aquitaine would be ceded to Edward III of England. In return Edward, who had besieged Rheims (December 1359 – January 1360) but failed to capture it, promised to renounce claims to the French Crown when John renounced sovereignty over Aquitaine. In fact these renunciations never took place and the Hundred Years War resumed 1369.

8/5/1360, Friday (-213,658)

2/5/1360, Saturday (-213,664) Emperor Chu Ti, also known as Yung Lo or Ch’eng Tsu, was born. See 5/8/1424.

5/4/1360, Sunday (-213,691) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1359, Wednesday (-214,024)

21/4/1359, Sunday (-214,041) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1358, Tuesday (-214,389)

8/4/1358, Sunday (-214,419)

1/4/1358, Sunday (-214,426) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1357, Monday (-214,754)

9/4/1357, Sunday (-214,783) Easter Sunday.

18/10/1356, Basel, Switzerland, was badly damaged by an earthquake.

19/9/1356. (Britain, France) The English, led by Edward the Black Prince, defeated the French under King John II, at the Battle of Poitiers, western France, in the Hundred Years War.

8/5/1356, Sunday (-215,119)

24/4/1356, Sunday (-215,133) Easter Sunday.

20/12/1355. Stephen Urosh of Serbia died whilst on route to attack Constantinople. Under his reign Serbia had expanded greatly, conquering Macedonia, Epirus, and Thessaly, as well as maintaining his father’s conquest of Bulgaria. However, see 15/6/1389.

8/5/1355, Friday (-215,485)

5/4/1355, Sunday (-215,518) Easter Sunday.

10/2/1355, (-) The St Scholastica Day riot in Oxford. Opposing members of ‘town’ and ‘gown’ fought for three days.

8/10/1354, Cola di Rienzi, reformer, was murdered.

8/5/1354, Thursday (-215,850)

13/4/559, Sunday (-215,875) Easter Sunday

8/5/1353, Wednesday (-216,215)

24/3/1353,  Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

3/3/1353, Sunday (-) Bern signed an alliance with the Swiss Confederation.

27/6/1352, Zug joined the Swiss Confederation.

4/6/1352, Glarus joined the Swiss Confederation.

8/5/1352, Tuesday (-216,580)

8/4/1352, Sunday (-216,610) Easter Sunday.

5/5/1352, Rupert, King of Germany, was born.

8/5/1351, Sunday (-216,946)

17/4/1351, Sunday (-216,967) Easter Sunday.

1/5/1351, Sunday (-216,953) Zurich joined the Swiss Confederation.

22/8/1350. King John II, (the Good) succeeded Philip VI as King of France.

12/8/1350, Philip IV, King of France, died.

8/5/1350, (-217,311)

28/3/1350, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

20/10/1349, Pope Clement VI outlawed the flagellants.

24/8/1349, The Black Death broke out in Elbing (Poland).

31/5/1349, (-217,653) The mortality rate from the Black Death in London finally began to ease.

8/5/1349, Friday (-217,676)

12/4/1349, Sunday (-217,702) Easter Sunday

21/3/1349, (-217,724) Many of the 900 strong Jewish community of Erfurt (Germany) were  murdered by the rest of the population which accused them  of causing of the Black Death.

14/2/1349, (-217,759) 2,000 Jews were burned to death in Strasbourg.

9/1/1349, (-217,795) The Jewish population of Basel, Switzerland was rounded up and incinerated, believed by the residents to be the cause of the ongoing Black Death.

10/12/1348, (-217,825)

10/10/1348, (-217,886)

29/9/1348, (-217,897) The Black Death reached London.

10/8/1348, (-217,947) The first investiture ceremony of the Order of the Garter, at St Georges Chapel, Windsor Castle. King Edward III revived the notion of King Arthur’s Round Table, and had the Round Tower at Windsor built to house a replica version of the Table. In 1344 Edward III began holding knightly tournaments and feasts around this Table. Following British successes in the Hundred Years War against France, Edward III instituted the Order oif the Garter, with Windsor as the new Camelot.

24/6/1348, (-217,994) The Black Death outbreak hit Melcombe Regis (Weymouth, Dorset in England).

20/4/1348, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

19/1/1348. Edward III established the Order of the Garter.

25/12/1347, First cases of the plague recorded in the city of Split in Croatia.

1/11/1347, Black Death spreads to Aix-en-Provence in France.

1/9/1347, The Black Death reached the French city of Marseilles.

1347, 1348. The Black Death arrived in Europe. It appeared in the Crimea (probably originating in China in 1333)and spread west to the Mediterranean. It reached Greece in September 1347, and also appeared in Sicily and southern Italy. By January 1348 Pisa, Venice, Avignon, and Arles were stricken, and by April 1348 Toulouse, Spain, and Lyons had the disease. June 1348 saw the Black Death arrive in England, and by 1349 Germany and Brittany were suffering.

4/8/1347, Calais surrendered to the English.

1/4/1347, Sunday (-218,444) Easter Sunday.

17/10/1346, (-218,610) The Battle of Neville’s Cross. An attempted Scottish invasion of England was routed, west of Durham. Whilst the English King Edward III was occupied with the siege of Calais, King David II of Scotland invaded England in support of his French ally. However his army was heavily defeated by English archers, and David was wounded and captured. Held for 11 years, Scotland had to raise taxes to pay a heavy ransom for his release.

26/8/1346. (-218,662) (1) The Battle of Crecy took place, 32 miles south of Boulogne.  The outnumbered army of Edward III, aided by his son Edward the Black Prince, defeated the French under Philip IV, who fled,, leaving over 1,500 French dead. On 3/8/1347 the English captured Calais after nearly a year’s siege, which began on 3/9/1346.  This battle, during the Hundred Years War, was the first time the English had used longbows in continental warfare. The crossbow assault at Crecy decimated the French-Genoese archers and the French knights behind, attempting an attack through the Genoese, caused a troops jam into which the English longbowmen continued to fire. The French retreated; Edward decided against pursuing the survivors but marched on north to attack Calais.

(2) John the Blind, King of Bohemia, was killed at Crecy whilst assisting the French. Born on 10/8/1296, son of Count Henry III of Luxembourg (later Emperor Henry III), he married (1310) the heiress of the Kingdom of Bohemia, thereby becoming its King in 1311. He acquired Silesia from Poland. In 1334 he married Beatrix of the House of Bourbon, thereby allying with France. He had been blind from 1340.

12/7/1346, (-218,707) An English invasion force landed unopposed at St Vaast, western Normandy, with the aim of capturing Paris. This force was defeated by a superior French army and the English attempted a retreat back to England, marching west 60 miles in four days. However the French followed their march just to the south, denying the Seine Valley to the English. The English needed a port to evacuate their forces. The English now had to cross the lower Somme between Amiens and the sea, but this tract was tidal, full of treacherous marches, passable only along narrow causeways for a few hours a day at low tide. Crossing points to the north of the Somme were guarded by the French. The English attempted to force a crossing of the Somme at Crecy.

11/7/1346. (-218,708) Charles V of Luxembourg was elected Holy Roman Emperor at the instigation of Pope Clement VI.

16/4/1346, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

27/3/1345, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

4/4/1344, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

13/4/1343, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday

31/3/1342, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

15/1/1342, Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, was born.

8/4/1341, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

25/10/1340. Geoffrey Chaucer was born. He died on his birthday in 1400.

13/10/1340. In alliance with Portugal, Alfonso XI of Castile conquered the Moors at the River Salado.

24/6/1340. The English fleet, under Edward III (see 21/9/1327) defeated the French fleet at Sluys. The French fleet was virtually destroyed, giving Edward III control of the sea. However both the French and English rulers were short of money and unable to pay their troops; so Edward III, and Philip VI of France, settled at the Treaty of Esplechin.

The dispute between England and France had links to the Flemish weavers who rebelled but were defeated on 24/8/1328 by the new Philip VI of France. Also Philip VI supported the Scots under David Bruce against the English, see 21/9/1327. In 1336 Edward III renewed his claim to the French throne. In 1338 Edward III cut wool exports to Flanders, forcing up wool prices and causing economic hardship to the weavers there. Edward then lifted the wool embargo, and encouraged the weavers to rebel again against Philip VI, to secure the unification and independence of Flanders.

