Historical events from 1 January 1800 to 31 December 1859

Page last modified 16/1/2019


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(-9999) = Day count to end of World War Two in Europe (day zero = Tuesday). Easter Sundays derived from https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/easter/easter_text2b.htm


For dates from 1/1/1860 click here


16/12/1859, Friday (-31,189) Wilhelm Grimm, co-author with his brother Jacob of fairy tales, died in Berlin.

15/12/1859, Thursday (-31,190) Ludwig Zimenof, Polish linguist who created the artificial language Esperanto, was born in Bialystock.

5/12/1859, Monday (-31,200) Admiral Jellicoe, British naval commander, was born in Southampton, son of a sea captain.

2/12/1859, Friday (-31,203) John Brown, American anti-slavery campaigner, was hanged for treason at Charlestown, West Virginia. In 1856 Brown and his sons murdered five pro-slavery settlers in a raid on Kansas. He wanted to found a republic in the Appalachians for runaway slaves and abolitionists. On 16/10/1859 Brown and 21 armed men attacked Harpers Ferry, seized the federal arsenal and occupied the town. Federal troops under General Lee recaptured the town; wounding Brown and killing 10 of his men. In the north of the USA Brown was hailed as a martyr but the south saw him as a traitor.

25/11/1859, Friday (-31,210) The London Irish Volunteer Rifles was formed.

24/11/1859. Thursday (-31,211) Charles Darwin, born 12/2/1809, published The Origin of the Species.

23/11/1859, Wednesday (-31,212) Billy the Kid, or William Bonney, was shot dead by Sheriff Pat Garrett.

20/11/1859, Sunday (-31,215)

12/11/1859, Saturday (-31,223) French acrobat Jules Leotard performed the first circus trapeze act at the Cirque Napoleon, Paris, wearing the famous costume named after him.

11/11/1859. Friday (-31,224) The city of Buenos Aires, which broke away from the Argentine Federation in 1853, was compelled to rejoin today.

10/11/1859, Thursday (-31,225) A peace treaty signed at Zurich ended the war between France, allied to Piedmont, and Austria. The effects of the treaty were crucial in the unification of Italy. Under its terms, Lombardy passed from Austria to Piedmont, with the exception of the Quadrilateral forts (see 24/6/1859) which were retained by Austria. Piedmont compensated France 60 million lire for the cost of the war with Austria. Plebiscites were held in various territories to determine which State they would join.

27/10/1859, Thursday (-31,239)

20/10/1859, Thursday (-31,246) John Dewey, US educator, was born in Burlington, Vermont.

16/10/1859, Sunday (-31,250) (1) The Pulborough to Petworth railway opened.

(2) John Brown, American slavery abolitionist, with 21 followers, seized the US armoury at Harper’s Ferry.  He was later hanged for this, see 2/12/1859.

12/10/1859, Wednesday (-31,254) Robert Stephenson, English railway and civil engineer, died in London.

10/10/1859, Monday (-31,256) The railway from Horsham to Pulborough opened.

9/10/1859, Sunday (-31,257) Alfred Dreyfus, French army office noted for the ‘Dreyfus Treason Affair’, was born in Alsace to Jewish parents.

4/10/1859, Tuesday (-31,262) Death of German publisher Karl Baedeker, whose travel guides became famous.

18/9/1859, Sunday (-31,278) The Barnt Green to Redditch railway opened.

17/9/1859, Saturday (-31,279) Frank Adams, Canadian geologist (died 29/12/1942) was born.

16/9/1859, Friday (-31,280) Lake Nyasa was discovered by David Livingstone.

15/9/1859. Thursday (-31,281) The railway engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel died at Westminster. He was born on 9/4/1806, in Portsmouth.

31/8/1859, Wednesday (-31,296) The Newtown to Llanidloes railway opened.

27/8/1859. Saturday (-31,300) The world’s first oil well was drilled at Titusville, Pennsylvania, by Edwin Drake of Seneca Oil. Oil had been known in this area for 300 years. It used to seep from the ground and was used for curing many ailments from blindness to rheumatism, colds, coughs, sprains, and baldness. It was also skimmed from creeks and used for lighting, although it gave off a foul smell when burned. Chemists turned the oil into a better lighting fuel. Drake drilled down 69 feet and got a steady flow of 25 barrels a day from his well. By the end of the year the well once called ‘Drake’s Folly’ had produced 2,000 barrels, and other prospectors joined in the search for more oil.

23/8/1859, Tuesday (-31,304) The first hotel elevator was installed in the 6 storey building of Fifth Avenue Hotel, New York.

3/8/1859, Wednesday (-31,324) The Potteries, Biddulph & Congleton railway opened.

2/8/1859, Tuesday (-31,325) The Torre to Paignton railway opened. Grange to Banff and Portsoy opened.

25/7/1859, Monday (-31,333) The Worcester to Malvern Link railway opened.

19/7/1859, Tuesday (-31,339) The Coniston branch railway opened.

12/7/1859. Tuesday (-31,346) (1) William Goodale patented the paper bag manufacturing machine.

(2) Robert Stephenson, engineer, died.

11/7/1859, Monday (-31,347) Big Ben, Westminster, first starting chiming the hours.

10/7/1859, Sunday (-31,348) The Treaty of Villafranca was signed, see 24/6/1859. The war between France (allied with Piedmont) and Austria was finally concluded by the peace treaty signed at Zurich on 10/11/1859.

8/7/1859, Friday (-31,350) King Oskar I of Sweden died aged 60 after a 15-year reign. He was succeeded by his 33-year-old son who reigned as Charles XV until 1872.

6/7/1859, Wednesday (-31,352) Queensland, Australia, was formed into a separate colony.

1/7/1859. Friday (-31,357) (1) The port city of Nagasaki was opened to foreign commerce, according to the provisions of the Treaty of Edo.

(2) The first mail was transported by balloon. John Wise and three others piloted their machine the 812 miles between St Louis, Missouri, and Henderson, New York State, in 19 hours and 40 minutes.

30/6/1859. Thursday (-31,358) The great tightrope walker, Charles Blondin, crossed Niagara Falls in eight minutes.  He traversed a rope 1100 feet long, 160 feet above the water.  This was the first crossing of Niagara on a tightrope.

28/6/1859, Tuesday (-31,360) The first dog show in the UK took place at Newcastle on Tyne Town Hall, with 60 entries split between two classes, Pointers and Setters.

24/6/1859, Friday (-31,364) At the Battle of Solferino, Lombardy, Italy, the French under Napoleon III allied to Piedmont defeated the Austrians. However the victory was costly for the French. Napoleon III knew that his armies must next face the Austrians at the ‘Quadrilateral’, the four fortresses of Legnano, Mantua, Peschiera and Verona, where the Austrians had retreated northwards to, and opposition to the French would increase in this region. Within France, the war against Austria was becoming unpopular as army casualties, and deaths from a typhus epidemic within the ranks, mounted. The war was expensive to France. There was also the question of what Britain might do, being opposed to the extension of French power in Italy. Prussia’s intentions, with its 400,000 strong army, were also uncertain. Therefore Napoleon, without consulting his Piedmont ally, signed the Treaty of Villafranca, see 10/7/1859.

18/6/1859, Saturday (-31,370) Lord Palmerston became Prime Minister.

4/6/1859, Saturday (-31,384) The Battle of Magenta. France defeated Austrian forces and captured Milan.

1/6/1859, Wednesday (-31,387) The Framlingham to Wickham Market railway opened. The Ipswich to Lowestoft railway opened. The Saxmundham to Leiston railway opened.

31/5/1859. Tuesday (-31,388) Big Ben on the Houses of Parliament started telling the time.

30/5/1859, Monday (-31,389) Battle of Palestro; Austria defeated by Piedmont.

22/5/1859. Sunday (-31,397) Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, creator of Sherlock Holmes, was born to Irish parents in Edinburgh.

20/5/1859, Friday (-31,399) Italian Wars of independence, Austria defeated by Piedmont.

19/5/1859, Thursday (-31,400) Dame Nellie Melba, Australian singer, was born.

15/5/1859, Sunday (-31,404) Pierre Curie, French scientist, was born in Paris. He was the son of a physician.

4/5/1859, Wednesday (-31,415) The Plymouth to Truro railway, Cornwall, opened.

3/5/1859. Tuesday (-31,416) France declared war on Austria.

2/5/1859, Monday (-31,417) Jerome K Jerome, author, was born at Walsall.

30/4/1859, Saturday (-31,419) Sergei Aksakov, Russian writer (born 20/9/1791) died.

25/4/1859. Monday (-31,424) Construction of the 100 mile Suez Canal began. Constructed by both Egyptian and French companies, under the direction of Ferdinand de Lesseps, it opened on 17/11/1869. It was 163 km long and had a minimum width of 60 metres. In 2000, some 25,000 ships used this canal.

24/4/1859, Sunday (-31,425) Easter Sunday.

23/4/1859, Saturday (-31,426) Austria issued an ultimatum to Piedmont to disarm. This followed an agreement between France and Piedmont to ally against Austria. This agreement was strengthening the power of Italy (see 14/1/1858) and was a significant threat to the southern flank of Austria. See also 3/5/1859.

22/4/1859, Friday (-31.427)

20/4/1859, Wednesday (-31,429) Charles Dicken’s novel A Tale of Two Cities was published.

22/3/1859. Tuesday (-31,458) Major earthquake at Quito,5,000 killed.

4/3/1859, Friday (-31,476) The Wimbledon to Epsom (and Dorking) railway opened.

1/3/1859, Tuesday (-31,479) Kent County Cricket Club was founded at Maidstone.

21/2/1859, Monday (-31,487) (1) Viscount Palmerston left office as Prime Minister.

(2) George Lansbury, British Labour politician and party leader, was born near Lowestoft, Suffolk.

19/2/1859, Saturday (-31,489) Svante August Arrhenius, Swedish physicist and chemist, was born near Uppsala.

17/2/1859, Thursday (-31,491) French forces took Saigon, Vietnam.

14/2/1859. Monday (-31,494) Oregon became the 33rd state of the USA.

13/2/1859, Sunday (-31,495) Sir Edward Walter founded the Corps of Commissionaires for the employment of ex-soldiers.

2/2/1859, Wednesday (-31,506) The Epsom to Leatherhead railway opened.

27/1/1859, Thursday (-31,512) Kaiser Willhelm II was born in Potsdam, near Berlin. He was the son of the German Emperor and the grandson of Queen Victoria.

9/1/1859, Sunday (-31,530) Carrie Chapman, suffragette, was born.

1/1/1859, Saturday (-31,538) The railway from Godalming to Portsmouth opened.

23/12/1858, Thursday (-31,547) The Rothes to Dandalieth railway, Scotland, opened.

22/12/1858, Wednesday (-31,548) The composer Puccini was born in Lucca, Italy.

17/12/1858, Friday (-31,553) The Geologists Association, London was formed. The newly constructed railway cuttings and tunnels had stimulated the science.

25/11/1858, Thursday (-31,577) Alfred Capus, French author, was born.

24/11/1858, Wednesday (-31,576) A legal case in Dorset caused the UK Parliament to standardise time to GMT across the country. A judge in a land case in Dorset ruled against a man who had failed to turn up for a 10,00 am case, at 10.06. Two minutes later he turned up and claimed he was on time, by the station clock of his home town, Carlisle in Cumbria. At that time all towns set their clocks by their own, local, noon, meaning accurate rail timetables were problematic. By 1850 the rail companies all used London time, adding to confusion as provincial clocks often had two minute hands, one for local time, one for London time. The case was re-tried, and in 1880 Parliament ordered the entire country to keep Greenwich Mean Time.

23/11/1858, Tuesday (-31,577) The General Medical Council held its first meeting in London.

15/11/1858, Monday (-31,585) The Spalding to Sutton Bridge railway opened.

9/11/1858, Tuesday (-31,591) (1) The railway from Witham to Shepton Mallet opened.

(2) The New York Symphony Orchestra gave its first concert.

1/11/1858. Monday (-31,599) Queen Victoria was proclaimed ruler of India. The East India Company, formed in 1600 to exploit trade with the East, but accused of imperial abuse from the early 1700s, was abolished and administration of India was transferred to the British crown. Misconduct by the East India Company had been partially curbed by the Regulating Act (1773) and Pitt’s India Act (1784). The Indian Mutiny broke the Company’s power, British influence being totally regained with the conquest of Lucknow in March 1858.

27/10/1858, Wednesday (-31,604) Theodore Roosevelt, American Republican and 26th President, was born in New York City, the son of a port officer. He won the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to end the Russo-Japanese war.

8/10/1858, Friday (-31,623) The railway from Rhyl to Denbigh opened.

7/10/1858, Thursday (-31,624) Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia was certified insane, and his brother, 61-year-old Wilhelm, was made Regent.

16/9/1858, Thursday (-31,645) Andrew Bonar Law, UK Prime Minister, was born.

31/8/1858, Tuesday (-31,661) French forces under Admiral Rigault de Genouilly attacked the Vietnamese city of Tourane, to use it as a military base. The city fell to the French on 2/9/1858.

23/8/1858, Monday (-31,669) The Rothes to Orton railway, Scotland, opened.

18/8/1858, Wednesday (-31,674) The railway from Nairn to Keith opened.

11/8/1858, Wednesday (-31,681) The summit of the Eiger, in the Swiss Alps, was reached for the first time, by Charles Barrington of Bray, Ireland.

7/8/1858, Saturday (-31,685) Ottawa was selected as capital of Canada.

5/8/1858, Thursday (-31,687) The first transatlantic cable was completed, by Sir Charles Tilston Bright (1832 – 1888), and opened by Queen Victoria and President Buchanan. See 7/9/1866.

3/8/1858, Tuesday (-31,689) John Speke, 31, English explorer, discovered Lake Victoria, source of the Nile.

2/8/1858, Monday (-31,690) (1) The Government of India transferred the East India Company to the British Government.

(2) British Columbia was constituted a British Colony; it became part of the Dominion of Canada in 1871.

(3) Under the Medical Act, UK doctors were now required to be registered.

31/7/1858, Saturday (-31,692)

29/7/1858, Thursday (-31,694) The Treaty of Edo was signed between Japan and the USA. This extended US trading rights gained under the Treaty of Kanagawa (1854) and further opened up Japan to Western influence.

28/7/1858. Wednesday (-31,695) The first use of fingerprinting. William Herschel, a British civil servant in India, took the entire palm print of a Bengali hired to surface roads, to ensure that he did not back out of the contract.

23/7/1858, Friday (-31,700) In Britain, the Oath of Allegiance was modified so as to allow Jews to sit in Parliament.

14/7/1858, Wednesday (-31,709) The suffragette Emmeline Pankhurst was born in Manchester, as Emmeline Goulden.

13/7/1858, Tuesday (-31,710) US anthropologist Robert Culin was born in Philadelphia (died 8/4/1929).

12/7/1858, Monday (-31,711) The Lymington branch railway opened.

10/7/1858, Saturday (-31,713) (France, Italy) Napoleon III of France secretly met Count Cavour at Plombieres. The two agreed to jointly attack Austria.

2/7/1858. Friday (-31,721) Czar Alexander II of Russia ordered all serfs working on imperial land to be freed.

1/7/1858. Thursday (-31,722) Charles Darwin first presented his theory of evolution, to the Linnean Society.

29/6/1858, Tuesday (-31,724) The Treaty of Tientsin ended the Anglo-Chinese War. China agreed to open up more ports to trade.

18/6/1858, Friday (-31,735) Charles Darwin received a letter from Alfred Russell Wallace, who had formulated a theory of evolution through survival of the fittest. This was close to Darwin’s ideas in his as yet unpublished Origin of the Species.

16/6/1858. Wednesday (-31,737) (1) In a speech at Springfield, Illinois, US Senate candidate Abraham Lincoln said the slavery issue had to be addressed. He declared ‘a house divided against itself cannot stand’.

(2) Gustav V, King of Sweden from 1907 to 1950, was born the son of Oscar II.

15/6/1858, Tuesday (-31,738) Christians were massacred in Jeddah.

2/6/1858, Wednesday (-31,751) G B Donati, Italian astronomer, discovered the comet now named after him.

28/5/1858. Friday (-31,756) Russia acquired from China the territory on the left (north) bank of the middle and upper River Amur, along with the territory on both sides of the lower Amur. This was under the Treaty of Aigun.

11/5/1858. Tuesday (-31,773) Minnesota became the 32nd state of the USA.

3/5/1858, Monday (-31,781) The Dunstable to Luton railway opened. The Norwood Junction to Bickley railway opened.

10/4/1858, Saturday (-31,804) Big Ben, the bell inside the famous Westminster clock, was cast in Whitechapel, London. The bell, weighing 13 ½ tons, was named after Sir Benjamin Hall, Commissioner for Works, who was a large tall man nicknamed ‘Big Ben’.

4/4/1858, Sunday (-31,810) Easter Sunday

1/4/1858, Thursday (-31,813) The railway from Morpeth to Bedlington opened to passengers.

31/3/1858, Wednesday (-31,814) China gave in to British and French demands for trade concessions.

18/3/1858. Thursday (-31,827) Rudolf Diesel, inventor of the diesel engine, was born in Paris.

13/3/1858, Saturday (-31,832) Felice Orsini, Italian revolutionary, was executed for his part in the assassination attempt on Napoleon III in Paris.

1/3/1858, Monday (-31,844) The railway between Hertford and Welwyn, 7 ½ miles opened.

21/2/1858. Sunday (-31,852) (1) The first electric burglar alarm was installed by Edwin T Holmes of Boston Massachusetts.

(2) Corinth, Greece, was destroyed by an earthquake.

11/2/1858. Thursday (-31,862) At Lourdes, a 14 year old peasant girl, Bernadette Soubirous, claimed to have seen a vision of a lady surrounded by light in a grotto.

31/1/1858, Sunday (-31,873) The liner Great Eastern, 692 feet long, with five funnels, built by Isambard Kingdom Brunel and John Scott Russell, was launched at Millwall Docks, London, three months behind schedule.

30/1/1858, Saturday (-31,874) The Halle Opera in Manchester, England, gave its first public concert.

28/1/1858, Thursday (-31,876) Herbert Adams, US sculptor (died 21/5/.1945) was born.

26/1/1858, Tuesday (-31,878) Arthur Foley Winnington-Ingram, Bishop of London, was born.

25/1/1858, Monday (-31,879) The railway from Chatham to Faversham opened.

22/1/1858, Friday (-31,882) Beatrice Webb, founder member of the Fabian Society, was born.

14/1/1858, Thursday (-31,890) An Italian assassin threw a bomb at French Emperor Napoleon III and Empress Eugenie as they drove to the Paris Opera. The bomb, thrown by Felici Orsini, missed its target but killed eight bystanders and injured 100. Orsini planned the attack in London, causing anti-British sentiment in France. Napoleon III, now convinced of the magnitude of nationalist sentiment in Italy, invited Count Cavour to the spa town of Plombieres in the Vosges Mountains where the Plombieres Agreement of July 1858 was worked out. This Agreement provided that Piedmont would provide 100,000 men along with 200,000 French to fight Austria. After victory against Austria, three kingdoms would be set up in Italy. Northern Italy would include Lombardy, Romagna, Sardinia and Venetia. Central Italy would include Tuscany and the Duchy of Parma; the Papal lands however would continue under the rule of the Pope. Thirdly, southern Italy, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, would be ruled by Luciano Murat, if its current ruler, Ferdinand II, abdicated. A secret agreement of 24/1/1859 between France and Piedmont provided that both would respect the sovereignty of the Pope.

5/1/1858, Tuesday (-31,899) Joseph Radedtsky, Austrian Field-Marshal and national hero, died in Milan aged 91.

6/12/1857, Sunday (-31,929)

12/11/1857, Thursday (-31,953) The Bridport branch line opened.

24/10/1857, Saturday (-31,972) A group of Cambridge University Old Boys formed the first Football Club, in Sheffield.

12/10/1857, Monday (-31,984) The railway from Usk to Monmouth opened.

25/9/1857. Friday (-32,001) The British lifted the siege of Lucknow, ending the Indian Mutiny.

20/9/1857. Sunday (-32,006) The British recaptured Delhi from Indian mutineers.

16/9/1857, Wednesday (-32,010) The tune Jingle Bells by James Pierpoint was copyrighted under its original title One Horse Open Sleigh. In 1965 it became the first song to be broadcast from space.

15/9/1857, Tuesday (-32,011) William Howard Taft, American Republican and 27th President, was born in Cincinnati.

13/9/1857, Sunday (-32,013) Birth of William Snaveley Hershey, US chocolate manufacturer who built the world’s largest chocolate factory. He also established the Hershey Foundation, to promote education.

11/9/1858, Friday (-32,015) The Mountain Meadows Massacre in Utah. 135 migrants on the Fancher wagon train were ambushed, and nearly all killed, by Pahute Indians; however the Indians were acting under instructions from the Mormon leader, Brigham Young

5/9/1857, Saturday (-32,021) (1) Auguste Comte, French philosopher and sociologist, founder of Positivism, died.

(2) The Inveramsay to Turriff railway opened.

30/8/1857, Sunday (-32,027) The first railway in Argentina opened, Parque to Floresta.

26/8/1857, Wednesday (-32,031) The Ulverston to Carnforth railway opened.

19/8/1857, Wednesday (-32,038) Edgar D’Abernon, British diplomat, was born.

18/8/1857, Tuesday (-32,039) Work began on the 7.5 mile Mont Cenis rail tunnel under the Alps, linking France and Italy.

17/7/1857, Friday (-32,071) In Spain, education for all children aged from 6 to 9 became compulsory.

2/7/1857, Thursday (-32,086) The siege of Lucknow began.

1/7/1857, Wednesday (-32,087) The railway from Leicester to Hitchin via Wellingborough and Bedford opened. This gave the Midland Railway access to London via the Great Northern Railway into Kings Cross. The Holt Junction to Devizes railway opened.

26/6/1857, Friday (-32,092) The first investiture ceremony of Victoria Crosses took place, in Hyde Park. 67 servicemen were awarded.

4/6/1857, Thursday (-32,114) In the Indian Mutiny, the British garrison of Kanpur (Cawnpore) in Uttar Pradesh, niorthern India,  came under siege by Indian rebels against British rule. After a three-week siege the British, under Sir Hugh Wheeler, were promised safe passage to Allahabad, on thatched barges. However as they departed the barges were fired upon, and set ablaze. The survivors were transferred to a house called the Bibighar, where they were massacred on 15/7/1857 by Indian rebels. 197 died.

2/6/1857, Tuesday (-32,116) Sir Edward Elgar, British composer, was born in Broadheath, near Worcester, the son of a music seller and organist.

1/6/1857, Monday (-32,117) The Henley on Thames branch railway opened.

31/5/1857, Sunday (-32,118) Pope Pius XI was born.

28/5/1857, Thursday (-32,121) The Stockport, Disley and Whaley Bridge railway opened.

10/5/1857. Sunday (-32,139) The outbreak of the Indian (Sepoy) Mutiny in Meerat. On 6/5/1857, 85 men of the 90-strong 3rd Cavalry Regiment in Meerut had refused to bite off the greased and of the new cartridges for Lee Enfield rifles, which they claimed contained both pig and cow fat, so offending both Muslims and Hindus. The British had 24 hours warning of the mutiny but refused to take the threat seriously. The Indian mutineers seized Delhi on 11/5/1857.

2/5/1857, Saturday (-32,147) The French inventor Felix du Temple patented designs for an aircraft with a retractable undercarriage.

1/5/1857, Friday (-32,148) The Andover to Salisbury railway opened.

22/4/1857, Wednesday (-32,157) The Parliament in South Australia first opened.

20/4/1857, Monday (-32,159) The west African Muslim leader Al Hajj Uman laid siege to the French fort at Medine, Senegal.

12/4/1857, Sunday (-32,167) Easter Sunday

23/3/1857, Monday (-32,187) The first passenger lift was installed in a department store, in the 5-storey building of E V Haughwout and Co on Broadway, New York. The elevator system cost US$ 300.

21/3/1857, Saturday (-32,189) Earthquake in Japan killed 107,000.

6/3/1857, Friday (-32,204) The United States Supreme Court, in the Dredd Scott Decision, decreed seven to two that 1) it was unconstitutional for Congress to outlaw slavery in the United States, and 2) that no slave could claim US citizenship. Dredd Scott was a slave owned by Elizabeth Blow of Missouri (a slave State), who was subsequently sold to John Emerson, an army surgeon who took Scott to the free State of Illinois, and later to Wisconsin Territory, where slavery was outlawed by the Missouri Compromise of 1820. In 1838 Emerson took Scott back to Missouri. Scott was in fact set free by his Abolitionist ‘owners’. The Dredd Scott Decision only served to inflame the slave/Abolitionist dispute further and probably hastened on the US Civil War.

4/3/1857, Wednesday (-32,206) By the Treaty of Paris, Afghanistan’s independence was recognised by Britain and France, and forced upon Persia.

3/3/1857, Tuesday (-32,207) Britain and France declared war on China, using the killing of a missionary as a pretext.

28/2/1857. Saturday (-32,210) British and French troops ended their occupation of Piraeus, which began on 26/5/1854.

22/2/1857, Sunday (-32,216) Robert Baden-Powell, British army officer and founder of the Boy Scouts movement in 1908, was born in London, the son of an Oxford Professor.

24/1/1857, Saturday (-32,245) Calcutta (Kolkata) University was founded.

20/1/1857, Tuesday (-32,249) The Yeovil to Weymouth railway opened.

11/1/1857. Sunday (-32,258) Birth of Henry Gordon Selfridge, founder of Britain’s first large department store. Also on this day was born the champion jockey Fred Archer.

7/1/1857. Wednesday (-32,262) The London Central Omnibus Company began running a London bus service. See 30/8/1860.

1/1/1857, Thursday (-32,268) The 4 ¾ mile railway from Lewisham to Beckenham opened.

28/12/1856, Sunday (-32,272) Woodrow Wilson, American Democrat and 28th President 1913-21, was born in Staunton, Virginia, the son of a Presbyterian Minister.

23/12/1856, Tuesday (-32,277) James Buchanan Duke, US industrialist, was born in Durham, North Carolina (died 10/10/1925 in New York).

22/12/1856, Monday (-32,278) Frank B Kellogg, US politician, was born.

18/12/1856, Thursday (-32,282) Sir Joseph John Thomson, discoverer of the electron, was born in Cheetham Hill near Manchester.  He was the son of a bookseller.

1/12/1856, Monday (-32,299) The first railway in Sweden opened; Gothenburg to Jonsered and Malmo to Lund.

28/10/1856, Tuesday (-32,333) The first railway in Portugal opened; Lisbon to Carregado, 39 km.

27/10/1856, Monday (-32,334) Kenyon Cox, US painter, was born in Ohio.

8/9/1856, Monday (-32,383) The railway from West Drayton to Uxbridge, west London, opened.

4/9/1856, Thursday (-32,387) The Drumburgh to Silloth line (Carlisle) opened to passengers.

3/9/1856, Wednesday (-32,388) Louis Sullivan, US architect, was born in Boston, Massachusetts.

1/9/1856, Monday (-32,390) The Frome to Yeovil via Bruton railway opened.

27/8/1856, Wednesday (-32,395) The first Australian parliamentary election held by secret ballot took place in Victoria, Australia.

22/8/1856, Friday (-32,400) In London, the 7 mile railway from Stratford to Loughton was opened, see 24/4/1865.

18/8/1856. Monday (-32,404) Condensed milk was patented.

17/8/1856, Sunday (-32,405) Constant Prevost, French geologist, born 4/6/1787, died.

15/8/1856, Friday (-32,407) Kier Hardie, Labour leader, was born near Holytown, Lanarkshire.  He helped found the Labour Party.

7/8/1856, Thursday (-32,415) The Ayr to Dalmellington railway opened to passengers.

5/8/1856, Tuesday (-32,417) The Purley to Caterham railway opened. The branch had been completed on 21/9/1855 but due to a dispute between the Caterham Railway and both the London Brighton and South Coast Railway and the South Eastern Railway no trains ran to Caterham until 4/8/1856, with normal services commencing on the 5th.

3/8/1856, Sunday (-32,419) London was divided into postal districts to speed up the mail delivery.

30/7/1856, Wednesday (-32,423) Viscount Richard Burdon Haldane (British Army) was born.

29/7/1856, Tuesday (-32,424) Robert Schumann, German composer, died in an asylum near Bonn.

26/7/1856. Saturday (-32,427) George Bernard Shaw, playwright, was born in Dublin. A failed novelist, he was 36 when his first play, Widower’s Houses, was performed.

12/7/1856, Saturday (-32,441) Natal was made a British colony.

10/7/1856, Thursday (-32,443) Nikola Tesla was born.  His father, the Reverend Milutin Tesla, was a Greek Orthodox priest, and his mother Duka Mandic was the daughter of a priest who made handcraft tools.

9/7/1856, Wednesday (-32,444) The railway from Ascot to Reading, Berkshire, was opened.

5/7/1856, Saturday (-32,448)

1/7/1856, Tuesday (-32,452) The Oldmeldrum branch railway opened.

30/6/1856, Monday (-32,453) The railway from Warminister to Salisbury opened.

18/6/1856, Wednesday (-32,465) The Maidstone to Strood railway opened.

4/6/1856, Wednesday (-32,479) The railway from Staines to Ascot was opened.

2/6/1856, Monday (-32,481) The Abingdon, Oxfordshire, branch opened. Pontypool to Usk opened.

26/5/1856, Monday (-32,488) The Buchylvie to Jamestown railway opened.

6/5/1856, Tuesday (-32,508) (1) Sigmund Freud, Austrian pioneer of psychoanalysis, was born in Freiburg, Moravia.

(2) Robert Peary, American Arctic explorer, was born in Cresson Springs, Pennsylvania.

3/5/1856, Saturday (-32,511) Adolphe Adam, French composer (born 24/7/1803) died.

25/4/1856, Friday (-32,519) Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, or Lewis Carroll, met the young Alice Liddell, who was the inspiration for his Alice books.

24/4/1856, Thursday (-32,520) Philippe Petain, French Army Marshall, was born in Cuchy a la Tour.

21/4/1856, Monday (-32,523) The Adelaide to Port Adelaide railway, Australia, opened.

18/4/1856, Friday (32,526) Aldershot Camp was publically inaugurated by Queen Victoria.

7/4/1856, Monday (-32,537) The railway from Perth to Dunkeld opened.

30/3/1856. Sunday (-32,545) The Treaty of Paris ended the Crimean War. Russia agreed to demilitarise the Black Sea, demolishing its naval bases at Sevastopol and three other locations. It also renounced its claim to protect the Holy Places in Palestine.  Russia ceded a part of Bessarabia, forcing it back from the Danube River.

23/3/1856, Sunday (-32,552) Easter Sunday

20/3/1856, Thursday (-32,555) Frederick Winslow Taylor, the inventor of modern scientific time-management, was born.

18/3/1856, Tuesday (-32,557) The Stirling to Buchylvie railway opened.

6/3/1856, Thursday (-32,569) The Maryland Agricultural College, now University of Maryland, received its Charter.

5/3/1856, Wednesday (-32,570) London’s Covent Garden Opera House was destroyed by fire.

