Major earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, geology and mining

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British geology, earthquakes etc (British Geological Survey),



UK vertical change map,


Global maps now back to 750 million years ago,


1) Alaska Earthquake, 1964, Image 1, Image 2.

2) Volcanic uplift, Pozzuoli, Naples, 1976-84.

3) Future supercontinent Earth, 250 million years from now

See Cartography for geological maps

See also Economics and Coal,


1976, Tanzanite, a rare blue-purple gemstone, was first discovered near Mount Kilamanjaro, Tanzania.


Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions � Iceland

14/4/2010, Mount Eyjafjallajokul in Iceland erupted; volcanic ash caused major disruption to European air travel.

23/1/1973. 5,000 evacuated from the island of Heimay in Iceland as a volcano erupted.

5/5/1970, Hekla volcano in southern Iceland erupted, causing the evacuation of the surrounding villages. Hekla had last erupted in 1948; since 1970, the eruptions have occurred every ten years.

14/11/1963. The island of Surtsey, off Iceland, was born as an undersea volcano erupted.

14(-16)/8/1783, Severe earthquake hit Iceland, destroying 92 farms and badly damaging another 372 farms and 11 churches.

8/6/1783, The Laki Volcano in Iceland erupted; the world�s largest volcanic eruption. One fifth of Iceland�s inhabitants, over 10,000 people, died as a 28km long fissure opened up, from which lava covered an area of 570 square kilometres. Some 12-15 cubic kilometres of lava were ejected. Deaths were from poisonous gases then from famine and disease as 11,500 cattle (53%of total), 28,000 horses (77% of total) and 190,500 sheep (82% of total) also perished. England faced very cold weather from June to December.

939, Major volcanic eruption in Iceland, affected climate and crops worldwide.


Earthquakes � United Kingdom

17/2/2018, A magnitude 4.4 earthquake occurred near Swansea. It was felt across England from the Isle of Wight to the Lake District.

11/7/2014, A magnitude 4.6 earthquake hit Jersey, Channel Islands; the largest quake in the area since a 5.6 magnitude tremor hit Guernsey in 1926.

4/2008, A 4.3 magnitude earthquake hit Kent, England.

28/4/2007, A magnitude 4.3 earthquake hit Folkestone, Kent, damaging around 200 houses.

19/10/2002. A series of minor but noticeable earthquakes hit Manchester, causing some damage to roofs and chimneys.

2/4/1990. An earthquake measuring 5.2 on the Richter Scale hit the UK.

7/6/1931, Earthquake felt across Britain.

22/4/1884, A great earthquake hit Colchester and parts of East Anglia. 1,200 buildings were damaged, and 4 people killed.

18/11/1795, Significant earthquake in Derbyshre, England, chimneys fell and walls were cracked.

23/8/1750, An earth tremor was felt in Spalding. On 2/3/1750 an earth tremor had been felt in London, and on 2/4/1750 another tremor was felt in Warrington.

6/4/1580, An earth tremor damaged several old London churches, including the old St Paul�s Cathedral.

19/9/1119, Severe earthquake in Gloucestershire & Warwickshire, England.

11/8/1089, A powerful earthquake was recorded in Britain.

964, Earliest recorded earthquake in Britain.

103, According to local tradition, a major earthquake occurred in Somerset, England, causing an entire town (name unknown) to be swallowed up.


Earthquakes � rest of western Europe (France, Belgium, Netherlands, Switzerland)

13/4/1992, An earthquake rocked Roermond in The Netherlands, along the Peel fault.

3/4/1960, Earthquake at Havre, Belgium.

11/6/1909. Earthquake killed 60 in Provence, France.

2/11/1570. A tidal wave in the North Sea destroyed sea walls from Holland to Jutland; over a thousand were killed.

18/10/1356, Basel, Switzerland, was badly damaged by an earthquake.


Earthquakes � rest of eastern Europe (Romania, former Yugoslavia)

4/3/1977, Earthquake in Bucharest, magnitude 7.2,killed 1,500 people and injured 7,600.

26/7/1963. Big earthquake hit Skopje, Yugoslavia, killing 1,100. 150,000 were left homeless.