7/6/1340, Rotterdam was officially declared a city.

16/4/1340, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

1/11/1339, Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria, was born.

8/5/1339, (-221,329)

28/3/1339, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1338, Friday (-221,694)

12/4/1338, Sunday (-221,720) Easter Sunday

24/5/1337, Philip VI of France took Gascony from English control.

8/5/1337, Thursday (-222,059)

20/4/542, Sunday (-222,077) Easter Sunday.

17/3/1337, Monday (-222,111) Edward, the Black Prince, was made the first Duke of Cornwall, by his father King Edward III.

8/1/1337. The painter Giotto died, aged 70.

8/5/1336, Wednesday (-222,424)

8/4/1336, Monday (-222,454)

31/3/1336, Sunday (-224,289) Easter Sunday.

11/10/1335, Yi Seong-gye, founder of the Joseon Dynasty, was born in Korea.

8/5/1335, Monday (-222,790)

16/4/1335, Sunday (-222,812) Easter Sunday.

4/12/1334, Pope John XXII died at Avignon, aged 85. He was succeeded by Jacques Fournier, who became Pope Benedict XII.

30/8/1334, Pedro the Cruel, King of Castile and Leon, was born.

8/5/1334, Sunday (-223,155)

27/3/1334, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

19/7/1333, The Battle of Halidon Hill. Edward III defeated Sir Archibald Douglas, during the last of the Wars of Scottish Independence.

8/5/1333, Saturday (-223,520)

4/4/1333, Sunday (-223,554) Easter Sunday.

8/3/1333, (-223,581)

8/1/1333, (-223,640)

7/11/1332, (-223,702) Lucerne joined the Swiss Confederation with Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden.

7/10/1332, (-223,733)

27/9/1332, (-223,743) Battle of Plowce. The Teutonic Knights were defeated by a Polish army under Ladislas IV Lokietek.

12/8/1332, (-223,789) Edward Balliol (1283-1364, the elder son of John Balliol), having landed at Kinghorn, Fife, made a surprise attack on the Scottish Army at Duplin Moor. Balliol was leading an army of 3,400 soldiers fighting for the ‘disniherited Barons’. Balliol routed the Scots under the Regent, the Earl of Mar, and was crowned King of Scotland on 24/9/1332 at Scone. However in December 1332 Balliol himself fell victim to a surprise counter attack at Annan and fled across into England on an unsaddled horse. Further attempts by Balliol to gain the Scottish throne in 1334 and 1335 were unsuccessful and in 1356 he formally renounced his claim in favour of King Edward III. Balliol died without heirs.

8/7/1332, (-223,824)

8/5/1332, Friday (-223,885)

19/4/1332, Sunday (-223,904) Easter Sunday.

18/2/1332, Amda Seyon I, Emperor of Ethiopia began his campaigns in the southern Muslim province.

8/5/1331, Wednesday (-224,251)

8/4/1331, Monday (-224,281)

31/3/1331, Sunday (-224,289) Easter Sunday.

15/6/1330, Edward, the Black Prince, was born.

8/5/1330, Tuesday (-224,616)

8/4/1330, Sunday (-224,646) Easter Sunday,

11/6/1329, Sunday (-224,947) Ottoman Turks defeated the Byzantine Empire in the Battle of Maltepe (Pelekanon).

7/6/1329. Wednesday (-224,951) Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland from 1306, died of leprosy at Cardross Castle on the Firth of Clyde. He was buried at Dunfermline Abbey under the High Altar.

8/5/1329, Monday (-224,981)

23/4/1329, Sunday (-224,996) Easter Sunday.

24/8/1328. Flemish weavers rebelled against the French but were defeated at Mount Cassel by Philip VI, the new King of France. See 24/6/1340.

8/5/1328, Sunday (-225,346)

3/4/1328, Sunday (-225,381) Easter Sunday.

21/9/1327. Edward II was murdered with a red-hot poker at Berkeley castle in Gloucestershire, to ensure his son Edward III, aged 15, could ascend the English throne under Isabella’s Regency.. Edward II’s fate was sealed in 1326 when his wife Isabella and her lover Roger Mortimer landed with a band of foreign mercenaries and marched on London. Isabella found widespread support amongst the barons, among whom Edward had caused dissension by granting some lands and lordships, but not others. Edward was also resented after his defeat by Robert the Bruce in Scotland. See 21/6/1314, and 24/6/1340. In 1330 Edward III took real power, sending his mother Isabella into a monastery. He executed her lover, Roger Mortimer. See 24/6 1340.

8/5/1327, Friday (-225,712)

12/4/1327, Sunday (-225,738) Easter Sunday

25/1/1327, Edward III became King of England.

7/1/1327, King Edward II of England was deposed.

8/5/1326, Thursday (-226,077)

6/4/1326. Sunday (-226,109) Orkhan, son of Osman, the founder of the Ottoman Empire, captured Brusa from the Byzantines and made it his capital. By 1341 Orkhan had reinforced his influence in the Byzantine Empire by marrying twice into it; first to Theodora, daughter of Byzantium’s new joint Emperor John Cantacuzene, whom he had lent 6,000 troops for his coup. Secondly, Orkhan’s new sister in law, Helen, married the other joint Emperor and coup victim, John Paleologus.

23/3/1326, Sunday (-226,123) Easter Sunday.

13/3/1325, Thursday (-226,133) The founding of Tenochtitlan on a small island in Lake Texcoco by the Mexica empire at the dawn of the day. The Aztec capital became Mexico City in 1521.

8/5/1325, Wednesday (-226,442)

7/4/1325, Sunday (-226,473) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1324, Tuesday (-226,807)

15/4/1324, Sunday (-226,830) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1323, Sunday (-227,173)

8/4/1323, Friday (-227,203)

27/3/1323, Sunday (-227,215) Easter Sunday.

24/6/1322, Saturday (-227,489) Jews were expelled from France for the third time.

8/5/1322, Saturday (-227,538)

11/4/1322, Sunday (-227,565) Easter Sunday.

16/3/1322, Tuesday (-227,591) The Battle of Boroughbridge.  Forces loyal to the rebel, Thomas of Lancaster, were defeated at the crossing of the River Ure by an army loyal to King Edward II, led by Andrew Barclay. Edward then ordered the execution of more than 20 of the rebel leaders, an act that shocked contemporaries by its severity.

13/2/1322, Saturday (-227,622) The central tower of Ely Cathedral in England fell.

14/9/1321. The poet Dante Alighieri died aged 56 at Ravenna, in the 20th year of exile from his native Florence.

8/5/1321, Friday (-227,903)

19/4/1321, Sunday (-227,922) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1320, Thursday (-228,268)

6/4/1320, Sunday (-228,300) The Scots reaffirmed their independence from England by signing the Declaration of Arbroath. The Pope did not recognise Robert The Bruce as legitimate King of Scotland, and Pope John XXII had demanded that Scotland make peace with England, However the Scottish barons, with the support of the Church in Scotland, asserted under this Declaration the identity of Scotland as a separate nation with its ‘uninterrupted succession of 113 Kings, all our native and royal stock’. The Declaration also noted the injuries caused by English incursions into Scotland. Since then this has been a key document for those campaigning for Scottish independence.

30/3/1320, Sunday (-228,307) Easter Sunday.

8/7/1319, Sunday (-228,573) Three-year-old Magnus Eriksson was elected king of Sweden, thus uniting it with Norway. His mother Ingeborg of Norway was given a place in the regency in both Sweden and Norway.

8/6/1319, Friday (-228,603)

8/5/1319, Tuesday (-228,634)

8/4/1319, Sunday (-228,664) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1318, Monday (-228,999)

23/4/1318, Sunday (-229,014) Easter Sunday.

1/4/1318, Saturday (-229,036) Berwick-upon-Tweed was retaken by the Scottish from the English.

24/12/1317, Jean de Joinville, Crusader and historian, died.

8/5/1317, Sunday (-229,364)

3/4/1317, Sunday (-229,399) Easter Sunday.

