Contents and rationale of Community and Communications

 

Contents of Community and Communications

Community and Communications presents a range of demographic and socio-economic data for 293 territories across the globe, also for the World as a whole. For specimen pages detailing the range of data covered, please see sample pages below for Finland and the US State of Kentucky. The purpose of Community and Communications is to enable comparisons over time and between territories across the globe. To facilitate  this, data is presented in a standardised format for all the 292 territories, which comprises the world’s countries, the States of Australia, Canada and the US, and the European Union, plus the World itself as a 293rd territory. In order to facilitate cross-time and cross-territory comparisons, not all the categories for e.g. religion or ethnicity are listed, but only the largest population segments. For some African and Asian countries, where many small ethnic or linguistic communities exist that are unique to that particular country, only the largest overall categories are given, e.g. total % Black population is given rather than a complete list of ethnic groups.

 

Time series coverage

The range of time covered by the data series varies according to what is available and the length of time the territory has existed. In most cases around 50 to 100 years of data up to the present day is given; in many cases data series are traced back much further, for several centuries. Please see Data Start Year file for the earliest data for any specific time series given in Community and Communications for any specific territory.

 

In several cases, countries have changed significantly over time, experiencing significant modifications in territory and population. Germany has evolved from the pre-World war One German Empire into the much smaller entity of West Germany, and from 1990 reunited with the territory of East Germany. Austria today is the successor-State to the much larger pre-World One Austro-Hungarian Empire. Russia has expanded significantly over the past millennium from a small territory around Moscow to become, as the USSR, the largest country on Earth; in 1991 it broke up into 15 separate States. Yugoslavia, after a bloody civil war in the 1990s, disintegrated into several ethnically-based States.

 

Community and Communications uses the ‘successor-State’ principle to trace the evolving demographics and socio-economic progress of such changing political entities. Austria today is the successor-State to the Austro-Hungarian Empire, whilst the States carved from its former territories, such as Hungary and Czechoslovakia, are listed from their date of creation. Today’s Czech Republic is the successor-State to Czechoslovakia, whilst Slovakia is listed as a newer State. Serbia is counted as the successor-State to the former Yugoslavia. States that have split and re-joined, such as East and West Germany are listed under one entry, for ‘Germany’. The Palestinian Territories have a separate entry from Israel, as they have achieved worldwide recognition as a political entity. South Korea is treated as the successor-State for pre-World War Two Korea, with a separate entry for North Korea.

 

Country of the Month –August 2020 – AUSTRALIA



12) Australia

For individual States see below

Community

Area 7,741,220 square kilometres (land area 7,682,300 square kilometres)

Population,


62,190 (1830)*

180,626 (1840)

405,660 (1850)

1,141,563 (1860)

1,650,172 (1870)

2,245,448 (1880)

3,177,502 (1891)

3,774,310 (1901)

4,455,005 (1911)

5,455,734 (1921)

6,629,839 (1933)

7,580,820 (1947)

8,219,000 (1950)

10,290,000 (1960)

12,843,000 (1970)

14,649,000 (1980)

17,041,000 (1990)

19,066,000 (2000)

22,120,000 (2010)

23,816,000 (2015)

24,992,000 (2018)


*Europeans only.  The Indigenous population of Australia, as European colonisation began, was around 1,000,000.  However the Indigenous population fell rapidly in the face of armed conflict with European settlers, and as new diseases were acquired from Europeans; Between 1820 and 1850 the number of Indigenous inhabitants fell from 600,000 to 300,000.  As late as the 1960s, Indigenous children were being forcibly removed from their parents in a policy of ‘assimilation’.  Indigenous persons have only been included in the census figures since 1967.

Ethnicity, % Most Australians have British ancestry.