1/3/1856, Saturday (-32,574) The railway from Leigh on Sea to Southend opened.

18/2/1856, Monday (-32,586) Abdul Mejid, the Ottoman Sultan, issued the Hatt-i-Humayun Edict. This guaranteed full civic rights for his Christian subjects, abolished torture and reformed prisons. These reforms were effectively forced upon the Sultan by the western European Allies.

1/2/1856, Friday (-32,603) Russia agreed to preliminary peace conditions for ending the Crimean War.

29/1/1856. Tuesday (-32,606) Queen Victoria instituted the Victoria Cross, Britain’s highest military decoration. Awarded for conspicuous bravery or great devotion to duty. The award was backdated to 1854 to cover the Crimean War; on 26/6/1856 62 men were given the Victoria Cross for deeds during this war. The VC has been awarded 1,354 times since then, to 2002, but has only been given posthumously since 1920. It has been awarded only 11 times since 1945, the last 2 being in the Falklands War of 1982. The medal is made of metal from Russian guns captured in the Crimean War.

29/12/1855, Saturday (-32,637)

1/12/1855, Saturday (-32,665) The Tivetshall to Harleston railway opened.

17/11/1855. Saturday (-32,679) The Scottish explorer David Livingstone discovered, on the River Zambezi, a large waterfall. He called it the Victoria Falls.

5/11/1855, Monday (-32,691) The railway from Inverness to Nairn opened.

2/11/1855, Friday (-32,694) The railway from Barnstaple to Bideford opened.

1/11/1855, Thursday (-32,695) Guido Adler, Austrian author (books on music) was born (died February 1941).

17/10/1855, Wednesday (-32,710) Henry Bessemer patented a steel-making process.

26/9/1855, Wednesday (-32,731) The first railway in New South Wales opened, Sydney to Parramatta.

11/9/1855. Tuesday (-32,746) During the Crimean War, the Russian Black Sea port of Sevastopol fell to Anglo-French forces after an 11 month siege. The Russians demolished the fort as they abandoned it. However the Allies were unable to occupy the port facilities before winter set in and British troops faced a second winter in the Crimea.

17/8/1855, Friday (-32,771) The Horncastle branch railway, Lincolnshire, opened.

16/8/1855, Thursday (-32,772) Battle of Chermaia, in the Crimean War. The Russians were defeated by a combined force of British troops and Piedmontese soldiers sent by Count Cavour of Savoy.

1/8/1855, Wednesday (-32,787) The Blairgowrie branch railway opened.

9/7/1855, Monday (-32,810) The railway from Three Bridges to East Grinstead opened.

7/7/1855, Saturday (-32,812) Earthquake in northern Persia killed 40,000 people.

4/7/1855. Wednesday (-32,815) New York became the 13th state to ban the production or sale of alcoholic beverages.

1/7/1855, Sunday (-32,818) (1) A labourer’s wage was 3s 9d a week.  More skilled workers such as bricklayers, carpenters, and masons earned 6s 8d a week, and engineers got 7s 6d a week.  2lb (0.9 kg) bread cost 4d, as did 2 to 4 pints of beer (depending on quality).

(2) The railway form Stanford le Hope to Leigh on Sea, Essex, opened.

30/6/1855, Saturday (-32,819) In Britain, the Newspaper Stamp Tax was abolished.

29/6/1855, Friday (-32,820) The Daily Telegraph was first published, in London.  The first editor was Alfred Bate Richards.

28/6/1855, Thursday (-32,821) Lord Raglan, British Army officer and commander of the expeditionary force in the Crimea, died.

11/6/1855, Monday (-32,838) The last market for live animals was held at Smithfield, London. Thereafter live animals were traded further north, at Copenhagen Fields. Central London Meat Market (Smithfield) was begun in 1862 and opened for meat trading in 1868.

1/6/1855, Friday (-32,848) The Hereford, Ross & Gloucester railway opened.

20/5/1855, Sunday (-32,860)

16/4/1855, Monday (-32,894) (Internat) The Declaration of Paris was signed.

11/4/1855, Wednesday (-32,899) London’s first six ‘pillar boxes’ were installed, and were painted green.

8/4/1855, Sunday (-32,902) Easter Sunday

31/3/1855, Saturday (-32,910) Charlotte Bronte, oldest of the three literary sisters, died during pregnancy.

30/3/1855, Friday (-32,911) Afghan leader Dost Mohammed signed a peace treaty ending 12 years of hostility with Britain. This agreement, the Treaty of Peshawar, was intended to thwart a Persian occupation of Afghanistan.

13/3/1855, Tuesday (-32,928) Percival Lowell, US astronomer, was born in Boston, Massachusetts.

2/3/1855, Friday (-32,939) Tsar Nicholas I of Russia died during hostilities during the Crimean War.  His successor, Alexander was more disposed to make peace with Britain, but negotiations broke down.

22/2/1855, Thursday (-32,947) 13 gold diggers were acquitted of rioting and manslaughter in Melbourne, Australia after fighting broke out at the Eureka gold mine. In 1854, at the Eureka Stockade, Ballarat, New South Wales, armed gold prosepctors fought with a combined military and police force; 30 gold miners and 5 policemen died. Miners objected to an expensive licence imposed by the Australian Government, Public opinion went behind the miners, and juries refused to convict them, causing the Government to back down over the issue.

19/2/1855. Monday (-32,950) Bread riots broke out in Liverpool.

11/2/1855, Sunday (-32,958) Kassa Hailu crowned as Tewodros II, Emperor of Ethiopia.

9/2/1855, Friday (-32,960) Mysterious hoof-prints appeared in the snow in Devon, as if a two legged creature had walked 100 miles over fields, walls, and roof-tops. No explanation was ever found.

6/2/1855, Tuesday (-32,963) The Whig/Liberal Lord Palmerston became Prime Minister. He succeeded Lord Aberdeen, who resigned on 20/1/1855.

28/1/1855. Sunday (-32,972) The 47-mile Panama Railway, linking the Atlantic and Pacific across the Isthmus of Panama, opened.

5/1/1855, Friday (-32,995) King Camp Gillette, American inventor of the safety razor, was born in Fond du Lac, Wisconsin.

8/12/1854. Friday (-33,023) Pope Pius IX settled an ancient controversy by declaring that Christ’s mother, Mary, was free of all sin the moment she was born.

2/12/1854, Saturday (-33,029) Austria formed a strategic alliance with Britain and France.

30/11/1854. Thursday (-33,031) The Frenchman Ferdinand de Lesseps obtained, from the Egyptian ruler Said Pasha, a 99-year concession to build a canal between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean.

14/11/1854, Tuesday (-33,047) The Frome to Radstock railway opened.

11/11/1854, Saturday (-33,050) Mussolini’s father, Alessandro, was born in Montemaggiore, close to Predappio.

6/11/1854, Monday (-33,055) John Philip Sousa, composer, inventor of the sousaphone (a sort of large tuba), was born.

5/11/1854. Sunday (-33,056) The combined English and French armies defeated the Russians at the Battle of Inkerman, in the Crimean War. British forces now spent their first winter in the Crimea, poorly supplied. Public opinion in Britain began to turn against the war, outraged by daily reports in The Times from war correspondent W H Russell.

4/11/1854. Saturday (-33,057) Florence Nightingale arrived at Scutari.

27/10/1854, Friday (-33,065) Sir William Smith, Scottish founder of the Boys Brigade movement in Glasgow in 1883, was born.

25/10/1854. Wednesday (-33,067) Battle of Balaclava and the Charge of the Light Brigade, led by Lord Cardigan. The Russians were attacking a combined force of English, French, and Turks, who were themselves besieging Sevastopol. Of the 607 who rode out, only 198 returned. In poor visibility, Lord Raglan noted that the Russians, at the north end of a valley, were attempting to move some guns, and ordered the Light Brigade to capture them; he was unaware of other Russian artillery along the valley. However the British and French won the battle in the end.

17/10/1854. Tuesday (-33,075) The Allies (French and British) laid siege to the Russians at Sevastopol.

16/10/1854, Monday (-33,076) Oscar Wilde, Irish author and playwright, was born in Dublin, the son of a surgeon.

14/10/1854, Saturday (-33,078) The first baby show was held, at Springfield, Ohio. There were127 exhibits.

27/9/1854, Wednesday (-33,095) The Lady Isabella waterwheel at Laxey, Isle of Man was completed.  It was the largest in the UK, at 72 foot 6 inches in diameter, and was once used for draining a lead mine.

20/9/1854. Wednesday (-33,102) The Allies, on the banks of the River Alma, gained a major victory over a 40,000 strong Russian force in the Crimean War; 2,000 British casualties.

14/9/1854, Thursday (-33,108) Allied French and British troops landed in the Crimea.

12/9/1854, Tuesday (-33,110) (1) The Flinders Street to Port Melbourne railway opened, the first steam railway in Australia.

(2) The railway from Aberdeen to Huntly opened.

1/9/1854, Friday (-33,121) The first railway in Norway opened, Oslo (Christiania) to Eidsvoll, 70 km.

28/8/1854, Monday (-33,125) the railway from Highbridge to Glastonbury opened.

15/8/1854, Tuesday (-33,138) The Manningtree to Harwich railway opened.

8/8/1854, Tuesday (-33, 145) Britain and France put forward the Vienna Four Points they considered essential for a peace settlement with Russia in the Crimean War. These were, firstly guarantees of the independence of Serbia, secondly free passage for vessels along the Danube, thirdly a revision of the Straits Convention, and fourthly that Russia abandoned its claim to a protectorate over the Sultan of Turkey’s Christian subjects. Russia rejected these terms.

7/8/1854, Monday (-33,146) Charles Dickens’ tenth book, Hard Times, was published in entirety.

5/8/1854, Saturday (-33,148)

2/8/1854, Wednesday (-33,151) Francis Crawford, US author, was born.

1/8/1854, Tuesday (-33,152) The railway from Maidenhead to High Wycombe opened. The railway from Crediton to Barnstaple opened.

20/7/1854, Thursday (-33,164)

13/7/1854, Thursday (-33,171) Abbas I, Khedive of Egypt, was murdered, aged 41. He was succeeded by his uncle, 32-year old Said Pasha.

12/7/1854. Wednesday (-33,172) George Eastman, USA photographic pioneer who founded Kodak, was born in Waterville, New York State. (see 7/5/1888).

7/7/1854, Friday (-33,177) George Ohm, German scientist who pioneered work on electricity, died in Munich.

5/7/1854, Wednesday (-33,179) In America, the Republican Party was officially founded.

3/7/1854, Monday (-33,181) The railway from Basingstoke to Andover opened.

24/6/1854, Saturday (-33,190) the railway from Hull to Withernsea opened.

22/6/1854, Thursday (-33,192) The railway from Carlisle to Drumburgh opened to passengers.

21/6/1854, Wednesday (-33,193) The first Victoria Cross was awarded, to Charles Lucas, a 20-year-old Irishman who threw an unexploded Russian bomb overboard, whilst on HMS Hecla at Bomarsund in the Baltic.

13/6/1854, Tuesday (-33,201) Sir Charles Parsons, engineer who invented the steam turbine, was born in London.

10/6/1854, Saturday (-33,204) Queen Victoria opened the Crystal Palace on its new site in Sydenham, south London.

29/5/1854, Monday (-33,216) Paddington Station, London, was opened.

26/5/1854. Friday (-33,219) Franco-British forces occupied the port of Piraeus to prevent Greece from joining the Crimean War with Russia against Turkey. See 28/2/1857.

18/5/1854, Thursday (-33,227) The Port Elliot & Goolwa railway, South Australia, opened. Drawn by horse, this was the first public railway in Australia, carrying goods and people.

30/4/1854, Sunday (-33,245) The first railway in Brazil opened.

16/4/1854, Sunday (-33,359) Easter Sunday

13/4/1854, Thursday (-33,262) The railway from Forest Gate through Barking and Grays to Tilbury opened.

31/3/1854. Friday (-33,275) The USA and Japan signed the Treaty of Kanagawa, opening up the Japanese ports of Shimoda and Hakodate to American trade.

27/3/1854. Monday (-33,279) Crimean War began; Britain and France declared war on Russia.  On 12/3/1854 the British and French formally allied with Turkey. See 30/11/1853. The ostensible cause of the Crimean War was a dispute between Russia, France, and Turkey over control of the Christian Holy Places in Turkish-controlled Palestine. The Turks refused Russia’s demands and Russia marched into the Turkish vassal states of Wallachia and Serbia. This threatened Russian occupation of Istanbul and hence Britain’s communications with its Indian Empire, so Britain entered the war against Russia.

20/3/1854, Monday (-33,286) (Russia, Turkey) Russia sent troops southwards across the Danube, threatening Ottoman Turkey. Ultimately this posed the threat of Russia on the Mediterranean, putting communications between Britain and India at risk, and so was unacceptable to the UK.

15/3/1854, Wednesday (-33,291) Emil von Behring, bacteriologist who won the Nobel Prize in 1901 for his work on immunisation against diphtheria, was born.

14/3/1854, Tuesday (-33,292) Paul Erlich, bacteriologist, was born in Strehlen, Silesia (now Poland); died 20/8/1915.

12/3/1854, Sunday (-33,294) Britain and France made an alliance with Ottoman Turkey.

28/2/1854, Tuesday (-33,306) The United States Republican Party was formed, in Ripon, Wisconsin.

17/2/1854, Friday (-33,317) Britain signed the Convention of Bloemfontein, agreeing to withdraw from territory in South Africa north of the Orange River. This left the Orange Free State for Boer settlers.

13/2/1854. Monday (-33,321) Britain’s first public school for girls, Cheltenham Ladies College, opened.

6/2/1854, Monday (-33,328) Russia broke off diplomatic relations with Britain and France.

9/1/1854, Monday (-33,356) Lady Randolph Churchill, mother of Winston Churchill, was born.

3/1/1854, Tuesday (-33,362) An Anglo-French squadron entered the Black Sea, and insisted that the Russian fleet withdraw from attacking Turkey.

2/1/1854, Monday (-33,363) The railway from Carmarthen to Haverfordwest opened.

6/12/1853, Tuesday (-33,390) The railway from Pontypool via Abergavenny to Hereford opened.

30/11/1853. Wednesday (-33,396) The Russians destroyed a Turkish fleet at Sinope. On 3/1/1854 British and French fleets entered the Black Sea to protect Ottoman Turkish coasts and shipping. See 4/10/1853, and 23/3/1854.

15/11/1853, Tuesday (-33,411) Maria II of Portugal died, aged 34. She was succeeded by her 16-year-old son, Pedro V.

21/10/1853, Friday (-33,436) Alfred Nobel was born in Stockholm.

4/10/1853. Tuesday (-33,453) The Russians refused to withdraw from the Danubian Principalities, and Turkey declared war on Russia. On 23/10/1853 the Turks, under Omar Pasha, crossed the Danube into Wallachia. See 30/11/1853.

1/10/1853, Saturday (-33,456) The Yeovil to Taunton railway opened to passengers.

24/9/1853. Saturday (-33,463) Britain’s first provincial newspaper, the Northern Daily Times, was founded in Liverpool.

23/9/1853. Friday (-33,464) The British fleet was ordered to Istanbul.

20/9/1853, Tuesday (-33,467) Elisha Graves Otis opened a factory in New York State for the production of the first modern lifts.

12/9/1853, Monday (-33,475) Charles Dickens’ ninth book, Bleak House, was published in entirety.

7/9/1853, Wednesday (-33,480) Shanghai fell to rebels as the Taiping Rebellion continued.

5/9/1853, Monday (-33,482) The Waterford to Tramore railway opened.

8/8/1853, Monday (-33,510) A Russian fleet arrived at Nagasaki on a trading mission.

4/8/1853, Thursday (-33,514) Newspaper advertisements duty was abolished in Britain.

23/7/1853, Saturday (-33,526) The Japanese Shogun Ieoshi died, aged 61. He was succeeded by his brother, Iesada, who agreed to open two Japanese ports to foreign trade.

8/7/1853. Friday (-33,541) US Commodore Matthew Perry steamed into Japan’s Edo Bay (now Tokyo) with his ‘black ships’ and demanded that the country open up to US trade. He backed up his demand with cannon fire. For 250 years Japan had been a feudal state run by the Tokugawa shoguns.

5/7/1853, Tuesday (-33,544) The colonial administrator Cecil Rhodes, Prime Minister of Cape Colony 1890-96, was born at Bishops Stortford, Hertfordshire, the 7th of 11 children..  His father was a vicar.

22/6/1853, Wednesday (-33,557) A Russian Army attacking Turkey, under Prince Mikhail Gorchakov, invaded Turkey’s Danubian Principalities.

4/6/1853, Saturday (-33,575) The railway from Oxford to Evesham opened.

3/6/1853, Friday (-33,576) Sir Flinders Petrie, British Egyptologist, was born.

18/4/1853, Monday (-33,622) The first railway in India opened; Mumbai to Thana, 30 km. By 1856 rail lines linked Mumbai, Kolkata, Madras and Nagpur.

13/4/1853, Wednesday (-33,627) The railway from Malton to Driffield opened.

7/4/1853, Thursday (-33,633) Queen Victoria used chloroform to help her through the birth of her seventh child, Prince Leopold. This established chloroform as the favoured anaesthetic in Britain.

4/4/1853. Monday (-33,636) The customs union signed by various German states was extended for another 12 years; Austria remained excluded.

1/4/1853, Friday (-33,639) Manchester, UK, was constituted a city.

30/3/1853. Wednesday (-33,641) The artist Vincemt Van Gogh was born in the Dutch village of Groot-Zundert. He was the son of a Lutheran pastor.

29/3/1853, Tuesday (-33,642) Elihu Thomson, English inventor who co-founded the General Electric Company with Thomas Edison, was born.

27/3/1853, Sunday (-33,644) Easter Sunday

19/3/1853, Saturday (-33,652) Taiping (Heavenly Peace) rebels in China, a Protestant movement, challenged the ruling Manchu Ch’ing dynasty by taking the city of Nanjing.

17/3/1853, Thursday (-33,654) Death of Austrian physicist Christian Doppler, who coined the term Doppler effect to explain the apparent change of frequency of a wave when the source is moving relative to the observer.

4/3/1853, Friday (-33,667) Pope Pius IX set up five new bishoprics in The Netherlands, at Breda, Haarlem, s’Hertogenbosh and Roermond, also the Archbishopric of Utrecht, Until then The Netherlands had had no proper Catholic hierarchy since the Reformation, and had been classified as a ‘mission area’. The imposition of this new hierarchy started the April Movement, an anti-Catholic protest in which Catholics were harried on the streets and dismissed from their jobs. The Netherlands Government was forced to resign and eventually the anti-Catholic protests faded away.

15/2/1853, Tuesday (-33,684) The railway from Kew Bridge to Willesden Junction, W London, opened.

29/1/1853, Saturday (-33,701) Napoleon III of France married Eugenie de Montijo in Paris.

22/1/1853, Saturday (-33,708) The University of Melbourne, Australia, was established by Act of Incorporation.

16/1/1853, Sunday (-33,714) Andre Michelin, French manufacturer of pneumatic tyres, was born.

2/12/1852. Thursday (-33,759) Louis Napoleon was proclaimed Emperor of France as Napoleon III.  The Second French Empire was proclaimed.

23/11/1852. Tuesday (-33,768) Britain’s first pillar box was erected, in St Helier on Jersey.

18/11/1852, Thursday (-33,773) Funeral of Lord Wellington in St Paul’s Cathedral.

4/11/1852, Thursday (-33,787) The building of the new House of Commons, following the fire of 1834, was completed, to the designs of Sir Charles Barry and Augustus Pugin.

2/11/1852, Tuesday (-33,789) The Dean of Exeter Cathedral ordered that the cathedral clock be advanced 14 minutes to conform with Greenwich mean time. This was a result of the railways spreading across Britain, and operating on a standard time. Nationwide standardisation of time had begun when the horse-drawn Irish mail coaches began running from London to Ireland via Chester and Holyhead; the mail coach guard carried a watch set to Greenwich time, and was required to inform the innkeepers along the way of the correct time. In 1830 the Manchester and Liverpool railway operated on Greenwich time. But there was resistance to this nationwide time in the West Country and Wales.

1/11/1852, Monday (-33,790) Dame Emma Albani, Canadian singer (died 3/4/1930) was born.

22/10/1852, Friday (-33,800)

15/10/1852, Friday (-33,807) Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, founder of the gymnastic movement (Turnverein) in Germany, died at Freyburg aged 74.

14/10/1852 Thursday (-33,808) Kings Cross Station, London, opened.  The former terminus had been ½ mile north, between Copenhagen and Gasworks Tunnels, at Maiden Lane, see 7/8/1850.

13/10/1852, Wednesday (-33,809) Birth of Lilly Langtry, actress and mistress to King Edward VII.

11/10/1852, Monday (-33,811) The Swansea to Carmarthen railway opened.

2/10/1852, Saturday (-33,820) Lord Ramsay, who discovered the inert gases, was born in Glasgow.

1/10/1852, Friday (-33,821) The Banbury to Birmingham via Olton railway, 42 miles, opened. The Londonderry to Newtown Limavady railway, 18 ¾ miles, opened.

30/9/1852, Thursday (-33,822) Sir Charles Villiers Stanford, Irish composer, was born.

28/9/1852, Tuesday (-33,824)

25/9/1852, Saturday (-33,827) The Mechanic’s Magazine published the plans of a heavier-than-air glider capable of carrying a person.

24/9/1852, Friday (-33,828) The first airship made its maiden flight from the Hippodrome, Paris, travelling 17 miles to Trappes at 8 mph. It was piloted by Henri Giffard. However the craft could only travel in calm weather.

20/9/1852, Monday (-33,832)

14/9/1852, Tuesday (-33,838) (1) Lord Pugin, co-designer of the Houses of Parliament with Sir Charles Barry, died at Ramsgate.

(2) The Duke of Wellington, victor at Waterloo, died at Walmer Castle, Kent, aged 83, as Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports.

13/9/1852, Monday (-33,839) The Newton Stewart to Omagh railway, 9 ½ miles, opened.

12/9/1852, Sunday (-33,840) Herbert Henry Asquith, British Liberal and Prime Minister, was born in Morley, Yorkshire. He introduced the Old Age Pension.

6/9/1852. Monday (-33,846) The first free public lending library opened in Manchester.

25/8/1852, Wednesday (-33,858) The Redruth to Truro railway, 9 miles, opened.

10/8/1852, Tuesday (-33,873) The Elgin to Lossiemouth railway, Scotland, opened.

5/8/1852, Thursday (-33,878) The re-erection of the Crystal Palace at Sydenham, south London.

4/8/1852, Wednesday (-33,879) The first steamship arrived in Australia, from England.

30/7/1852, Friday (-33,884) The Ludlow to Hereford railway, 23 ½ miles, opened.

28/7/1852, Wednesday (-33,886) The Alton to Farnham railway, 8 ¾ miles, opened.

17/7/1852, Saturday (-33,897) Argentina recognised the independence of Paraguay.

15/7/1852, Thursday (-33,899) The railway from Peterborough to Retford opened.

1/7/1852, Thursday (-33,913) The Newport (Wales) to Pontypool via Cwmbran railway, 8 miles, opened. The Birmingham to Bushbury Junction railway, 14 ¾ miles, opened. The Port Dinorwic to Caernarvon railway, 4 miles, opened. Leuchars Junction to St Andrews, 5 miles, opened. Alloa to Stirling, 6 ¾ miles, opened.

24/6/1852, Thursday (-33,920) Viktor Adler, Austrian politician (died 12/11/1918) was born.

21/6/1852, Monday (-33,923) Friedrich Froebel, German educationalist who founded the Kindergarten system in 1837 at Blankenberg, died.

10/6/1852, Thursday (-33,934) The Wellington Inn to Mullaglass railway, 6 miles, opened.

31/5/1852, Monday (-33,944) the Rocester to Ashbourne railway, Derbyshire, 6 ¾ miles, opened.

15/5/1852, Saturday (-33,960) The Melmerby to Stockton via Northallerton railway, 29 miles, opened.

3/5/1852, Monday (-33.972) The Tipperary to Clonmel railway, 24 ½ miles, opened.

1/5/1852, Saturday (-33,974) The Stourbridge Junction to Droitwich railway, 16 ½ miles, opened. Evesham to Norton Junction (near Worcester), 10 ½ miles, opened.

21/4/1852, Wednesday (-33,984) The Shrewsbury to Ludlow railway, 27 ¼ miles, opened.

19/4/1852, Monday (-33,986) The Aberbeeg to Ebbw Vale railway, 6 ¾ miles, opened.

14/4/1852, Wednesday (-33,991) British and Indian forces captured Rangoon.

13/4/1852. Tuesday (-33,992) Frank Winfield Woolworth, the American chain store pioneer, was born in Rodman, Jefferson County, New York State.

11/4/1852, Sunday (-33,994) Easter Sunday. The British began bombarding Rangoon, starting the Second Burman War.

1/4/1852, Thursday (-34,004) The Shelford to Shepreth railway, Cambridgeshire, 5 ¼ miles, opened.

11/3/1852, Thursday (-34,025) The Hayle to Penzance railway, Cornwall, opened.

1/3/1852, Monday (-34,035) The railway from Menai Bridge to Port Dinorwic, 3 ¼ miles, opened.

21/2/1852, Saturday (-34,044) Nikolia Gogol, Russian story writer and novelist, died in Moscow.

16/2/1852, Monday (-34,049) Charles Taze Russell, American who organised the start of modern-day Jehovah’s Witnesses, was born in Pittsburgh.

14/2/1852. Saturday (-34,051) London’s famous children’s hospital, in Great Ormond Street, opened. The first patient admitted was Eliza Armstrong.

11/2/1852. Wednesday (-34,054) The first flushing public toilet for women opened in Fleet Street, London. The cost was 2d. See 2/2/1852.

9/2/1852, Monday (-34,056) The Strabane to Newton Stewart railway, 9 ¾ miles, opened.

3/2/1852, Tuesday (-34, 062) Argentina abandoned plans to annex Uruguay after De Rosas, Argentine dictator, was defeated by a force of Brazilians and Uruguayans at the Battle of Caseros. De Rosas fled to Britain.

2/2/1852, Monday (-34,063) (1) The first public convenience for men opened in Fleet Street, London. See 11/2/1852.

(2) The second Woodhead railway tunnel, between Sheffield and Manchester, opened.  See 22/12/1845, 3/6/1954.

1/2/1852, Sunday (-34,064) The Battle to St Leonards railway, 5 ¼ miles, opened.

21/1/1852, Wednesday (-34,075) The Sandbach to Lawton railway, 6 ½ miles, opened.

19/1/1852, Monday (-34,077) Robert Adamson, Scottish philosopher (died5/2/1902) was born.

17/1/1852, Saturday (-34,079) Britain recognised the independence of the Transvaal Boers.

12/1/1852, Monday (-34,084) Joseph Joffre, French Army Marshall and Commander in Chief on the Western Front, was born in Rivesaltes.

6/1/1852, Tuesday (-34,090) (1) The railway from Portadown to Mullaglass, 16 ¾ miles, opened.

(2) Louis Braille, who invented the raised-dot system of writing used by the blind, died.

1/1/1852, Thursday (-34,095) The railway south from Bow Church to Poplar, E London, 1 ½ miles, opened. The railway from Alston to Lambley, 8 ¾ miles, opened. The railway from Robertsbridge to Battle, 6 miles, opened.

19/12/1851. Friday (-34,108) The painter Joseph Turner died in his house in Chelsea, London, under the assumed name of Booth.

10/12/1851, Wednesday(-34,117) Melvil Dewey, US librarian who devised a system of library cataloguing, was born in Adams Centre, New York State.

8/12/1851, Monday (-34,119) The railway from Cork to Bailinhassig, 10 miles, opened.

13/11/1851. Thursday (-34,144) (1) A telegraphic service between London and Paris was started.

(2) The railway between Moscow and St Petersburg opened.

19/10/1851, Sunday (-34,169) Myeongseong, Empress of Korea, was born.

15/10/1851, Wednesday (-34,173) The Great Exhibition at Hyde Park, London, closed.  It had opened on 1/5/1851. A total of 6 million visitors had attended. The Exhibition made a profit of £186,000 which was used to buy land in South Kensington where the Victoria and Albert Museum now stands.

2/10/1851, Thursday (-34,186) Marshal Ferdinand Foch, French General who led the counteroffensive that defeated Germany in 1918, was born in Tarbes, France.

24/9/1851, Wednesday (-34,194) The Neath to Aberdare railway, 19 miles, opened.

19/9/1851, Friday (-34,199) (1) The railway from Gloucester to Chepstow, 26 ½ miles, opened.

(2) William Lever, soap maker and philanthropist, later Lord Leverhulme, was born in Bolton.  He was the son of a grocer.

18/9/1851. Thursday (-34,200) The New York Times was first published.  It was founded by Henry Jarvis Raymond.

14/9/1851, Sunday (-34,204) Death of the Duke of Wellington, who defeated Napoleon at Waterloo and subsequently became Prime Minister.

9/9/1851, Tuesday (-34,209) The railway from Westbury to Warminster, 5 miles, opened.

1/9/1851, Monday (-34,217) The Tunbridge Wells to Robertsbridge railway, 16 ¼ miles, opened.

13/8/1851, Wednesday (-34,236) Felix Adler, US educationalist (died 24/4/1933) was born.

1/8/1851, Friday (-34,248) (1) The Dublin to Galway railway opened.

(2) The Royston to Shepreth railway, 5 miles, opened. The Mullingar to Galway railway, 76 ¼ miles, opened.

24/7/1851, Thursday (-34,256) In Britain the Window Tax was abolished.

12/7/1851, Saturday (-34,268) Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre, French pioneer in photography, died.

8/7/1851, Tuesday (-34,272) Sir Arthur John Evans, British archaeologist who excavated Knossos on Crete, was born.

15/6/1851, Sunday (-34,295) The first factory-produced ice cream was made in the USA by John Fussell. He wanted to avoid wastage of cream so he froze it; his new food became very popular, and his factory ice cream cost less than a third of the same amount of handmade ice cream.

3/6/1851, Tuesday (-34,307) George Adams, US historian (died 26/5/1925) was born.

2/6/1851, Monday (-34,308) The Rockingham to Luffenham railway opened.

17/5/1851, Saturday (-34,324) The first railway in Peru opened. It ran 15 km from the port of Callao to Lima.

12/5/1851, Monday (-34,329) The railway from Exeter to Crediton, 5 ¾ miles, opened.

6/5/1851, Tuesday (-34,335) Linus Yale patented the Yale lock.

1/5/1851. Thursday (-34,340) The Great Exhibition at the Crystal Palace was opened by Queen Victoria, in Hyde Park, London. There were 13,000 exhibits from around the world in an 1,840 foot long, 408 foot wide, 108 foot high steel and glass hall, designed by Joseph Paxton in only 10 days and prefabricated before being brought to Hyde Park by rail. The hall took 17 weeks to erect. 6 million people, 17% of the UK population, visited, also mainly on the new railways across the nation. The exhibition ended on 15/10/1851. After the Great Exhibition, the Crystal Palace was re-erected at Sydenham where it stood till destroyed by fire in 1936. Prince Albert conceived the idea of the Great Exhibition to promote trade between nations and worldwide peace. The Exhibition was open for 6 months and in that time Queen Victoria visited 41 times. Profits from the event funded the opening of the Royal Albert Hall, the Science Museum, the Natural History Museum, and the Victoria and Albert Museum.