10/8/1316, Second Battle of Athenry ended with over 5,000 dead, and Norman rule retained in Ireland.

5/6/1316, King Louis X of France died.

14/5/1316, The Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV was born.

8/5/1316, Saturday (-229,729)

11/4/1316, Sunday (-229,756) Easter Sunday.

15/11/1315. A small army of Swiss foot soldiers routed a Hapsburg army sent to bring the valleys of central Switzerland under Hapsburg rule at the Battle of Morgarten. The Hapsburgs had for long had manorial rights in these valleys but not political control. The Swiss had begun to assert their political independence, fortifying the entrances of the valleys. This conflict was precipitated by a dispute over grazing rights; the men of Schwyz attacked an abbey and took some of the monks hostage.

1/7/1315, Food prices rose sharply as a famine hit England. A quarter of wheat cost 20 shillings, compared to five shillings in 1313.

8/5/1315, Thursday (-230,095)

8/4/1315, Tuesday (-230,125)

31/3/1315 Monday (-230,133)

23/3/1315, Sunday (-230,141) Easter Sunday.

29/11/1314, Philip IV, King of France, died.

31/8/1314, King Hakon V Magnusson moved the capital of Norway from Bergen to Oslo, where he built Akershus Fortress. Norway was ruled from this fortress the next 500 years.

24/6/1314. English forces under Edward II suffered a major defeat at Bannockburn by the Scots. Robert The Bruce was confirmed in power in Scotland. See 21/9/1327. By the time the Battle of Bannockburn was fought, Scotland had been almost cleared of English troops, with the exception of Stirling Castle. Here the governor, Alexander Mowbray, had promised to surrender if not relieved by St John the Baptist’s Day.  Edward II collected a huge army for the relief of Stirling, and Robert the Bruce assembled his smaller force at Torwood, 4 miles north-west of Falkirk. At the Battle, on the Bannock Burn, the superior numbers of the English cavalry were hampered by the cramped site of the battle; the rear ranks of the English could not reach the fighting, but hampered the retreat of those in front under Robert’s attacks. Robert then led his reserves in to complete the rout of the English. Many English, uninjured in the battle, perished in the Bannock Burn and the marshes beyond. Edward II, seeking refuge in Stirling Castle, was refused on account of its imminent surrender; he escaped by a roundabout route via Dunbar back to England.

8/5/1314, Wednesday (-230,460)

7/4/1314, Sunday (-230,491) Easter Sunday.

18/3/1314, Jacques de Molay, the 23rd and the last Grand Master of the Knights Templar, was burned at the stake.

8/5/1313, Tuesday (-230,825)

15/4/1313, Sunday (-230,848) Easter Sunday.

13/11/1312. Edward III, King of England from 1327, was born in Windsor Castle, son of Edward II.

7/9/1312, Ferdinand IV, King of Castile and Leon, died.

19/6/1312, (-23,148) Piers Gaveston (see 19/5/1312) was beheaded at Deddington on the orders of the Duke of Warwick.

19/5/1312, (-23,179) After a 2-week siege of Scarborough Castle, Piers Gaveston, close associate of King Edward II, was taken prisoner, See 19/6/1312.

8/5/1312, Monday (-231,190)

26/3/1312, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

22/3/1312, Wednesday (-) The Pope abolished the Order of the Templars.

8/5/1311, Saturday (-231,556)

11/4/1311, Sunday (-231,583) Easter Sunday.

11/5/1310, (-231,918) In France, 54 members of the Knights Templar were burned at the stake for heresy.

8/5/1310, Friday (-231,921)

19/4/1310, Sunday (-231,940) Easter Sunday.

30/4/1310, (-231,929) King Casimir III of Poland was born.

15/8/1309, The city of Rhodes surrendered to the forces of the Knights of St. John, completing their conquest of Rhodes. The knights established their headquarters on the island, and renamed themselves as the Knights of Rhodes.

8/5/1309, Thursday (-232,286)

8/4/1309, Tuesday (-232,316)

30/3/1309, Sunday (-232,325) Easter Sunday.

9/3/1309. Sunday (-232,346) Pope Clement arrived at Avignon to set up court there.

2/11/1308, (-) Castellar, last of the Templar’s strongholds, fell.

8/5/1308, Wednesday (-232,651)

1/5/1308, Wednesday (-232,658) Albert I of Habsburg, King of Germany, died.

14/4/1308, Sunday (-232,675) Easter Sunday

25/2/1308, Coronation of Edward II of England.

10/1/1308, The Templars were suppressed in England.

17/11/1307. William Tell is reputed to have shot an apple off his son’s head this day.

13/10/1307, The Knights Templars in Paris were arrested.

5/9/1307, Pope Clement V confirmed the Knights Hospitaller possession of Rhodes, although only Feracle had fallen to their attacks.

7/7/1307. King Edward I of England died in his way north to invade Scotland and was succeeded by his son Edward II.

8/5/1307, (-233,017)

26/3/1307, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1306, Sunday (-233,382)

3/4/1306, Sunday (-233,417) Easter Sunday.

25/3/1306. Friday (-233,426) Robert The Bruce, Eight Earl of Carrick, was crowned King of Scotland (Robert I) at Scone. See 21/6/1314.

23/8/1305, William Wallace, Scottish patriot, was hanged in London, see 5/8/1305.

5/8/1305. (1) Sir William Wallace, leader of the Scots, campaigner for their independence from the English, was captured by the English and later executed.

(2) Bertrand de Got, Archbishop of Bordeaux, was elected Pope and takes the name Clement V.

8/5/1305, Saturday (-233,747)

18/4/1305, Sunday (-233,767) Easter Sunday.

2/4/1305, Jeanne, Queen of Navarre, died.

20/7/1304, Fall of Stirling Castle: Edward I of England took the last rebel stronghold in the Wars of Scottish Independence.

8/5/1304, Friday (-234,112)

29/3/1304, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

24/2/1304, (-) Ibn Battutah, Arab explorer, was born in Tangier Morocco.

11/11/1303, Pope Boniface VIII died.

8/8/1303, An earthquake destroyed the Lighthouse of Alexandria in Egypt, one of the seven wonders of the world.

29/5/1303, Treaty of Paris restored Gascony to the English.

8/5/1303, Wednesday (-234,478)

7/4/1303, Sunday (-234,509) Easter Sunday.

27/7/1302, The Ottoman Turks defeated the Byzantine Empire in the Battle of Bapheus, heralding the Turkish conquest of Bithynia.

11/7/1302, A French army invading Flanders (see 19/5/1302) was heavily defeated at Courtrai, (Battle of the Spurs).

18/5/1302, Friday (-234,833) The Matins of Bruges. The Dutch rebelled against the French and massacred the French garrison in Bruges.

8/5/1302, Tuesday (-234,843)

22/4/1302, Sunday (-234,859) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1301, Monday (-235,208)

2/4/1301, Sunday (-235,244) Easter Sunday.

7/2/1301, The first Prince of Wales was created, Edward of Caernarfon, who later became King Edward II.

15/6/1300, The city of Bilbao received its royal foundation charter.

8/5/1300, Sunday (-235,573)

10/4/1300, Sunday (-235,601) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1299, Friday (-235,939)

19/4/1299, Sunday (-235,958) Easter Sunday.

1/4/1299, Kings Towne on the River Hull (Kingston upon Hull) was granted city status by Royal Charter of King Edward I of England.

11/9/1298, The Governing Body of Venice, the Great Council, accepted a further amendment (see 5/10/1286) that entrenched the position of the existing ruling families.

24/7/1298. The English under King Edward I used longbows for the first time when they defeated the Scots under William Wallace at the battle of Falkirk.

8/5/1298, Thursday (-236,304)

6/4/1298, Sunday (-236,336)

20/4/1298, Beginning of the Rintfleisch-Pogrom, the Jews of Röttingen were burned en masse, other Jewish communities were destroyed later in the year.

12/9/1297, King Denis of Portugal and King Ferdinand IV of Castile sign the Treaty of Alcanizes. The geographic limits of Portugal were fixed permanently, with the exception of São Félix de Galegos, lost in 1640 and Olivenza, lost in 1801.