 

Indigenous

Australian

Asian

(mainly Chinese and Indian)

1933

0.3

0.3

1947

0.4

0.2

1960

0.7

 

1976

1.0

 

2001

2.2

7.0

2011

2.5

 

2016

2.8

 


Religion,%

 

Buddhist

Christian

Anglican

Christian

Protestant

Christian

R C

Hindu

Jewish

Muslim

None

1906

 

 

 

22.0

 

 

 

 

1947

 

33.8

 

15.3

 

0.4

 

 

1990

 

26.0

 

26.0

 

 

 

 

2000

 

20.7

20.7

26.6

 

 

1.0

 

2006

2.1

18.7

 

25.8

0.6

0.4

 

18.7

2016

2.5

13.3

 

22.6

1.3

0.4

2.6

30.1

Birth and death rates Below replacement rate = 2.1

 

Fertility Rate

Birth

Rate

Infant

Mortality

Death

Rate

% Aged

Under 15

% Aged

Over

65

% Urban

1890

 

 

 

 

 

 

41.4

1901

 

 

 

 

34.9

 

 

1912

 

28.0 (+17.1)

 

10.9

 

 

 

1933

 

16.9 (+7.9)

41.0

9.0

 

 

 

1940

 

19.5 (+9.5)

 

10.0

 

 

 

1945

 

 

29.0

 

 

 

 

1950

 

23.0 (+14.0)

24.0

9.0

26.5

8.1

72.1

1960

3.5

22.0 (+13.4)

20.4

8.6

30.1

8.6

81.5

1970

2.7

20.0 (+11.0)

16.0

9.0

29.1

8.2

85.3

1980

1.9

15.0 (+7.7)

11.0

7.3

25.3

9.6

85.8

1990

1.9

15.0 (+8.0)

8.5

7.0

22.1

11.1

85.4

2000

1.8

13.0 (+6.3)

5.1

6.7

20.9

12.3

84.2

2010

1.9

12.4 (+5.8)

4.0

6.6

19.0

13.4

85.1

2015

1.8

12.7 (+6.1)

3.2

6.6

18.8

15.0

 

2017

1.8

12.4 (+5.9)

3.1

6.5

19.1

 

85.9

2018

 

 

3.1

 

19.2

15.7

86.0

Life expectancy,


57.0 (1905); 55.2 (M), 58.8 (F)

65.3 (1933); 63.5 (M), 67.1 (F)

69.5 (1952); 67.0 (M), 72.0 (F)

70.9 (1960); 67.8 (M), 74.0 (F)

71.0 (1970); 67.8 (M), 74.4 (F)

74.3 (1980); 70.9 (M), 78.0 (F)

77.0 (1990); 74.0 (M), 80.2 (F)

79.2 (2000); 76.6 (M), 82.0 (F)

81.7 (2010); 79.5 (M), 84.0 (F)

83.5 (2020); 81.6 (M), 85.4 (F)


Population of principal cities, For other cities see individual States below.

CANBERRA, The capital of Australia was originally Melbourne; construction began in 1913 and Canberra became the capital in 1927. The name derives from the Aboriginal word canberry, meaning ‘meeting place’. The site was chosen in 1908, to settle a competition to be capital city between Melbourne and Sydney.


100,090 (1967)

130,000 (1970)

196,640 (1976)

290,000 (1990)

323,056 (2009)

367,752 (2012)

403,468 (2016)


Wealth; Gross Domestic Product (nominal values)

 

GDP,

US$ million

Total GDP,

% of USA

GDP per capita,

US$

GDP per capita

% of USA

1948

6,256

2.80

812

53.25

1955

9,500

2.65

 

 

1960

18,593

3.42

1,809

60.16

1965

25,963

3.49

2,130

55.64

1970

36,760

3.54

3,098

59.04

1975

95,640

5.85

6,886

88.06

1980

156,280

5.59

10,661

84.62

1985

166,390

3.95

10,574

57.88

1990

307,330

5.30

17,886

74.66

1995

363,720

4.91

18,720

62.26

2000

381,920

3.83

19,776

54.26

2005

700,700

5.35

34,017

76.77

2010

1,132,000

7.56

50,750

104.91

2015

1,345,000

7.46

56,554

100.62

2016

1,204,000

6.48

49,928

86.88

GDP by primary sector

 

