Argentina: key historical events

Page last modified 31/3/2020

 

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25/5/2003, Nestor Kirchner became President of Argentina, defeating Carlos Menem.

12/1/2003, Leopoldo Galtieri, President of Argentina, died.

1/12/2001, The Argentine Government froze all bank accounts; depositors were only allowed to withdraw 250 Pesos a week (later raised to 300 pesos). US Dollar accounts were totally frozen, unless the depositor agreed to take Pesos. The Argentine Peso was nominally at par with the US$ but a devaluation was widely anticipated as the Peso was grossly overvalued. Then the Peso was devalued to 4 to the US$, and Dollar depositors had to accept the conversion of their Dollars to Pesos at the old 1:1 rate, effectively losing three quarters of their savings.

18/4/1995, Artuto Frondizi, President of Argentina, died.

7/1/1993. The British Foreign Secretary, Douglas Hurd, became the first Cabinet Minister to visit Argentina since the Falklands War of 1982. He met Argentine President Carlos Menem, and the still disputed question of ownership of the Falkland Islands was avoided. Oil exploration and fishing issues were discussed,

3/12/1990, Argentinean President Carlos Menem foiled an attempted coup.

1989, Argentina suffered an economic crisis through the 1980s, with income per capita shrinking 1% each year 1976-89, culminating in inflation peaking at 7.000% per annum end 1989.

15/5/1989, Carlos Menem won the presidential elections in Argentina.

6/6/1985, A skeleton, conformed on 21/6/1985 as that of Nazi Josef Mengele, was unearthed in Argentina,

22/4/1985, In Argentina, the trial began of nine former military leaders, including Galtieri.

30/10/1983, The first democratic elections were held in Argentina after 7 years of military rule. Peron ceded power to a new civilian government led by Raul Alfonsin. Alfonsin commenced prosecutions against senior army personnel  who had committeed atrocities. He succeeded in getting 50 Generals to retire, but revolts in the army forced him to halt ;egal proceedings and declare an amnesty.

26/8/1982, Argentina lifted the ban on political parties.

18/6/1982. Fourteen Argentinean Army Generals at an army base decided unanimously to depose General Galtieri, who had taken on the UK to claim the Falklands Islands. By declaring an end to all hostilities, the 10,600 Argentinean PoWs still held on the Falklands could be repatriated.

See Falkland Islands for Falklands War 1982

22/12/1981, General Leopoldo Galtieri became President of Argentina.

24/3/1976, Isabel Peron, third wife of former President Juan Peron, was ousted as President of Argentina in a bloodless military coup.

13/1/1976, Argentina suspended diplomatic relations with the UK over the Falkland Islands.

1/7/1974. General Juan Peron, President of Argentina, died aged 78. He was succeeded by his wife, Maria Estela Peron. However she was deposed in a military coup in March 1976 and sentenced to five years in prison for alleged corruption.

23/9/1973. General Juan Peron was elected President of Argentina.

20/6/1973, Juan Peron returned to Argentina as President after 18 years exile.

25/5/1973, The Peronist Hector Campora was elected President of Argentina.

11/3/1973, In Argentine general elections, the Peronist candidate, Hector Campora, won. On 13/7/1973 he resigned to make way for Peron.

13/11/1955, In Argentina, General Lonardi, who had succeeded Peron, resigned. He had been accused of being too lenient on the Peronistas, also on the trades unions who had been Peron main supporters. Lonardi was succeeded by General Pedro Aramburu. Persecution of the Peronistas intensified; the unions called a general strike, and Aramburu sent troops against them. Peronistas were imprisoned, along with some Catholics (despite these being anti- Peron). Many were internally exiled to the harsh terrain of south-eastern Argentina.

21/9/1955, Juan Peron, Presidential dictator of Argentina since 1946, resigned and went into exile, ousted by a military coup. He was born on 8 October 1895, son of a wealthy rancher. In 1930 he took part in an uprising against President Hipolioto Irigoyen A widower in 1945, he met and married Maria Eva Durate, known as Evita. Evita died in the early 1950s, and economic difficulties and labour unrest increased in Argentina. Peron disliked the Catholic Church in Argentina and sought to minimise its influence, which brought him into conflict with the military officers. In 1955 Peron arrested 85 priests and expelled the Bishop of Buenos Aires, which earned him an excommunication from Pope Pius XII. On 18/6/1955 officers from the Argentine air force and navy rebelled and fighter planes bombed government buildings at Plaza del Mayo. Over 300 civilians were killed in the attack and Peron placed Argentina under martial law. A full military coup was launched on 16/9/1955 by General Eduardo Lonardi. Peron fled to Paraguay, remaining in exile until 1973 when his party won Argentine elections. Peron retuned to a heroes welcome, becoming President until his death on 1/7/1974.