20/4/1851, Sunday (-34,351) Easter Sunday

1/4/1851, Tuesday (-34,370) Rama IV (1804-68) took the Thai throne.

29/3/1851, Saturday (-34,373) Marble Arch, London, was moved from Buckingham Palace to its present position on Oxford Street.

11/3/1851, Tuesday (-34,391) Verdi’s opera Rigoletto was first performed, in Venice.

9/3/1851, Sunday (-34,393) The University of Manchester was founded, as Owens College, Manchester.

1/3//1851, Saturday (-34,401) The Rugby to Leamington Spa line, 14 ½ miles, opened.

13/2/1851, Thursday (-34,417) The line from Ashford to Hastings opened.

12/2/1851, Wednesday (-34,418) The Australian Gold Rush began, after Edward Hargreaves discovered gold at Summerhill Creek, 20 miles north of Bathurst, New South Wales.

1/2/1851, Saturday (-34,429) Mary Shelley, author of Frankenstein, died.

4/1/1851, Saturday (-34,457)

18/12/1850, Wednesday (-34,474) The railway from Chester to Liverpool via Hooton, 16 ¾ miles, opened.

7/12/1850, Saturday (-34,485) The railway from Highbury & Islington to Camden, N London, opened.

4/12/1850, Wednesday (-34,488) William Sturgeon, who devised the first electro-magnet, died at Prestwich, near Manchester.

2/12/1850, Monday (34,490) The railway from Islip to Oxford, 2 ¼ miles, opened.

29/11/1850, Friday (-34,493) An uprising began in Warsaw against Russian rule.

19/11/1850, Tuesday (-34,503) Alfred Lord Tennyson was appointed Poet Laureate, a post he held until his death in 1892.

14/11/1850, Thursday (-34,508) (1) In Kilkenny, Ireland, the Bagenalstown to Laristown Junction railway, 10 ¾ miles, opened.

(2) Charles Dickens’ eighth book, David Copperfield, was published in entirety.

13/11/1850, Wednesday (-34,509) The writer Robert Louis Stevenson was born in Edinburgh, at 8 Howard Place.  His father and grandfather were lighthouse builders.

1/11/1850, Friday (-34,521) In Cumbria, the Foxfield to Bootle railway, 13 miles, opened.

28/10/1850, Monday (-34,525) The railway from Closeburn to New Cumnock, 25 ½ miles, opened.

21/10/1850, Monday (-34,532) The railway from Hitchin to Royston, 13 miles, opened.

7/10/1850, Monday (-34,546) The Westbury to Frome railway, 5 ¾ miles, opened.

5/10/1850, Saturday (-34,548) The Abbots Wood Junction to Worcester railway, 4 miles, opened.

4/10/1850, Friday (-34,549) The bowler hat went on general sale in London.

1/10/1850, Tuesday (-34,552) The Verney Junction to Islip via Bicester railway, 16 miles, opened.

26/9/1850, Thursday (-34,557) The railway from Highbury & Islington through Hackney to Old Ford and Bow, E London, opened.

12/9/1850, Thursday (-34,571) The Coventry to Nuneaton railway, 10 ¼ miles, opened.

9/9/1850. Monday (-34,574) California became the 31st State of the USA.

2/9/1850, Monday (-34,581) The railway from Oxford to Banbury, 24 miles, opened.

28/8/1850. Wednesday (-34,586) (1) The Dunfermline to Alloa railway, 13 ¾ miles, opened.

(2) The Channel telegraph was laid between Dover and Cap Gris Nez.

26/8/1850, Monday (-34,588) Death of Louis Philippe, the ‘citizen king’, who abdicated rather than face a middle-class revolt.

19/8/1850, Monday (-34,595) The Alnmouth to Alnwick railway, 3 miles, opened.

18/8/1850, Sunday (-34,596) Honore de Balzac, French writer, died in Paris.

7/8/1850, Wednesday (-34,607) The Great Northern London terminus at Maiden Land, now York way, opened, see 14/10/1852. The line ran through Hornsey and Wood Green, northwards to Peterborough, 78 ¾ miles. The Halifax to Low Moor railway, 5 ¼ miles, opened. The Clarborough Junction to Sykes Junction (Cottam) line, Lincolnshire, 8 ¼ miles, opened.

15/7/1850, Monday (-34,630) The Bowling to Balloch (Clydeside) railway, 8 miles, opened. The Nottingham to Grantham via Bottesford line, 19 ¾ miles, opened.

9/7/1850, Tuesday (-34,636) Zachary Taylor, American general and Whig, 12th US President for only 16 months, died in Washington DC.  The remainder of his term was completed by Millard Fillmore.

8/7/1850, Monday (-34,637) The Ravenglass to Bootle railway, 4 ½ miles, opened.

7/7/1850, Sunday (-34,638) The Scottish explorer, Edward Eyre arrived in Albany, Western Australia, having crossed the Nullarbor Plain, the first White man to do this.

5/7/1850, Friday (-34,640)

2/7/1850, Tuesday (-34,643) Sir Robert Peel, British Conservative Prime Minister and founder of the police force in 1829, died in London due to a riding accident.

1/7/1850, Monday (-34,644) The Huddersfield to Penistone railway, 13 ½ miles, also the Holmfirth branch, 2 miles, opened.

24/6/1850, Monday (-34,651) Lord Kitchener, British army commander and Secretary of State for War in 1914, was born near Ballylongford, County Kerry, Eire.

22/6/1850, Saturday (-34,653) The Blackburn to Chatburn railway, 12 ¾ miles, opened.

18/6/1850, Tuesday (-34,657) The Chepstow to Swansea via Cardiff, Peterston and Bridgend railway, 74 ¾ miles, opened.

17/6/1850, Monday (-34,658) The St Boswells to Kelso railway, 10 ½ miles, opened.

10/6/1850, Monday (-34,665)

2/6/1850, Sunday (-34,673) Jesse Boot, British pharmacist, was born in Nottingham.

1/6/1850, Saturday (-34,674) The railway from Bentham to Clapham, Lancashire, 4 ¼ miles, opened. The railway from Market Harborough to Rockingham, 9 ¾ miles, opened.

31/5/1850, Friday (-34,675) France passed a law requiring voters to be resident in the same place for three years before qualifying for a vote.  This was to exclude migratory workers, who tended to be radical.

28/5/1850, Tuesday (-34,678)

25/5/1850, Saturday (-34,681) The first hippopotamus to be kept in Britain arrived at London Zoo.

24/5/1850, Friday (-34,682) Jane Porter, English novelist (born 1776) died.

20/5/1850, Monday (-34,686) The railway from Auchinlek to New Cumnock, 7 ¼ miles, opened. The Galston to Newmilns railway opened.

13/5/1850, Monday (-34,693) The railway from Newport, S Wales, to Blaina, 18 ¾ miles, opened.

10/5/1850, Friday (-34,696) Sir Thomas Lipton, British grocer and philanthropist, was born in Glasgow.

9/5/1850, Thursday (-34,697) The railway from Low Moor north to Bradford, Yorkshire, 3 miles, opened.

8/5/1850, Wednesday (-34,698)

7/5/1850, Tuesday (-34,699) Anton Seidl, Hungarian operatic conductor, was born (died 28/3/1898).

6/5/1850, Monday (-34,700) The railway from Belfast to Newtonards, 13 ½ miles, opened.

4/5/1850, Saturday (-34,702)

2/5/1850, Thursday (-34,704) The railway from Wennington to Bentham, Lancashire, 3 ¼ miles, opened.

1/5/1850, Wednesday (-34,705) The railway from Bletchley to Banbury via Brackley, 31 miles, opened. Also this day the Rugby to Market Harborough, 17 ¾ miles, opened.

23/4/1850, Tuesday (-34,713) Sir William Wordsworth, Poet Laureate from 1843, died of pleurisy at midday at Rydal Mount, Grasmere, aged 80.

19/4/1850, Friday (-34,717) The Clayton-Bulwer Treaty between the USA and UK was signed. It was an agreement on the terms for building a canal across central America; under this treaty, neither party would exercise exclusive control over such a canal or fortify it.

16/4/1850. Tuesday (-34,720) Swiss waxworks show proprietor Madame Marie Tussaud died. She was born on 1/12/1761 in Strasbourg. She learnt the art of wax modelling from her uncle, Philippe Curtius. Before the French Revolution Mme Tussaud was art tutor at Versailles to Louis XVI’s sister, Elizabeth. After a period in prison she was tasked with making death masks from the heads of those guillotined, some of whom she recognised as friends. She left Paris in 1802, along with her waxwork models, and two sons from a failed marriage to a French engineer, Francois Tussaud. She spent 33 years touring Britain before opening a permanent display in London.

31/3/1850, Sunday (-34,736) Easter Sunday.

18/3/1850, Monday (-34,749) The American Express Company was set up in Buffalo, New York.

7/3/1850, Thursday (-34,760) Thomas Masaryk, the first President of Czechoslovakia in 1918, was born in Hodonin, Moravia.

5/3/1850, Tuesday (-34,762) The Menai tubular railway bridge, constructed by George Stephenson, was opened. The Llanfair to Bangor line, 3 ½ miles, opened 18/3/1850.

1/3/1850, Friday (-34,766) The Walsall to Dudley railway, 6 miles, opened.

18/2/1850, Monday (-34,777) The Worcester to Stoke Junction railway, 9 ¾ miles, opened.

15/2/1850, Friday (-34,780) Albert Cummins, US politician, was born (died 30/7/1926).

14/2/1850, Thursday (-34,781) The railway from Drogheda to Navan, 17 miles, opened.

29/1/1850, Tuesday (-34,797) Sir Ebenezer Howard, who started the Garden City movement, was born in London.

3/1/1850, Thursday (-34,823) Work began in Hyde Park, London, on the glass and iron Crystal Palace, built for the Great Exhibition.

1/1/1850, Tuesday (-34,825) The railway from Horbury Junction (Dewsbury) to Barnsley, 9 miles, opened.

17/12/1849, Monday (-34,840) Landowner Edward Coke tested a new type of hat he had ordered to protect his head from low-hanging branches whilst out hunting; top hats were too easily knocked off. This day he visited the Lockes hatters shop in St James, London, to test the new bowler hat, named after its designed, by jumping on it twice. It withstood the test and he bought it.

13/12/1849, Thursday (-34,844) The railway from Crossgates to Dunfermline, 3 ½ miles, opened.

12/12/1849, Wednesday (-34,845) Sir Marc Isambard Kingdom Brunel, builder of the Thames Tunnel from Wapping to Rotherhithe, died in London aged 80.

3/12/1849, Monday (-34,854) The Burston to Norwich (Victoria) railway, 17 ½ miles, opened.

1/12/1849, Saturday (-34,856) (1) Queen Adelaide, wife of King William IV, died.

(2) The Datchet to Windsor railway, 1 ¾ miles, opened.

17/11/1849, Saturday (-34,870) The railway from Lancaster to Wennington, 10 ½ miles, opened.

13/11/1849, Tuesday (-34,874) The railway from Shrewsbury to Oakengates, Shropshire, opened.

12/11/1849, Monday (-34,857) The railway from Todmorden to Burnley, 9 ¾ miles, opened. Also this day the railway from Ratho to Bathgate, 10 ¼ miles, opened.

10/11/1849, Saturday (-34,877) The railway from Swinton to Doncaster, 8 miles, opened.

1/11/1849, Thursday (-34,886) The Mallow to Cork railway, 19 ¾ miles, opened. Also this day the Montrose to Aberdeen railway opened; the section from Porthlethen to Aberdeen opened 1/4/1850.

29/10/1849, Monday (-34,889) The St Boswells to Hawick railway, 12 ¼ miles, opened.

17/10/1849. Wednesday (-34,901) Frederic Chopin, born 1/3/1810 near Warsaw, Poland, died aged 39 of tuberculosis in Paris.

15/10/1849, Monday (-34,903) The railway from Guildford to Godalming, 3 ¼ miles, opened. Also this day the railway from Dumfries to Closeburn, 11 ½ miles, opened.

14/10/1849, Sunday (-34,904) Edward Coplestone, English Bishop, died.

11/10/1849, Thursday (-34,907)

9/10/1849, Tuesday (-34,909) The railway from Codnor Park to Mansfield, 9 ¾ miles, opened.

8/10/1849, Monday (-34,910) The railway from Slough to Eton opened. Also this day the Ash Junction to Farnham railway, 4 ¾ miles, opened.

7/10/1849, Sunday (-34,911) Edgar Allen Poe, US fiction writer, died aged 40, in Baltimore, Maryland.

1/10/1849, Monday (-34,917)

26/9/1849, Wednesday (-34,922) Ivan Pavlov, son of a village priest, was born this day near Ryazan, Russia. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1904 for his discovery of conditioned reflexes.

25/9/1849, Tuesday (-34,923) Johann Strauss the Elder died, aged 45, of scarlet fever.

14/9/1849, Friday (-34,934) The Mold to Mold Junction railway, north Wales, opened.

12/9/1849, Wednesday (-34,936) Pontefract to Methley railway, 4 ½ miles, opened.

5/9/1849, Wednesday (-34,943) The Chevington to Amble railway, 5 miles, opened.

4/9/1849, Tuesday (-34,944) The Retford to Doncaster railway, 17 ¼ miles, opened.

1/9/1849, Saturday, (-34,947) The Washington to Pelaw railway (Tyneside) opened.

24/8/1849, Friday (-34,955) Karl Marx moved from France to England.

22/8/1849, Wednesday (-34,957) (1) The railway from Barnes through Kew Bridge west towards Hounslow opened..

(2) Amaral, the Portuguese Governor of Macao, was assassinated for his pro-Chinese policies.

20/8/1849, Thursday (-34,963) The Dorking to Ash railway, 10 ½ miles, the Franborough to Ash Junction railway, 4 ¾ miles, and the Ash Junction to Guildford railway, 5 ½ miles, opened.

14/8/1849, Tuesday (-34,965) The Chester to Mold railway, 10 miles, opened.

13/8/1849, Monday (-34,966) The Hungarian General, Gorgey, surrendered unconditionally to the Russian Commander in Chief, Field Marshall Paskevic. The Hungarian leader, Kossuth, who had urged the continuation of the conflict right up to the end, escaped to Turkey.

12/8/1849, Sunday (-34,967)

10/8/1849, Friday (-34,969) The railway from Reston to Duns (Borders), 8 ¾ miles, opened.

9/8/1849, Thursday (-34,970) The railway from Hurlford to Galston opened.

5/8/1849, Sunday (-34,974)

2/8/1849. Thursday (-34,977) Mohammed Ali, ruler of Egypt from 1805 to 1848, died. Apart from his military successes, he laid the foundations of a modern educational and administrative system, and revolutionised the Egyptian economy.

1/8/1849, Wednesday (-34,978) The Skipton to Ingleton railway, 25 miles, opened. Also this day the Heaton Norris to Guide Bridge railway (5 miles), the Huddersfield to Stalybridge railway (18 miles) and the Bandon to Ballinhassig railway, Cork, (10 miles), opened. The Standedge rail tunnel, UK, 5 km long, opened.

30/7/1849, Monday (-34,980) The railway from Deptford via Blackheath, Charlton and Woolwich to Gravesend, 21 ¼ miles, opened.

28/7/1849, Saturday (-34,982) Hungary’s Diet passed the Nationalities Law, granting the non-Magyar peoples of Hungary substantial rights in the use of their native languages, also regional autonomy. This was a last-ditch effort by the Diet to win over the loyalty of the peasants and make them more willing to fight against Austria; a string of Hungarian defeats, and the entry of Russia on Austria’s side, had demoralised the Hungarian Army and created a shortage of recruits.

27/7/1849, Friday (-34,983) The Sprouston to Tweedmouth (Berwick) railway, 21 miles, opened.

24/7/1849, Tuesday (-34,986)

21/7/1849, Saturday (-34,989) The Ravenglass to Whitehaven railway, 16 ½ miles, opened.

20/7/1849, Friday (-34,990) The Manchester to Altrincham railway, 8 miles, opened.

19/7/1849, Thursday (-34,991) Sayid Ali Mohammed, founder of the Bahai religion, was executed in Persia by order of the Shah.

17/7/1849, Tuesday (-34,993) The Woodhouse (Sheffield) to Gainsborough railway opened.

13/7/1849, Friday (-34,997) (1) the North Rode to Uttoxeter via Leek railway, 28 miles, opened. The Tutbury via Egginton to Derby mainline opened.

(2) Huddersfield Railway Station, Yorkshire, opened.

12/7/1849, Thursday (-34,998) Sir William Osler, medical teacher, was born in Ontario, Canada,

10/7/1849, Tuesday (-35,000) The Weeton to Leeds railway, 11 ¼ miles, opened.

4/7/1849, Wednesday (-35,006) The Redhill to Dorking railway, 8 miles, opened. Also this day the Reading to Farnborough railway opened.

2/7/1849, Monday (-35,008) The railway from Marks Tey to Sudbury, 11 ¾ miles, opened. The railway from Haughley to Burston opened.

18/6/1849, Monday (-35,022) The railway from Congleton to Macclesfield opened.

17/6/1849, Sunday (-35,023) Russian troops invaded Hungary.

15/6/1849, Friday (-35,025) James Knox Polk, American Democrat and 11th President from 1845 to 1849, died in Nashville, Tennessee.

4/6/1849, Monday (-35,036) The railway from Ambergate to Rowsley, Derbyshire, 11 ¼ miles, opened.

2/6/1849, Saturday (-35,038) The railway from Motherwell to Glasgow, 11 ¾ miles, opened.

1/6/1849, Friday (-35,039) The railway from Wolverhampton to Oakengates, Shropshire, opened. The railway from Shrewsbury to Wellington (10 ½ miles), Wellington to Oakengates (2 ½ miles) and Wellington to Stafford (18 miles) also opened this day.

28/5/1849, Monday (-35,043) (1) Anne Bronte, English novelist, died in Scarborough, Yorkshire, aged 29.

(2) The railway from Newry to Warrenpoint, 5 ¾ miles, opened.

21/5/1849, Monday (-34,050) Buda Castle was stormed by Austrian forces.

19/5/1849, Saturday (-34,052) William Hamilton attempted to assassinate Queen Victoria.

14/5/1849, Monday (-34,057) The railway from Polegate to Eastbourne, 4 miles, and Polegate to Hailsham, 3 miles, opened.

10/5/1849. Thursday (-35,061) In New York, 22 died and 56 were injured as troops fired on anti-British riots sparked by Irish gangs. The mob, armed with bricks and clubs, had gathered outside the Astor Place Opera House to revile the British actor Charles Macready, who had scorned the vulgarity of Americans.

3/5/1849, Thursday (-35,068) Bernhard, Prince von Bulow, German Chancellor and Prime Minister of Prussia (1900--09) was born.

1/5/1849, Tuesday (-35,070) The railway from Stone to Colwich (east of Stafford), 11 ½ miles, opened.

13/4/1849, Friday (-35,088) The Hungarian Diet proclaimed a Republic, with Lajos Kossuth as President.

10/4/1849. Tuesday (-35,091) Walter Hunt of New York patented the safety pin. He made it in only three hours, then sold the rights for $400 to pay off debts.

9/4/1849, Monday (-35,092) The railway from Gainsborough to Lincoln, 16 miles, opened. Also on this day the railway from Walsall to Alrewas and Wichnor Junction, 17 ¼ miles, opened.

8/4/1849, Sunday (-35,093) Easter Sunday

2/4/1849, Monday (-35,099) The railway from Brigg to Gainsborough, 16 ½ miles, opened. Also this day the Preston to Liverpool via Ormskirk railway, 22 ¾ miles, opened.

23/3/1849, Friday (-35,109) Victor Emmanuel II became King of Sardinia, on the abdication of his father, Charles Albert (1789-1849), following the defeat of Charles at the Battle of Novara, against Austria. Charles had been assisting the Lombards in a rebellion against Austrian rule, and had been defeated once before by Austria, at the Battle of Custozza (25/7/1848), by forces under Radetzky (following this 1848 defeat, the Salasco Armistice was signed).

20/3/1849, Tuesday (-35,112) The railway from Dereham to Fakenham, 12 ¼ miles, opened.

19/3/1849, Monday (-35,113) Alfred von Tirpitz, German Admiral, was born in Kustrin, Brandenburg, Prussia.

17/3/1849. Saturday (-35,115) (1) Elastic bands patented, by Stephen Perry’s London rubber company.

(2) The railway from Limerick Junction to Mallow opened.

6/3/1849, Tuesday (-35,126) The Northallerton to Leeming Bar railway, 5 ¾ miles, opened.

1/3/1849, Thursday (-35,131) In London, the railway from Angel Road via Edmonton to Enfield Town, 3 miles, was opened. Also this day the railway from New Holland to Barton (Lincolnshire), 4 miles, opened. Also this day the railway from Bowland via Galashiels to St Boswells, 10 ¾ miles, opened.

21/2/1849. Wednesday (-35,139) Sikh forces were decisively defeated by the British at the Battle of Gujerat. This concluded the Second Sikh War; Britain annexed Punjab.

15/2/1849, Thursday (-35,145) The Dundalk to Drogheda (22 miles) and the Dundalk to Castle Blayney (18 miles) opened.

13/2/1849, Tuesday (-35,147) Lord Randolph Churchill, British Conservative politician and father of Winston Churchill, was born at Blenheim Palace, Woodstock, Oxfordshire.

9/2/1849, Friday (-35,151) The Republic of Rome was proclaimed by Garibaldi. His Nationalist Army came under attack (from 30/4/1849) from a combined force of French, Austrian, Tuscan, Spanish and Neapolitan troops.

1/2/1849, Thursday (-35,159) The railway branch from Surbiton to Hampton Court, London, was opened. Also this day the railway from Burnley to Colne opened.

31/1/1849, Wednesday (-35,160) Britain’s Corn Laws were abolished.

25/1/1849, Thursday (-35,166)

23/1/1849. Tuesday (-35,168) English-born Elizabeth Blackwell graduated from a New York medical school to become the first female doctor.

22/1/1849, Monday (-35,169) August Strindberg, playwright, was born in Stockholm, Sweden.

18/1/1849, Thursday (-35,173) Sir Edmund Burton, the first Prime Minister of Australia in 1901, was born in Glebe, Sydney.

5/1/1849, Friday (-35,186) Franz Joef’s Austrian troops arrived in Buda, to occupy Buda and Pest, and suppress the Hungarian Revolution.

23/12/1848, Saturday (-35,199) The Gobowen to Oswestry railway, 2 ½ miles, opened.

20/12/1848, Wednesday (-35,202) Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was proclaimed President of France.

19/12/1848. Tuesday (-35,203) Emily Bronte, English novelist who wrote Wuthering Heights, born 30/7/1818, died, from tuberculosis, aged 30.

18/12/1848, Monday (-35,204) The Newton Abbot to Torre railway, 4 miles, opened. Also this day the Market Rasen to Lincoln railway, 14 ¾ miles, opened.

11/12/1848. Monday (-35,211) Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was elected President of the French Republic by a large majority.

2/12/1848, Saturday (-35,220) Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria abdicated in favour of his nephew, Francis Joseph.

20/11/1848, Monday (-35,232) The Liverpool to Wigan railway, 18 ½ miles, opened. Also this day the Bolton to Bury railway (5 ½ miles) and the Wigan to Hindley railway (3 miles) opened.

3/11/1848, Friday (-35,249) The first railway in Guyana opened. It ran from Georgetown to Mahiba.

1/11/1848. Wednesday (-35,251) (1) The Ulceby and Habrough to Brigg and Market Rasen railways, 24 ¼ miles, opened. Also this day the Reading to Basingstoke railway, 13 ½ miles, opened.

(2) W H Smith opened his first bookstall at Euston Station, London, the start of multiple retailing in Britain.

30/10/1848, Monday (-35,253) The York to Knaresborough railway, 14 ½ miles, opened.

28/10/1848, Saturday (-35,255) The first railway in Spain opened.

17/10/1848, Tuesday (-35,266) The railway from Peterborough to Boston and on to Lincoln via Bardney, 59 miles, opened.

14/10/1848, Saturday (-35,269) The railway from Shrewsbury to Ruabon, 25 ¼ miles, opened.

9/10/1848, Monday (-35,274) The Stoke on Trent to Crewe and Congleton railways opened, 20 ½ miles.

2/10/1848, Monday (-35,281) The railway from Firsby to Boston, 15 ¼ miles, opened. Also this day the Coalville to Burton on Trent railway, 14 miles, and the Swadlincote branch, 2 ½ miles, opened. Also this day the Nottingham (Mansfield Junction) to Kirkby in Ashfield railway, 12 ½ miles, opened. Also this day the Skipton to Colne railway11 ¼ miles, opened.

26/9/1848, Tuesday (-35,287) The Glasgow to Barrhead railway, 6 ¾ miles, opened.

23/9/1848. Saturday (-35,290) Chewing gum was commercially produced for the first time. It was called ‘State of Maine Pure Spruce Gum’.

18/9/1848, Monday (-35,295) The railway from Accrington to Burnley, 5 ¼ miles, opened.

13/9/1848, Wednesday (-35,300) The railway from Ripon to Wormald Green, 5 miles, opened.

12/9/1848, Tuesday (-35,301) Switzerland adopted a Federal constitution.

11/9/1848, Monday (-35,302) The railway from Uttoxeter to Burton on Trent, 12 ¾ miles, opened. Also this day the railway from Dereham to Swaffham, 9 miles, opened.

7/9/1848. Thursday (-35,306) (1) The Congress in Vienna, which opened on 22/7/1848, abolished serfdom, and the feudal system of land tenure. This greatly benefited the Czechs, who since the Battle of the White Mountains, 1620, had become a peasant nation, with only the beginnings of a middle class by 1800. After serfdom was abolished, the system of peasant ownership of land allowed national wealth to be built up, and personal liberty enabled an educational system to be established.

(2) The railway from Arksey to Doncaster, 2 miles, opened.

5/9/1848, Tuesday (-35,308) The railway from Westbury (Wiltshire) to Thingley Junction (Chippenham) opened.

4/9/1848, Monday (-35,309) The railway from Louth to Firsby, 18 ½ miles, opened.

1/9/1848, Friday (-35,312) The railway from Weeton to Wormald Green (Harrogate), 12 ¾ miles, opened. Also this day the railway from Fareham to Cosham, 5 ¾ miles, opened.

26/8/1848. Saturday (-35,318) (1) Garibaldi was defeated by the Austrians at Morrazone.

(2) Denmark and Prussia signed a truce at Malmo. Both agreed to evacuate the disputed territory of Schleswig-Holstein.

23/8/1848, Wednesday (-35,321) The railway from Gretna to Dumfries, 24 ¼ miles, opened.

22/8/1848, Tuesday (-35,322) (1) Mathieu Louisi became the first Black MP to sit in a European Parliament when he was elected representative for Guadeloupe to the French Parliament. His maiden speech in November calling for more harmonious relations between the races was met with disapproval, and he lost his seat at the next election.

(2) Datchet station, south west London, opened. The railway was extended west from Richmond, SW London, 14 miles.

(3) The world’s first aerial bombing raid was carried out by the Austrians against the defenders of Venice. Unmanned hot air balloons with 30 pound bombs were sent across; they caused little damage but much bemusement.

15/8/1848, Tuesday (-35,329) The Maldon to Braintree railway, Essex, 12 miles, opened.

12/8/1848, Saturday (-35,332) George Stephenson, the engineer who built the first modern railway in 1825, from Stockton to Darlington, died at Tapton, near Chesterfield, Derbyshire.

7/8/1848, Monday (-35,337) The railway from Stoke on Trent to Uttoxeter, 16 ½ miles, opened. Also this day the railway from Kilmarnock to Muirkirk, 24 miles, opened.

4/8/1848, Friday (-35,340) The railway from Gorebridge (Edinburgh) to Bowland, 17 ¾ miles, opened.

2/8/1848, Wednesday (-35,342) (1) The railway from Belfast to Holywood opened.

(2) The Perth to Forfar via Coupar Angus railway opened, 32 ½ miles.

1/8/1848, Tuesday (-35,343) The railway from Selby to Market Weighton opened, 16 ¼ miles. Also the railway from Llanfair to Holyhead opened this day, 21 ¼ miles.

28/7/1848, Friday (-35,347)

25/7/1848, Tuesday (-35,350) Arthur James Balfour, British Conservative and Prime Minister, was born in East Lothian, Scotland.

24/7/1848, Monday (-35,351) The Waterloo (Liverpool) to Southport railway, 13 ¼ miles, opened. Also on this day the Carlow to Bagenalstown railway, 10 miles, opened.

22/7/1848, Saturday (-35,353)

20/7/1848, Thursday (-35,355) The Spofforth to Harrogate railway, 4 ¾ miles, opened.

19/7/1848. Wednesday (-35,356) At the first women’s rights convention, at Seneca Falls, New York State, female rights campaigner Amelia Bloomer, born on 27/5/1818 in New York, introduced ‘bloomers’ to the world. She described these as ‘the lower part of a rational female dress’. The wearing of trousers by a woman caused much concern. She was campaigning for women’s equality in voting, religion, marriage, work, education, and society. New York, in 1848, passed the Married Women’s Property Act allowing divorced women to keep some of their possessions.

18/7/1848, Tuesday (-35,357) The cricketer W G Grace was born at Downend near Bristol.

13/7/1848, Thursday (-35,362) The first train arrived at London’s new Waterloo Station, from Southampton, see 1/7/1848.

5/7/1848, Wednesday (-35,370) The Lenzie to Lennoxtown railway, Glasgow, 5 ¼ miles, opened.

4/7/1848, Tuesday (-35,371) The Communist Manifesto, written by Karl Marx and Freidrich Engels, was published.

3/7/1848, Monday (-35,372) The Thurles to Limerick Junction railway, 20 ½ miles, opened.

1/7/1848, Saturday (-35,374) Waterloo Station, London, was completed.  Previously, trains had terminated at Nine Elms, 2 ¾ miles south-west, and rail passengers took a steamboat to The City.  See 13/7/1848.

27/6/1848, Tuesday (-25,378) Denis Affre, Archbishop of Paris (born 27/9/1793) died.

26/6/1848. Monday (-25,379) Riots in Paris from the 23rd to the 26th June. See 27/2/1848.

25/6/1848, Sunday (-25,380)

24/6/1848, Saturday (-35,381) Brooks Adams, US historian, (died 13/2/1927) was born.

23/6/1848. Friday (-35,382) Adolfe Sax, born on 6/11/1814 in Dinant, Belgium, was awarded a patent for the saxophone.

19/6/1848, Monday (-35,386) The railway from Blackburn to Accrington, 5 ¼ miles, opened.

12/6/1848, Monday (-35,393) The Lancaster to Morecambe railway (3 ½ miles) and the Tiverton Junction to Tiverton railway (4 ¾ miles) opened.

7/6/1848, Wednesday (-35,398) (1) The Haughley to Finningham railway, Suffolk, 3 ¾ miles, opened.