Agriculture

% GDP

Agriculture

% employed

Industry

% GDP

Industry

% employed

Services

% GDP

Services

% employed

1960

 

11.0

 

40.0

 

49.0

1970

 

8.0

 

 

 

 

1980

4.0

7.0

 

33.0

 

62.0

1990

4.0

6.0

 

24.0

63.0

78.0

2000

 

 

26.8

19.0

 

 

2010

4.0

3.6

25.6

21.1

70.0

75.3

2016

3.6

 

26.5

 

69.9

 

Communications

Language, % Official; English

 

Arabic

Chinese (all)

English

Greek

Italian

Vietnamese

2006

1.2

2.5

78.5

1.3

1.6

1.0

2016

1.4

3.7

72.7

 

1.2

1.2

Literacy


83.9% (1861)

89.7% (1901)

98.5% (1980)

99.9% (2000 onwards)


Physical communications – roads

 

Roads (km)

Surfaced (km)

Motor vehicles

Cars

Commercial Vehicles

1947

797,000

 

 

590,000

414,340

1956

 

 

2,150,000

 

 

1960

 

 

2,833,728

1,924,178

807,060

1968

 

 

4,463,251

3,444,806

921,705

1980

 

238,000

7,450,000

5,800,000

 

1988

 

 

9,221,100

7,243,600

 

1992

 

 

 

7,913,200

2,041,300

2004

812,972

423,470

 

 

 

2005

 

 

13,612,000

10,896,410

2,479,000

2010

820,131

 

15,473,000

12,269,306

 

2011

823,217

 

 

12,474,044

 

2013

 

 

16,853,000

 

 

2017

 

 

18,800,000

 

 

Railways; First railway opened 1854

Length, kilometres, (% e = electrified)


43,550 (1945)

44,450 (1955)

40,496 (1964)

40,807 (1990)

38,446 (2010)

36,968 (2014) (8.4% e)


Electronic communications , TV broadcasts began 1956 (Sydney and Melbourne)

 

Telephones (landlines)

Mobile Telephones

Radios

1,000s

TVs,

1,000s

PCs

1,000s

Internet Users

1,000s

1938

630,175

 

1,056

 

 

 

1948

688,348

 

1,833

 

 

 

1960

 

 

1,859

 

 

 

1959

2,056,447

 

 

 

 

 

1960

 

 

2,284

1,122

 

 

1980

4,742,662

 

 

 

 

 

1987

 

4,420

 

 

 

 

1988

 

 

 

 

1,700

 

1990

7,786,900

185,000

21,600

8,200

2,556

 

1995

 

2,242,000

23,300

 

4,979

 

1998

 

 

 

 

 

4,200

2000

10,350,000

8,560,000

36,700

14,130

9,000

 

2004

 

 

 

 

13,720

 

2005

11,460,000

18,420,000

 

 

 

5,980

2010

 

24,500,000

 

18,700

 

18,000

2012

10,470,000

 

 

 

 

 

2016

8,180,000

26,550,000

 

 

 

20,288

Tourism: Visitors to Australia,


904,558 (1980)

1,785,000 (1987)

2,215,000 (1990)

3,726,000 (1995)

4,530,000 (2000)

5,499,000 (2005)

5,790,000 (2010)

7,444,000 (2015)


 

____________________

List of Territories


1) World

2) European Union

3) Afghanistan

4) Albania

5) Algeria

6) Andorra

7) Angola

8) Antigua and Barbuda

9) Argentina

10) Armenia

11) Aruba

12) Australia

13) Australia – Capital Territory

14) Australia – New South Wales

15) Australia – Northern Territory

16) Australia – Queensland

17) Australia – South Australia

18) Australia – Tasmania

19) Australia – Victoria

20) Australia – Western Australia

21) Austria

22) Azerbaijan

23) Bahamas

24) Bahrain

25) Bangladesh (formerly East Pakistan)

26) Barbados

27) Belarus

28) Belgium

29) Belize (formerly British Honduras)