16/9/1955, In Argentina the garrison at Cordoba – a strongly Catholic city – rebelled against Juan Peron, a revolt led by General Eduardo Lonardi, a devout Catholic, Other garrison towns joined the rebellion, and Isaac Roja, a senior naval officer, threatened a naval bombardment of Buenos Aires unless Peron resigned. Peron now had no military support and had to resign.

16/6/1955, Civil strife continued in Argentina. A group of naval officers attacked Juan Peron’s headquarters at Government House and naval aircraft dropped bombs, killing several bystanders. Two warships were also shelling Government House. However the Army remained loyal to Juan Peron and the naval revolt failed..

19/9/1954, Juan Peron, President of Argentina since 1946, resigned and went into exile in Paraguay.

26/7/1952. Eva Peron (Evita), Argentina’s first lady, died of leukemia aged 33. She had been very photogenic, and was a popular figure in Argentina, with a large budget for opening facilities suich as new hospitals and schools. After her death, Peron’s popularity declined. Peron’s feud with the Catholic Church also lost him popularity.

11/11/1951, Juan Peron was re-elected President of Argentina.

7/3/1948. Juan Peron won elections in Argentina.

4/6/1946. General Juan Peron became President of Argentina. He was backed by the military and by labour.

24/2/1946. Juan Peron was elected President of Argentina.

26/1/1944, Argentina, under pressure from the United States, severed diplomatic relations with Germany.

4/2/1931, Isabel Peron was born

6/9/1930, In Argentina, demonstrations by the people and an army rebellion forced President Hipolito Irigoyen to resign. General Jose Uriburu was appointed President.

14/6/1928. Birth of the Argentine revolutionary, Che Guevara, at Rosario, Argentina.

9/6/1921, Maria Luis Drago, Argentine statesman (born 6/5/1859 in Buenos Aires) died in Buenos Aires.

1910, Railway workers strike in Argentina. Ths led to riots in Buenos Aires, which precipitated a verystrong military crackdown in the city.

8/10/1895, Juan Peron, Argentinean general and nationalist dictator, was born in Lobos.

1881, Argentina and Chile agreed in a treaty that their mutual border should be “The line of highest peaks which divides the waters”. However subsequent exploration revealed that faster flowing westwards streams had, by headwaters erosion, established a watershead many miles east of the line of highest peaks of the Andes. The two countries asked Queen Victoria of Britain to arbitrate a border, which was done at the Courth of Arbitration in 1902, by best available mapping. Subsequently, improved mapping rendered that border ambiguous, and in 1965 the British Government was again asked to arbitrate. On 9/12/1966 the British Government set a new border, which was marked on the ground in early 1967. Argentina extended its political control southwards down to eastern Tierra del Fuego.

1878, Argentina began a campaign of mass slaughter against the pampas Amerindians, almost killing them all by 1883.

1877, Refrigerated ships enabled a meat trade from Argentina to Europe.

1862, The short-lived Mapuche ‘Kingdom of Araucania and Patagonia’ was suppressed, see Chile for more details.

25/9/1860, The new Constitution of Argentina came intio force.

11/11/1859. The city of Buenos Aires, which broke away from the Argentine Federation in 1853, was compelled to rejoin today.

1857, Mass European immigration began, with 6 million arriving by 1930. Most went into farming and cattle ranching on the pampas.

1835, Start of the Rosas dictatorship, lasting until 1852. Citizens were even required to wear red, to show support for the regime.

8/12/1829, De Rosas made himself Governor of Buenos Aires.

26/2/1824, Carlos Calvi, Argentine historian (died 1906) was born in Buenos Aires.

9/7/1816. Argentina, as the ‘United Provinces of the River Plate’, formally declared independence from Spain. In practice independent government had been run since 25/5/1816.

9/7/1815, At the Congress of Tucuman, Argentina declared independence from Spain, after a long campaign by Jose de San Martin.

25/5/1810, Argentina formed a revolutionary government under General Manuel Belgrano, that was only nominally dependent on Spain.

1776, Buenos Aires was separated from the Viceroyalty of Peru, and became the viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata, an entity that included Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and part of Bolivia.

1/3/1565. The Portuguese established a colony at Rio de Janeiro.

1536, Buenos Aires was first founded by the Spanish.

1526, Sebastian Cabot sailed up the River Plate, to see if Spanish settlements could be founded there. He founded a fort at the Plate Estuary.

1516, Juan de Solis was killed by the indigenous inhabitants of Argentina after landing there.

 

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