(2) Paul Gauguin, French painter, was born in Paris.  He was the son of a journalist.

6/6/1848, Tuesday (-35,399) The railway from Knottingley to Doncaster via Askern, 12 ½ miles, opened.

29/5/1848, Monday (-35,407) (1) Wisconsin became the 30th State of the Union.

(2) The Leighton Buzzard to Dunstable railway opened.

24/5/1848, Wednesday (-35,412) Annette von Droste-Hulshoff, German poet (born Hulshoff, Germany, 10/1/1797) died in Meersburg, Germany.

23/5/1848, Tuesday (-35,413) The Stirling to Perth railway, 33 miles, opened.

22/5/1848, Monday (-35,414) The Irvine to Crosshouse railway, 5 ½ miles, opened.

13/5/1848, Saturday (-35,423) Alexander Baring, British financier and politician, died (born 27/10/1774)

11/5/1848, Thursday (-35,425) The Kilkenny to Thomastown railway, 10 ¾ miles, opened.

10/5/1848, Wednesday (-35,426) The French Assembly spurned the proposal of Louis Blanc to establish a Ministry of Labour and Progress, a bold measure to implement Blanc's socialist agenda.

9/5/1848, Tuesday (-35,427) The Limerick to Tipperary railway, 24 ¾ miles, opened.

5/5/1848, Friday (-35,431) The railway from Totnes to Plymouth, 21 ¼ miles, opened.

4/5/1848, Thursday (-35,432)

2/5/1848. Tuesday (-35,434) Prussia invaded Denmark over the Schleswig-Holstein question.

1/5/1848, Monday (-35,435) The railway from Chester to Bangor, 57 ¾ miles, opened. Also on this day the railway from Bury to Heywood, Lancashire, 4 ¼ miles, opened.

29/4/1848, Saturday (-35,437)

23/4/1848, Sunday (-35,443) Easter Sunday.

22/4/1848, Saturday (-35,444) To placate a restive peasantry, the governor of Galicia, Franz von Stadion, ordered that peasant tenant farmers should receive the freehold to their land and the gentry landlords be compensated by the State. Furthermore on 7/9/1848 (see date above also) the peasants were granted unrestricted access to woods, meadows and pastures.

17/4/1848, Monday (-35,449) The railway from Stoke on Trent to Norton Bridge, 10 ¾ miles, opened.

15/4/1848, Saturday (-35,451)

13/4/1848. Thursday (-35,453) Sicily declared itself independent from Naples.

12/4/1848, Wednesday (-35,454) Charles Dickens’ seventh book, Dombey and Son, was published in entirety.

11/4/1848, Tuesday (-35,455) The railway from Belfast to Ballymena, 33 ½ miles, also the Carrickfergus branch (3 miles) and the Randalstown branch (2 miles) opened.

10/4/1848, Monday (-35,456) A further Chartist petition was rejected (see 28/2/1837).

1/4/1848, Saturday (-35,465) The railway from Wakefield to Goole via Knottingley and Rawcliffe, 27 ½ miles, opened.

30/3/1848, Thursday (-35,467) Niagara Falls ceased to flow for 30 hours, as an ice dam built up in Lake Erie.

23/3/1848. Thursday (-35,474)  (1) Hungary proclaimed its independence from Austria.  On 5/1/1849 Budapest surrendered to the Austrians.

(2) The first official settlement at Dunedin, New Zealand.

21/3/1848, Tuesday (-35,476)

20/3/1848, Monday (-35,477) (1) Ludwig I, King of Bavaria, abdicated.

(2) The railway from Melton Mowbray to Stamford via Oakham opened.

19/3/1848, Sunday (-35,478) Wyatt Earp, American law enforcer, was born in Monmouth, Illinois.

18/3/1848, Saturday (-35,479) Revolution broke out in Milan.

17/3/1848, Friday (-35,480) Protests in Berlin against the conservatism of Prussian ruler Frederick William IV.

15/3/1848, Wednesday (-35,482) The Hungarian revolution began in Budapest.

7/3/1848, Tuesday (-35.490) Irish Nationalist leader Thomas Francis Meagher unveiled the current Irish flag at a meeting in Waterford. He explained the design as the central white third representing a truce between the Protestant Orange and the Catholic Green factions.

3/3/1848, Friday (-35,494) Louis-Philippe of France arrived in England, following his abdication. Meanwhile economic depression and hunger, and discontent amongst the growing middle classes, was spurring revolution across Europe. Demonstrations occurred in Vienna and across Hungarian cities; ethnic minorities within the Austro-Hungarian Empire were demanding self-rule. Venice proclaimed independence from Austria.

1/3/1848, Wednesday (-35,496) The Louth to Grimsby and New Holland railway opened. Also on this day the Stirling to Greenhill railway, 12 ½ miles, and the Portadown to Armagh railway, 10 ½ miles, opened.

27/2/1848. Sunday (-35,499) France created national workshops to relieve unemployment.

26/2/1848, Saturday (-35,500) The Second French Republic was proclaimed. See 24/2/1848.

25/2/1848, Friday (-35,501)

24/2/1848. Thursday (-35,502) The French monarchy fell as King Louis Philippe fled to exile in England. See 26/2/1848.

23/2/1848, Wednesday (-35,503) John Quincy Adams, 6th American President from 1825 to 1829, died in the White House.

21/2/1848, Monday (-35,505) The Communist Manifesto was first published.

15/2/1848, Tuesday (-35,511) The Beattock to Edinburgh railway, 61 ¼ miles, opened.

14/2/1848, Monday (-35,512) The Three Bridges to Horsham railway, 8 ½ miles, opened. Also on this day the Weybridge to Chertsey and Virginia Water railway, 3 miles, opened.

10/2/1848, Thursday (-35,516)

2/2/1848. Wednesday (-35,524) Mexico finally collapsed after nearly 2 years of war with the USA, in which 13,000 US soldiers were killed. Under the Treaty of Hidalgo, signed at Vera Cruz, Mexico surrendered Texas, New Mexico, and California for a payment of US$15million. The size of the USA was thus increased by nearly a third. The Mexicans feared US occupation of their own country and had no money left to fund the war.

1/2/1848, Tuesday (-35,525) The Wisbech to Magdalen Road railway, 9 ½ miles, opened. Also on this day the St Ives to March railway, 19 miles, opened. Also on this day the Guthrie to Montrose railway, 12 ¼ miles, and Brechin to Bridge if Dun, 4 miles, opened.

24/1/1848. Monday (-35,533) Gold was discovered at Sutlers Mill in California, by James Marshall. This started the Gold Rush. In 1841 a prospector, Francisco Lopez, found gold traces in the roots of a freshly dug onion. Farmers, clerks, even church ministers, headed west, although some suspected that the US government fostered the Gold Rush to encourage population growth in the former Mexican territory. A major gold  find was made by prospector J A Shutter, and by 1849 over 80,000 people had flooded into the area; in 1840 California had just 14,000 inhabitants. US Congress agreed to the issue of a US$20 ‘double eagle’. Many gambling houses sprang up in the area, along with bars and brothels. San Francisco grew from a small village to a town of 25,000 within a few months. Food prices rocketed; apples were $5 each, eggs $10 a dozen, and a small whisky sold for a pinch of gold dust.

20/1/1848, Thursday (-35,537) Christian VIII of Denmark died aged 50, after a reign of less than 9 years. He was succeeded by his 39-year-old son, Frederick VI, who ruled until 1863, and fought a war with Germany over Schleswig-Holstein.

19/1/1848, Wednesday (-35,538) Matthew Webb, the first person to swim the English Channel, was born in Dawley, Shropshire, the son of a doctor.

12/1/1848, Wednesday (-35,545) In Palermo, an uprising began against the misrule of Ferdinand II of Naples.

5/1/1848, Wednesday (-35,552) The railway from Ripon to Thirsk opened.

3/1/1848, Monday (-35,554) The railway from Cambridge to Newmarket opened.

21/12/1847, Tuesday (-35,567) The railway from Reading to Hungerford opened.

8/12/1847. Wednesday (-35,580) (1) In Britain, an international convention of the Communist League adopted Karl Marx’s principles of the overthrow of the middle classes and the dictatorship of the proletariat.

(2) The Lewes to Newhaven railway, 5 ¾ miles, opened.

29/11/1847. Monday (-35,589) Cayuze Indians massacred 14 members of an Oregon mission.

9/11/1847, Tuesday (-35,609) Obstetrician Sir James Simpson, Professor of Midwifery at the University of Edinburgh demonstrated a new anaesthetic, trichloromethane, better known as chloroform. Claimed to be three times as effective as ether, it was to be of great use during difficult childbirths; however Scottish Calvinists opposed the use of any anaesthetic during childbirth.

8/11/1847. Monday (-35,610) Bram Stoker, author of Dracula, was born in Dublin.

4/11/1847. Thursday (-35,614) The composer Felix Mendelssohn died in Leipzig of a stroke, aged 38.

1/11/1847, Monday (-35,617) The railway from Oldham Werneth to Oldham Mumps opened.

26/10/1847, Tuesday (-35,623) The Downham to Ely railway, 14 ¼ miles, opened.

23/10.1847, Saturday (-35,626) The Gloucester loop railway, and the Cheltenham Lansdown Junction to St James line, opened.

20/10/1847, Wednesday (-35,629) The Filey to Bridlington railway, 13 ½ miles, opened.

16/10/1847, Saturday (-35,633) Jane Eyre was first published.

4/10/1847, Monday (-35,645) The York to Market Weighton railway, 20 ¾ miles, opened.

2/10/1847, Saturday (-35,647) Paul von Hindenburg, German politician, was born.

1/10/1847, Friday (-35,648) (1) Annie Besant, social reformer and theosophist, was born. With radical atheist Charles Bradlaugh, she promoted birth control, for which she was prosecuted.

(2) The Wivelsfield to Lewes railway, 9 miles, opened.

27/9/1847, Monday (-35,652)

21/9/1847, Tuesday (-35,658) Sir Richard Powell, agriculturalist, was born.

20/9/1847, Monday (-35,659) The Burntisland to Cupar railway, 24 ½ miles, opened.

18/9/1847, Saturday (-35,661)

16/9/1847, Thursday (-35,663) Shakespeare’s birthplace in Stratford on Avon was purchased by the specially-formed Shakespeare Birthplace Trust. This was one of the first buildings acquired purely for preservation.

15/9/1847, Wednesday (-35,664) The Rugby to Stafford line, 49 ¾ miles, opened.

14/9/1847. Tuesday (-35,665) US troops stormed and captured Mexico City, ending the US war with Mexico. With US forces capturing Texas, New Mexico and California, Mexico lost a third of its territory.

10/9/1847, Friday (-35,669) (1) Gold was discovered in California.

(2) The Carlisle to Beattock railway, 39 ¾ miles, opened.

8/9/1847, Wednesday (-35,671) The railway from Keighley to Skipton, 9 miles, opened.

5/9/1847. Sunday (-35,674) Jesse James, American outlaw, was born near Kansas City. With his elder brother, Frank, he led the first gang to carry out train robberies.

3/9/1847, Friday (-35,676) James Hannington, first Bishop of Equatorial Africa, was born.

23/8/1847, Monday (-35,687) The Higham and Strood Canal Tunnels in Kent were drained and converted into railway tunnels.

21/8/1847, Saturday (-35,691) The railway from Bentley to Hadleigh, Suffolk, 7 miles, opened.

17/8/1847, Tuesday (-35,693) The railway from Cambridge to Huntingdon, 18 ½  miles, opened.

10/8/1847, Tuesday (-35,700) The railway from Spofforth to Church Fenton, Yorkshire, 13 ½ miles, opened. Also on this day the Swaffham to Narborough line, 5 ¾ miles, opened.

9/8/1847, Monday (-35,701) Andrew Combe, Scottish doctor, died near Edinburgh (born 27/10/1797 in Edinburgh).

3/8/1847, Tuesday (-35,707) The Huddersfield to Heaton Junction line, 6 ¼ miles, opened. The Witton le Wear to Frosterley railway opened.

30/7/1849, Friday (-35,711) The railway from New Cross via Blackheath, Charlton and Woolwich opened.

28/7/1847, Wednesday (-35,713) The Yatton to Clevedon railway, Somerset, 8 ¾ miles, opened.

26/7/1847, Monday (-35,715) Liberia became the first African colony to attain independence.

24/7/1847. Saturday (-35,717) A group of Mormons under Brigham Young founded a settlement on the banks of the Great Salt Lake, Utah. The Mormons had been driven by mobs from their former homes in Illinois.

20/7/1847, Tuesday (-35,721) The railway from Newton Abbot to Totnes, Devon, opened.

10/7/1847, Saturday (-35,731) The first Chinese migrants arrived in the USA. They came on the ship  Kee Ying, from Canton (Guangzhou).

1/7/1847, Thursday (-35,740) (1) The railway from Chathill to Morpeth, Northumberland, 18 ½ miles, opened. Also this day the railway from Deal to Minster, Kent, opened.

(2) The first adhesive stamps went on sale in the USA; the 5-cent Benjamin Franklin and the 10-cent George Washington.

26/6/1847, Saturday (-35,745) The first railway in Denmark opened; Copenhagen to Roskilde. The Altona to Kiel railway, opened 1844, was in Danish territory when built but is now (2016) in German territory.

17/6/1847, Thursday (-35,754) The railway from Pilmoor to Boroughbridge, Yorkshire, 5 ¾ miles, opened.

14/6/1847, Monday (-35,757) The railway from Havant to Portsmouth, 7 ¼ miles, opened.

11/6/1847, Friday (-35,760) Sir John Franklin, the British Arctic explorer, died in Canada attempting to discover the north-west passage.

8/6/1847. Tuesday (-35,763) Britain passed an Act limiting the working day of women and children aged 13 to 18 to ten hours.

1/6/1847. Tuesday (-35,770) (1) The Communist Party, then called the League of the Just, met at a congress in London organised by Joseph Moll. The purpose of the meeting was to secure the co-operation of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in formulating the Party programme. Marx did not attend because of the cost of travel from Brussels. The Party aims were the downfall of the bourgeoisie, the rule of the proletariat, and the establishment of a new society without class or private property. The first Russian Communist meeting was at Minsk on 1 – 3 March 1898, where 9 delegates met. All were subsequently arrested and none played a significant role in later politics.

(2) The railway from Southampton via Ringwood, Wimborne and Poole to Dorchester, 62 ½ miles, opened. Bournemouth, at the time only a village, was by-passed.

24/5/1847, Monday (-35,778) A cast iron railway bridge over the River Dee at Chester collapsed as a train passed over it. The bridge’s designer, Robert Stephenson, came close to being convicted for manslaughter.

22/5/1847, Saturday (-35,780) The Dundee to Perth railway opened.

15/5/1847, Saturday (-35,787) Daniel O’Connell (born 6/8/1775, County Kerry) died in Genoa on his way to Rome. He fought against the 1801 Act of Union between Ireland and Great Britain. Irish Catholics could not sit in the United Kingdom Parliament, and also had to pay taxes towards the Protestant Church of England. Catholic anger caused the UK Government to pass a Bill emancipating Catholics in 1829. However O’Connell’s ultimate goal, repeal of the Act of Union and Home Rule for Ireland, was not achieved in his lifetime,

14/5/1847, Friday (-35,788) HMS Driver arrived at Spithead, England, having become the first steamship to complete a round the world voyage.

10/5/1847, Monday (-35,792) The West Croydon to Epsom railway, 8 miles, opened.

7/5/1847, Friday (-35,795) The American Medical Association was founded.

3/5/1847, Monday (-35,799) The railway from March to Wisbech, 7 ¾ miles, opened. Also this day the railway from Reedham to Lowestoft, 11 ¼ miles, opened.

28/4/1847, Wednesday (-35,804) The railway from Cockermouth to Workington, 9 miles, opened.

21/4/1847, Wednesday (-35,811) The railway from Kendal to Windermere, 8 ¼ miles, opened.

19/4/1847, Monday (-35,813) The railway from Londonderry to Strabane, 14 ½ miles, opened.

18/4/1847, Sunday (-35,814) US troops under General Winfield Scott defeated Mexican forces under Santa Anna at Cerro Gordo.

12/4/1847, Monday (-35,820) During the war between the USA and Mexico (1846-1848), this day US General Winfield Scott met the first serious resistance to his advance on Mexico City.

10/4/1847, Saturday (-35,822) Joseph Pulitzer, newspaper proprietor who founded the Pulitzer Prize for achievements in journalism or literature, was born.

4/4/1847, Sunday (-35,828) Easter Sunday

1/4/1847, Thursday (-35,831) The railway from Colchester to Hythe, 1 ½ miles, opened.

31/3/1847, Wednesday (-35,832) The railway from North Shields to Tynemouth, 1 mile, opened.

29/3/1847, Monday (-35,834) The railway from Tweedmouth to Chathill, Northumberland, 19 ¾ miles, opened.

16/3/1847, Tuesday (-35,847) The railway from Shipley to Keighley, 6 ¼ miles, opened.

15/3/1847, Monday (-35,848) The railway from Chichester to Havant, 8 ¾ miles, opened.

3/3/1847,  Wednesday (-35,860) (1) The railway from Seghill to Blyth, Tyneside, opened.

(2) The inventor of the telephone, Alexander Graham Bell, was born in Edinburgh.  He was the son of a teacher of elocution.

1/3/1847, Monday (-35,862) The railway from Heaton (Newcastle on Tyne) to Morpeth, 14 ½ miles, opened. Also this day the railway from Eastleigh to Salisbury via Romsey, 22 miles, opened. Also this day the railway from Kilmarnock to Barassie, 7 ¾ miles, opened.

23/2/1847, Tuesday (-35,868) US forces under General Zachary Taylor defeated the Mexicans under Santa Anna at Buena Vista. The US had ambitions to occupy the entire North American continent (the Manifest Destiny), including possibly Mexico itself. The US had taken what is now New Mexico and California (Upper California to Mexico).

15/2/1847, Monday (-35,876) The railway from Harrington to Whitehaven, 4 ½ miles, opened. Also this day the railway from Wymondham to Dereham, 11 ½ miles, opened.

11/2/1847. Thursday (-35,880) Thomas Alva Edison, American inventor, was born.

28/1/1847. Thursday (-35,894) Severe depression, unemployment, and food shortages provoked rioting amongst agricultural workers in central France. See 27/2/1848.

14/1/1847, Thursday (-35,908) Wilson Carlile, English clergyman who founded the Church Army, was born in Buxton, Derbyshire.

31/12/1846, Thursday (-35,922) Conclusion of the ‘Year of the Railway mania’.  An unprecedented 272 Railway Acts were passed for lines in Britain.

30/12/1846, Wednesday (-35,923) The railway from Newton Abbot to Teignmouth, 5 ¼ miles, opened.

28/12/1846. Monday (-35,925) Iowa was admitted as the 29th (non-slave) State of the USA.

25/12/1846. Friday (-35,928) US troops defeated the Mexicans near Las Cruces, virtually completing the conquest of New Mexico.

21/12/1846. Monday (-35,932) Anaesthetic was used in a British hospital for the first time (see 16/10/1846).It was used by surgeon Robert Liston during a leg amputation at University College Hospital, London.

19/12/1846, Saturday (-35,934) The first dental extraction under anaesthetic was performed in Britain.

17/12/1846, Thursday (-35,936) The railway from Oxenholme to Carlisle, 50 miles, opened.

12/12/1846. Saturday (-35,941) The USA and Colombia agreed to grant the USA transit rights on the narrow isthmus of Panama between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.

10/12/1846, Thursday (-35,943) The railway from Ely to Peterborough via March, 28 ¼ miles, opened.

1/12/1846, Tuesday (-35,952) The railway from Ramsgate to Margate, 3 ¾ miles, opened.

30/11/1846, Monday (-35,953) The railway from Ipswich to Bury St Edmunds via Haughley, 26 ¾ miles, opened.

18/11/1846, Wednesday (-35,965) The railway from Bletchley to Bedford, 16 ¼ miles, opened.

6/11/1846. Friday (-35,977) Following uprisings in March 1846, the small republic of Cracow was annexed to Austrian-controlled Galicia, losing its independence.

4/11/1846, Wednesday (-35,979) The railway from Chester to Ruabon via Wrexham, 17 miles, opened.

27/10/1846, Tuesday (-35,987) The railway from Kings Lynn to Downham, 10 ¾ miles, opened. Also this day the Kings Lynn to Lynn Harbour branch line, 1 ¼ miles, opened.

16/10/1846. Friday (-35,998) Anaesthetic was used successfully for the first time in a major operation, at Massachusetts General Hospital. Dentist William Morton Warren used diethyl ether before removing a tumour from a man’s jaw.

6/10/1846, Tuesday (-36,008) (1) The railway from Hull to Bridlington, 31 miles, opened

(2) George Westinghouse, US engineer and inventor of the railway air brake, was born in Central Bridge, New York State.

5/10/1846, Monday (-36,009) The railway from Ashton to Stalybridge, Manchester, 1 ½ miles, opened. Also this day the railway from Seamer to Filey, 6 miles, opened.

2/10/1846, Friday (-36,012) The railway from Stamford to Peterborough, 12 ¾ miles, opened.

28/9/1846, Monday (-36,016) The branch line from Oxenholme to Kendal opened.

23/9/1846. Wednesday (-36,021) The German astronomer Johann Galle discovered the planet Neptune.  This followed predictions made by Leverrier and Adams.

22/9/1846, Tuesday (-36,022) The Lancaster to Oxenholme line, 20 miles, and the branch to Kendal, 2 miles, opened.

20/9/1846, Sunday (-36,024)

12/9/1846, Saturday (-36,032) Marriage of Robert Browning and Elizabeth Moulton Barrett.

11/9/1846, Friday (-36,033) The Richmond (Yorkshire) branch line opened.

10/9/1846, Thursday (-36,034) Elias Howe received the patent for his sewing machine. It could sew at 250 stitches per minute, five times faster than any human could.

2/9/1846, Wednesday (-36,042) The Syston to Melton Mowbray line opened.

31/8/1846, Monday (-36,044) The Surrey Iron Railway, Wandsworth to Croydon, closed.; it was dismantled in 1848.

10/8/1846, Monday (-36,065) The Smithsonian Institute was founded in Washington DC; it was established by a bequest from the British scientist James Smithson.

4/8/1846, Tuesday (-36,071) The line from Nottingham via Newark to Lincoln, 33 miles, opened. The Dublin to Carlow railway, 56 ½ miles, opened.

27/7/1846, Monday (-36,079) The railway from Clapham Junction to Richmond opened.

20/7/1846, Monday (-36,086) The railway from Barrow in Furness to Dalton and Kirkby opened.

16/7/1846, Thursday (-36,090) The Glasgow, Dumfries and Carlisle railway opened.

15/7/1846, Wednesday (-36,091) The first railway in Hungary opened; Pest to Vacs, 35 km.

7/7/1846. Tuesday (-36,099) A US squadron under Commodore John D Sloat sailed into Monterrey Bay and formally claimed California for the USA, during the Mexican-US War. Pro Mexican revolts in California on 6/12/1846 were put down by US troops. On 13/1/1847 pro-Mexico fighters finally surrendered to the US in California, ending 25 years of Mexican rule.

29/6/1846. Monday (-36,107) The protectionist wing of the Tory Party, led by Benjamin Disraeli, which was bitterly opposed to the repeal of the Corn Laws, mounted a revolt against Robert Peel’s Tory government, forcing Peel to resign as Prime Minister.

28/6/1846, Sunday (-36,108) Defeat of Ranjit Singh by British forces at Aliwal, during the First Sikh War.

27/6/1846, Saturday (-36,109) (1) The Lewes to Hastings West line opened.

(2) Charles Stewart Parnell, Irish politician and leader of the Home Rule movement, was born in Avondale, County Wicklow.

25/6/1846. Thursday (-36,111) Britain repealed the Corn Laws after a 5 month debate in Parliament. Import duties on wheat, oats, and barley were to be scrapped in 3 years, and meanwhile set at a nominal rate only, of one shilling a quarter. This was opposed by Tory protectionists, but the Irish potato famine in 1845 added urgency to the repeal. Bread would now be cheaper but the farming of the landed estates less profitable. The Irish potato blight spread from America and first appeared in the UK in the Isle of Wight. Hot dry weather in July gave way to chilly rain and fog, and the potatoes soon rotted. 4 million people in Ireland and 2 million in Britain relied almost totally on potatoes for food. Public works schemes were devised for some 750,000 workers which meant 3 million people relied on these for income. Many Irish migrated to the USA, even though the voyage was almost as deadly as the famine; one in six died on the voyage across the Atlantic. The Irish blamed English oppression for the famine even though England had provided almost £8million in relief.

22/6/1846, Monday (-36,114) The railway from Edinburgh to Berwick, 57 ½ miles, opened. Also this day the Haddington branch, 4 ½ miles, opened.

19/6/1846, Friday (-36,117) Antonio Abetti, Italian astronomer who studied the minor planets, was born (died 20/2/1928).

16/6/1846, Tuesday (-36,120) Pope Pius IX was elected, beginning the longest reign in the history of the Papacy.

15/6/1846. Monday (-36,121) Britain agreed with the USA that Oregon was US territory. All land west of the Rockies and below the 49th parallel was to be US territory.

14/6/1846, Sunday (-36,122) The start of the Black Bear revolt against Mexican rule in California. Settlers in the Sacramento Valley demanded in independent republic.

11/6/1846, Thursday (-36,125)

9/6/1846, Tuesday (-36,127) Pope Gregory XVI died.

8/6/1846, Monday (-36,128) The railway from Brighton to Lewes, 8 miles, opened. The railway from Littlehampton to Chichester, 10 ½ miles, opened.

4/6/1846, Thursday (-36,132) The line from Redcar to Middlesbrough, 7 ½ miles, opened.

1/6/1846, Monday (-36,135) The railway from Colchester to Ipswich, 17 miles, opened.

30/5/1846, Saturday (-36,137) (1) The railway from Exeter to Teignmouth, 15 miles, opened.

(2) Peter Carl Faberge, Russian jeweller whose fabulous Easter Eggs were popular with the tsars, was born.

18/5/1846, Monday (-36,149) The line from Workington, Cumbria, to Harrington, 2 ¼ miles, opened.

14/5/1846, Thursday (-36,153) Pieter Cort van der Linden, Dutch politician, was born.

13/5/1846. Wednesday (-36,154) The USA declared war on Mexico. US Congress authorised US$ 10 million to fund the war and to recruit 50,000 troops. Mexican troops had crossed the Rio Grande into US territory (Texas), sparking the war. See 28/3/1845.

11/5/1846, Monday (-36,156)

9/5/1846, Saturday (-36,158) Battle of Resaca de la Palma. Mexico was heavily defeated, and withdrew across the Rio Grande.

8/5/1846, Friday (-36,159) Battle of Palo Alto. US General Zachary Taylor defeated a Mexican force of 6,000 soldiers with his 2,000 troops.

29/4/1846, Wednesday (-36,168) The line from Poulton to Blackpool North, 3 ¼ miles, opened. Also this day the line from Stratford, east London, to canning Town, 2 ½ miles, opened.

13/4/1846, Monday (-36,184) (1) The railway from Canterbury to Ramsgate, 15 ¾ miles, opened.

(2) To quell peasant unrest, the Polish government abolished the duty on them of extra day’s unpaid labour previously due to their manorial lord. There was an ongoing famine in Poland, aggravated by cholera and typhus outbreaks; in 1847 there were 380,000 deaths in Poland, compared to the previous annual average of 153,000.

12/4/1846, Sunday (-36,185) Easter Sunday.

5/4/1846, Sunday (-36,292)

17/3/1846, Tuesday (-36,211) Kate Greenaway, British artist, was born.

16/3/1846, Monday (-36,212) The Worthing to Littlehampton line, 7 ½ miles, opened.

10/3/1845, Tuesday (-36,218) Alexander III, Tsar of Russia, was born.

26/2/1846, Thursday (-36,230) Buffalo Bill, American Army Scout and showman, was born on a farm in Scott County, Iowa, as William Frederick Cody.

16/2/1846, Monday (-36,240) The Kirkham to Lytham line, Lancashire, 4 ¾ miles, opened.

6/2/1846, Friday (-36,250) The Ashford to Canterbury line, Kent, 14 ¼ miles, opened.

21/1/1846. Wednesday (-36,266) The Daily News, the newspaper edited by Charles Dickens, was first published in London.

19/1/1846, Monday (-36,268) The Maryport to Workington line, Cumbria, 5 ½ miles, opened.

13/1/1846, Tuesday (-36,274) (Mexico, USA) US troops were directed to advance to the Rio Grande, in anticipation of the failure of negotiations with Mexico.

29/12/1845, Monday (-36,289) Texas became the 28th State of the Union.

24/12/1845, Wednesday (-36,294) George I, King of Greece, was born.

23/12/1845, Tuesday (-36,295) The railway was extended from Dunford Bridge to Woodhead (Sheffield to Manchester line), 4 miles. Also this day the Guide Bridge to Stalybridge line (Manchester), 2 ¼ miles, opened.

22/12/1845, Monday (-36,296) The first of the original two single-track Woodhead railway tunnels, on the line between Sheffield and Manchester, opened to traffic.  See 2/2/1852.

21/12/1845, Sunday (-36,297) The Battle of Ferozeshah began.

15/12/1845, Monday (-36,303) The railway was extended from Norwich Trowse to Norwich Thorpe, ¾ mile.

10/12/1845. Wednesday (-36,308) The Scottish civil engineer Robert Thompson patented the first pneumatic tyres (see 31/10/1888). However the invention failed to catch on in the absence of a method of hardening the rubber.

25/11/1845, Tuesday (-36,323) Jose Maria Eca del Quieroz, Portuguese writer was born (died in Paris, 16/8/1900).

24/11/1845, Monday (-36,324) The Shoreham to Worthing railway, 5 miles, opened. Also this day the Cheadle Hulme to Macclesfield (Beech Road) railway, 9 miles, opened.

21/11/1845, Friday (-36,327) The first railway in Jamaica opened. It ran 20 km between Kingston and Spanish Town.

19/10/1845. Sunday (-36,360) Wagner’s opera ‘Tannhauser’ was first performed at Dresden.  Wagner’s music inspired either wonder or loathing, and he was also highly anti-Semitic.

12/10/1845, Sunday (-36,367) The social worker and prison reformer Elizabeth Fry died.

20/9/1845, Saturday (-36,389) The railway from Tonbridge to Tunbridge Wells, 4 miles, opened.

28/8/1845, Thursday (-36,412) The first edition of Scientific American was published.

25/8/1845, Monday (-36,415) Ludwig II, King of Bavaria, was born.

22/8/1845, Friday (-36,418) Surrey County Cricket Club was founded at a meeting at The Horns, Kennington.

6/8/1845, Wednesday (-36,434) In the UK the Gauge Commission opened. It decided in favour of standard gauge, 4’ 8 ½”, with exception for the Great Western Railway.

4/8/1845, Monday (-36,436) Thomas Cook organised the first holiday excursion by rail, to North Wales, leaving Leicester at 5am.