30) Benin

31) Bermuda

32) Bhutan

33) Bolivia

34) Bosnia and Herzegovina

35) Botswana


36) Brazil

37) Brunei

38) Bulgaria

39) Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta)

40) Burundi

41) Cambodia

42) Cameroon


43) Canada

44) Canada – Alberta

45) Canada – British Columbia

46) Canada – Manitoba

47) Canada – New Brunswick

48) Canada – Newfoundland

49) Canada – Northwest Territories

50) Canada – Nova Scotia

51) Canada – Nunavut

52) Canada – Ontario

53) Canada – Prince Edward Island

54) Canada – Quebec

55) Canada – Saskatchewan

56) Canada – Yukon Territory

57) Cape Verde

58) Cayman Islands

59) Central African Republic

60) Chad

61) Chile

62) China

63) Colombia

64) Comoros

65) Congo (Democratic Republic)

66) Congo (Republic of)

67) Costa Rica

68) Cote D’Ivoire

69) Croatia

70) Cuba

71) Cyprus

72) Czechia (Czechoslovakia)

73) Denmark  

74) Djibouti (formerly French Somaliland, Territory of the Afars and Issas)

                                                   75) Dominica

76) Dominican Republic

77) Ecuador

78) Egypt

79) El Salvador

80) Equatorial Guinea

81) Eritrea

82) Estonia

83) Ethiopia

84) Faroe Islands

85) Falkland Islands

86) Fiji

87) Finland

88) France

89) French Guiana

90) French Polynesia

91) Gabon

92) (The) Gambia

93) Georgia

94) Germany


95) Ghana

96) Gibraltar

97) Greece

98) Greenland

99) Grenada

100) Guadeloupe

101) Guam

102) Guatemala

103) Guinea

104) Guinea Bissau (formerly Portuguese Guinea)

105) Guyana (formerly British Guiana)

106) Haiti

107) Honduras

108) Hong Kong

109) Hungary

110) Iceland

111) India

112) Indonesia

113) Iran

114) Iraq

115) Ireland

116) Israel

117) Italy

118) Jamaica

119) Japan

120) Jordan

121) Kazakhstan

122) Kenya

123) Kiribati (formerly – with Tuvalu – the Gilbert & Ellice Islands)

124) (North) Korea

125) (South) Korea

126) Kosovo

127) Kuwait

128) Kyrgyzstan

129) Laos

130) Latvia

131) Lebanon

132) Lesotho

133) Liberia

134) Libya

135) Liechtenstein

136) Lithuania

137) Luxembourg

138) Macao

139) North Macedonia

140) Madagascar

141) Malawi (formerly Nyasaland)

142) Malaysia (formerly Malaya, North Borneo & Sarawak)

143) Maldives

144) Mali

145) Malta


146) Marshall Islands

147) Martinique

148) Mauritania

149) Mauritius

150) Mexico

151) Micronesia

152) Moldova

153) Monaco

154) Mongolia

155) Montenegro

156) Montserrat

157) Morocco

158) Mozambique

159) Myanmar (formerly Burma)

160) Namibia (formerly South West Africa)

161) Nauru

162) Nepal

163) (The) Netherlands

164) New Caledonia

165) New Zealand

166) Nicaragua

167) Niger

168) Nigeria

169) Norway

170) Oman (formerly Muscat & Oman)

171) Pakistan (formerly West Pakistan)

172) Palau

173) Palestinian Territories

174) Panama

175) Papua New Guinea

176) Paraguay

177) Peru

178) Philippines

179) Poland

180) Portugal

181) Puerto Rico

182) Qatar

183) Reunion

184) Romania

185) Russia (former USSR)

186) Rwanda

187) St Helena

188) St Kitts and Nevis

189) St Lucia

190) St Vincent & The Grenadines

191) Samoa (American)

192) Samoa, (formerly Western Samoa)

193) San Marino

194) Sao Tome & Principe

195) Saudi Arabia

196) Senegal

197) Serbia (Yugoslavia)