11/9/1297. Scottish hero William Wallace defeated the English under Edward I at Stirling Bridge. William Wallace was a minor noble from Elderslie and one of the few to take on Edward when he assumed the overlordship of Scotland. He realised that the neck of land between the rivers Forth and Clyde at Stirling was narrow enough to create a tactical advantage for the Scottish defenders. Wallace’s men stood at the slopes of the Abbey Craig, in front of a narrow bridge across the Forth, wide enough for only two horsemen abreast. As the English drew up, Wallace’s men charged them before they could get into battle position. The narrow bridge then collapsed, drowning many English.

28/8/1297, Edward I of England unsuccessfully invaded Flanders.

8/5/1297, Wednesday (-236,669)

14/4/1297, Sunday (-236,693) Easter Sunday

10/8/1296, (-) John the Blind, King of Bohemia, was born, see 26/8/1346.

8/5/1296,  (-237,034)

27/4/1296. (-237,045) English defeated the Scots at the Battle of Dunbar.

30/3/1296, Friday (-237,073) Capture of Berwick: King Edward I of England captured Berwick-upon-Tweed, sacking what is at this time a Scottish border town with much bloodshed. He slaughtered most residents, including those who fled to the churches.

27/3/1296, Tuesday (-237,076)

25/3/1296, Sunday (-237,078) Easter Sunday.

10/2/1296, (-273,122) King Edward I of England forced John Balliol (1250-1313), King of Scotland (see 17/11/1792) to surrender his Crown. Although John had started out his reign as a vassal and ally of Edward, by 1295 a council of Scottish Lords had taken power from John and started making alliances with France, which was then at war with England. John was imprisoned for three years, first on Hertford and then in the Tower of London. In 1302 John was permitted to retire to his estates in Normandy.

13/11/1295, King Edward I of England summoned the Model Parliament to Westminster, the composition of which serves as a model for later parliaments.

23/10/1295, The first treaty forming the Auld Alliance between Scotland and France against England was signed in Paris.

8/5/1295, Sunday (-237,400)

3/4/1295, Sunday (-237,435) Easter Sunday.

23/12/1294. Boniface VIII was made Pope in succession to Celestine V, who had abdicated after 5 months on 13/12/1294.

8/5/1294, Saturday (-237,765)

18/4/1294, Sunday (-237,785) Easter Sunday.

12/2/1294. Kublai Khan died, aged 80.

26/5/1293, Tuesday (-238,112) An earthquake in Kamakura, Japan killed an estimated 30,000.

8/5/1293, Friday (-238,130)

29/3/1293, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

17/11/1292, John Balliol was selected by King Edward I of England as King of Scotland from among 13 candidates; Edward then treated John as a puppet ruler and Scotland as a vassal state, eventually provoking the Wars of Scottish Independence, commencing in 1296.

8/5/1292, Thursday (-238,495)

6/4/1292, Sunday (-238,527) Easter Sunday.

1/8/1291, According to tradition, the Swiss Confederation was formed by Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden, the "three forest cantons", at Rütli by the Federal Charter.

15/7/1291, Rudolf I, King of Germany, died.

18/5/1291, Friday (-238,851) Al-Ashraf Khalil of Egypt captured Acre, the last Christian stronghold in the Holy Land. Christians in Acre, who had broken a truce by massacring all Muslims in the town, scrambled for places on boats to Cyprus. Most Christians in Acre were captured, and sent to the slave market in Damascus.

8/5/1291, Tuesday (-238,861)

22/4/1291, Sunday (-238,877) Easter Sunday.

27/9/1290, An earthquake in the Gulf of Chili, province of Hebei, China, killed an estimated 100,000.

18/7/1290, Tuesday (-239,155) King Edward I of England ordered all Jews (then numbering around 16,000) to leave England by November 1 (All Saints Day). This enabled him to seize their assets, and not repay debts owed to them.

10/7/1290, Monday (-239,163) Ladislaus IV, King of Hungary, was murdered.

8/6/1290, Thursday (-239,195)

8/5/1290, Monday (-239,226)

2/4/1290, Sunday (-239,262) Easter Sunday.

1/3/1290, Wednesday (-239,294) The University of Coimbra was founded in Lisbon, Portugal by King Denis of Portugal; it moved to Coimbra in 1308.

4/10/1289, Louis XI, King of France, was born.

8/5/1289, Sunday (-239,591)

27/4/1289, Fall of Tripoli: Mamluk sultan Qalawun captured the County of Tripoli (in present-day Lebanon) after a month-long siege, thus extinguishing the Crusader state.

10/4/1289, Sunday (-239,619) Easter Sunday.

26/11/1288, (-) Go-Daigo, Emperor of Japan, was born.

8/8/1288, Pope Nicholas I proclaimed a Crusade against Ladislaus IV of Hungary. who had lost credibility by favouring his semi-pagan Cuman subjects and in general refusing to conform to the social standards of western Europe.

8/5/1288, Saturday (-239,956)

28/3/1288, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

20/1/1288, Newcastle Emlyn Castle in Wales was recaptured by English forces, bringing Rhys ap Maredudd's revolt to an end.

14/12/1287, The sea broke through the dike at Stavoren, Netherlands, forming the Zuyder Zee.

8/6/1287, Sunday (-240,291) Rhys ap Maredudd revolted in Wales; the revolt was not suppressed until 1288.

8/5/1287, Thursday (-240,322)

6/4/1287, Sunday (-240,354) Easter Sunday.

4/4/1287, Friday (-240,356) Wareru created the Hanthawaddy Kingdom in modern-day Lower Burma

3/4/1287, Thursday (-240,357) Pope Honorius IV died.

17/1/1287, King Alfonso III of Aragon conquered the island of Minorca from the Moors.

5/10/1286, The Governing Body of Venice, the Great Council, accepted an amendment that effectively confirmed membership amongst the families of existing families (an earlier proposed amendment on 3/10/1286 had failed). The governance of Venice began to become more exclusive and autocratic, see 11/9/1298.

8/5/1286, Wednesday (-240,687)

14/4/1286, Sunday (-240,711) Easter Sunday

16/3/1286. Death of King Alexander III of Scotland, killed by a fall from his horse whilst riding in the dark to visit the Queen at Kinghorn, with only Yolande of Dreux, Queen of Scotland's unborn child and 3-year-old Margaret, Maid of Norway as heirs; this sets the stage for the First War of Scottish Independence and increased influence of England over Scotland.. Alexander III was born in 1241 and became king in 1249 aged eight. See 8/7/1249. He laid a formal claim against King Haakon of Norway for sovereignty of the Hebrides, settled by Scandinavians since the ninth century. King Haakon responded by sending a large naval fleet in 1263. Haakon’s fleet halted off Arran, where Alexander III stalled negotiations until the autumn storms should begin. Haakon finally attacked only to encounter a severe storm; the Battle of Largs on 12/10/1263 was indecisive but left Haakon in a hopeless position. He turned back to Norway but died on the way.

2/11/1285, Peter III, King of Aragon, died.

5/10/1285, Philip III, King of France, died.

19/6/1285. Westminster Abbey completed.

8/5/1285, Tuesday (-241,052)

25/4/1285, Wednesday (-241,065) Mamluk Sultan Qalawun began a siege of the Crusader fortress of Margat (in present-day Syria), a major stronghold of the Knights Hospitaller thought to be impregnable; he captured the fortress a month later.

25/3/1285, Sunday (-241,096) Easter Sunday.

6/1/1285, Archbishop Jakub Swinka ordered all priests subject to his bishopry in Poland to deliver sermons in Polish rather than German, thus further unifying the Catholic Church in Poland and fostering a national identity.

28/11/1284, Florence began to extend its city walls. The first stone of the new walls was blessed this day.

8/5/1284, Monday (-241,417)

9/4/1284, Sunday (-241,446) Easter Sunday.

25/4/1284, Edward II was born at Caernarfon Castle, third son of Edward I.

8/5/1283, Saturday (-241,783)

18/4/1283, Sunday (-241,803) Easter Sunday.