30/7/1845, Wednesday (-36,441) The Bishops Stortford to Brandon via Cambridge and Ely, 56 miles, opened. The railway from Brandon to Norwich (Trowse) via Thetford and Wymondham, 37 ¾ miles, also opened this day.

25/7/1845. Friday (-36,446) (1) China granted Belgium equal trading rights with Britain, France, and the USA. See 24/10/1844.

(2) Brunel’s 320 foot iron ship, the Great Britain, left Liverpool on her maiden voyage, to New York.

14/7/1845, Monday (-36,457) The Sheffield to Dunford Bridge (Manchester line) railway opened, 18 ¾ miles.

8/7/1845, Tuesday (-36,463) The York to Scarborough and Pickering lines, 48 ½ miles total, opened.

4/7/1845. Friday (-36,467) Thomas John Barnardo was born in Dublin. In 1867 he started homes for some of London’s many destitute children. They became known as Dr Barnardo’s Homes although he never qualified as a medical doctor.

8/6/1845, Sunday (-36,493) Andrew Jackson, American General and Democrat politician, 7th President from 1829 to 1837, died at the Hermitage in Nashville, Tennessee.

2/6/1845, Monday (-36,499) The Northampton to Peterborough railway, 42 ¼ miles, opened.

30/5/1845, Friday (-36,502) Ferdinando Amedeo, Duke of Aosta, Italy, was born (died 18/1/1890).

29/5/1845, Thursday (-36,503) Under an amnesty, Santa Anna was allowed to depart from Mexico for Cuba, with his wife and daughter. A provisional government was established under General Herrera. Mexicans rejoiced in the streets at Anna’s departure.

18/5/1845, Sunday (-36,514) Don Carlos relinquished his right to the Spanish Crown in favour of his son.

16/5/1845, Friday (-36,516) The Crook to Rowley railway, Durham, 10 miles, opened.

13/5/1845, Tuesday (-36,519) The Northampton to Blisworth railway, 4 ¾ miles, opened.

12/5/1845, Monday (-36,520) The Swindon to Stonehouse railway through Stroud, 15 ¾ miles, opened.

5/5/1845, Monday (-36,527) The Woking to Guildford railway, 6 miles, opened.

3/5/1845, Saturday (-36,529) Thomas Hood, poet, died.

15/4/1845, Tuesday (-36,547) The new House of Lords buildings were completed, after a fire in 1834, to the designs of Sir Charles Barry and Augustus Pugin.

29/3/1845, Saturday (-36,564) (Mexico, USA) The UK and France laid proposals before Mexico, that Texas should become independent but should not seek to ally with any other country; they were concerned about the rapid growth of the US (see 1/3/1845)

28/3/1845. Friday (-36,565) Mexico severed relations with the USA following America’s ratification of the annexation of Texas on 1/3/1845, after an almost unanimous vote in favour by the Texas electorate. On 29./12/1845 Texas became the 28th state of the USA. See 13/5/1846.

27/3/1845, Thursday (-36,566) Wilhelm von Roentgen, German scientist and discoverer of X-Rays, was born in Lennep, Prussia.

26/3/1845. Wednesday (-36,567) The sticking plaster was patented.

23/3/1845, Sunday (-36,570) Easter Sunday

11/3/1845, Tuesday (-36,582) (1) Self-raising flour was patented by Henry Jones of Bristol.

(2) In New Zealand, a Maori uprising against the British began. The Maori were protesting at European settlement of Maori lands, in breach of the 1840 Treaty of Waitangi.

10/3/1845, Monday (-36,583) Alexander III, Emperor of Russia, second son of Alexander II, was born (died 1894).

7/3/1845, Friday (-36,586)

4/3/1845. Tuesday (-36,589) The Democrat Charles Polk was sworn in as 11th President of the USA, following his landslide victory in the November 1944 elections. He strongly supported further westwards expansion of the USA.

3/3/1845, Monday (-36,590) Florida became the 27th State of the Union.

1/3/1845, Saturday (-36,592) US President Tyler approved the decision to annex Texas to the United States, just three days before the accession of President James K Polk. Both the UK and France were now concerned at the great expansion of the USA. See 29/3/1845.      

14/2/1845, Friday (-36,607) Quintin Hogg, founder of polytechnics, was born.

10/2/1845, Monday (-36,611) The Gravesend to Rochester railway, 7 miles, opened. The Wigton to Aspatria railway, Cumbria, opened

1/2/1845. Sunday (-36,620) Karl Marx settled in Brussels after being expelled from France.

21/1/1845, Tuesday (-36,631)

4/1/1845, Saturday (-36,648) Santa Anna was deposed as President of Mexico in a coup by Paredes. Santa Anna attempted to flee towards the coast but was captured at the village of Jaco, to be arrested and held at Jaco.

21/12/1844. Saturday (-36,662) A group of unemployed workers in the mill-town of Rochdale, Lancashire, formed the first Co-operative shop in Toad (T’owd) Lane. They called themselves the Rochdale Pioneers, and soon had 50 members. Each member received a dividend, or share, of the shop’s profits. It cost one shilling to join. Changes in the law now meant no-one under 18 years of age could work over 12 hours a day, and it was proposed to limit teenagers to a 10 hour day. Children under 13 were restricted to a 48 hour week and had to attend school for 2 hours a week.

14/12/1844. Saturday (-36,669) China relaxed a ban on the Roman Catholic Church.

11/12/1844, Wednesday (-36,671) Dr John M Riggs, of Hartford Connecticut, successfully extracted a tooth painlessly from Dr Horace Wells using nitrous oxide gas. He performed 40 more such operations, but abandoned them after a patient nearly died from an overdose of the gas; Dr Riggs was unaware that the nitrous oxide should be mixed with oxygen.

5/12/1844. Thursday (-36,678) The French garrison at Biskra, Algeria, was massacred by the Arabs.

1/12/1844, Sunday (-36,682) Queen Alexandra, wife of Edward VII, was born, the eldest daughter of King Christian of Denmark.

25/11/1844, Monday (-36,688) Karl Friedrich Benz, German engineer and motor car pioneer, was born in Karlsruhe.

28/10/1844, Monday (-36,716) London’s third Royal Exchange Building opened.

24/10/1844. Thursday (-36,720) France and China signed the Treaty of Whampoa, opening up Chinese ports to French trade. French traders came under French, not Chinese, law, and the French gained the right to build Catholic churches in the treaty ports of China.

23/10/1844, Wednesday (-36,721) Robert Bridges, poet laureate, was born.

15/10/1844, Tuesday (-36,729) Friedrich Wilhelm Neitzsche, German philosopher, was born.

11/10/1844. Friday (-36,733) The baked beans magnate H J Heinz was born of German parents in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

25/9/1844, Wednesday (-36,749) The line from Paddock Wood to Maidstone opened.

10/9/1844. Tuesday (-36,764) France and Morocco signed the Treaty of Tangiers, ending their conflict. France withdrew from Morocco.

28/8/1844, Wednesday (-36,777) Karl Marx met Friedrich Engels in Paris; their lifelong collaboration began.

17/8/1844, Saturday (-36,788) Menelik II, Emperor of Ethiopia, was born.

8/8/1844. Thursday (-36,797) The Mormons chose Brigham Young as leader to replace Joseph Smith, see 27/6/1844.

27/7/1844, Saturday (-36,809) John Dalton, chemist and physicist, died.  He developed modern atomic theory and also made advances in meteorology.

26/7/1844. Friday (-36,810) The first ocean cruise left Southampton for a four month steamship tour of the Mediterranean.

25/7/1844, Thursday (-26,811) Thomas C Eakins, US artist, was born (died 25/6/1916).

22/7/1844, Monday (-36,814) The Reverend William Spooner, educationalist and originator of ‘spoonerisms’, was born in London.

16/7/1844, Tuesday (-36,820) Charles Dickens’ sixth book, The Life and Adventures of Martin Chuzzlewit, was published in entirety.

6/7/1844, Saturday (-36,830) The Bristol to Gloucester railway opened.

3/7/1844. Wednesday (-36,833) (1) China and the USA signed the Treaty of Wanghiya, giving US citizens similar rights to those of the UK in the Treaty of Nanjing signed in 1843. US traders now had access to the same five Chinese trading ports as Britain did.

(2) The Great Auk became extinct when fishermen killed the last breeding pair of the flightless birds in Iceland.

1/7/1844. Monday (-36,835) A French squadron under the Duke of Joinville bombarded Tangiers.

27/6/1844. Thursday (-36,839) Joseph Smith, founder of the Mormon Church, died. He was killed, along with his brother Hyrum, by a 200-strong mob in Carthage prison, Illinois, where they had been held on riot charges. The brothers had destroyed the offices of a rival Mormon newspaper. This followed months of tension between the Mormon settlers, who came to Nauvoo, Illinois, in 1839, and locals who resented Mormon political and economic power. Mormon polygamy was also a contentious issue. See 8/8/1844.

15/6/1844. Sunday (-36,851) (1) The first railway in Switzerland opened, Basle to St Ludwig.

(2) Charles Goodyear patented the vulcanised rubber process in the USA. This made possible the commercial use of rubber, such as for motor vehicle tyres.

12/6/1844, Wednesday (-36,854) The Didcot to Oxford railway opened.

6/6/1844. Thursday (-36,860) George Williams founded the YMCA at 72 St Paul’s Churchyard, London.

26/5/1844, Sunday (-36,871) The Dublin to Drogheda railway opened.

24/5/1844. Friday (-36,873) The inventor Samuel Morse sent the first telegraph message, from his home in Washington to a friend in Baltimore, 40 miles away. The message was “What hath God wrought”.

13/5/1844, Monday (-36,884) Spain set up a military peacekeeping force, the Guardia Civil.

3/5/1844, Friday (-36,894) Richard D’Oyly Carte, who produced the Gilbert and Sullivan operas, was born.

2/5/1844, Thursday (-36,895) The railway from Olympia to Willesden Junction, W London, opened.

1/5/1844, Wednesday (-36,896) (1) The Bricklayer’s Arms railway terminus opened in south London, for passengers from Kent wishing to access the West End. The South Eastern Railway was faced with excessive charges to use the terminus at London Bridge..  However it was unpopular with passengers and became a goods terminus from 1/1852.

(2) The Norwich to Yarmouth railway via Reedham opened. The railway from Taunton to Exeter opened.

7/4/1844, Sunday (-36,920) Easter Sunday.

18/3/1844, Monday (-36,940) Rimsky Korsakoov, Russian composer, was born in Novgorod.

14/3/1844, Thursday (-36,944) Umberto I, King of Italy, was born in Turin, the son of King Victor Emmanuel I.

11/3/1844, Monday (-36,947) In New Zealand, Maoris rose up against British rule.

8/3/1844, Friday (-36,950) Charles XIV, King of Sweden, died aged 81, after a 26-year reign. He was succeeded by his son, Oskar I, aged 44.

7/3/1844, Thursday (-36,951) Anthony Comstock, US moralist, was born in Connecticut (died 21/9/1913 in New York).

27/2/1844, Tuesday (-36,960) The Dominican Republic became independent.

7/2/1844, Wednesday (-36,980) The line from Folkestone to Dover opened.

26/1/1844, Friday (-36,992)

29/12/1843, Friday (-37,020) The Battle of Maharaipur.

25/12/1843. Monday (-37,024) The first Christmas card was designed by John Calcott Horsley for Sir Henry Cole. The design was of three generations of a Victorian family sitting round a festive table, toasting an absent guest. Some objected that the illustration encouraged drunkenness. Sir Cole said he was too busy at business to send letters to all his friends as was his custom, so he had 1,000 cards printed up, selling the surplus for 1 shilling each. By 1862 cards featured ‘A Merry Christmas and a Happy new Year’; then holly and robins appeared in the illustrations, and by 1871 a daily newspaper complained that people were trying to outdo each other in how many cards they received, and the consequent delay in other post.  The GPO adopted the slogan ‘Post Early For Christmas’ for the first time in 1880. Christmas crackers appeared in the 1840s. However Christmas trees date back to around 1605 where they were seen in Strasbourg.  In Alsace fir trees, or maien, were set up on May Day as far back as 1521.

13/12/1843. Wednesday (-37,036) Some 6,000 copies of Charles Dicken’s ‘A Christmas Carol’ were sold on the first day of publication.

11/12/1843, Monday (-37,038) Robert Koch, German bacteriologist, was born in Klausthal.

1/12/1843. Friday (-37,048) China again banned opium smoking, the cause of the Opium War. However the Chinese already had an insatiable appetite for it, and  ignored this decree. Opium smuggling into China was rampant, run by gangsters such as the Triads.

21/11/1843. Tuesday (-37,058) Vulcanised rubber was patented in England by Thomas Hancock.

17/11/1843. Friday (-37,062) In accordance with the Treaty of Nanjing (see 29/8/1842) Shanghai was opened up to foreign trade.

3/11/1843, Friday (-37,076) The 17-foot, 16 ton, statue of Lord Nelson was hauled in two pieces to the top of the column in Trafalgar Square.  The second piece was hauled up on 4/11/1843. The column was 184 foot high, and the statue a further 17 feet. The cost was £50,000, half met by Parliament, the other half raised by public subscription.

31/10/1843, Tuesday (-37,079) The railway from Broxbourne to Hertford east opened.

12/10/1843, Thursday (-37,098) Twelve men met in a New York cafe to establish the B’Nai  Brith, or ‘Sons of the Covenant’, to provide assistance to Jewish widows, the elderly, orphans, and victims of persecution.

8/10/1843, Sunday (-37,102) Britain and China signed the British Supplementary Treaty; an addition to the Treaty of Nanjing (29/8/1842), giving Britain favourable trading terms with China. See 3/7/1844.

1/10/1843. Sunday (-37,109) The Sunday newspaper, News of the World, was first published.

25/9/1843, Monday (-37,115)

15/8/1843, Tuesday (-37,156) In Copenhagen, the Tivoli Gardens opened. They were laid out on part of the old defensive works.

25/7/1843, Tuesday (-37,177) Charles MacIntosh, the chemist who patented waterproof fabric in 1823, died in Glasgow.

24/7/1843, Monday (-37,178) Sir William Abney, English chemist, was born in Derby (died in Folkestone 3/12/1920).

19/7/1843, Wednesday (-37,183) Brunel’s ship Great Britain, the first all-metal liner, was launched from London’s Wapping Dock, by Prince Albert. At 98 metres long, she was the world’s largest ship.

28/6/1843, Wednesday (-37,204) The Ashford to Folkestone railway opened.

21/6/1843. Wednesday (-37,211) The Royal College of Surgeons was formed from the original Barber –Surgeon Company.

19/6/1843, Monday (-37,213) Karl Marx married Jenny von Westphalen, daughter of a Prussian aristocrat.

15/6/1843. Thursday (-37,217) Edward Grieg, Norwegian composer, was born in Bergen.  He was of Scottish descent.

28/5/1843, Sunday (-37,235) Noah Webster, American lexicographer who first compiled Webster’s Dictionary in 1828, died in New Haven, Connecticut aged 84.

27/4/1843, Thursday (-37,266)

16/4/1843, Sunday (-37,277) Easter Sunday

6/4/1843. Thursday (-37,287) William Wordsworth was appointed poet laureate, the day before his 73rd birthday.

2/4/1843. Sunday (-37,291) The originator of homeopathic medicine, Samuel Hanneman, died in Paris aged 88. He believed that diseases could be cured by drugs producing similar symptoms, only in much smaller doses than normal; the ‘law of similars’.

25/3/1843. Saturday (-37,299) The first tunnel under the Thames, the 1300 foot Wapping Tunnel, linking Wapping and Rotherhithe, opened. Work had begun on 2/3/1825.

7/3/1843, Tuesday (-37,317) The railway from Romford to Colchester opened.

25/2/1843, Saturday (-37,327)

17/2/1843, Friday (-37,335) The Muslim Emirs of Sind refused to cede their independence to the East India Company. The British provoked an Anglo-Sind conflict, so that Charles Napier could destroy the 30,000 strong Baluch Army. In March 1843 Napier defeated the Emirs of Sind, and sent a one-word telegram to London “Peccavi”, meaning “I have sinned”.

29/1/1843, Sunday (-37,354) William McKinley, Republican and 25th President, was born in Niles, Ohio, son of an iron manufacturer.

11/1/1843, Wednesday (-37,372) Francis Scott Key, the American lawyer and poet who wrote the words of the US national anthem The Star Spangled Banner in 1814, died.

1/12/1842, Thursday (-37,413) The line between Tonbridge and Ashford opened.

12/11/1842, Saturday (-37,432) The physicist and Nobel Prize winner Lord Rayleigh was born at Witham, near Maldon, Essex.

4/11/1842, Friday (-37,440) Abraham Lincoln married Mary Todd, member of a slave-owning family in Kentucky.

22/10/1842, Saturday (-37,453) Anne Louise Cary, US singer, was born.

21/10/1842, Friday (-37,454) The US returned Monterrey to Mexico, Commodore Jones having concluded that the threat to the Californias was untrue.

20/10/1842, Thursday (-37,455) Grace Darling died today, aged 27. The daughter of a lighthouse keeper, four years earlier she had made a heroic rescue of the victims of a shipwreck.

19/10/1842, Wednesday (-37,456) Commodore Jones, in the frigate United States, along with Captain Stribling in the Cyane, arrived at Monterrey, Mexico. They demanded the surrender of Monterrey to the US; this was in response to events of 5/9/1842.

18/10/1842. Tuesday (-37,457) The first telegraph cable was laid by Samuel Morse. It ran from Governor’s Island to The Battery across New York Harbour, and lasted only 24 hours; 200 feet of it was wrecked when a ship weighed anchor.

11/10/1842, Tuesday (-37,464)

21/9/1842, Wednesday (-37,484) Abdul-Hamid II, Sultan of Turkey from 31/8/1876, was born (died 10/2/1918).

20/9/1842. Tuesday (-37,485) Sir James Dewar, Scottish physician and chemist, and inventor of the vacuum flask, was born at Kincardine on Forth, in Fife.

7/9/1842, Wednesday (-37,498) Commodore Jones set sail for Mexico.

5/9/1842, Monday (-37,500) Rear Admiral Thomas, British, set sail from Callao in the Dublin with secret orders. Commodore Jones of the  US believed he was going to Panama to link up with troops from the West Indies to take possession of the Californias, as reported in the Boston media, 19/4/1842.

29/8/1842. Monday (-37,507) The Opium War (1839-1842) between Britain and China ended (see 26/1/1841) with the Treaty of Nanjing. China ceded Hong Kong Island in perpetuity to Britain and opened up five ports to foreign trade. There was further humiliation for the Chinese; they were to pay US$21million over the next 5 years for the opium they destroyed, which started the war. On 5/4/1843 Queen Victoria proclaimed Hong Kong a British Crown Colony. See 8/10/1843.

15/8/1842. Monday (-37,521) The first regular British detective force was formed as a division of the Metropolitan Police, later assuming the name C.I.D.

10/8/1842. Wednesday (-37,526) (1) The Stockport to Crewe railway opened.

(2) The Mines Act was passed in the UK forbidding women and children to work underground.

9/8/1842. Tuesday (-37,527) The USA and Britain settled a dispute over the US-Canada border in the Maine region.

1/7/1842, Friday (-37,566) The railway from Bristol reached Taunton.

13/6/1842. Monday (-37,584) Queen Victoria travelled by train for the first time, from Slough to Paddington, with Prince Albert.  She was accompanied by the railway engineer, Isambard Kingdom Brunel.

11/6/1842, Saturday (-37,586) France passed the Railway Law Act, stipulating that all French railways were to be under public ownership, with the State directing what lines were to be built and their operation. However lines could be leased to private  operators.

30/5/1842. Monday (-37,598) An attempt was made on the life of Queen Victoria as she drove down Constitution Hill with Prince Albert. The would – be assassin was John Francis.

27/5/1842, Friday (-37,601) The first public library was opened, in Frederick Street, Salford, Manchester.

26/5/1842, Thursday (-37,602) The Redhill to Tonbridge railway opened.

16/5/1842, Monday (-37,612) The railway from Broxbourne to Bishops Stortford opened.

14/5/1842, Saturday (-37,614) The Illustrated London News was first published.

29/4/1842, Friday (-37,629) In Britain the Corn Act was passed, setting up a sliding scale relating to the price of domestic corn at which foreign corn imports were allowed.

21/4/1842, Thursday (-37,637) Charles Adams, US poet (died 8/3/1918) was born.

19/4/1842, Tuesday (-37,639) The New Orleans Advertiser asserted that Mexico had offered to cede the Californias to England in return for seven million dollars. See 5/9/1842.

12/4 – 12/5/1842, The second convention of Chartists: their second petition was rejected by Parliament on 3/5/1842.

31/3/1842, Thursday (-37,658) The Middleton to Oldham Werneth railway opened.

30/3/1842. Wednesday (-37,659) The first anaesthetic, ether, was used in an operation, in Jefferson, Georgia, USA. The surgeon was Dr Crawford Long. He removed a cyst from the neck of a Mr James Venables. The bill for the anaesthesia was US$ 2.25. Dr Long performed 9 successful operations with ether, including the amputation of a boy’s finger, but was accused of sorcery by the older citizens of Jefferson and threatened with lynching if he continued.

27/3/1842, Sunday (-37,662) Easter Sunday

21/2/1842, Monday (-37,696) The Glasgow (Queen Street) to Edinburgh (Haymarket) opened.

15/2/1842. Tuesday (-37,702) The first adhesive postage stamp was used in the USA by City Dispatch Post, a private company later acquired by the US Government for US$ 1,200. See 10/1/1840.

7/2/1842, Monday (-37,710) The railway from Eastleigh to Gosport opened.

22/1/1842, Saturday (-37,726) Lieutenant Governor Moody became the first Governor of the Falkland Islands.

6/1/1842. Thursday (-37,742) A 16,500-strong Anglo-Indian force under Lord Auckland was massacred in Afghanistan whilst retreating from Kabul.

15/12/1841, Wednesday (-37,764) Charles Dickens’ fourth and fifth books, The Old Curiosity Shop and Barnaby Rudge, were published in entirety.

8/12/1841, Wednesday (-37,771) Prince Albert Edward was created Prince of Wales; he later became King Edward VII.

1/12/1841, Wednesday (-37,778) George Birkbeck (born 1776), co-founder of University College London, died.

20/11/1841, Saturday (-3,989) Sir Wilfird Laurier, Canada’s first French-speaking Prime Minister, was born.

16/11/1841, Tuesday (-37,993) Napoleon Guerin, of New York, patented the first life-jacket; it was filled with cork.

9/11/1841, Tuesday (-37,800) King Edward VII, second child and oldest son of Queen Victoria, was born at St James Palace, London.

4/11/1841, Thursday (-37,805) The first emigrant train for California reached Stanislaus River, having left Independence, Missouri on 1/5/1841.

3/11/1841, Wednesday (-37,806) Isabella Alden, US author, was born (died 1930).

30/10/1841, Saturday (-37,810) Fire at the Tower of London.

4/10/1841, Monday (-37,836)

30/9/1841. Thursday (-37,840) The stapler was patented by Samuel Slocum.

28/9/1841, Tuesday (-37,842) Georges Clemenceau, French Prime Minister 1917-20, was born.

24/9/1841, Friday (-37,846) Sir James Brooke was appointed Rajah of Sarawak.

21/9/1841, Tuesday (-37,849) The line from Haywards Heath to Brighton opened.

19/9/1841. Sunday (-37,851) The first railway to cross a frontier was opened between Strasbourg and Basle.

11/9/1841. Saturday (-37,859) The railway commuter age began when the London to Brighton commuter express train began a regular service, taking 105 minutes.

9/9/1841, Thursday (-37,861) Augustin Candolle, Swiss botanist (born 4/2/1778) died.

8/9/1841, Wednesday (-37,862) Anton Dvorak, Czech composer, was born near Prague.

28/8/1841. Saturday (-37,873) The Conservative leader Sir Robert Peel succeeded the Whig, Lord William Melbourne, as Prime Minister. Under Peel’s second term in office, he intended to reduce import duties to promote free trade.

25/8/1841, Wednesday (-37,876) Three women from Oberlin Collegiate Institute, Ohio, became the first women in the USA to be awarded degrees.

2/8/1841, Monday (-37,899) Fenchurch Street Station, London, opened, when the London and Blackwall Railway was extended westwards from the Minories.

17/7/1841. Saturday (-37,915) The first issue of the satirical magazine Punch was published in London.

13/7/1841, Tuesday (-37,919) (Turkey, Russia) The Straits Convention, signed by the five great European powers, guaranteed Ottoman sovereignty and closed the Bosporus and Dardanelles to all foreign warships. This was directed at preventing Russian expansion.

12/7/1841, Monday (-37,920) The line from Norwood Junction through Croydon to Haywards Heath opened.

5/7/1841. Monday (-37,927) Thomas Cook, born 22/11/1808 in Derbyshire, introduced the first Cook’s Tour when 570 teetotallers took the train from Leicester to Loughborough to attend a temperance meeting, using cheap tickets, which he negotiated with the train company. See 1/5/1938.

1/7/1841, Thursday (-37,931) Kingston on Thames was the second largest town in Surrey, with 8,147 people.

30/6/1841 Wednesday (-37,932) The railway on from Reading to Bristol opened, see 4/6/1838. Journey time from London to Bristol was 4 hours.

21/6/1841,  Monday (-37,941)

14/6/1841, Monday (-37,948) The railway from Bristol to Bridgewater opened.

13/6/1841, Sunday (-37,949) The first Canadian Parliament opened, at Ottawa.

1/6/1841, Tuesday (-37,961) Mehemet Ali became hereditary Viceroy of Egypt.

11/4/1841, Sunday (-38,012) Easter Sunday

10/4/1841, Saturday (-38,013) The New York Tribune was first published.

4/4/1841, Sunday (-38,019) William Harrison, 9th American President, died after only 31 days in office due to catching pneumonia during his inauguration. His term of office was completed by Vice President John Tyler.

30/3/1841, Tuesday (-38,024) The York to Darlington railway opened to passengers.

20/3/1841, Saturday (-38,034) Edgar Allen Poe published a new literary genre, the detective story. The Murders in the Rue Morgue challenged readers to deduce who the villain was before the final page.

9/3/1841. Tuesday (-38,045) The rebel slaves who seized their Spanish ship, the Amistad, on route between 2 Cuban ports in 1840, killed the captain and most of the 52-strong crew, and sailed it to Connecticut were freed by the US Supreme Court this day. The Spanish authorities had demanded the slaves be extradited to Spain. The slaves then planned to raise money to return to Africa.

8/3/1841, Monday (-38,046) Oliver Wendell Jr, US Supreme Court Justice, was born in Boston, Massachusetts.

1/3/1841, Monday (-38,053) The Manchester to Leeds line opened in entirety, following completion of the Littleborough Tunnel, see 3/7/1839.

26/2/1841, Friday (-38,056) Evelyn Baring, British statesman, was born.

25/2/1841, Thursday (-38,057) Pierre Auguste Renoir, French impressionist painter, was born in Limoges, the son of a tailor.

20/2/1841, Saturday (-38,062)

13/2/1841, Saturday (-38,069) The Ottoman Sultan issued a decree confirming Mehemet Ali as ruler of Egypt, also Nubia and Darfur.

12/2/1841, Friday (-38,070) Sir Astley Cooper, English surgeon, died in London (born 23/8/1768 in Norfolk).

28/1/1841, Thursday (-38,085) Henry Stanley, British explorer and journalist, was born at Denbigh, north Wales, as John Rowlands.

26/1/1841. Tuesday (-38,087) Hong Kong was proclaimed British territory. It was occupied by British troops as the Opium War with China continued. It was ceded by China on 20/1/1841, in what the Chinese termed the ‘Unequal Treaties’.  The much larger area known as the ‘New Territories’ was leased from China until 1997.  This area contained Hong Kong’s water supplies and the whole territory was returned to China then. See 5/7/1840, and 29/8/1842.

20/1/1841, Wednesday (-38,093) Hong Kong was ceded to Britain by China, see 26/1/1841.

17/12/1840, Thursday (-38,127) The Gloucester to Cheltenham railway opened.

15/12/1840, Tuesday (-38,129) Napoleon’s body was interred in Les Invalides, Paris.

27/11/1840, Friday (-38,143) (Turkey, Egypt) Under the Convention of Alexandria, drawn up by Napier, Mohammed Ali of Egypt agreed to return the Ottoman fleet and renounce claims over Syria, in return for hereditary rule over Egypt.

14/11/1840, Saturday (-38,160) Claude Monet, French Impressionist painter, was born in Paris.

12/11/1840, Thursday (-38,162) Auguste Rodin, French sculptor, was born in Paris.

3/11/1840, Tuesday (-38,171) Acre was taken by British forces.

10/10/1840, Saturday (-38,195) (Turkey, Egypt) Beirut fell to British forces. The French decided not to support Mehmet Ali of Egypt.

8/10/1840, Thursday (-38,197) John Camden, English politician, born 1759, died.

6/10/1840. Tuesday (-38,199) France, Britain, and Russia entered the war between Turkey and Egypt on Turkey’s side. They occupy the Syria-Palestine coastland to cut off the Egyptian Pasha from the route to Anatolia. On 4/11/1840 the British fleet bombarded the ports of Beirut and Acre.

30/9/1840. Wednesday (-38,205) The foundation stone of Nelson’s Column was laid in London.

15/9/1840, Tuesday (-38,220) The railway from Stratford, E London, up the Lea Valley via Tottenham Hale to Broxbourne opened.

9/9/1840, Wednesday (-38,226) (Turkey, Egypt) British gunboats bombarded Beirut and landed troops there.

31/8/1840, Monday (-38,235) Bristol Temple Meads railway station opened. The Bristol to Bath railway opened.

7/8/1840. Friday (-38,259) The UK Parliament passed an Act forbidding the employment of children as chimney sweeps. In 1840 only 1 in 5 of London children had any type of schooling, and most of the rest were working up to 80 hours a week. Chimney sweeping was very unhealthy; sometimes the boys got stuck, their knees and elbows got raw and infected and later they got cancer from the soot. Lord Shaftesbury campaigned against Victorian child labour and got the Climbing-Boy Bill passed as law in 1840. It decreed that no apprentice could be under 16. However this was not enforced until the Shaftesbury Act of 1875.

23/7/1840. Thursday (-38,274) London announced that Canada was to be a self-governing union.

16/7/1840, Thursday (-38,281) The railway from Poulton to Fleetwood opened.

15/7/1840, Wednesday (-38,282) (Turkey, Egypt) The Treaty of London. Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia agreed to form a military alliance against Egypt, which was being pressured to give up the Ottoman fleet it held, and abandon claims on northern Syria, Medina, Mecca and Crete.

7/7/1840, Tuesday (-38,290) Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia died aged 69. He was succeeded by his 44-year-old son, Friedrich Wilhelm IV.

5/7/1840. Sunday (-38,292) In the Opium War (see 4/9/1839), British naval forces bombarded Dinghai on Zhousan Island and then occupied it. See 26/1/1841. This war was not just about opium but the right to force China to open its ports to British trade.

4/7/1840, Saturday (-38,293) The Cunard Line began operations, with services to Halifax and Boston; services to New York began in 1848.  Cunard’s reputation for safety and reliability helped it survive against strong competition, despite early complaints about Cunard’s food. Eventually the airlines were to take business from the ocean liners.