198) Seychelles

199) Sierra Leone

200) Singapore

201) Slovakia

202) Slovenia

203) Solomon Islands

204) Somalia

205) South Africa

206) South Sudan

207) Spain

208) Sri Lanka

209) Sudan 

210) Suriname

211) Swaziland (now Eswatini)

212) Sweden

213) Switzerland

214) Syria

215) Taiwan 

216) Tajikistan

217) Tanzania (formerly Tangynika, Zanzibar and Pemba)

218) Thailand (formerly Siam)

219) Timor L’Este (formerly Portuguese Timor)

220) Togo

221) Tonga

222) Trinidad & Tobago 

223) Tunisia

224) Turkey

225) Turkmenistan

226) Tuvalu (formerly  - with Kiribati – Gilbert & Ellice Islands)

227) Uganda

228) Ukraine

230) United Kingdom (UK)

231) Uruguay

232) Uzbekistan

233) Vanuatu (formerly New Hebrides)

234) Vatican City

235) Venezuela

236) Vietnam

237) Virgin Islands (US)

238) Western Sahara

239) Yemen

240) Zambia (formerly Northern Rhodesia)

241) Zimbabwe (formerly Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia)

242) United States of America (USA)

243) Alabama

244) Alaska

245) Arizona

246) Arkansas

247) California

248) North Carolina

249) South Carolina

250) Colorado

251) Connecticut

252) North Dakota

253) South Dakota 

254) Delaware

255) District of Columbia

256) Florida

257) Georgia

258) Hawaii

259) Idaho

260) Illinois

261) Indiana

262) Iowa

263) Kansas

264) Kentucky

265) Louisiana

266) Maine

267) Maryland

268) Massachusetts

269) Michigan

270) Minnesota

271) Mississippi

272) Missouri

273) Montana

274) Nebraska

275) Nevada

276) New Hampshire

277) New Jersey

278) New Mexico

279) New York 

280) Ohio

281) Oklahoma

282) Oregon

283) Pennsylvania

284) Rhode Island 

285) Tennessee

286) Texas

287) Utah

288) Vermont

289) Virginia

290) Washington

291) West Virginia

292) Wisconsin

293) Wyoming

 

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Notes on data and abbreviations used

 

Community

Area – The overall area and land area (area not covered by lakes, reservoirs) is given. Changed areas, for example where land reclamation has taken place (e.g. Singapore) are also noted.

Population – The total population at various years according to domestic census, or by estimate from the UN where census data is missing or unreliable.

Ethnicity – The percentages of the main ethnic groups within the country are given for various years.

NOTES:

1)     Hispanic is here used, as far as the data allows, only for persons of Latin American or Spanish/Portuguese heritage. Persons of Black or White-non-Spanish origin from Latin America are counted as Black or White respectively.

2)     Jewish ethnicity means descent primarily from Jewish-race ancestors. It is not the same as Jewish religion, as a number of persons with Jewish ancestry no longer actively practise Judaism.

3)     Mixed Race includes Mestizo and Mulatto

Religion – the percentages of adherents to the main religions are given for various years.

NOTES:

1)     Animist is used as a general term for all traditional indigenous pagan religions. This term does not include modern pagan worshippers.

2)     Christian = those professing the Christian faith. However (as with Jews), many Christians only nominally practise their faith, seldom attending Church.

3)     JW = Jehovah’s Witnesses.

4)     RC = Roman Catholic.

5)     Jewish religion = actively practising Jews. This may be a smaller group than those with primarily Jewish ancestry, as some Jews have become secularised, with no active religion.

6)     No religion includes atheists and agnostics, also those who say they do subscribe to any particular religion, even though they may believe in a deity of some kind.

Birth and death rates – essential demographic information on birth and death rates and population structure.

NOTES:

1)     Fertility rate is the total expected average number of children per woman. Figures below 2.1 are highlighted as 2.1 is the replacement population level, which allows for some females dying before they reach reproductive age. A figure below 2.1 may not mean the population is falling, as increasing longevity of immigration may still increase the total number of people.