11/12/1282, At the Battle of Orewin Bridge in mid-Wales, Llewellyn the Last was killed and the Welsh suffered their final decisive defeat at the hands of the English. King Edward I took Llewellyn’s head to London on a stake as proof of English triumph in Wales. Wales had held out against the Norman English for over 200 years thanks to its remote terrain, enabling the Welsh to simply vanish whenever the English armies went in, and its atrocious weather, deterring these armies. The Welsh also made alliances with England’s natural enemies, the Scots and French.

8/6/1282, Monday (-242,117)

8/5/1282, Friday (-242,148)

8/4/1282, Wednesday (-242,178)

31/3/1282, Tuesday (-242,186) The French were massacred in Sicily (Sicilian Vespers).  The Sicilians resented Angevin

rule .

30/3/1282. Monday (-242,187) Peter III of Aragon opened hostilities against Charles of Anjou for possession of Naples and Sicily.  This war was ended by the Peace of Caltabellotta in 1302.

29/3/1282, Sunday (-242,188) Easter Sunday.

29/10/1281, Second Battle of Homs: Mamluk sultan Qalawun defeated an invasion of Syria by Mongol Ilkhan Abaqa Khan.

12/8/1281, Battle of Kōan (Hakata Bay): The second Mongol invasion of Japan was foiled, as a large typhoon – famously called a kamikaze, or divine wind – destroyed much of the combined Chinese and Korean fleet and forces, numbering over 140,000 men and 4,000 ships.

8/5/1281, Thursday (-242,513)

13/4/1281, Sunday (-242,538) Easter Sunday

20/7/1280, (-242,805) Neath, Wales, held its first fair (St Margaret’s Day), granted by Charter.  The local abbey had extensive sheep pasturage so there was a large trade in wool.

1/7/1280, (-242,824) The two Chief Justices of England were each paid £40 a year.

8/5/1280, Wednesday (-242,878)

21/4/1280, Sunday (-242,895) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1279, Monday (-243,244)

2/4/1279, Sunday (-243,280) Easter Sunday.

25/8/1278, (-243,500) Ottokar II, King of Bohemia, was killed in the Battle of Durnkrut. Ottokar II had previously lost a battle with Rudolf I of Hapsburg (Habichtsburg, or Hawk’s castle, a town now in Switzerland) in 1276; refusing to accept this defeat, he prepared to attack again. However Rudolf launched a pre-emptive strike, with 2,000 horsemen, and the support of Ladislav of Hungary. This battle paved the way for the rise of the Hapsburg Dynasty.

8/7/1278, (-243,548)

8/5/1278, Sunday (-243,609)

17/4/1278, Sunday (-243,630) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1277, Saturday (-243,974)

28/3/1277, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

22/6/1276, Pope Innocent V died.

8/5/1276, Friday (-244,339)

5/4/1276, Sunday (-244,372) Easter Sunday.

10/1/1276, Pope Gregory X died.

8/10/1275, Battle of Ronaldsway: Scottish forces defeated the Manx of the Isle of Man in a decisive battle, firmly establishing Scottish rule of the island.

8/5/1275, (-244,705)

22/4/1275, The first Statute of Westminster was passed by the English Parliament, establishing a series of laws in its 51 clauses, including equal treatment of rich and poor, free and fair elections, and definition of bailable and non-bailable offenses.

14/4/1275, Sunday (-244,729) Easter Sunday

20/11/1274, Kublai Khan's Yuan Dynasty attempted the first of several invasions of Japan (30,000 soldiers and support personnel sails from Korea); after the Mongols captured outlying islands, they were repulsed on the main island at the Battle of Bun'ei by amassed Japanese warriors and a strong storm which battered their forces and fleet. Credit for the storm — called a kamikaze, or divine wind — was given by the Japanese to the god Raiden.

19/8/1274, Coronation of King Edward I.

11/7/1274. Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland, who defeated the English at Bannockburn, was born at Turnberry, Ayrshire. He was raised at Turnberry Castle amid the political upheavals of the 13th century; he was created Earl of Carrick in 1296. He supported the Scots against the English, hoping to secure the kingship of Scotland. However he saw Edward I proclaim himself king of Scotland, and defeat William Wallace. Initially Bruce joined with John Comyn against the English but later sided with the English to obtain the Scottish throne. He murdered Comyn, and there was a price on his head for doing this. However Bruce now used force, not politics, to obtain his goals; this paid off and he was crowned King at Scone in 1306, having been granted absolution by Bishop Wishart. Bruce managed to unite the Scottish clans to defeat the English at Bannockburn in 1314.

8/5/1274, Tuesday (-245,070)

8/4/1274, Sunday (-245,100)

1/4/1274, Sunday, (-245,107) Easter Sunday

7/3/1274. Thomas Aquinas died. He was born into a Lombard-Norman family in 1225. A controversial figure, he became a notable philosopher and theologian of the Catholic Church. He died at Fossanuova Abbey in the Roman Campagna whilst on the way to the Council of Lyons.

8/5/1273, Monday (-245,435)

9/4/1273, Sunday (-245,464) Easter Sunday.

16/11/1272, Henry III died at Westminster, succeeded by his eldest son Edward I. Edward I was in Sicily at the time.

6/8/1272, Stephen V, King of Hungary, died.

8/5/1272, Sunday (-245,800)

24/4/1272, Sunday (-245,814) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1271, Friday (246,166)

8/4/1271, Wednesday (-246,196) Mamluk Sultan Baibars continued his territorial expansion, capturing the strategically important castle Krak des Chevaliers from the Knights Hospitaller in present-day Syria.

5/4/1271, Sunday (-246,199) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1270, Thursday (-246,531)

13/4/1270, Sunday (-246,556) Easter Sunday

19/6/1269, King Louis IX of France ordered all Jews found in public without an identifying yellow badge to be fined ten livres of silver.

8/5/1269, Wednesday (-246,896)

24/3/1269,  Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

18/5/1268, (-247,251) The Principality of Antioch, a crusader state, fell to the Mamluk Sultan Baibars in the Battle of Antioch.

8/5/1268, Tuesday (-247,261)

8/4/1268, Sunday (-247,291)

8/5/1267, Sunday (-247,627)

24/3/1267, Saint Louis of France called his knights to Paris in preparation for his second Crusade.

2/7/1266, The Treaty of Perth was signed, between King Magnus ‘the lawmaker’ of Norway and King Alexander III of Scotland. Norway sold to Scotland the ownership of the Isle of Man (Sodor, or Southern Island) and the Western Isles, although Norway retained the Orkney and Shetland Islands. This treaty was a result of the Battle of Largs (2/10/.1263).

8/5/1266, Saturday (-247.992)

8/4/1266, Thursday (-248,022)

28/3/1266, Sunday (-248,033) Easter Sunday.

26/2/1266, Friday (-248,063) Manfred, King of Sicily, killed in the Battle of Benevento.

4/8/1265. Simon De Montfort, who had promoted the power of the barons against the King, Henry III, was defeated and killed at the Battle of Evesham. Royalist forces won, led by the future King Edward I.  This was during the Second Barons War. The last Montfortian resistance ceased in 1268.

8/5/1265, Friday (-248,357)

5/4/1265, Sunday (-248,390) Easter Sunday.

20/1/1265. England’s first Parliament met in Westminster Hall, summoned by Simon De Montfort, Earl of Leicester. De Montfort was the brother-in-law of King Henry III.

14/5/1264, Wednesday (-248,716) The Battle of Lewes of the Second Barons' War was fought between Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester and King Henry III of England in Sussex. By the end of the battle, de Montfort's forces had captured both King Henry and his son, future King Edward I, making de Montfort the ‘uncrowned king of England’ for 15 months before Edward escaped captivity and regained the throne.

11/5/1264, Sunday (-248,719) Henry III marched through Kent, captured Tunbridge Castle, forcing the Cinque Port rebels to submit.  He rested at Lewes.

8/5/1264, Thursday (-248,722)

24/4/1264, Thursday (-248,736) After his victory at Northampton, Henry III moved south to deal with De Montfort in London.  De Montfort had been besieging Rochester Castle, a southern Royalist stronghold, bit now abandoned the siege to return to protect London.