2/7/1840, Thursday (-38,295)

1/7/1840, Wednesday (-38,296) The railway from Romford to Brentwood, Essex, was opened, see 20/6/1839. The Selby to Hull via Brough railway opened.

30/6/1840, Tuesday (-38,297) The railway from Leicester to Rugby via Wigston opened.

28/6/1840, Sunday (-38,299)

25/6/1840, Thursday (-38,302) The Lancaster to Preston railway opened.

24/6/1840, Wednesday (-38,303) The railway from Cheltenham to Bromsgrove opened.

10/6/1840, Wednesday (-38,317) Edward Oxford, a servant in a pub, fire two shots at Queen Victoria and Prince Albert as they drove up Constitution Hill in an open carriage. Both shots missed. Oxford was sent to a mental hospital, then exiled.

4/6/1840, Thursday (-38,323) The Manchester to Stockport railway opened.

2/6/1840, Tuesday (-38,325) Thomas Hardy, novelist, was born in Higher Bockhampton, Dorset, the son of a stonemason.

21/5/1840, Thursday (-38,337) Captain William Hobson proclaimed New Zealand to be a British Colony.

20/5/1840. Wednesday (-38,338) York Minster was badly damaged by fire.

15/5/1840, Friday (-38,343)

13/5/1840, Wednesday (-38,345) Alphonse Daudet, French novelist, born.

12/5/1840, Tuesday (-38,346) The Brighton to Shoreham railway opened.

11/5/1840, Monday (-38,347) The railway from Woking to Southampton opened.

10/5/1840. Sunday (-38,348) The Mormon leader Joseph Smith moved his followers to Illinois to escape hostility in Missouri.

8/5/1840, Friday (-38,350)

7/5/1840, Thursday (-38,351) Peter Illyich Tchaikovsky, Russian composer, was born in Votkinsk, the son of s government mines inspector.

6/5/1840, Wednesday (-38,352) The first adhesive postage stamps were used in the UK. These were the Penny Black and the Two penny Blue. The first Penny Black stamp from the first sheet was stuck on a letter to George Waterman of Thame, Oxfordshire. The idea was developed by Rowland Hill.

4/5/1840, Monday (-38,354) The railway from Long Eaton (Nottingham) to Leicester opened.

1/5/1840, Friday (-38,358) The railway from Preston to Longridge opened.

27/4/1840, Monday (-38,361) Edward Whymper, mountaineer and the first person to climb the Matterhorn, was born in London.

19/4/1840, Sunday (-38,369) Easter Sunday

30/3/1840, Monday (-38,389) (1) The railway from Twyford to Reading opened.

(2) Beau Brummel, the Regency Dandy, died at Caen in a pauper’s lunatic asylum. He had fled Britain to escape gambling debts.

28/2/1840, Friday (-38,420) John Philip Holland, American inventor who pioneered the modern submarine, was born in County Clare, Ireland.

20/2/1840, Thursday (-38,428) In the UK, Palmerston ordered the British Navy to attack China in order to prevent the suppression of the opium trade.

10/2/1840. Monday (-38,438) (1) Marriage of Queen Victoria, born 24/5/1819, to her cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg Gotha, born 26/8/1819 at Rosenau, near Coburg, Germany. They were married in the Chapel Royal at St James Palace.

9/2/1840, Sunday (-38,439) William Sampson, US naval commander, was born (died 6/5/1902)

7/2/1840, Friday (-38,441)

(2) An Act was passed reuniting the provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, 50 years after they were divided by Britain.

6/2/1840. Thursday (-38,442) Captain Hobson signed the Treaty of Waitangi with Maori chiefs in New Zealand. The Maoris were guaranteed possession of their lands but if they wished to sell them must first offer them to the British government. Britain was concerned at French plans to send settlers to New Zealand, and at mistreatment of the Maoris by land speculators and escaped convicts from Australia.

5/2/1840, Wednesday (-38,443) (1) John Boyd Dunlop, vet and patenter of the pneumatic bicycle tyre, was born at Dreghorn, Ayrshire.

(2) Sir Hiram Stevens Maxim, American inventor of the first fully automatic machine gun, was born in Sangersville, Maine.

30/1/1840, Thursday (-38,449) The Emperor of China forbade all trade with Britain.

23/1/1840, Tuesday (-38,451) Ernst Abbe, German physicist, was born in Jena (died 1905).

21/1/1840, Tuesday (-38,458) Sophia Jex-Blake, champion of women’s rights, was born.

19/1/1840. Sunday (-38,460) The American explorer Charles Wilkes discovered the coast of Antarctica.

10/1/1840. Friday (-38,469) Penny Postage began, introduced by Sir Rowland Hill. In London, 112,000 letters were posted on the first day. The Penny Postage Act was passed on 17/8/1839. Before this day the recipient of the post paid for it. See also 15/2/1842. Also on 10/1/1840 the first correspondence course was offered, by Isaac Pitman, teaching shorthand.

5/12/1839, Thursday (-38,505) Birth of George Armstrong Custer, US cavalry commander, famous for ‘Custer’s Last Stand’ against the Cheyenne and Sioux Indians.

3/12/1839, Tuesday (-38,507) Frederick VI of Denmark died, aged 71. He was succeeded by his nephew, Christian VIII, aged 53.

4/11/1839, Monday (-38,536) A Chartist riot at Newport, south Wales. The crowd was fired on by constables and 20 people were killed. John Frost, the Chartist leader, was sentenced to transportation.

3/11/1839, Sunday (-38,537) Britain began to assemble an expeditionary military force as relations with China deteriorated over the opium trade issue.

25/10/1839. Friday (-38,546) (1) Spain passed a law removing all independence from the Basque provinces. This law was applied to Navarre in 1841, and to Alava, Guipuzcoa, and Vizcaya in 1876, and converted these into provinces of Spain.

(2) Bradshaw’s Railway Companion became the first national railway timetable published.

23/10/1839, Wednesday (-38,548) Charles Dickens’ third book, The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby, was published in entirety.

15/10/1839. Tuesday (-38,556) Queen Victoria and Prince Albert became betrothed. She proposed to him, as recorded in her diary, ‘it was a nervous thing to do, but Albert could not propose to the Queen of England. He would never presume to take such a liberty’.

4/10/1839, Friday (-38,567) The first railway opened in Italy: Naples to Portici.

3/10/1839, Thursday (-38,568) Beirut fell to the French, and Ibrahim, surrounded by a hostile population and cut off by sea, retreated hurriedly.

24/9/1839, Tuesday (-38,577) The first passenger railway opened in The Netherlands.

19/9/1839. Thursday (-38,582) George Cadbury was born in Birmingham. He expanded his father’s chocolate business and established a model village for his workers at Bourneville, Birmingham. The Cadbury chocolate manufacturing family owed a debt to the collector Sir Hans Sloane, who died on 11/1/1753. See this date.

4/9/1839. Wednesday (-38,597) The British fired the first shots on the Chinese in the Opium War, see 24/3/1839. On 3/11/1839 British and Chinese forces clashed near the Bogue Forts at the mouth of the Pearl River. The formal declaration of the Opium War was in June 1840. see 5/7/1840.

20/8/1839, Tuesday (-38,612) In Paris, LJM Daguerre demonstrated a way of capturing images on a metallic plate; the birth of photography.

13/8/1839, Tuesday (-38,619) Michael Corrigan, Archbishop of New York, was born.

12/8/1839, Monday (-38,620) The railway from Derby to Birmingham via Burton on Trent and Tamworth opened. Trains ran to Hampton Junction just east of Birmingham where they reversed for the final short run to Birmingham. The railway from Belfast to Lisburn opened; extended to Armagh, 1/3/1848.

11/8/1839, Sunday (-38,621) The French fleet appeared off Beirut, hostile to Ibrahim, and this encouraged a revolt by the Syrians against the tyranny of Ibrahim.  See 3/10/1839.

6/8/1839, Tuesday (-38,626) The General Strike (see 12/7/1839) was called off.

15/7/1839, Monday (-38,648) There had been 7 days of rioting around the Bull Ring, Birmingham, following rejection of the demands of the Chartist Movement (see 28/2/1837).

12/7/1839, (-38,651) Parliament declined to consider the Chartist demands. The General Convention of the Working Classes, established in London in February 1939, called for a General Strike.

9/7/1839, Tuesday (-38,654) William Lovett, Chartist leader, was arrested.

8/7/1839, Monday (-38,655) John D Rockefeller, American philanthropist, was born in Richford, New York State.

5/7/1839, Friday (-38,658) The London Bridge terminus of the London and Croydon railway opened.

3/7/1839, Wednesday (-38,660) The first section of the Manchester to Leeds railway, from Manchester Oldham Road to Littleborough, opened to passengers, see 1/3/1841.

2/7/1839, Tuesday (-38,661) (Turkey, Egypt) Mahmud II, Sultan of Turkey, died, aged 54. He had been poisoned, after his fleet surrendered to Egypt at Alexandria.  He was succeeded by his 16-year-old son, Adbul Mejid I.

1/7/1839, Monday (-38,662) The railway from Maidenhead to Twyford opened.

24/6/1839. Monday (-38,669) (Turkey, Egypt) The Ottoman Sultan, Mahmud II, launched another offensive against Mohammed Ali, the pasha of Egypt. However this day at the Battle of Nezib Egyptian forces under Ibrahim Pasha defeated the Ottomans. The battle took place near the present day Turkish-Syrian border.

20/6/1839, Thursday (-38,673) In London, the railway from Bethnal Green to Romford was opened, the first stage of a line to Norwich, see 1/7/1840.

14/6/1839. Friday (-38,679) (1) The Chartists presented a further petition to Parliament (see 28/2/1837).

(2) The first Henley regatta, on the Thames, took place. See 26/3/1839.

12/6/1839, Wednesday (-38,681) Wordsworth received an honorary doctorate from Oxford University.

10/6/1839, Monday (-38,683) The railway from Basingstoke to Southampton via Winchester opened.

4/6/1839, Tuesday (-38,689) The railway from Derby to Nottingham via Long Eaton opened.

1/6/1839, Saturday (-38,692) The railway from West Croydon to London bridge, 10 ¼ miles, opened.

30/5/1839, Thursday (-38,694) Hermann Adler, British chief rabbi, was born (died 18/7/1911).

21/5/1839, Tuesday (-38,703) The railway between Newcastle on Tyne and Carlisle opened in entirety (see 9/3/1835).

4/5/1839. Saturday (-38,720) The Cunard shipping line was founded by the Canadian Sir Samuel Cunard. In 1934 it merged with the White Star Line.

1/5/1839, Wednesday (-38,723) On the Great Western Railway, Ealing, Hanwell, and Southall stations opened.

21/4/1839, Sunday (-38,733) A revolt against Mehemet Ali of Egypt began in Hauran, Arabia.  The Ottoman Army invaded Syria, only to be heavily defeated by Ibrahim at Nezib.

19/4/1839, Friday (-38,735) The Treaty of London officially recognised the independent Kingdom of Belgium. Willem II of The Netherlands retained the eastern part of Luxembourg with himself as Duke.

17/4/1839, Wednesday (-38,737) The Republic of Guatemala was established.

9/4/1839, Tuesday (-38,745) The liberation of slaves in Jamaica was posing severe problems for the landowners, many of whom had treated their slaves brutally.

8/4/1839, Monday (-38,746) Pierre Prevost, Swiss philosopher, born 3/3/1751, died.

31/3/1839, Sunday (-38,754) Easter Sunday

26/3/1839, Tuesday (-38,759) The annual Henley rowing regatta was inaugurated. The first regatta was held on 14/6/1839.

24/3/1839. Sunday (-38,761) The Chinese blockaded foreign owned opium factories. This was to force the factories to hand over their opium stocks for destruction. The Chinese destroyed 20,000 chests of opium belonging to British traders, worth US$ 12 million. Opium had been imported from India to China since the 17th century, but was now ruining the Chinese economy. European tea imports from China had been paid for in silver but the merchants forced them to accept opium instead. The British also refused to hand over sailors who killed a Chinese peasant in a drunken pub brawl. News of this reached London on 5/8/1839, and on 23/8/1839 the British assembled a fleet of warships off Hong Kong. See 4/9/1839.

21/3/1839, Thursday (-38,764) Modest Moussorgsky, Russian composer, was born in Karevo (now called Pskov).

10/3/1839, Sunday (-38,775) An imperial Chinese official named Lin Zexu arrived at Canton with orders from Emperor Daoguang to eradicate the opium trade.

1/3/1839, Friday (-38,784) Sussex County Cricket Club, the oldest, was founded.

26/2/1839. Tuesday (-38,787) The Grand National at Aintree, Liverpool, was first run.

26/1/1839, Saturday (-38,818)

19/1/1839, Saturday (-38,825) Paul Cezanne, French artist, was born in Aix en Provence, France.

16/1/1839. Wednesday (-38,828) The British took over Aden, annexing it to British India.  This followed the mistreatment of a British crew shipwrecked there in 1837 and the Sultan’s failure to sell the town to the British as promised by his father.

10/1/1839, Thursday (-38,834) Indian tea was auctioned for the first time in Britain. Previously, only expensive China tea had been available.

3/1/1839, Thursday (-38,841) The railway from Arbroath to Forfar opened.

2/1/1839, Wednesday  (-38,842) Frenchman Louis Daguerre took the first photograph of the Moon.

16/12/1838, Sunday (-38,859) At the Battle of Blood River, 500 Boers defeated the Zulus under Dingaan. This was in revenge for the killing of Boer leader, Piet Retief, and other Zulu attacks on Boer settlements in February 1838. See 6/2/1838, 9/12/1838, 9/12/1880, 16/12/1949.

12/12/1838. Wednesday (-38,863) In China, a riot broke out when British and American opium traders drove away Chinese officials intending to execute a native opium dealer in front of the foreign owned opium factories.

9/12/1838, Sunday (-38,866) Boer commander Andries Pretorius and his 460 men vowed to observe an annual Day of Thanksgiving if God granted them victory over the Zulus. Seven days later they met 10,000 Zulus in battle; 3,000 Zulus died for the loss of 2 Boers, and Pretorius kept his vow.

3/12/1838, Monday (-38,872) Cleveland Abbe, US meteorologist, was born in New York City (died 1916).

9/11/1838, Friday (-38,896) Charles Dickens’ second book, The Adventures of Oliver Twist, was published in entirety.

31/10/1838, Wednesday (-38,905) The railway from Sheffield to Rotherham opened.

30/10/1838. Tuesday (-38,906) Oberlin College, in Ohio, became the first higher education establishment to admit women on an equal basis with men.

6/10/1838, Saturday (-38,930) The Dundee to Arbroath railway opened.

24/9/1838, Monday (-38,942) The railway from Woking to Winchfield opened.

18/9/1838, Tuesday (-38,948) The Anti-Corn-Law League was established by Richard Cobden.

17/9/1838, Monday (-38,949) The railway between Welton and Rugby, on the main Euston to Birmingham, line, opened.  Through trains now ran from London Euston to Birmingham.

17/8/1838, Friday (-38,980)

8/7/1838, Sunday (-39,020) Count Zeppelin, German builder of airships, was born in Constance.

4/7/1838. Wednesday (-39,024) The territory of Iowa was established, with Robert Lucas as governor.

1/7/1838. Sunday (-39,027) Charles Darwin presented a paper on his evolutionary theory.

28/6/1838, Thursday (-39,030) The coronation of the nineteen-year-old Queen Victoria took place in Westminster Abbey.

14/6/1838, Thursday (-39,044) Birth of the Japanese statesman Yamagata Aritomo (see 1/2/1922).

4/6/1838, Monday (-39,054) The first section of the London to Bristol railway opened, from Paddington to Maidenhead, see 30/6/1841.

23/5/1838, Wednesday (-39,066) General Winfield-Scott ordered the forced removal of the Cherokee Indians from their original lands into reservations in what is now Oklahoma. About a quarter of the Cherokees died along the ‘Trail of Tears’.

21/5/1838, Monday (-39,068) The railway from Nine Elms (Waterloo) to Woking opened.

10/5/1838, Thursday (-39,079) John Wilkes Booth, American actor who assassinated President Abraham Lincoln, was born in Baltimore, Maryland.

8/5/1838, Tuesday (39,081) The Chartists published their People’s Charter (see 28/2/1837).

22/4/1838. Sunday (-39,097) The British packet steamer Sirius became the first ship to cross the Atlantic on steam power only. She had left Queenstown (now Cobh) on 4/4/1838.

15/4/1838, Sunday (-39,104) Easter Sunday

12/4/1838, Thursday (-39,107) British settlers in South Africa heavily defeated the Zulus at the Battle of Tugela.

9/4/1838. Monday (-39,110) (1) The railway from Tring to Denbigh Hall, and Birmingham to Rugby, opened, see 17/9/1838.

(2) The National Gallery, in Trafalgar Square, London, opened.

8/4/1838. Sunday (-39,111) Brunel’s 236 foot wooden steamship Great Western left Bristol for her maiden voyage to New York, under Captain James Hosken. The first ship to cross the Atlantic entirely under steam power was the Sirius, which left Queenstown, Ireland, on 4/4/1838 and arrived at Sandy Hook, New York on 22/4/1838.

12/3/1838, Monday (-39,138) Sir Henry Perkin, British chemist who synthesised the first artificial dye (aniline purple) was born.

18/2/1838, Sunday (-39,160) Ernst Mach, Austrian scientist, was born in Moravia.

17/2/1838, Saturday (-39,159) The Weenen Massacre. Voortrekkers were slaughtered by Zulus near the town of Weenen, South Africa.

16/2/1838, Friday (-39,160) Henry Brooks Adams, historian, novelist and philosopher, was born in Boston, Massachusetts (died 27/3/1918).

6/2/1838, Tuesday (-39,172) The Boer leader, Piet Retief, was executed by the Zulu Chief Dingaan.

6/1/1838. Saturday (-39,203) (1) The first steam railway line in Austria opened, between Vienna and Wagram via Florisdorf.

(2) Samuel Morse first publicly demonstrated the telegraph.

4/1/1838, Thursday (-39,205) Charles Sherwood Stratton was born. He later became famous as Tom Thumb, a midget exhibited by Phineas Barnum.

25/12/1837., Monday (-39,215) US troops routed Seminole Indians at Lake Okeechobee, Florida.

16/12/1837, Saturday (-39,224) The Zulu Chief Dingaan was defeated by a small force of Boers at Blood River.

14/12/1837, Thursday (-39,226) British troops crushed a rebellion in Canada.

28/11/1837, Tuesday (-39,242) John Wesley Hyatt, inventor of celluloid, was born in Starkey, New York State.

25/11/1837, Saturday (-39,245) Andrew Carnegie, US industrialist and philanthropist, was born in Dunfermline, Scotland.

19/11/1837, Sunday (-39,251) The first railway in Cuba opened. It ran from Havana to Bejucal.

17/11/1837, Friday (-39,253) Charles Dickens’ first book, The Pickwick Papers, was published in entirety.

15/11/1837. Wednesday (-39,255) Isaac Pitman’s stenographic shorthand, the first shorthand system, was published, price 4d.

16/10/1837, Monday (-39,285) The Boxmoor to Tring railway opened.

15/9./1837, Friday (-39,316)

26/8/1837, Saturday (-39,315) The Paris to St Germain railway opened.

25/8/1837. Friday (-39,337) (1) Henry William Crawford of London patented a process for galvanising iron.

(2) (Mexico, USA) The Government in Washington refused to admit Texas to the Union. The US was anxious to maintain its neutrality in the dispute between Texas and Mexico, and did not want to, therefore, take the step of admitting one of the belligerents to the Union.

20/8/1837, Sunday (-39,342) The US President demanded reparations from Mexico for alleged incursions and damages. By 1840 these damages had been quantified by the US at just over US$ 2 million.

24/7/1837, Monday (-39,369) The Indian Post Office was established.

22/7/1837, Saturday (-39,371)

20/7/1837. Thursday (-39,373) Euston railway station, London, opened.  Trains ran to Boxmoor.  The station, with two 136 metre long platforms, replaced an earlier terminus at Chalk Farm. Euston Grove was formerly an area of vegetable gardens for London. See 17/9/1838.

19/7/1837, Wednesday (-39,374) Brunel’s 236-foot Great Western was launched at Patterson’s Yard, Bristol.

13/7/1837. Thursday (-39,380) Queen Victoria moved into Buckingham Palace, the first monarch to live there.

4/7/1837, Tuesday (-39,389) The railway from Birmingham through Wolverhampton, Stafford, Crewe and Warrington to Newtpon Junction opened.

1/7/1837. Saturday (-39,392) The first Register of Births, Deaths, and Marriages was begun in England and Wales. The first entry was for the birth of a baby girl, Mary Ann Aaron, born in Dewsbury, Yorkshire.

30/6/1837. Friday (-39,393) A British Act of Parliament abolished punishment by pillory.

20/6/1837.Tuesday (-39,403) (1) King William IV died at Windsor. He was born on 21/8/1765 and was known as the sailor king, for his service in the Royal Navy. His numerous affairs included 10 illegitimate children born to the Irish actress Dorothy Jordan.

(2) Accession of William IV’s niece Queen Victoria, born 24/5/1819; crowned on 28/6/1838, aged 19. She was originally named Alexandrine Victoria but instructed the Privy Council to delete her first name.

20/5/1837, Saturday (-39,434)

3/4/1837, Monday (-39,481) The Paisley to Renfrew railway opened.

31/3/1837 Friday (-39,484) The painter John Constable died, aged 60.

26/3/1837, Sunday (-39,489) Easter Sunday

18/3/1837, Saturday (-39,497) Grover Cleveland, Democrat, and twice US President, was born in Caldwell, New Jersey, the son of a Presbyterian Minister.

3/3/1837. Friday (-39,512) On his last day in office, President Jackson recognised the Lone Star Republic of Texas.

28/2/1837, Tuesday (-39,515) (Britain, Price) The London Working Men’s Association presented a petition to the UK Parliament. They wanted universal adult male suffrage, reform of voting districts to make them equal size (i.e. to get rid of ‘rotten boroughs), voting by secret ballot, annual parliaments, abolition of property qualifications for MPs, and MPs to be paid a salary.

25/2/1837. Saturday (-39,518) The first practical electric motor was patented, by Thomas Davenport of Rutland, Vermont. However in 1850 it was pointed out that power from these motors was about 25 times more expensive than steam power.

10/2/1837, Friday (-39,533) Alexander Pushkin, Russian writer, was killed in a duel (29/1/1837 Russian calendar).

9/2/1837, Thursday (-39,534) Alfred Ainger, English writer (died 8/2/1904) was born.

7/2/1837, Tuesday (-39,536) Gustavus IV, King of Sweden, died.

26/1/1837. Thursday (-39,548) Michigan became the 26th state of the USA.

20/1/1837, Friday (-39,554) Sir Robert Soane, architect, died in London. He designed the Bank of England building on Threadneedle Street.

27/12/1836, Tuesday (-39,578) A landslide at Lewes, Sussex, swallowed up houses and killed 8 people.

14/12/1836, Wednesday (-39,591) London Bridge Station, London’s first railway station, opened.  Trains ran to Greenwich.  Revenue was augmented by letting out the railway arches as commercial premises.

4/12/1836, Sunday (-39,601) Edward Arber, English writer, was born.

3/12/1836. Saturday (-39,602) Britain’s first fatal rail crash occurred at Great Corby, near Carlisle. Three people died.

26/11/1836. Saturday (-39,609) John McAdam, the road engineer who gave his name to a new type of road surface, tarmac, died, aged 80. He was the son of a banker in Ayr, and developed the idea of a raised road surface of broken stone with a drain either side.

7/11/1836, Monday (-39,628) The hot air balloon Nassau, lifted by 85,000 cubic feet of coal gas, took off from London’s Vauxhall Gardens with three passengers. They flew over Liege and Coblenz, and landed 18 hours later in the Nassau region. Coal gas was a cheaper lifting gas than hydrogen.

3/11/1836. Thursday (-39,632) Rebels in California proclaimed their independence from Mexico.

3/10/1836, Monday (-39,663)

3/9/1836, Saturday (-39,693)

17/8/1836. Wednesday (-39,710) Registration of all births, marriages, and deaths in Britain was required under the Registration Act.

15/8/1836, Monday (-39,712) Liverpool Lime Street railway station opened.

14/8/1836, Sunday (-39,713) Sir Walter Besant, English novelist, was born.

27/7/1836, Wednesday (-39,731) The city of Adelaide, Australia, was founded; it is named after the wife of King William IV of Britain.

21/7/1836, Thursday (-39,737) The Champlain & St Lawrence Railroad, the first steam railway in Canada, opened between Laprarie and St John.

11/7/1836, Monday (-39,747) Bristol Zoo opened.

8/7/1836. Friday (39,750) Joseph Chamberlain, British Liberal politician, was born in London.

28/6/1836, Tuesday (-39,760) James Madison, 4th American President from 1809 to 1817, died in Montpelier, Virginia, aged 85.

26/6/1836, Sunday (-39,762) Rouget de Lisle, composer of La Marseillaise in 1792, died.

15/6/1836, Wednesday (-39,773) Arkansas became the 25th State of the Union.

10/6/1836, Friday (-39,778) Andre Ampere, French scientist noted for his work on electro-magnetics, died.

9/6/1836, Thursday (-39,779) Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, physician who had to study privately because of her sex, and then did much to facilitate women’s entry into the medical profession, was born.

24/5/1836, Tuesday (-39,795) Joseph Rowntree, British cocoa manufacturer and philanthropist, was born in York.

17/5/1836, Tuesday (-39,802) Norman Lockyer, discoverer of helium, was born.

21/4/1836. Thursday (-39,828) The Texan Army led by General Sam Houston inflicted a crushing defeat on the Mexicans, at the battle of  San Jacinto, and took General Santa Anna prisoner.

20/4/1836, Wednesday (-39,829) The Festiniog Railway, gauge 1 ft 11 ½ inches, opened for slate traffic. It was the first public narrow gauge railway in the world. It was horse drawn until steam was introduced in 1863. Passenger services began on 6/1/1865.

18/4/1836, Monday (-39,831) The Long Island Railroad, USA, began operations.

3/4/1836, Sunday (-39,846) Easter Sunday

14/3/1836. Monday (-39,866) Isabella Mary Mayson, who became Mrs Beeton of cookery book fame, was born in Heidelberg.

6/3/1836, Sunday (-39,874) The siege of the Alamo ended, see 23/2/1836.

2/3/1836. Wednesday (-39,878) Texas was proclaimed a republic, by a group of 59 citizens, independent of Mexico.

25/2/1836, Thursday (-39,884) Samuel Colt was granted a patent for his new revolver firearm.

24/2/1836, Wednesday (-39,885) US artist Winslow Homer was born in Boston, Massachusetts.

23/2/1836. Tuesday (-39,886) The Mexican Army, with 5,000 soldiers, under Antonio de Lopez Santa Anna, laid siege to the Alamo, a fortified mission station defended by 187 Texans, in San Antonio, Texas. Santa Anna had invaded Texas after Texas had declared itself independent of the USA and elected its own President. The Mexicans captured the Alamo on 6/3/1836, slaughtering all 187 defenders. Deaths included William Travis, Jim Bowie, and Davey Crockett. Only 2 women survived, who had sheltered behind the sacristy. The Mexicans told one of them, Susanna Dickinson, a blacksmith’s wife, to pass the message on to other Texans that further fighting was hopeless.

8/2/1836, Monday (-39,901) London’s first railway opened, running from Spa Road to Greenwich.

8/1/1836, Friday (-39,932)

29/12/1835, Tuesday (-39,942) The Treaty of New Echota was signed between the US Government and the Amerindian Cherokee Nation, after which the Cherokees were moved to the Oklahoma Territory along the ‘Trail of Tears’.

28/12/1835. Monday (-39,943) Over 100 US troops were killed by Seminole Indians resisting attempts to drive them out of Florida.

7/12/1835, Monday (-39,964) The first railway in Germany, the Ludwigsbahn, opened between Nuremberg and Furth.

30/11/1835, Monday (-39,971) Mark Twain was born.

22/10/1835, Thursday (-40,010) Sam Houston was sworn in as President of Texas.

3/10/1835, Saturday (-40,029) Charles Saint-Saens, French composer, was born.

2/10/1835, Friday (-40,030) (Mexico, USA) Texan-Americans started their campaign for independence from Mexico by starting an armed rebellion against the government of Antonio de Santa Anna in the town of Gonzales. Americans had settled the area from 1825, when Texas was largely undeveloped and there was little interference from the Mexican Government. However the current administration was changing Mexico from a federation of states into a centralised state.

9/9/1835. Wednesday (-40,053) The Municipal Corporation Act in Britain reformed city and town government in line with the major population shifts brought on by the Industrial Revolution. The old ruling oligarchies of borough councils were replaced by elected councils, elected by all rate paying householders of three year’s standing. Tory lawyers, Anglican clergy, and the aristocracy lost power to small shopkeepers, businessmen, Non-conformists, and better off members of the working class. This paved the way for public improvements like street widening, public utilities such as gas and water, and a municipal fire service.

31/8/1835, Monday (-40,062) The Great Western Railway Act of Incorporation was passed.

29/8/1835. Saturday (-40,064) The city of Melbourne was named in Australia. Melbourne was founded by John Batman who wrote in his diary in 1834 ‘this will be the place for a village’, referring to a 270,000 hectare site on the Yarra River. The land was then purchased from the Doutgalla tribe for an annual supply of trade goods worth around £200. The site was named after Lord Melbourne, then British Prime Minister. The city, designed by Robert Russell, was laid out on a rectangular grid, with wide streets and many parks and gardens. It is known as the ‘Garden City’.

24/8/1835, Monday (-40,069) Passenger rail services began into Washington DC, USA.

9/7/1835. Thursday (-40,115) The St Etienne to Lyons railway opened to passengers.

1/7/1835, Wednesday (-40,123) In England, a domestic servant was paid £9.50 annually, and received board and lodging worth ca, £12.50 annually with the job. A female Lancashire cotton worker received £20.80 annually (no board and lodging provided).

28/6/1835, Sunday (-40,126) The French were defeated at Makta, Algeria, by Abd al Qadir.

27/6/1835, Saturday (-40,127) Domenico Comparetti, Italian scholar of mediaeval studies, was born in Rome (died 1929).

26/6/1835, Friday (-40,128) Baron Antoine Gros, French painter, drowned himself in the River Seine at Meudon, aged 64.

18/6/1835, Thursday (-40,136) (UK) William Cobbett, journalist and reformer, died.

16/6/1835, Tuesday (+40,138) Social reformer Mr William Lovett founded the London Working Men’s Association, to tackle poverty amongst low paid labourers.

2/6/1835, Tuesday (-40,152) Pope Pius X was born.

1/6/1835, Monday (-40,153) Otto I assumed the Kingship of Greece.

13/5/1835, Wednesday (-40,172) John Nash, architect of Regents Park and Brighton Pavilion, died on the Isle of Wight. He had been commissioned by King George IV to redevelop parts of London, such as Trafalgar Square and Regent Street.