2)     Birth and death rates are given as crude (not adjusted for population age structure) rates per 1,000 people. The crude death rate is subtracted from the crude death rate to give a measure of the natural growth of the population. Note that a negative natural growth rate 9deaths per thousand exceed births per thousand) may not mean a falling population, if there is immigration to increase the numbers of people.

3)     Infant mortality is given as the number of children who die before their first birthday, per thousand live births. The reduction in this number signifies progress in medical care or general nutrition.

4)     % population aged under 15 indicates earlier birth-rates and suggests the rate of possible future population growth (as this age cohort moves towards reproductive age). This figure also suggests the future size of the workforce.

5)     % population aged over 65 indicates the general longevity of the population, and its overall health, as more people survive into their 70s, 80s and beyond.

6)     % Urban indicates the proportion of people living in towns and cities; generally of population 20,000 or more. Higher urbanisation rates indicate rising prosperity, a shift from agriculture into manufacturing and services, and a falling birth-rate as more women work, and gain power to limit family size. For some small territorial units the entire population lives in urban areas, giving an urbanisation rate of 100%.

Life expectancy – the number of years a baby born in that year can expect to live. Figures are given for males and females separately where available.

NOTES:

1)     Life expectancy generally rises over time as wealth increase and healthcare improves. However increases in life expectancy may start to tail off as ages of 80+ are attained. In some wealthier countries rising obesity may actually cause a fall in life expectancy over time. More significantly, big temporary drops in life expectancy usually indicate a major long-term catastrophe such as war or famine.

Population of principal cities – the population of the territory’s major cities are given, as they have changed over time.

NOTES:

1)     M or MA = Metropolitan Area. As car ownership has enabled commuters to live further out of town in nicer greener areas, the original urban area has become ever less representative of the total city population. In many cases the original urban area is declining in population even as the wider area is rising, as surrounding towns and villages become suburbanised. In these cities, the metropolitan area figure is a better indicator of the overall urban population.

Gross Domestic Productthe total GDP, and GDP per capita, are given for selected years, also the % of each figure of that for the USA. Conversion from domestic currencies facilitates comparison both between countries and across years; the downside is that fluctuations in domestic currency exchange rates against the US Dollar can be larger than changes in GDP. In the long run such fluctuations should even out, as falling currencies generally correspond to higher inflation rates. Centrally-planned economies may have artificially-set exchange rates, which can distort Dollar-denominated GDP figures.

GDP by primary sector – The % of GDP derived from the three main economic sectors (primary = agriculture, secondary = manufacturing and industry, tertiary = services) is given, also the % of the workforce in each sector. As countries become wealthier they shift from agricultural production to industry, and then into services. The labour force in agriculture also shrinks, but less rapidly, followed by a  decline in industrial employment as automation and shift of factory production to lower-wage countries shifts work into the service sector. However some less affluent countries may see ‘premature deindustrialisation’, as their economies shift into the service sector without having developed a major industrial base first.

Communications

Language - the % of population speaking different languages is given for selected years.

NOTES:

1)     MT = Mother Tongue. The language a person grew up speaking in the family setting may not be the one they customarily use in everyday work, if their mother tongue is a minority language within their country. Many of such people maintain bilingualism, retaining the use of their mother tongue within the family setting, often as a means of perpetuating their cultural heritage as a whole.

Literacy – the % of people functionally literate (able to read simple passages in their own language and write short letters) is given for selected years. Modern schooling has ensured almost-100% literacy in most developed countries for many decades now. In less-wealthy countries, where literacy rates in 2017 remain below 100%, boys generally receive a higher educational priority than girls, because the male will be the higher earner whilst females take on childcare duties at home. In a few countries, mainly in the Caribbean, female literacy rates slightly exceed male rates. Higher female literacy frequently goes with greater prosperity, a lower birth rate and increased urbanisation. Literacy figures for years in the 19th century or earlier have often been derived indirectly from those able to sign their name at wedding registries, military recruitment, or the completion of tax records.

Physical communication, road and rail – figures are given for road mileage, surfaced road mileage, the number of vehicles, of private passenger cars and commercial vehicles, the mileage of railway, and the % of railway electrified, are given. The change in route- length over time of major urban metro systems is also noted.