20/4/1264, Sunday (-248,740) Easter Sunday.

5/4/1264, Saturday (-248,755) Henry III attacked Simon de Montfort’s forces at Northampton Castle and defeated them, forcing all De Montfort’s forces in the east Midlands to surrender.  De Montfort himself was in London, his other main base of support. The dispute between Henry and de Montfort had been arbitrated in January 1264 by King Louis IX at Amiens, the Mise of Amiens (Mise = settlement); however de Montfort refused to accept this result.

23/1/1264, The Mise of Amiens. An arbitration between Henry III of England and the Barons, with Louis IX of France as arbiter. The decision was in henry’s favour, although he was to respect established Baronial freedoms. De Montfort rejected the decision.

15/12/1263, Haakon IV, King of Norway, died.

14/11/1263, Alexander Nevsky, Russian leader, died; on his death Russia fragmented.

2/10/1263, The Battle of Largs. Fought at Largs on the Clyde between Norwegian forces under King Haakon and Scottish levies under King Alexander III. Haakon wanted to put on a show of strength to demonstrate continued Norwegian power over the Western Isles (see 2/7/1266). However Alexander III’s 1500 Scots defeated the Norwegians. A barefoot Norwegian footsoldier attempting a surprise attack on the Scottish camp by night trod on a thistle and cried out in pain, alerting the Scottish camp. In memory of this event the Scots adopted the thistle as their national emblem.

8/5/1263, Tuesday (-249,088)

8/4/1263, Sunday (-249,118)

1/4/1263, Sunday (-249,125) Easter Sunday

8/5/1262, Monday (-249,453)

9/4/1262, Sunday (-249,472) Easter Sunday.

29/8/1261, Pope Urban IV succeeded Pope Alexander IV as the 182nd pope, the last man to do so without being a cardinal first.

15/8/1261. Michael VIII Paleologus seized Constantinople, ending the Latin empire and restoring the Byzantine empire.

12/6/1261, King Henry III of England obtained a papal bull releasing him from his oath to maintain the Provisions of Oxford (1258), setting the stage for the Second Barons' War (1263–1268).

25/5/1261. Death of Pope Alexander IV. Rinaldo Conti was elected Pope Alexander IV at Naples, after the death of Pope Innocent IV, on 12/12/1254. He attempted to unite the Greek and Latin churches, and established the Inquisition in northern France.

8/5/1261, Sunday (-249,818)

24/4/1261, Sunday (-249,832) Easter Sunday.

4/9/1260, The Battle of Montaperti.

3/9/1260, The Mamluks defeated the Mongols at the Battle of Ain Jalut (Goliath’s Spring) in Galilee, marking their first decisive defeat and the point of maximum expansion of the Mongol Empire. Damascus had fallen to the Mongols in 1259 and Hulegu, Mongol leader, now turned on Egypt, the major military power in the region. The Mongols now ruled an area from the Pacific to the Mediterranean, The Mameluke rulers of Egypt responded to Hulegu’s demands for capitulation by killing Hulegu’s envoys and marching into Palestine to fight. Mameluke cavalry was crucial in the Mongol defeat.

8/5/1260, Saturday (-250,183)

4/4/1260, Sunday (-250,217) Easter Sunday

4/12/1259, Kings Louis IX of France and Henry III of England agreed to the Treaty of Paris, in which Henry renounced his claims to French-controlled territory on continental Europe (including Normandy) in exchange for Louis withdrawing his support for English rebels.

17/6/1259, (-230,509) Edward I, King of England, was born.

20/5/1259, (-250,537) Britain and France signed the Treaty of Abbeville, whereby Britain relinquished claims to French territories.

8/5/1259, Thursday (-250,549)

13/4/1259, Sunday (-250,574) Easter Sunday

20/9/1258. Salisbury Cathedral was consecrated.

8/5/1258, Wednesday (-250,914)

24/3/1258,  Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

10/2/1258. The Siege of Baghdad ended with a battle in which the Hulagu Khan's (grandson of Ghangiz Khan) Mongol forces overran Baghdad, then the leading centre of Islamic culture and learning and capital of the Abbasid Caliphate. They burned the imperial city to the ground in a looting spree lasting seven days, killing as many as 1,000,000 citizens. The attack was in revenge for the murder of three diplomatic envoys sent by the Mongols to the court of Khwarazm-Shah, ruler of Baghdad.

8/5/1257, Tuesday (-251,279)

8/4/1257, Sunday (-251,309) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1256, Monday (251,644)

16/4/1256, Sunday (-253,666) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1255, Saturday (-252,010)

28/3/1255, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

7/12/1254, Pope Innocent IV died.

2/12/1254, The Battle of Foggia.

21/5/1254, Thursday (-252,362) Conrad IV, King of Germany, died.

8/5/1254, Friday (-252,375)

12/4/1254, Sunday (-252,401) Easter Sunday

9/10/1253, Robert Grosseteste, theologian, died.

8/5/1253, Thursday (-252,740)

20/4/1253, Sunday (-252,758) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1252, Wednesday (-253,105)

8/4/1252, Monday (-253,135)

31/3/1252, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

14/12/1251, (-) King Henry III of England granted the town of Bolton, Lancashire, a charter to hold a fair.

8/5/1251, Monday (-253,471)

16/4/1251, Sunday (-253,493) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1250, Sunday (-253,836)

27/3/1250, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/7/1249. Death of King Alexander II of Scotland. He was born in 1198, and succeeded William the Lion to the Scottish throne in 1214. He joined the English barons in their struggle against King John, marched into England, and besieged Norham Castle in 1215. In 1217 he again invaded England but then made peace with King Henry III, marrying his sister Joanna in 1221. Alexander captured Argyll from the Norwegians, and was on an expedition to capture the Western Isles also from Norway when he died at Kerrera. See 16/3/1285.

8/5/1249, Saturday (-254,201)

4/4/1249, Sunday (-254,235) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1248, Friday (-254,566)

19/4/1248, Sunday (-254,585) Easter Sunday.

8/3/1248, (-254,627)

4/1/1248, (-254,691) King Sancho II of Portugal died. He was succeeded by King Alfonso III (born 2/5/1210, died 16/2/1279)..

14/12/1247. (-254,712) Robin Hood is said to have died on this day, aged 87.

1/12/1247, (-254,725) A rebellion arose among the Muslim subjects of the Crown of Aragon in the region of Valencia. As a punishment, the king issued an order of expulsion of the Muslims from his realm leading numerous people into exile in Andalusia and North Africa in the subsequent year.

8/5/1247, Wednesday (-254,932)

8/4/1247, Monday (-254,962)

31/3/1247, Sunday (-254,970) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1246, Tuesday (-255,297)

8/4/1246, Sunday (-255,327) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1245, Monday (-255,662)

16/4/1245, Sunday (-255,684) Easter Sunday.

3/4/1245, (-) Philip III, King of France, was born.

23/8/1244. Jerusalem was taken by a mercenary force of Turks. On 17/12/1244 the Turks joined with Egypt in routing the Latins at Gaza.

22/5/1244, James I of Aragon took the Muslim-held city of Janita after several months of siege This success is followed by the capture of Biar later that year.

8/5/1244, Sunday (-256,027)

3/4/1244, Sunday (-256,062) Easter Sunday.

16/3/1244, Following their successful siege of Montségur, French royal forces burned about 210 Cathars.

26/6/1243. The Mongols routed the Seljuk Turkish army.

8/5/1243, Friday (-256,393)

12/4/1243, Sunday (-256,419) Easter Sunday

8/5/1242, Thursday (-256,758)

20/4/1242, Sunday (-256,776) Easter Sunday.

5/4/1242, Saturday (-256,791) Russian troops defeated the Teutonic Knights at Lake Piepus, thwarting their planned invasion of Russia.

22/8/1241, Pope Gregory IX died.

8/5/1241, Wednesday (-257,123)

11/4/1241, Thursday (-257,150) The Mongols defeated King Bela IV of Hungary at Mohi.

9/4/1241. Tuesday (-257,152) (E.Europe) The Mongols defeated an army of Teutonic Knights at the Battle of Liegnitz, Silesia.