5/5/1835. Tuesday (-40,180) The railway from Brussels to Malines opened (14.5 miles). The first railway in Belgium.

19/4/1835, Sunday (-40,196) Easter Sunday

9/4/1835, Thursday (-40,206) Leopold II, King of Belgium, was born in Brussels.

27/3/1835, Friday (-40,219) Texan rebels were massacred by the Mexican Army at Gohad.

9/3/1835, Monday (-40,237) The railway from Newcastle on Tyne to Carlisle opened between Blaydon and Hexham. The line opened in entirety on 21/5/1839.

2/3/1835, Monday (-40,244) (Germany, Austria) Francis II, the last Holy Roman Emperor, died. He was succeeded, as Emperor of Austria only, by his 4-year-old son, Ferdinand I.

31/1/1835, Saturday (-40,274) An assassination attempt on US President Andrew Jackson failed when the gun of Richard Lawson, house painter, jammed twice. Lawrence claimed to be the rightful heir to the British throne.

23/12/1834.Tuesday  (-40,313) (1) The economist and demographer, Thomas Malthus, died aged 68.

(2) The English architect Joseph Hansom patented his safety cab, known as the Hansom Cab.

17/12/1834, Wednesday (-40,319) The first railway in Ireland opened, from Dublin to Kingstown (now Dun Laoghaire).

1/12/1834, Monday (-40,335) The slaves of the British Cape Colony were freed; this caused resentment amongst Boer farmers who were not consulted over the move.

12/11/1834. Tuesday (-40,354) Alexander Borodin, Russian composer, was born in St Petersburg.

16/10/1834. Thursday (-40,381) Houses of Parliament almost totally destroyed by fire. Firemen managed to save Westminster Hall and St Stephens Chapel.

24/9/1834, Wednesday (-40,403) Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil, died.

2/9/1834. Tuesday (-40,425) Thomas Telford, born 9/8/1757, died. He was known as the ‘Colossus of Roads’ for his engineering works.  He was buried in Westminster Abbey.

1/9/1834, Monday (-40,426) Amilcare Ponchielli, Italian musician, was born (died 17/1/1886).

28/8/1834, Thursday (-40,430) Mussolini’s paternal grandfather, Luigi Mussolini, was born.

8/8/1834. Friday (-40,450) The Poor Law Amendment Act was passed, abandoning the system of outdoor relief by which parishes looked after their poor and replacing it with the workhouse. People requiring financial help will no longer get wage supplements paid according to family size, or ‘outdoor relief’ which was costing the country £8million a year. Instead they will have to live in workhouses, where husbands will be separated from wives, children from parents. Silence will be enforced at mealtimes. They were to be ‘uninviting places of wholesome restraint’ according to a report of the time. Tasks for the residents included stone breaking, bone grinding, and hand grinding of corn.

2/8/1834, Saturday (-40,456) The South Australian Association gained a Charter to found a colony.

1/8/1834, Friday (-40,457) (1) Slavery was abolished in all British colonies. £20 million was paid as compensation to former slave owners.  This was a victory for the Anti-Slavery League, formed in 1823, and their Parliamentary leader, Thomas Fowell Buxton. It also completed the work of William Wilberforce; his anti-slavery Bill, to abolish the slave trade, incepted in 1789, was passed in 1807. This move gave impetus to the anti-slavery campaign in the USA.

(2) In South Africa, 35,000 slaves were freed as slavery ended throughout the British Empire.

25/7/1834, Friday (-40,464) The British Parliament passed an Act formally abolishing ‘hanging in chains’. This was a practice once reserved for the most heinous murderers; after execution, their bodies were hung in chains in a gibbet near the scene of their crime. The purpose was two-fold; to deter similar crimes, and to comfort the relatives of the victim. The last recorded use of ‘hanging in chains’ was in Scotland in 1755, of a Mr Andrew Wilson, who had poisoned his wife.

22/7/1834, Tuesday (-40,467) The Leeds to Selby railway opened.

19/7/1834, Saturday (-40,470) Edward Degas, painter, was born in Paris.

15/7/1834, Tuesday (-40,474) The Spanish Inquisition, founded in 1478, was disbanded.

4/7/1834, Friday (-40,485) The Bodmin to Wadebridge railway opened. It was taken over by the London and South Western railway in 1847, but only connected to the rest of the LSWR network in 1895.

19/6/1834, Thursday (-40,500) C H Spurgeon, Victorian preacher, was born.

1/6/1834, Sunday (-40,518)

16/5/1834, Friday (-40,534) The 6-year civil war in Portugal ended. Miguel was defeated and left the country.

6/5/1834, Tuesday (-40,544) Sikh troops from the Punjab under Ranjit Singh took Peshawar.

22/4/1834, Tuesday (40-558) Saint Helena became a British colony.

18/4/1834. Friday (-40,562) The world’s first launderette opened in Fort Worth, Texas.

30/3/1834, Sunday (-40,581) Easter Sunday.

20/3/1834, Thursday (-40,591) Charles William Eliot, US educator, was born in Boston, Massachusetts (died in  Maine, 22/8/1926).

19/3/1834. Wednesday (-40,592) The six Tolpuddle Martyrs who fought the decline of agricultural wages were sentenced at Dorchester, Dorset, to seven years transportation to Tasmania. This was for setting up a trade union, a branch of the Friendly Society of Agricultural Labourers. Public outcry at this heavy sentence had them released after two years.

17/3/1834, Monday (-40,594) Gottleib Daimler, German engineer who improved the internal combustion engine, was born in Schondorf.

16/2/1834, Sunday (-40,623) Lionel Lukin, British inventor of the lifeboat, died.

14/2/1834, Friday (-40,625) Construction of the first railway in Germany, 7 km from Nuremberg to Furth, was sanctioned by King Ludwig I of Bavaria.

1/1/1834, Wednesday (-40,669) The German zollervein (customs union) now extended to all German states except Austria and the north-eastern states.

31/12/1833, Tuesday (-40,670) During the year 1833, doctors in France imported 41.5 million leeches, actually making it an endangered species.

1/12/1833, Sunday (-40,700)

9/11/1833, Saturday (-40,722) The first passenger train accident in the US. 12 of the 24 passengers on the Camden and Amboy line between Spotswood and Hightstown, New Jersey, were seriously injured.

21/10/1833, Monday (-40,741) Alfred Nobel, Swedish chemist who invented dynamite in 1867, was born in Stockholm.

29/9/1833, Sunday (-40,763) Ferdinand VII, King of Spain, died, aged 48. He was succeeded by his 2-year old daughter, Isabella II. Ferdinand’s brother, Don Carlos, claimed the throne, threatening civil war.

1/9/1833. Sunday (-40,791) The New York Sun newspaper was launched. It was cheaply priced at 1 cent, and was full of human interest stories, aimed for a mass market. Editors of more serious papers were sceptical about its survival. On 25/8/1835 this newspaper claimed that vegetation grew on the moon, and had widespread sales.

29/8/1833, Thursday (-40,794) The Factory Act was passed in the UK. This applied only to the textile industry, but was the forerunner of many working practice reforms. The Act forbade the employment of children under nine, and children under 13 were to have two hours of schooling a day.

28/8/1833, Wednesday (-40,795) Sir Edward Burne-Jones, English painter, was born.

23/8/1833. Friday (-40,800) London abolished slavery throughout the British Empire. The trade in slaves in Britain had been illegal since 1807. Other European countries slowly followed suit; France continued with the trade till 1819. Spain abolished it in 1820, getting £400,000 compensation from Britain. Portugal abolished the slave trade in 1830, and was paid £300,000 by Britain. Boer farmers in South Africa, facing a loss of this free labour, move northwards to land outside British control. The Boers were aggrieved that whilst British slave owners in the West Indies received full compensation for the loss of their slaves, Dutch Boer farmers received only one fifth compensation.  Every slave in the British Empire was now nominally free, although to offset the sudden shortage of labour, field slaves were ‘apprenticed’ to their masters till 1840, and domestic slaves till 1838.

20/8/1833, Tuesday (-40,803) Benjamin Harrison, American Republican and 23rd President, was born in North Bend, Ohio.  He was the son of a member of Congress and grandson of the 9th President.

3/8/1833, Saturday (-40,820) State funeral of William Wilberforce in Westminster Abbey.

29/7/1833, Monday (-40,825) William Wilberforce, who had played a large role in abolishing the slave trade in 1807 and of abolishing slavery in the British Empire in 1833, died.

8/7/1833. Monday (-40,846) Turkey, by signing the Treaty of Unkiar-Skelessi, gave Russia the right to close the Dardanelles Straits in times of war.

5/7/1833, Friday (-40,849) Nicorie Nie, pioneer in photography and creator of the first negative on paper, died.

21/6/1833. Friday (-40,863) An automatic grain reaping machine was invented in the USA by Cyrus Hall McCormick.

6/6/1833, Thursday (-40,878) The Baltimore to Ohio railroad became the first railway to carry a US President, Andrew Jackson.

27/5/1833, Monday (-40,888) See 1/11/1831, Mehemet Ali of Egypt captured the Ottoman garrison of Acre.

25/5/1833, Saturday (-40,890) The first flower show in Britain was held by the Royal Horticultural Society, in Chiswick, West London.

24/5/1833, Friday (-40,891) Brooklyn Bridge in New York was opened.

7/5/1833, Tuesday (-40,908) Johannes Brahms, German composer, was born in Hamburg, the son of a poor orchestral musician.

4/5/1833. Saturday (-40,911) (1) A level-crossing accident on the Leicester and Swannington railway lead to the locomotive Samson being fitted with the first ‘steam trumpet’.

(2) A peace treaty between Turkey and Egypt gave Egypt the territories of Syria and Cilicia, ending the war between them that began in 1832, see 21/12/1832.

3/5/1833, Friday (-40,912) Jean Constans, French politician, was born at Beziers (died 7/4/1913 in Paris).

22/4/1833, Monday (-40,923) Richard Trevithick, engineer and pioneer of the steam locomotive, died in Dartford, Kent.

7/4/1833, Sunday (-40,938) Easter Sunday

22/3/1833. Friday (-40,954) A customs union, or zollverein, was signed between Bavaria, Wurttemberg, Prussia, and Hesse-Darmstadt. Austria was excluded. This zollverein covered 17 states with a total population of 20 million. Until now, 67 different tariffs and 13 non-Prussian enclaves, each with a different fiscal system, had hampered economic development. The zollverein was the idea of the economist Friedrich List, who returned to Prussia from the USA in 1832. Germany was also being united by the spread of the railways out from Berlin.

20/2/1833, Wednesday (-40,984) At Constantinople’s invitation, a Russian squadron entered the Bosphorus.  The Russians had promised to protect the Ottoman capital against Mehemet of Egypt and Russia got to be effective gatekeeper of the entrance to the Black Sea.  The western European powers had procrastinated about helping Constantinople, whilst Russia had come up with concrete assistance.

19/2/1833, Tuesday (-40,985) Elie Ducommun, Swiss journalist and pacifist was born in Geneva, Switzerland (died 7/12/1916 in Berne, Switzerland).

5/2/1833, Tuesday (-40,999)

29/1/1833, Tuesday (-41,006) The Reform Parliament of Great Britain opened.

28/1/1833, Monday (-41,007) General Gordon, British Army Commander, was born in Woolwich, London.

6/1/1833, Sunday (-41,029) Gustav Dore, French artist, was born.

1/1/1833, Tuesday (-41,034) The first fire brigade to have full time permanent staff was established in London.

23/12/1832, Sunday (-41,043) Mehmet Ali of Egypt continued to advance towards Constantinople, defeating the Turks at Konia.

21/12/1832. Friday (-41,045) Russia offered military assistance to Turkey against Egyptian forces who were 50 miles from Istanbul. The Egyptians had invaded Turkish lands after Turkey broke a promise to give Syria to Egypt in return for help during the Greek war of Independence. See 4/5/1833.

15/12/1832, Saturday (-41,051) Gustave Eiffel, French engineer who designed the Eiffel Tower, built for the Paris Exhibition of 1889, was born in Dijon.

29/11/1832, Thursday (-41,067) Louisa Alcott, US author (died 6/3/1888) was born.

26/11/1832, Monday (-41,070) Trams began running in New York City, between Prince Street and 14th Street.  They were introduced by John Mason.

30/9/1832, Sunday (-41,127) Lord Roberts, British military leader, was born in Cawnpore, India.

1/8/1832, Wednesday (-41,187) Ibrahim Pasha captured the city of Antioch from Ottoman Turkey during the Syrian War.

17/7/1832, Tuesday (-41,202) The Coalville to Leicester railway opened, to carry coal to Leicester.

13/7/1832. Friday (-41,206) An expedition led by Henry Schoolcraft discovered the source of the Mississippi River.

9/7/1832, Monday (-41,210) Mehmet Ali crushed an Ottoman Army at Homs, and on 17/7/1833 defeated the main Ottoman Army at the Pass of Beilan.

6/7/1832, Friday (-41,213) Emperor Maximillian, Austrian Archduke and Emperor of Mexico, was born in Vienna, the half-brother of Franz Joseph. He was made Emperor of Mexico by the French.

28/6/1832, Thursday (-41,221) Metternich insisted on the German Confederation’s acceptance of the Six Articles. This uniformised the behaviour of sovereigns across German States, forbade public meetings, and introduced surveillance of suspicious characters.

26/6/1832, Tuesday (-41,223) (Mexico, USA) Mexico began to assert a more authoritarian rule over the US colonists in its territory of Texas. On this day the US colonists rebelled, and captured the Mexican Army fort of Velasco.

15/6/1832, Friday (-41,234) Mehemet Ali captured Damascus. 

6/6/1832, Wednesday (-41,243) Jeremy Bentham died.

4/6/1832. Monday (-41,245) The Representation of the People Act received Royal Assent. It introduced electoral reform in Britain. Smaller property owners were given the vote, extending the electorate to 20% of adult males, twice as many as before. 56 ‘rotten boroughs’ with a total population of 2,000 were abolished, and some rural areas lost one of their two MPs. New constituencies were created in the expanding industrial towns of Manchester, Birmingham, and elsewhere. There was resistance in the House of Lords from 21 bishops.

17/5/1832, Thursday (-41,263) Moncure Daniel Conway, US author, was born (died 15/11/1907)

16/5/1832, Wednesday (-41,264) Philip Armour, American meat packer, was born in Stockbridge, New York.

7/5/1832, Monday (-41,273) Greece was proclaimed an independent kingdom, with Otto I as King. Britain, France and Russia guaranteed protection.

1/5/1832, Tuesday (-41,279) Captain Benjamin de Bourneville started on a 3-year expedition to explore the Rocky Mountains.

22/4/1832, Sunday (-41,288) Easter Sunday.

7/4/1832. Saturday (-41,303) A Carlisle farmer, Mr Joseph Thompson, put his wife up for sale. The initial price was 50 shillings but after an hour with no takers, he reduced the price to 20 shillings and threw in his Newfoundland dog, too. Wife-selling was then illegal in England but had been a common practice in the 18th century, as an alternative to divorce. The practice was socially disapproved on by 1832.

22/3/1832. Thursday (-41,319) Johann van Goethe, German poet and writer, author of Faust, died aged 82.

13/2/1832. Tuesday (-41,357) Asiatic Cholera appeared for the first time in London.

28/1/1832, Saturday (-41,373) Sir \Tiruvarur Aiyar, Indian High Court Judge (Madras), was born (died 1895).

27/1/1832, Friday (-41,374) Lewis Carroll, English mathematician and children’s book author, notably Alice in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass, was born at the vicarage at Daresbury, near Warrington. His name was originally Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, first son of a family of 12 children.

25/1/1832, Wednesday (-41,376) The State of Virginia rejected the abolition of slavery.

23/1/1832. Monday (-41,378) Edouard Manet, French painter, was born in Paris.

6/1/1832, Friday (-41,395) Gustave Dore, French artist, was born.

1/1/1832, Sunday (-41,400) Order was restored in Jamaica after the ‘Baptist War’ (‘Black Family War’). Trouble broke out on 27/12/1831 after Black slaves there believed their order for freedom had arrived from Britain but was being withheld by the landowners on Jamaica. 50,000 slaves rebelled, doing extensive damage to property and killing 15 White people. Harsh punishment was inflicted with some 1,000 Black slaves flogged and 100 shot or hung.

27/12/1831. Tuesday (-41,405) The Admiralty survey ship The Beagle left Plymouth with Charles Darwin on board on a scientific voyage around the world. This led to Darwin’s controversial book, The Origin of the Species. Darwin was inspired by Professor Henslow (1796-1861), a renowned mineralogist at Cambridge, 13 years older than Darwin, who was elected unopposed to the Chair of Botany at Cambridge when that position fell vacant. Henslow supported ‘evolutionary’ theories, although retaining a strong religious faith.

16/12/1831, Friday (-41,416) The Dundee and Newtyle railway opened, using cable and horse traction. Steam was introduced in September 1833.

15/12/1831, Thursday (-41,417) Hannah Adams, US writer (born 1755) died.

14/12/1831, Wednesday (-41,418) Arsenio Campos, Spanish statesman (died 1900) was born.

8/12/1931, Thursday (-41,424)

19/11/1831, Saturday (-41,443) James Garfield, American Republican and 20th President, was born near Orange, Ohio.

18/11/1831, Friday (-41,444) An uprising in Bengal against tyrannical Hindu rule was suppressed. Its leader, the Muslim Titu Mir, was killed by government forces.

11/11/1831, Friday (-41,451) Nat Turner, rebel slave, was hanged in Jerusalem, Virginia. Turner, 31-year-old and a convincing orator, became convinced that God had chosen him to lead slaves out of bondage. With 5 others he rose up, killed his master Joseph Turner and family on 21/8/1831, and led a growing band of rebel slaves who marched on Jerusalem, and by 23/8/1931 had slaughtered 57 White people. A local militia then hunted down Nat Turner, crushing the revolt in the next 24 hours. Nat Turner was captured in October 1831, and 16 others were hanged with him.

1/11/1831, Tuesday (-41,461) Mehemet Ali, Pasha of Egypt, began a revolt against Sultam Mahmud, Ottoman ruler in Constantinople.  Mehemet had helped to suppress initial rebellions by the Greeks in Morea (southern Greece) but now feared that Constantinople would not reward but dispose of him.  On this day Mehemet entered Syria and began a siege of the Ottoman garrison in Acre.  See 27/5/1833.

31/10/1831, Monday (-41,462) Riots in Bristol raised fears of revolution breaking out across Britain. Four of the rioters were executed.

27/10/1831, Thursday (-41,466) Physicist and chemist Michael Faraday, 40, invented a device to convert mechanical energy into electrical current, by spinning a copper disc between the poles of a magnet.

18/10/1831, Tuesday (-41,475) Frederick III, Emperor of Germany, was born.

17/10/1831, Monday (-41,476) The physicist Michael Faraday proved that a magnet inserted into a coil of wire and moved would cause a current to flow in the wire.

15/10/1831, Saturday (-41,478)

10/10/1831, Monday (-41,483) Three days of rioting in Derby (8-10 October) following the defeat in the House of Lords of the Reform Bill. This Bill, which passed its Third reading in the Commons in September 1831, would have enlarged the electorate. Further riots in Bristol, 29-31 October. In April 1832 a second Reform Bill was passed by the House of Lords.

9/10/1831, Sunday (-41,484) The Greek President, Ioannes Kapodistrias, aged 55, was assassinated. His brother Avgoustinous was made provisional President.

21/9/1831, Wednesday (-41,502) The Garnkirk and Coatbridge railway opened. It was taken over by the Caledonian Railway on 15/2/1848.

8/9/1831, Thursday (-41,515) Coronation of King William IV.

29/8/1831, Monday (-41,525) Michael Faraday demonstrated the first electrical transformer.

21/8/1831. Sunday (-41,533) The radical Black preacher Nat Turner led a band of slaves from some large plantations, killing 57 whites. Nat Turner was caught, and hanged on 11/11/1831.Extra security was imposed, with some slaves manacled at night.

1/8/1831. Monday (-41,553) King William IV opened New London Bridge, designed by John Rennie.  It lasted 140 years before being dismantled, sold to an American, and rebuilt in Arizona.

21/7/1831, Thursday (-41,564) Prince Leopold became Leopold I, King of Belgium, when that country separated from the Netherlands.

4/7/1831, Monday (-41,581) James Monroe, 5th US President from 1817 to 1825, died in New York City.

30/6/1831, Thursday (-41,585) The Baltimore to Ohio railroad became the first railway in the US to carry troops.

21/6/1831, Tuesday (-41,594) King William IV of England, on opening the UK Parliament, announced the arrival of a virulent strain of cholera in Europe. Starting in the Ganges area of India in 1826, cholera had spread through Iran and Turkey into south east Europe. It first hit the UK at Sunderland on 19/10/1831. Thereafter it spread rapidly in the slums of the new industrial cities, killing 3,000 in Glasgow, 700 in Leeds, 200 in York, 1,500 in Liverpool, 900 in Manchester and 6,800 in London. Britain was subsequently hit by a further cholera outbreak in 1848/9 (450 deaths in Edinburgh, 3,800 in Glasgow, 7,000 across the whole of Scotland). Cholera came again in 1853/4, starting from Tyneside, and in 1854 in London. This outbreak killed 30,000 across the UK; 10,738 in London alone. The fourth and final outbreak of cholera in Britain was in 1866, starting from Southampton; total UK fatalities amounted to 18,000.

17/6/1831, Friday (-41,598) The first railway engine boiler explosion in the USA. A fireman had held the safety valve down.

4/6/1831, Saturday (-41,611) Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg was chosen as the first sovereign of newly independent Belgium.

1/6/1831. Wednesday (-41,614) Sir James Clark Ross located the Magnetic North Pole on his Arctic expedition with Admiral Parry.

27/5/1831, Friday (-41,619) Comanche Indians on the Cimarron killed Jeremiah Smith.

26/5/1831. Thursday (-41,620) The Russians defeated the Poles at the Battle of Ostrolenska.

16/5/1831, Monday (-41,630) David Hughes, English-American inventor of the teleprinter and microphone, was born in London.

21/4/1831, Thursday (-41,655) Texans defeated the Mexicans at the Battle of San Jacinto.

20/4/1831, Wednesday (-41,656) John Abernethy, British surgeon (born 3/4/1764 in London) died in Enfield.

18/4/1831, Monday (-41,658) (Education, University) New York University was founded.

6/4/1831, Wednesday (-41,670) The Mormon leader, Brigham Young, married his 27th and final wife.

3/4/1831, Sunday (-41,673) Easter Sunday

18/3/1831, Friday (-41,689) The US Supreme Court ruled that indigenous Amerindian tribes could not sue for their rights in a Federal Court  ‘because they weren’t full citizens, and their reservations weren’t foreign nations.

9/3/1831. Wednesday (-41,698) King Louis-Philippe founded the French Foreign Legion. Its headquarters was at Sidi-bel-Abbes in Algeria. In 1962 the headquarters was moved to Aubagne, France. See 5/7/1830.

3/3/1831, Thursday (-41,704) George Pullman, who developed the Pullman Railway Carriage, was born in Brocton, New York State.

28/2/1831, Monday (-41,707) Edward James Stone, British astronomer, was born (died 9/5/1897).

27/2/1831, Sunday (-41,708) Captain John Briscoe discovered Antarctica. Captain Briscoe, in the ship Tula, commissioned by the London shipping company Enderby, sighted the mountains of what is now known as Enderby Land. The mission was partly exploratory, but also commercial, to find and harvest seals for their fur. Whales were also desired, and sea elephants for their oil.

26/2/1831, Saturday (-41,709)

25/2/1831. Friday (-41,710) The Poles halted the Russian advance at the Battle of Grochow.

24/2/1831, Thursday (-41,711) Georg Caprivi, German statesman (died 6/2/1899) was born.

12/2/1831, Saturday (-41,723) J W Goodrich of Boston, USA, invented the rubber galosh.

7/2/1831, Monday (-41,728) The Belgian Constitution was published.

2/2/1831, Wednesday (-41,733) Pope Gregory XVI (254th Pope) acceded.

15/1/1831, Saturday (-41,751) the South Carolina Railroad opened in the US. It was the first in the US with a regular passenger service.

1/1/1831, Saturday (-41,765) The first issue of the anti-slavery newspaper The Liberator was published. It had been started by William Lloyd Garrison, from Massachusetts.

31/12/1830, Friday (-41,766) Ismail Pasha, Khedive of Egypt, was born.

25/12/1830, Saturday (-41,772) The first steam-powered regular train service in America began, running from Charleston on the South Carolina Railroad.

20/12/1830. Monday (-41,777) Belgium achieved independence, conceded by the Dutch King William.  The Belgians were mainly Catholic, but the Dutch were mainly Protestant. On 20/1/1831 in London, the boundaries of the Netherlands and Belgium were settled, and the neutrality of Belgium was guaranteed by the European powers.

17/12/1830 . Friday (-41,780) Simon Bolivar died of tuberculosis.

16/12/1830, Thursday (-41,781) The last ‘hanging at execution dock’ in Britain. This punishment involved hanging of pirates, such as William Kidd in 1701; the convict was then left at low water mark and immersed three times by the tide before being buried.

15/12/1830, Wednesday (-41,782) Karl August Ferdinand von Borcke (born 18/2/1776) a Prussian general and the first recipient of the Iron Cross, died.

14/12/1830, Tuesday (-41,783) The first practical rail locomotive capable of running a regular passenger service began operations on the South Carolina Railroad. Full passenger services began on 25/12/1830.

10/12/1830, Friday (-41,787) Emily Dickinson, US poet, was born in Amherst, Massachusetts.

3/12/1830, Friday (-41,794) Frederick, Baron Leighton, President of the Royal Society, was born.

2/12/1830, Thursday (-41,795) Pedro II, Emperor of Brazil, was born.

1/12/1830, Wednesday (-41,796) Pope Pius VIII died.

16/11/1830, Tuesday (-41,811)

11/11/1830, Thursday (-41,816) Mail was first carried by railway, on the newly-opened Liverpool to Manchester line.

10/11/1830, Wednesday (-41,817) Jacob Epstein, British sculptor, was born.

28/10/1830, Thursday (-41,830) Liege became part of Belgium.

14/10/1830, Thursday (-41,844) Belgium proclaimed its independence, having been part of the Low Countries (Netherlands).

10/10/1830, Sunday (-41,848) Isabella II, Queen of Spain, was born.

5/10/1830, Tuesday (-41,853) Chester Arthur, American Republican and 21st President, was born at Fairfield, Vermont, the son of a Baptist minister.

4/10/1830, Monday (-41,854) Belgium demanded independence from the Netherlands.

26/9/1830. Sunday (-41,862) The Belgians defeated a Dutch Army sent to quell the Belgian Revolution of 24 August.

15/9/1830. Wednesday (-41,873) (1) The Choctaw Indians ceded their lands east of the Mississippi River.

(2) At the official opening of the Liverpool and Manchester railway, MP William Huskisson stepped from a train to shake hands with the Duke of Wellington and was run over.  He died the same night. This was Britain’s first railway casualty. The line had cost £40,000 a mile to build (nearly £4,000,000 in 2015 prices).

25/8/1830, Wednesday (-41,894) (1) Demonstrations in Brussels against Dutch rule of Belgium.

(2) A lighter steam locomotive began operating on US rails; and was capable of 13 mph.

24/8/1830. Tuesday (-41,895) The Belgian Revolution began late in the night in Brussels. See 26/9/1830.

18/8/1830, Wednesday (-41,901) Birth of Franz-Joseph I, Emperor of Austria who invaded Serbia, ultimately starting World War One.

7/8/1830, Saturday (-41,912) Louis Philippe accepted the Crown of France.

2/8/1830, Monday (-41,917) The July Revolution in France ended. Charles X abdicated.

29/7/1830, Thursday (-41,921) French liberals opposed to Charles X seized Paris.

27/7/1830, Tuesday (-41,923) Revolutionary riots in Paris, The July Revolution, sparked by the harsh policies of King Charles X.

18/7/1830, Sunday (-41,932) Uruguay’s constitution came into force.

5/7/1830. Monday (-41,945) Algiers capitulated to a French invasion force. France had maintained economic relations with the Algiers coastal area (Barbary coast) since the 16th century. French coral fishermen had operated there, and wheat was bought from Algeria to send to France. In 1827 a dispute arose between the French and two Jews of Algiers, Bakri and Busnach. In the course of the negotiations in April 1827 the Dey of Algiers struck Deval, the French consul, with a fly whisk. This was used by the French as an excuse for armed intervention. A three-year blockade of Algiers followed, followed by 38,000 French troops landing at Sidi Ferruch on 5/7/1830. Algiers capitulated on 5/7/1830. However the French found that occupying Algiers by no means gave them control over the interior of the country and its native population. Only by 1848 was the French conquest of Algeria complete.

26/6/1830. Saturday (-41,954) King George IV died, aged 67. He was England’s fattest king, and his favourite breakfast was 2 pigeons, 3 beefsteaks, a bottle of Moselle, a glass of champagne, two of port, and one of brandy. William IV, his brother, succeeded him. With no legitimate children to succeed him, Victoria was to be the next monarch.

25/6/1830, Friday (-41,955) The first section of the St Etienne to Lyons railway, from Givors to Rive de Gier, opened. It was initially worked by both horse and steam. Horse traction ceased on 1/8/1844.

24/6/1830, Thursday (-41,956) Peter Bossey became the last person to be sentenced to the pillory. He was sentenced at the Old Bailey to 6 months in prison, 1 hour in the Old Bailey’s pillory, and 7 year’s transportation to Australia.

4/6/1830, Friday (-41,976) De Sucre, aged 35, was assassinated near Pasto, Colombia, as he tried to maintain the unity of Gran Colombia.

28/5/1830. Friday (-41,983) The USA passed the Indian Removal Act, giving the Indians perpetual title to western lands. The Indians were wary, aware of valuable mineral deposits beneath these western lands.

24/5/1830, Monday (-41,987) The first passenger railway in America opened, from Baltimore to Ohio, 22 km.

18/5/1830. Tuesday (-41,993) Edwin Budding of Stroud signed an agreement for the manufacture of his invention, the lawnmower. The first customer was Regents Park Zoo. See 27/4/1828.

13/5/1830. Thursday (-41,998) The Republic of Ecuador was created, with Juan Flores as President.  It was formerly the Presidency of Quito, before Gran Colombia broke up.

3/5/1830. Monday (-42,008) The UK’s first passenger steam railway opened, from Canterbury to Whitstable, Kent.

11/4/1830, Sunday (-42,030) Easter Sunday

6/4/1830. Tuesday (-42,035) (1) Joseph Smith, in Fayette, New York State, founded the Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints, whose adherents are better known as Mormons.

(2) Mexico passed a law forbidding further settlement by immigrants from the US.

6/3/1830, Saturday (-42,066)

9/2/1830, Tuesday (-42,091) The source of the River Murray, Australia, was discovered by the explorer Charles Sturt. See 16/11/1824.

3/2/1830. Wednesday (-42,097) At the London Conference, Britain, France, and Russia guaranteed Greek independence as a kingdom, under the Protocol of London.

2/2/1830, Tuesday (-42,098) The first Temperance Society in Britain was formed, in Bradford, Yorkshire, by Mr Henry Forbes.