NOTES:

1)     Roads – includes all public rights of way where a motorised vehicle may legally be driven.

2)     Surfaced roads – includes all public rights of way for vehicles whose surface has been modified in any way, e.g. tarmac, concrete, gravel, to facilitate all-weather passage of cars and lorries. In developed countries almost all motor-vehicle public rights of way have been surfaced, and separate figures for ‘surfaced’ roads are not compiled.

3)     Motor vehicles, cars, commercial vehicles – national definitions have been used. In many less-affluent countries, ‘motor vehicles’ includes a large number of motorbikes (these are more affordable than cars) but this category of vehicle is not included in cars or commercial vehicles. ‘Cars’ includes only private passenger cars; taxis and hire cars are counted as commercial vehicles. As lorries increase in size, and companies consolidate, the number of commercial vehicles may decrease. In war-torn countries, the number of cars in use may even decrease also. Cars out of action due to disrepair or abandonment are not included.

4)     Railways - includes all lines actually in usage. In some less affluent countries, or war-torn countries, the status of large parts of the rail network may be dubious, with many lines seeing no traffic, but not officially abandoned. Lines for goods traffic only, tourist lines and light railways are included.

5)     Urban metro systems – route mileage rather than track mileage is given for selected years. Some cities have adopted multiple transport modes that are hard to distinguish, for example light rail services that also use national rail lines, or trams that have routes part-surface, part underground as in urban metro transit networks. Where possible, route mileages given have been restricted to rail-based local urban transport schemes, separate from long-distance rail routes.

Electronic communications – includes the main devices utilised to transmit information by electrical or electronic means. National populations of fixed line phones, mobile phones, radios, TVs, personal computers, and internet users are given for selected years.

NOTES:

1)     Telephone landlines – fixed telephones, in current usage, connected by a wire to the national telephone system. Since the advent of mobile phones, many people have abandoned the rental of a fixed line and the population of fixed landlines in use has declines sharply in many countries, even if the infrastructure for them remains in place.

2)     Mobile telephones – have seen very rapid uptake since the 1990s. Many people have more than one mobile phone, keeping one for business, one for friends etc. so the mobile phone population is coming to exceed the number of people in many territories.

3)     Radios – these were, before the advent of TV, a primary source of news for many people. The significance of the radio has declined markedly since the widespread adoption of devices such as the television and computer, and recent figures for radio populations are no longer compiled.

4)     Televisions – just as the TV displaced radio as a news medium, so computers and the Internet are starting to displace TV sets as a source of news and entertainment. A TV set may now be utilised more as an ancillary larger screen for viewing (family or alone) movies being streamed from the Internet via a computer, rather than for watching mass-broadcast TV channels. Meanwhile the latest TVs have become more computer-like, with information channels and access to Internet media such as Youtube. As households have become wealthier they have progressed from one single family TV set to having several, which are utilised differently. There may still be a family set in the living room, a less-used bedroom TV, a TV that is used more as a large screen computer monitor, and TVs in other rooms such as the kitchen. Latest figures tend to give TV-using households rather than numbers of individual sets in use.

5)     Personal Computers – as with televisions, a raft of innovations has blurred the definition of a ‘personal computer’. As well as laptops, we have ipads, mobile phones and Alexa that can access the Internet, as well as TVs themselves. Figures given here aim to include only laptop and desktop PCs with a keyboard and screen that can be utilised for the processing and storage of information as well as Internet access and email communications.

6)     Internet users – all persons who regularly use the Internet (at least once a month), whether on their own device or via an Internet café or other communally-owned device.

Tourism – all non-business arrivals from outside the territory who stay at least one night within the territory (for small island territories, e.g. Falkland Islands, includes cruise ship visitors even if they sleep on board ship). Includes religious pilgrims for e.g. Saudi Arabia.

NOTES:

1)     World tourism figure includes all non-business travellers who have stayed at least one night in a territory away from their home region.

 


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