31/3/1241, Sunday (-257,161) Easter Sunday.

18/3/1241, Monday (-257,174) The Mongols plundered the Polish city of Cracow, their furthest penetration westwards.

18/2/11241, Monday (-257,202)

18/1/1241, Friday (-257,233)

18/12/1240, Tuesday (-257,264)

6/12/1240. Thursday (-257,276) The Mongols took Kiev, in the Ukraine.

15/7/1240. Alexander Nevski defeated the Swedish army, led by General Briger Jarl, on the banks of the Neva.

8/5/1240, Tuesday (-257,488)

15/4/1240, Sunday (-257,511) Easter Sunday.

17/6/1239, King Edward I was born at Westminster.  He was the eldest son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence.

8/5/1239, Sunday (-257,854)

27/3/1239, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

6/10/1238, Peterborough Cathedral was consecrated.

28/9/1238, James I of Aragon captured the city of Valencia from the Moors, who retreated to Granada.

8/5/1238, Saturday (-258,219)

4/4/1238, Sunday (-258,253) Easter Sunday.

4/3/1238, Thursday (-258,284) Mongol invasion of Rus – Battle of the Sit River: The Mongol Hordes of Batu Khan defeated the Rus' under Yuri Vsevolodovich.

21/12/1237, Mongols invading Russia sacked Ryazan.

8/5/1237, Friday (-258,584)

19/4/1237, Sunday (-258,603) Easter Sunday.

29/6/1236. Ferdinand III of Leon and Castile (see 24/9/1230) took Cordoba.

8/5/1236, Thursday (-258,949)

30/3/1236, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

24/1/1236, King Henry III of England married Eleanor of Provence.

8/5/1235 Tuesday (-259,315)

8/4/1135, Sunday (-259,345) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1234, Monday (-259,680)

23/4/1234, Sunday (-259,695) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1233, Sunday (-260,045)

3/4/1233, Sunday (-260,080) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1232, Saturday (-260,410)

11/4/1232, Sunday (-260,437) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1231, Thursday (-260,776)

23/3/1231, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

24/9/1230. On the death of Alfonso IX of Leon, Ferdinand III of Castile is accepted as King of Leon, unifying the two kingdoms. See 29/6/1236.

8/5/1230, Wednesday (-261,141)

7/4/1230, Sunday (-261,172) Easter Sunday.

17/3/1230, (Christian, Germany) The Archbishop of Bremen, Gerhard II, convened a Great Church Gathering at Bremen. There he organised the excommunication of the Stedinger for such crimes as worshipping wax images of the Devil and consulting evil spirits. In reality the Stedinger had been granted permission, in 1106 by an earlier Archbishop of Bremen, to reclaim the marshlands at the estuary of the River Weser for agriculture. The work was hard, digging drainage ditches and building  dikes but the inhabitants of this land, called Stedingen, were at least free from Feudalism. They paid a nominal tax to the Archbishop but owned no feudal duties to any Lord. Over time the feudal Lords of the region and the Archbishops of Bremen came to see the freedom of the Stedinger as a threat. Relations deteriorated as the Counts of Oldenburg built two fortresses in Stedingen, at Lechtenburg and Luneberg, kidnapping local people from the area, and in turn the Stedinger formed local militias for their own protection. Gerhard II went to Rome to secure Pope Gregory II’s agreement for Crusade against the Stedinger, which began in Spring 1233. By the end of 1234 the Stedinger society had been eradicated, although some families claiming descent from the Stedinger remain today in Germany and the USA.

8/5/1229, Tuesday (-261,506)

15/4/1229, Sunday (-261,529) Easter Sunday.

12/4/1229, (-261,532) The Treaty of Paris brought the Albigensian Crusade to an end.

12/3/1229. (-261,563) Frederick II of Germany finally arrived in Jerusalem, having been twice excommunicated by the Pope for delaying his Crusade. He had intended to depart in 1215 but was delayed by domestic problems including the Mongol invasion. He reached Acre, with only a small army, but he had been in clandestine negotiations with the Sultan of Egypt, Al-Kamil, who had been shaken by the fifth Crusader’s advance into Egypt. The Sultan was happy to surrender Bethlehem and Nazareth, and a corridor of territory from Jerusalem to the coast as well as much of Jerusalem itself. The Vatican, however, disapproved of Frederick’s negotiating with a non-Christian.

9/7/1228, (-261,809) Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury, died.

8/6/1228, (-261,840)

8/5/1228, Monday (-261,871)

26/3/1228, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

18/8/1227. Genghis Khan, Mongol emperor who conquered more than a million square miles, died after falling from his horse. Ogodei Khan was his chosen successor.

8/5/1227, Saturday (-262,237)

11/4/1137, Sunday (-262,264) Easter Sunday.

18/3/1227, (-) Pope Honorius III died.

8/11/1226, Louis VIII, King of France, died.

3/10/1226, ‘Saint’ Francis of Assisi, founder of the Franciscan Order, died.

8/5/1226, Friday (-262,602)

19/4/1226, Sunday (-262,621) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1225, Thursday (-262,967)

30/3/1225, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

19/6/1224, The foundation stone of Elgin Cathedral was laid.

8/5/1224, Wednesday (-263,332)

14/4/1224, Sunday (-263,356) Easter Sunday

6/8/1223, Louis VIII was crowned King of France.

14/7/1223, Philip Augustus, King of France, died.

8/5/1223, Monday (-263,698)

23/4/1223, Sunday (-263,713) Easter Sunday.

11/5/1222, Earthquake in Cyprus.

8/5/1222, Sunday (-264,063)

3/4/1222, Sunday (-264,098) Easter Sunday.

31/8/1221, Under a peace deal, the Franks left Egypt.

8/5/1221, Saturday (-264,428)

11/4/1121, Sunday (-264,455) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1220, Friday (-264,793)

28/4/1220, Tuesday (-264,803) The foundation stone of Salisbury Cathedral (UK) was laid.

29/3/1220, Sunday (-264,833) Easter Sunday.

6/11/1219. The Egyptian port of Damietta fell to the Crusaders (Franks) after a siege.

8/5/1219, Wednesday (-265,159)

7/4/1219, Sunday (-265,190) Easter Sunday.

24/5/1218, The Fifth Crusade left Acre for Egypt.

19/5/1218, The Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV died.

8/5/1218, Tuesday (-265,524)

15/4/1218, Sunday (-265,547) Easter Sunday.

1/5/1218, (-265,531) Rudolf I, King of Germany, was born.

18/3/1218, (-)

12/9/1217, First Barons' War in England ended by the Treaty of Kingston upon Thames: French and Scots to leave England, and an amnesty was granted to rebels.

24/8/1217, First Barons' War: In the Battle of Sandwich in the English Channel, English forces destroyed the French and the French mercenary Eustace the Monk was captured and beheaded.

20/5/1217, First Barons' War in England: French forces under Louis (21/5/1216) were defeated at the Battle of Lincoln by English royal troops led by William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke and survivors forced to flee south. Louis had alienated the English barons who once supported him as he preferred to bring in French advisors to help him. Louis returned to France.

8/5/1217, (-265,889)

26/3/1217, Sunday (-265,932) Easter Sunday.

8/3/1217, Wednesday (-265,950)

22/2/1217, Wednesday (-265,964)

22/12/1216, (-266,026) The Dominican Order of monks was founded.

19/10/1216. (-266,090) King John died suddenly at Newark Castle, Nottinghamshire, of a fever, and was buried in Worcester Cathedral.  He had been King of England since 1199.  He was succeeded by his nine year old son Henry III; William Marshall was made Regent. The young Henry III of England was crowned at Gloucester on October 28.

11/10/1216, (-266,098) King John’s baggage was lost in The Wash. His attendants had attempted to ford the estuary of the River Welland as the tide was coming in, rather than take a long detour inland to reach Newark.

16/9/1216, (-266,123)

16/7/1216, (-266,185) Pope Innocent III died.

14/6/1216, (--266,217) King Louis captured Winchester and by the end of June controlled the southern half of England. King John fled north.