2/1/1830, Saturday (-42,129) Henry Kingsley, English novelist, was born.

31/12/1829, Thursday (-42,131) Thomas Maynard became the last person in England to be hanged for forgery.

18/12/1829, Friday (-42,144) Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet Lamarck, French scientist, died aged 75. He believed that extra usage of some feature of an animal strengthened it, and this enhancement could be passed down the generations.

8/12/1829, Tuesday (-42,154) De Rosas made himself Governor of Buenos Aires.

4/12/1829, Friday (-42,158) The practice of suttee, immolation of widows, was made illegal in British-controlled India.

22/11/1829, Sunday (-42,170)

9/10/1829, Friday (-42,214) In the US the Carbondale to Honesdale railway was opened by the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company. However the steam locomotives were too heavy for the track, which was initially worked as a gravity line.

6/10/1829. Tuesday (-42,217) Trials began at Rainhill near Liverpool for a locomotive to use on the Liverpool to Manchester railway. The winner was Stephenson’s Rocket.

1/10/1829, Thursday (-42,222) (Universities) Cape Town University, South Africa, was founded, as the South African College.

29/9/1829, Tuesday (-42,224) London police went on duty for the first time.

27/9/1829, Sunday (-42,226) Mount Ararat was first climbed.

15/9/1829, Tuesday (-42,238) Slavery was abolished in Mexico.

14/9/1829. Monday (-42,239) The Treaty of Adrianople preserved the Ottoman Empire. Reeling under a series of defeats, the Turks faced occupation of Istanbul by the Russians; they held back from this for fear of destroying the Turkish Empire entirely and starting another European War. The Turks retained nominal sovereignty over Wallachia and Moldavia, but Russia had the real power here. Europeans grew anxious over the growing power of Russia.

7/8/1829, Friday (-42,277) The first steam railway engine ran in the USA. It operated on the Delaware and Hudson Bay railways, but was too heavy for the rails so was impractical.

4/7/1829. Saturday (-42,311) The first bus service in Britain began. See 18/3/1662. George Shilibeer operated a horse drawn service between Marylebone and the Bank, via the City Road. The fare was 1s for the full distance or 6d for any intermediate distance.

27/6/1829, Saturday (-42,318) James Smithson, British scientist whose bequest established the Smithsonian Institute at Washington to encourage scientific research, died in Genoa.

19/6/1829. Friday (-42,326) The London Metropolitan Police was founded, set up by the Home Secretary, Sir Robert Peel. The policemen were known as ‘Peelers’, or ‘Bobbies’. 3,314 professional police now guarded London.

11/6/1829. Thursday (-42,334) The Russians defeated the Turks at the Battle of Kulecheva, opening up a route to the Balkan Mountains.

10/6/1829. Wednesday (-42,335) The first Oxford and Cambridge boat race took place, 2 ¼ miles from Hambledon Lock to Henley Bridge. It was won easily by Oxford.

29/5/1829. Friday (-42,347) Sir Humphrey Davy, born 17/12/1778, inventor of the safety lamp (see 9/1/1816) died in Geneva.

15/5/1829, Friday (-42,361) US Congress declared the slave trade to be piracy.

19/4/1829, Sunday (-42,387) Easter Sunday

13/4/1829. Monday (-42,393) The Catholic Emancipation Act became law. Catholics were allowed to hold every public office except those of Regent, Lord Chancellor, and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. This was a concession reluctantly granted by the British Conservative government of the Duke of Wellington, following Catholic agitation in Ireland by Daniel O’Connell and the Catholic Association.

11/4/1829, Saturday (-42,395) Alexander Buchan, Scottish meteorologist, was born.

10/4/1829, Friday (-42,396) William Booth, founder of the Salvation Army, was born in Nottingham, the son of a builder.

22/3/1829. Sunday (-42,415) At a conference in London, the boundaries of the independent state of Greece were agreed, after nearly 400 years of Ottoman rule.

24/2/1829, Tuesday (-42,441) Cadiz was made a free port.

10/2/1829, Tuesday (-42,455) Pope Leo XII died.

21/1/1829, Wednesday (-42,475) Oscar II, King of Sweden and Norway, was born.

28/12/1828, Sunday (-42,499) Earthquake at Echigo, Japan, killed 30,000.

24/12/1828. Wednesday (-42,503) The trial of bodysnatcher William Burke began in Edinburgh, see 31/10/1828. The other bodysnatcher, William Hare, had turned King’s Evidence and was not brought to trial. Sentenced to death, Burke was hanged on 28/1/1829 in front of a large crowd.

20/12/1828. Saturday (-42,507) Cherokee Indians ceded their traditional lands in Arkansas territory to the USA and agreed to migrate to lands west of the Mississippi River.

19/11/1828. Wednesday (-42,538) Franz Schubert, born 31/1/1797, died of typhus, aged 31.

1/11/1828, Saturday (-42,556) Balfour Stewart, Scottish physician, was born (died 19/12/1887).

31/10/1828, Friday (-42,557) (1) Sir Joseph Swan, inventor of the electric light bulb independently of Edison, was born in Sunderland.

(2) Edinburgh bodysnatchers Burke and Hare claimed their last victim, a beggar woman named Docherty. See 24/12/1828.

25/10/1828, Saturday (-42,563) London’s St Katharine Docks opened. 1,250 houses, 11,300 people, and the old St Katharine Hospital had been cleared (foundation stone laid on 3/5/1827) to make way for the Docks.

1/10/1828, Wednesday (-42,587) The horse-drawn St Etienne to Andrezieux railway opened; the first railway in France. It was converted to steam in 1844.

24/9/1828. Wednesday (-42,594) Several German states founded the Commercial Union of Central Germany, signing a customs agreement with Prussia.

22/9/1828, Monday (-42,596) Shaka, the Zulu King who founded the Zulu Kingdom in southern Africa, was murdered, aged 41, by his brothers Dingane and Mhlangane; they now ruled jointly.

28/8/1828, Thursday (-42,621) Count Leo Tolstoy, Russian writer, was born of aristocratic descent in Tula Province.

27/8/1828, Wednesday (-42,622) Brazil formally recognised the independence of Uruguay.

12/8/1828, Tuesday (-46,637) (Canal) The Kensington Canal opened, from the Thames up to Earls Court where it connected with a railway to the north-west. It closed in 1860 and was converted to a railway which used its former course, then crossed the Thames to link to Clapham Junction.

28/7/1828, Monday (-42,652)

4/7/1828, Friday (-42,676) (1) Dom Miguel, Regent of Portugal, had himself proclaimed King after a coup in May 1828. Civil war began and his niece, 9-year old Maria, was taken to England for her safety.

(2) Construction began on the Baltimore and Ohio railroad.

28/6/1828, Saturday (-42,682)

9/5/1828, Friday (-42,732) Charles Cramp, US shipbuilder, was born.

8/5/1828. Thursday (-42,733) Jean Henri Dumont, Swiss philanthropist and founder of the International Red Cross, was born in Geneva.

1/5/1828, Thursday (-42,740)

27/4/1828. Sunday (-42,744) London Zoological Gardens opened in Regents Park. Regents Park, 464 acres in North London, was opened.

26/4/1828. Saturday (-42,745) In support of the Greek struggle for independence, Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire. On 8/6/1828 the Russians crossed the Danube, and took Varna on 12/10/1829.

23/4/1828, Wednesday (-42,748) Frederick Augustus, King of Saxony from 1873 (died 10/6/1902) was born.

21/4/1828, Monday (-42,750) The American Dictionary of the English language was published. This both standardised American English and put cultural difference between it and British English.

16/4/1828, Wednesday (-42,755) Francisco de Goya, Spanish painter and etcher, died in France aged 82.

6/4/1828, Sunday (-42,765) Easter Sunday.

22/2/1828. Friday (-42,809) Following the Russian capture of Tehran, Russia and Iran signed the Peace of Turkmanshai, ending their 2 year war. Russia acquired part of Armenia, including Yerevan.

8/2/1828. Friday (-42,823) Jules Verne, French writer and early author of science fiction, was born in Nantes, Brittany.

26/1/1828, Saturday (-42,836) The Duke of Wellington became Tory Prime Minister.

25/1/1828. Friday (-42,837) The Duke of Wellington and Robert Peel formed a Conservative government.

12/1/1828, Saturday (-42,850)

11/1/1828, Friday (-42,851) The Prussian zollervein, or customs union, was extended to Hesse Darmstadt.  From 1825 a new Prussian finance minister, Friedrich von Motz, had begun to extend the Prussian customs union or zollervein.  Independent enclaves or city states had previously served as smuggling centres, hindering tax collection.  In May 1829 Bavaria, whose ruler Louis I was keen on the zollervein, joined.  See 1/1/1834.

10/1/1828, Thursday (-42,852) The Bank of England issued a one-penny banknote.

10/12/1827, Monday (-42,883)

8/11/1827. Thursday (-42,915) The first English language newspaper in the Far East, the Canton Register began publication in Guangzhou.

20/10/1827. Saturday (-42,934) In response to the rebuffed ultimatum of 6/7/1827, British, French, and Russian forces destroyed the Turkish fleet at the Battle of Navarino. Over 50 Turkish and Egyptian ships were sunk.

22/9/1827. Saturday (-42,962) Joseph Smith, son of an impoverished New England farmer, announced that he had received golden plates from an angel. From this he translated the Book of Mormon, leading to the founding of the Mormon religion.

8/9/1827, Saturday (-42,976) Egyptian troops landed at Navarino (now in southern Greece).

7/9/1827, Friday (-42,977) The first railway in Austria opened. This was from Budweis to Trojanov, later extended to Linz, using horse traction.

1/9/1827, Saturday (-42,983)

13/8/1827, Monday (-43,002) The first giraffe arrived in Britain.

12/8/1827, Sunday (-43,003) William Blake, British poet, died.

8/8/1827, Wednesday (-43,007) George Canning, British Prime Minister, died.

17/7/1827, Tuesday (-43,029) Sir Frederick Augustus, English chemist, was born.

16/7/1827, Monday (-43,030) The potter Josiah Spode died.

10/7/1827, Tuesday (-43,036)

7/7/1827, Saturday (-43,039) Quintino Sella, Italian statesman, was born (died 14/3/1884).

6/7/1827. Friday (-43,040) At the Treaty of London, France, Britain, and Russia threatened to use force against Turkey if the Ottoman Empire did not agree to an armistice with Greece. In August 1827 the Turks refused this. See 20/10/1827.

30/6/1827, Saturday (-43,046)

26/6/1827, Tuesday (-43,050) Samuel Crompton, inventor of the spinning mule in 1779, died in Bolton.

5/6/1827. Tuesday (-43,071) Athens was captured by the Ottoman Turks.

4/5/1827, Friday (-43,103) John Manning Speke, English explorer who was the first European to see Lake Victoria, and later identified as the source of the Nile, was born.

3/5/1827, Thursday (-43,104) The foundation stone for St Katharine Dock, London, was laid, see 25/10.1828.

22/4/1827, Sunday (-43,115) Thomas Rowlandson, English watercolour painter (born 1756) died in London.

20/4/1827, Friday (-43,117) Copper ore was discovered in Tasmania.

15/4/1827, Sunday (-43,122) Easter Sunday

7/4/1827, Saturday (-43,130) Friction matches, the invention of Stockton on Tees chemist John Walker, went on sale. In 1826 Walker was mixing antimony and chlorate of potash with a stick; when he rubbed the stick to clean it, it caught fire. Such matchsticks would catch fire if rubbed on any rough surface, even each other, and in 1855 the first safety match was by the Swedish firm of Johan Edvard Lundstrom. In Britain, Bryant and May bought the rights to these matches where they went on sale in August 1855.

5/4/1827. Thursday (-43,132) Joseph Lister was born in London. He was a surgeon, and pioneered the use of antiseptics.

26/3/1827. Monday (-43,142) Composer Ludwig van Beethoven died in Bonn, aged 57. His last words were reputedly “I shall hear in Heaven”. His funeral was on 29/3/1827, in Vienna; thousands attended it.

5/3/1827. Monday (-43,163) Death of Count Alessandro Volta, aged 82, at Como, Italy.  He was born on 18/2/1745.  An Italian, he made the first battery, and gave his name (Volt) to the unit of electrical power.

20/2/1827, Tuesday (-43,176) With Argentine help, Uruguay defeated the Brazilians at Ituzaingo.

17/2/1827, Saturday (-43,179) The Earl of Liverpool left post as Prime Minister, paralysed by a stroke.

26/1/1827 Friday (-43,201) Peru ended its union with Chile and declared independence.

17/1/1827, Wednesday (-43,210) The Duke of Wellington was appointed Commander in Chief of the British Army.

5/12/1826, Tuesday (-43,253)

5/11/1826, Sunday (-43,283)

18/10/1826. Wednesday (-43,301) The last State Lottery was held in England.

7/10/1826., Saturday (-43,312) The first railway in the USA opened, at Quincy, Massachusetts.

5/9/1826. Tuesday (-43,344) (1) The Stratford on Avon to Moreton railway opened.

(2) John Wisden, original compiler of Wisden’s cricketing Almanac, was born in Brighton, Sussex.

13/8/1826, Sunday (-43,367) Rene Lannec, French doctor who invented and named the stethoscope in 1819, died.

8/8/1826, Tuesday (-43,372) Count Nicolas Robilant, Italian diplomat, was born (died 17/10/1888).

7/8/1826, Monday (-43,373) The British defeated the Ashanti near Accra (Ghana).

4/8/1826, Friday (-43,376) The last set of stocks in London was taken down. They had been at St Clement Danes, in The Strand.

5/7/1826, Wednesday (-43,406) Sir Stamford Raffles, British colonial administrator, founder of Singapore in 1819, died in London.

4/7/1826, Tuesday (-43,407) Thomas Jefferson, Third US President from 1801 to 1809, died and, aged 83.  He was buried near Charlottesville, Virginia.

16/6/1826, Friday (-43,425) The insurrection of the Janissaries in Istanbul ended.

10/6/1826, Saturday (-43,431) The final revolt of the Janissaries in Turkey began. They objected to the formation of a new military corps to replace them, by Mahmud.

10/5/1826, Wednesday (-43,462)

23/4/1826, Sunday (-43,479) The Turks captured Missolonghi.

5/4/1826, Wednesday (-43,497) Russia demanded the cessation of Ottoman military operations on the Danube.

26/3/1826, Sunday (-43,507) Easter Sunday

10/3/1826, Friday (-43,523) King John VI of Portugal died aged 56. He was succeeded by his son, Dom Pedro of Brazil, as Pedro IV; however Pedro IV refused to leave Brazil, and abdicated in favour of his infant daughter, Maria.

24/2/1826, Friday (-43,437) The Treaty of Yandabu ended the First Burmese War. Britain gained control of Assam and Arakan.

13/2/1826, Monday (-43,548) The American Temperance Society was formed.

11/2/1826, Saturday (-43,550) University College London was founded, as London University.

26/1/1826, Thursday (-43,566)

26/12/1825, Monday (-43,597) The Decembrist Army Revolt in Russia was crushed; it had begun on 1/12/1825.

18/12/1825, Sunday (-43,605) Tsar Nicholas I became ruler of Russia.

13/12/1825, Tuesday (-43,610) Tsar Alexander I died in agony, aged 47, after eating poisonous mushrooms in the Crimea. He was succeeded by his 21-year-old brother, Nicholas I.

3/11/1825, Thursday (-43,650) The Hungarian Academy of Sciences was founded.

26/10/1825. Wednesday (-43,658) The Erie Canal, linking New York with the Great Lakes via Niagara and the Hudson River, begun 4/7/1817, was completed. Influenced by Governor DeWitt Clinton the New York state legislature agreed to fund the US$ 7 million project. The canal, 363 miles long, 40 foot wide, 4 foot deep, with 82 locks, would make New York the principal port of America.

25/10/1825, Tuesday (-43,659) Johann Strauss junior, composer, was born in Vienna, Austria.

13/10/1825, Thursday (-43,671) Maximilian I, King of Bavaria, died.

10/10/1825, Monday (-43,674) Paul Kruger, South African politician and Boer leader, was born in Colesberg, Cape Colony.

27/9/1825. Tuesday (-43,687) Stockton and Darlington railway opened. Built by George Stephenson, the 27-mile route received Parliamentary approval in 1821. Stephenson’s locomotive Active weighed 8 tons and could travel at 12 to 16 mph.  The locomotive was later renamed Locomotion No.1.

29/8/1825, Monday (-43,716) Portugal formally recognised the independence of Brazil.

25/8/1825, Thursday (-43,720) Uruguay gained independence from Spain, under Jose Artigas. Brazil, fearing that the socialist principles of Artigas would influence their country, attacked Uruguay.

6/8/1825, Saturday (-43,739) Bolivia proclaimed itself a Republic, independent from Spain, after nearly 300 years of Spanish rule.  Antonio Sucre was the first President.

6/7/1825, Wednesday (-43,770)

24/6/1825. Friday (-43,782) William Henry Smith, English newsagent and bookseller, was born. He joined his father’s news agency business and took full control in 1846, building the biggest chain of newsagents in Britain.

15/6/1825, Wednesday (-43,791) The Duke of York laid the foundation stone of London Bridge.

11/6/1825, Saturday (-43,795) William Wilberforce made his last speech in the House of Commons.

24/5/1825, Tuesday (-43,813)

24/4/1825, Sunday (-43,843)

3/4/1825, Sunday (-43,864) Easter Sunday.

17/3/1825. Thursday (-43,881) The Spanish colony of Santo Domingo proclaimed its independence as the Dominican Republic.

25/2/1825, Friday (-43,901) Quote from Samuel Taylor Coleridge, “He who begins by loving Christianity better than Truth will proceed by loving his own sect or church better than Christianity, and end by loving himself better than all”

24/2/1825, Thursday (-43,902) Thomas Bowdler died, aged 71. He was notorious for prudishly editing text he considered unsuitable, giving rise to the term ‘bowdlerising’.

9/2/1825, Wednesday (-43,917) John Quincy Adams was elected President of the USA, defeating Andrew Adams and ending a 2-month impasse.

30/1/1825, Sunday (-43,927) The Redruth & Chasewater Railway opened; steam traction was introduced in 1854. The line survived until 1915.

8/1/1825, Saturday (-43,949) Eli Whitney, American inventor of the cotton gin, which made separating of fibre and seed easier, died in New Haven, Connecticut.

4/1/1825, Tuesday (-43,953) Ferdinand I, King if the Two Sicilies, died aged 73. He was succeeded 47-year old son, Francesco I.

9/12/1824, Thursday (-43,979) The Battle of Ayacucho. Jose de Sucre defeated a Spanish army twice the size of his own.

16/11/1824, Tuesday (-44,002) The Murray River, Australia, was discovered by the explorer Hamilton Hume. See 9/2/1830.

21/10/1824, Thursday (-44,028) Portland Cement was patented by Joseph Aspdin of Wakefield, Yorkshire.

14/10/1824, Thursday (-44,035) The Higham and Strood Canal Tunnels opened, taking the Thames and Medway Canal.

4/10/1824, Monday (-44,045) Mexico became a republic.

3/10/1824, Sunday (-44,046) Harry Arnim, German diplomat, was born (died 1881).

16/9/1824. Thursday (-44,063) Louis XVIII, King of France, died aged 68, leaving a strong and prosperous country, in contrast to its defeat under Napoleon. However his attempts at constitutional reform were thwarted by the ultra-royalists. He was succeeded by his brother, Charles X.

4/8/1824. Wednesday (-44,106) The USA gave formal diplomatic recognition to the newly independent Brazil.

24/7/1824, Saturday (-44,117) The result of the first public opinion poll was published in the Harrisburg Pennsylvanian.  The poll was conducted at Wilmington to determine voters’ intentions in the 1824 Presidential election.

14/7/1824, Wednesday (-44,127) Kamehameha II, King of Hawaii and his wife died of measles during a visit to Britain.

26/6/1824, Saturday (-44,145) The physicist and mathematician Lord Kelvin was born in Belfast as William Thomson.

15/6/1824. Tuesday (-44,156) The RSPCA was founded.

6/6/1824. Sunday (-44,165) A law was passed in Britain recognising the right to strike. The Combination Acts of 1799 and 1800 were repealed.

11/5/1824. Tuesday (-44,191) The British, with a force of 11,000 troops, invaded Burma and captured Rangoon in retaliation for the King of Burma’s invasion of Shahpuri, in British India, in February 1824. This was the first time steamboats had been used in warfare.

19/4/1824, Monday (-44,213) Lord Byron died at sunset of marsh fever (malaria) at Missolonghi, helping the Greeks during their struggle for independence from Ottoman Turkey; he was 36. See 22/3/1829.

18/4/1824, Sunday (-44,214) Easter Sunday.

22/3/1824, Monday (-44,241) The British Government agreed to spend £57,000 to purchase 38 paintings to establish a national collection.

15/3/1824, Monday (-44,248) Construction work began on John Rennie’s London Bridge.

11/3/1824, Thursday (+44,252) The Bureau of Indian Affairs was created by US Secretary of War, John C Calhoun.

4/3/1824. Thursday (-44,259) In Britain, Sir William Hillary founded the National Institute for the Preservation of Life from Shipwreck. This became the Royal National Lifeboat Institution in 1854.

2/3/1824, Tuesday (-44,261) Bedrich Smetana, Czech composer, was born in Litomysl, Bohemia.

1/3/1824, Monday (-44,262) Sir Donald Martin Stewart, British Field-Marshal, was born (died 26/3/1900).

28/2/1824, Saturday (-44,264) Charles Blondin, French tightrope walker famous for his crossings of Niagara Falls, was born in Hesdin near Calais, as Jean Francois Gravelet.

26/2/1824, Thursday (-44,266) Carlos Calvi, Argentine historian (died 1906) was born in Buenos Aires.

24/2/1824, Tuesday (-44,268) The Burmese War began, between Britain and Burma, when Burma invaded the Indian island of Shahpuri. Lord Amherst, British Governor-General of India, declared war on Burma.

16/2/1824, Monday (-44,276) The Athenaeum Club, London, was founded.

10/2/1824, Tuesday (-44,282) Samuel Plimsoll, naval inventor, was born at Bristol.

5/2/1824, Thursday (-44,287) Charles Dickens, then aged 12, was sent out to work labelling shoe polish bottles.

22/1/1824, Thursday (-44,301) The Asante army heavily defeated the British in the Gold Coast.

21/1/1824, Wednesday (-44,302) Thomas ‘Stonewall’ Jackson, the General who commanded Confederate forces in the American Civil War, was born.

10/12/1823, Wednesday (-44,344)

2/12/1823. Tuesday (-44,352) (1) President Monroe of the USA declared that no part of the Americas is now ‘res nullius’, or open to further European colonisation, although existing European influences would be tolerated. This was the basis of the Monroe Doctrine.

(2) Birkbeck College, University of London, was founded.

1/12/1823, Monday (-44,353) Ernest Reyer, French composer, was born.

25/11/1823, Tuesday (-44,359) Brighton’s Chain Pier was opened.

30/10/1823, Thursday (-44,385) Edmund Cartwright, inventor of the power loom in 1785, died at Hastings, Sussex, aged 80.

14/10/1823, Tuesday (-44,401) Chicksaw Indian tribal chiefs ceded land east of the Mississippi River to the United States Government.

23/9/1823, Tuesday (-44,422) French troops, suppressing a rebellion in Spain, took Cadiz. The rebels surrendered Ferdinand VII, who was restored to the Spanish throne.

11/9/1823, Thursday (-44,434) The economist David Ricardo died.

10/9/1823, Wednesday (-44,435) Simon Bolivar became dictator of Peru.

31/8/1823, Sunday (-44,445) At the Battle of the Trocadero, French troops defeated Spanish rebels.

20/8/1823, Wednesday (-44,456) Pope Pius VII died.

18/8/1823, Monday (-44,458) A slave rebellion in Guyana. European militia put down the rebellion by 20/8/1763.

18/7/1823, Friday (-44,489) (Iran, Turkey) The Treaty of Erzerum was signed, between the Sultan of Ottoman Turkey and the Qajar Shah of Persia; this Treaty defined their common frontier in lower Iraq. However the two powers continued to dispute possession of the town of Muhammara, at the mouth of the Karun River, a disagreement dating from 1812. In 1847 a second Treaty of Erzerum was signed, giving Muhammara to Persia.

1/7/1823, Tuesday (-44,506) An assembly at Guatemala City declared the independence of the United Provinces of Central America.

17/6/1823, Tuesday (-44,520) Charles Macintosh patented a waterproof material for clothes.

7/5/1823, Wednesday (-44,561) Despite his deafness, Beethoven conducted the first performance of his Ninth Symphony.

24/4/1823, Thursday (-44,574) The United Provinces of Central America abolished slavery.

23/4/1823, Wednesday (-44,575) Sultan Adbul Mejid was born, see 25/6/1861.

22/4/1823, Tuesday (-44,576) The Baltic Exchange, London, was established, as the Baltic Club.

30/3/1823, Sunday (-44,599) Easter Sunday

25/3/1823, Tuesday (-44,604) Britain recognised the Greek insurgents as a belligerent party.  This was despite fears that the Greek rebellion would spark another Turkish-Russian war.

18/2/1823, Permission for the colony in what is now Texas (see 17/1/1821) was withdrawn by Mexico, following the accession of Iturbide.

26/1/1823, Sunday (-44,662) Edward Jenner, pioneer of vaccination, died in Berkeley, Gloucestershire.

23/1/1823. Thursday (-44,665) The USA recognised the independent states of Argentina and Chile.

3/1/1823, Friday (-44,685) Robert Whitehead, English engineer and inventor of the naval torpedo, was born in Bolton Le Moors, Lancashire.

29/12/1822, Sunday (-44,690) John Campbell, Gaelic scholar (died 17/2/1885) was born.

27/12/1822, Friday (-44,692) Louis Pasteur was born in Dole, France.

1/12/1822, Sunday (-44,718) Dom Pedro was crowned Emperor of newly independent Brazil.

29/10/1822, Tuesday (-44,751) The Caledonian Canal, Scotland, opened (construction began 1803).

20/10/1822. Sunday (-44,760) The Sunday Times was first published.

4/10/1822, Friday (-44,776) Rutherford Hayes, USA Republican and 19th President, was born in Delaware, Ohio, son of a farmer.

7/9/1822, Saturday (-44,803) Brazil proclaimed its independence from Portugal, with Pedro I as Emperor.

25/8/1822, Sunday (-44,816) The astronomer Sir William Herschel died.  He discovered Uranus in 1781.

25/7/1822, Thursday (-44,847) Agostin de Turbide was crowned Emperor of Mexico. He wanted to use military force to bring other newly-independent Latin American states into his empire.

22/7/1822, Monday (-44,850) Gregor Mendel, Austrian monk and botanist who discovered the principles of modern genetics, was born at Heinzendorf near Odrau, in Austrian Silesia.

8/7/1822. Monday (-44,864) Percy Bysshe Shelley died. He drowned in a storm whilst sailing off the coast of Italy.

30/6/1822, Sunday (-44,872) In Spain, rebels took King Ferdinand VII prisoner.

19/6/1822. Wednesday (-44,883) The Greeks under Constantine Kanaris destroyed an Ottoman Turkish fleet. A large Ottoman army invaded Greece in July 1822. In January 1823 the Ottomans failed to capture the key fort of Missolonghi at the entrance to the Gulf of Corinth and were forced to withdraw.

24/5/1822, Friday (-44,909) The Battle of Pinchincha, near Quito. Jose de Sucre decisively defeated a Spanish army.

30/4/1822, Tuesday (-44,933) At Rotherhithe, London, the world’s first iron steamship, the Aaron Manby, was launched. It became a cross-Channel cargo ship.

27/4/1822, Saturday (-44,936) Ulysses Grant, General in the Union Army, Democrat, and 18th President, was born in Point Pleasant, Ohio, the son of a tanner.

7/4/1822, Sunday (-44,956) Easter Sunday

27/3/1822, Wednesday (-44,967)

16/2/1822. Saturday (-45,006) Francis Galton, a cousin of Charles Darwin, founder of a new science called eugenics, was born in Birmingham, England. Among his ideas was the systematic creation of a superior race of human beings, an idea later adopted by Hitler.

14/2/1822. Thursday (-45,008) The increasing popularity of Valentines Cards forced the Post Office to employ extra sorters. See 14/2/1477.

13/1/1822. Sunday (-45,040) Greek rebels proclaimed independence from the Ottoman Turks at Epirus.

30/10/1821, Tuesday (-45,115) Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Russian novelist, was born.

11/10/1821. Thursday (-45,134) Sir George Williams, founder of the YMCA in 1844, was born in Dulverton, Somerset.

4/10/1821, Thursday (-45,141) The Scottish civil engineer John Rennie, bridge designer, died in London.

27/9/1821, Thursday (-45,148) Mexico achieved independence under General Iturbe, who proclaimed himself Emperor as Augustin I.

15/9/1821. Saturday (-45,160) (1) El Salvador proclaimed its independence and became a member of the United Provinces of Central America.

(2) Costa Rica became independent from Spain.

4/9/1821. Monday (-45,171) (1) Czar Alexander declared that Russian influence in Alaska extended as far south as Oregon and closed Alaskan waters to foreigners.

(2) Jose Miguel Carrera, leader in the Chilean fight for independence from Spain, died (born 15/10/1785).

30/8/1821, Thursday (-45,176) Simon Bolivar was named President of Venezuela.

10/8/1821, Friday (-45,196) Missouri became the 24th State of the Union.

28/7/1821, Saturday (-45,209) San Martin and his forces liberated Peru, and proclaimed its independence from Spain.

19/7/1821, Thursday (-45,218) Coronation of King George IV in Westminster Abbey.

16/7/1821, Monday (-45,221) Mary Baker Eddy, American religious leader who founded the Christian Scientists, was born in Bow, New Hampshire.

24/6/1821, Sunday (-45,243) Simon Bolivar defeated a Spanish army at Carabobo, Venezuela.

19/6/1821, Tuesday (-45,248) At the Battle of Dragashani, a Greek uprising against Turkish rule was defeated.

15/5/1821, Tuesday (-45,283) John Callcott, English musician (born 20/11/1766) died.

5/5/1821. Saturday (-45,293) Napoleon Bonaparte died, in exile on St Helena, in the Atlantic (born 15/8/1769).  The cause may have been arsenic poisoning, or it may have been stomach cancer, which also killed Napoleon’s father.

22/4/1821, Sunday (-45,306) Easter Sunday.

2/4/1821, Monday (-45,326) The Greeks under Turkish rule began a revolt under Archbishop Germanos of Patras.  The Greek population rose en masse, captured the capital of the Morea Peninsula, Tripolitza, and the revolt then spread north, and to the Greek Islands. These islands were the main recruiting ground of the Ottoman Navy, so Turkish sea power was weakened.

24/2/1821, Saturday (-45,363) Augustin de Iturbide, an officer in the Mexican Army, published his plan for an independent Mexico.

23/2/1821, Friday (-45,364) John Keats, English poet, died of tuberculosis in Rome, aged only 25.

3/2/1821, Saturday (-45,384) Elizabeth Blackwell, first English woman doctor, was born.