21/5/1216, (-266,241) (Great Britain) King Louis VIII of France invaded England, landing at Stonor. This was at the request of the English barons who were disgruntled at King John having got Pope Innocent III to annul the Magna Carta (24/8/1215). Moreover the barons maintained that John had effectively abandoned his kingship, as he had technically ‘abdicated’ rulership of England to Pope Innocent III (4/3/1215), which made the barons enemies of the Church if they resisted John. Louis was also married to John’s niece, giving him some claim to the English throne. Louis entered London with little resistance and was crowned King Louis I of England. King Alexander II of Scotland also supported this development, attending Louis’ coronation.

8/5/1216, Sunday (-266,254)

10/4/1216, Sunday (-266,282) Easter Sunday.

8/3/1216, (-266,315)

8/1/1216, (-266,375)

11/11/1215, (-266,433) Pope Innocent III opened the Fourth Lateran Council in Rome.

24/10/1215, (-266,451)

24/8/1215, (-266,512) Pope Innocent III declared the Magna Carta invalid, at the request of King John.

1/7/1215, (-266,566) (1) Pay rates in the English military had risen from their 1154 levels. A Foot Sergeant was paid 3d a day (1d in 1156). A Mounted Sergeant with one horse got 7 1/2/d a day (2d in 1156). In 1215 Mounted Seargants with two horses got 1 shilling a day, and those with three, 1s 3d a day.

(2) The number of monks in England had grown considerably, from about 1,000 in 1066, on the eve of the Norman Conquest, to around 13,000 by 1215.

15/6/1215. (-266,582) Magna Carta was sealed by King John at Runnymede, near Windsor. King John was forced to have the taxation of his subjects reviewed by a Great Council, which eventually evolved into the Parliament of today. If the King reneged on the Charter, a council of 25 barons could take him to war.

22/5/1215, (-266,606) (France, Great Britain) King Philip II Augustus of France received instructions from the Pope to abandon his invasion of Britain, following 4/3/1215. King John of England had considerable economic interests in the District of Flanders, whose cloth merchants received almost all their wool from England, With English agents in many Flemish towns, France feared losing influence over the region to England.

8/5/1215, Friday (-266,620)

19/4/1215, Sunday (-266,639) Easter Sunday.

18/3/1215, (-266,671)

4/3/1215, (-266,685) (Britain, Christianity) King John of England made an oath to Pope Innocent III as a crusader to gain his support. John also technically passed authority of his kingdom over to the Pope, thereby making anyone who tried to depose him an enemy of the Pope and liable to excommunication. This move was a precaution by John who was facing rebellion by his barons. This healed the rift between King John and Pope Innocent III, see 15/7/1207.

4/1/1215, (-266,744)

4/11/1214, (266,805)

4/9/1214, (-266,866)

27/7/1214, (-266,905) (Britain, France) The Battle of Bouvines. Near Lille, France, Philip II Augustus of France defeated an Anglo-German-Flemish alliance. This dashed the hopes of King John of invading France on two fronts to recover the Angevin lands, and this humiliation for John brought on the Magna Carta rebellion.

4/7/1214, (-266,928)

20/6/1214, (-266,942) The University of Oxford received its charter.

8/5/1214, Thursday (-266,985)

8/4/1214, Tuesday (-267,015)

30/3/1214, Sunday (-267,024) Easter Sunday.

25/4/1214, (-266,998) Saint Louis, King of France, was born.

12/9/1213, Battle of Muret: The Toulousian and Aragonese forces of Raymond VI of Toulouse and Peter II of Aragon were defeated by the Albigensian Crusade under Simon de Montfort.

30/5/1213, (-267,328) (Britain, France) Battle of Damme: King John’s English fleet under William Longespée, 3rd Earl of Salisbury destroyed a French fleet off the Belgian port of Bruges, in the first major victory for the fledgling Royal Navy. This forced King Philip II Augustus to abandon plans for the invasion of England.

8/5/1213, Wednesday (-267,350)

14/4/1213, Sunday (-267,374) Easter Sunday

8/4/1213, (-267,380) The Assembly of Soissons.

16/7/1212. . Battle of Navas de Tolosa, near Toledo The Christian kingdoms of Spain decisively defeated the Almohads. This victory however left the Kingdom of Castile in a difficult financial position as the numerous soldiers had to be paid by the treasury.

8/5/1212, Tuesday (-267,715)

25/3/1212, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1211, Sunday (-268,081)

3/4/1211, Sunday (-268,116) Easter Sunday

8/5/1210, Saturday (-268,446)

18/4/1210, Sunday (-268,466) Easter Sunday.

22/7/1209. In the Crusade against the Cathars, Simon de Montfort sacked Beziers. Thousands were killed, including many Catholics.

8/5/1209, Friday (-268,811)

29/3/1209, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1208, Thursday -269,176)

8/4/1208, Tuesday (-269,206)

6/4/1208, Sunday (-269,208) Easter Sunday.

18/3/1208, (-269,227) Great Yarmouth was granted a Royal Charter by King John.

1/2/1207, (-269,273)

1/12/1207, (-269,335)

1/10/1207, (-269,396) Henry III, son of King John, was born at Winchester, Hampshire.

28/8/1207, (-269,430) Liverpool was created a borough by King John.

15/7/1207, (-269,474) King John expelled the monks at Canterbury who were supporters of Stephen Langton. The dispute between John and Pope Innocent led to King John being excommunicated in 1008; an interdict was placed upon England, meaning Church services could not officially be held there. In 1213 Pope Innocent III authorised King Philip II of France to invade England and depose King John. However see 4/3/1215.

17/6/1207, (-269,502) (Great Britain, Christianity) Pope Innocent III consecrated Stephen Langton as Archbishop of Canterbury, following the death of the previous incumbent, Hubert Walter, in 2105. However King John of England preferred John de Grey, Bishop of Norwich, to succeed to the post.

8/5/1207, Tuesday (-269,542)

22/4/1207, Sunday (-269,558) Easter Sunday.

2/2/1207, Terra Mariana, comprising present-day Estonia and Latvia, is established as a principality of the Holy Roman Empire.

8/5/1206, Monday (-269,907)

2/4/1206, Sunday (-269,943) Easter Sunday.

8/5/1205, Sunday (-270,272)

10/4/1205, Sunday (-270,300) Easter Sunday.

13/12/1204. The Jewish rabbi, lawyer, and philosopher Maimonides died, aged 69, in Cairo.

8/5/1204, Saturday (-270,637)

25/4/1204, Sunday (-270,650) Easter Sunday.

13/4/1204, Tuesday (-270,662) The Crusaders captured Constantinople.  In 1198 the Doge of Venice, Enrico Dandolo, was to have assembled a fleet to take the Crusaders from Venice to Palestine but there was insufficient money to pay for the ships.  So they diverted into Dalmatia and arrived at Constantinople.  The Byzantine Prince Alexius Angelus, son of the deposed King Isaac II, persuaded the Crusaders to help reinstate his father.  On 7/4/1203 the Crusaders stormed Byzantium and  reinstated Isaac II, but the agreed payment of 200,000 marks for this was not paid to the Crusaders; worse, King Isaac II was deposed again.  Hence the Crusaders this day re-attacked Byzantium, sacking and looting it.

1/4/1204, Thursday (-270,674) Eleanor of Aquitaine, wife of King Henry II of England, died. She was buried at Fonteraud. In June 1204 England lost Normandy to the French King, Philip Augustus.

8/5/1203, Thursday (-271,003)

6/4/1203, Sunday (-271,035)

20/5/1202, Monday (-271,356) An earthquake in Syria.

8/5/1202, Wednesday (-271,368)

14/4/1202, Sunday (-271,392) Easter Sunday

8/5/1201, Tuesday (-271,733)

25/3/1201, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

25/5/1200, (-272,081) The town of Ipswich, population ca. 3,000 received its Royal Charter from King John. Under the terms of the Charter, the burgesses of Ipswich, a thriving fishing port with a trade in salt production and in export of grain and wool to the Netherlands, received the right to govern the town in return for an annual payment to the Crown of £65.

8/5/1200, Monday (-272,098)

9/4/1200, Sunday (-272,127) Easter Sunday.

 

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