Earthquakes � former USSR

6/10/2008, A magnitude 6.6 earthquake killed 65 in Kyrgzystan.

28/5/1995, Neftegorsk, Russia, was hit by a 7.6 magnitude earthquake that killed 2,000 people, 2/3 of the town�s population.

10/12/1988. Severe earthquake, 6.9 on the Richter scale, hit Armenia. 100,000 were reported to have died as the cities of Spitak and Leninakan were flattened. However the death toll was later reduced to 25,000. 15,000 were injured and 400,000 left homeless.

1948, Earthquake in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan; 100,000 died.

16/12/1902, An earthquake in Turkestan killed 4,000.

25/11/1667, Earthquake at Samakhi, Azerbaijan.


Earthquakes � Portugal, Spain

1829, Severe earthquake hit Murcia, Spain.

1/11/1755, An earthquake reduced two thirds of Lisbon to rubble, killing 60,000 people. Lisbon had been a great city with a population of about a quarter of a million. The quake has been estimated at Richter 9, and caused cracks as wide as 5 metres in the ground to open. Further destruction was caused when a 6 metre high tsunami struck, drowning many who had sought refuge on ships in the harbour. Fire then destroyed many more buildings. Striking on All Saints Day, the quake caused many to be sceptical of God�s existence, and the event spurred research into natural causes for disasters rather than Acts of God, laying the foundations for the Enlightenment.

25/2/1531. A severe earthquake killed an estimated 20,000 people in Lisbon.


Earthquakes, volcanoes � Italy

18/1/2017, Four further earthquakes of magnitudes 5.3, 5.7, 5.3 and 5.1 hit central Italy, close to the site of last year�s quakes. The epicentre was about 130 km NE of Rome, where the tremors were felt. The earthquake was blamed for a snow avalanche that killed 30 tourists at a hotel in eastern-central Italy.

30/10/2016, A magnitude 6.6 shallow (10km) earthquake hit central Italy; this was the 4th significant quake there in four months. Further damage was done to historic buildings but no fatalities were reported.

24/8/2016, A shallow magnitude 6.2 earthquake struck the Umbria region of central Italy.247 people were killed.

29/5/2012, A magnitude 5.9 earthquake killed 24 people near Bologna, Italy.

6/4/2009, Magnitude 6.3 earthquake hit L�Aquila, Italy. 300 were killed and 1,500 injured.

20/10/1991, Magnitude 7.0 earthquake in northern Italy, killed 2,000 people.

4/9/1983, Earthquake at Pozzuoli, Naples, caused major panic, as people feared another eruption of nearby Vesuvius.

23/11/1980, A series of earthquakes in southern Italy killed 4,800 people, and left 300,000 homeless.people.

6/5/1976. Major earthquake in northern Italy killed 2,000.

5/4/1971, A 70-day eruption of Mount Etna, lasting until 14/6/1971, began.

23/7/1930, Earthquake in southern Italy; 1,700 killed.

5/11/1928. Mount Etna erupted.

27/11/1926. Vesuvius erupted.

13/1/1915. An earthquake killed 20,000 in central Italy.

9/5/1914. Earthquake killed over 150 in Catania, Italy.

27/3/1910. Mount Etna in Italy erupted.

28/12/1908. An earthquake killed more than 75,000 people in Messina, Sicily, over half the population. This was the most violent earthquake ever recorded in Europe.

24/10/1907, Severe earthquake hit Calabria, southern Italy.

7/4/1906. Mount Vesuvius erupted, destroying the town of Ottaiano. Hundreds died. Over 105 were killed when the church of San Guiseppe collapsed in Naples.The weight of ash killed many more as roofs collapsed.

9/9/1905. Severe earthquake killed thousands in Calabria, Italy.

23/2/1887, The town of Bussana Vecchia, Liguria, Italy, was abandoned after an earthquake which killed 2,000 people. 80 years later the town was repopulated as an artist�s colony.

1883, Earthquake hit Ischia Italy, 2,000 died.

4/1872, Mount Vesuvius erupted.

12/1857, Large area east of Naples, Italy, devastated by an earthquake.

1783, Earthquake in Calabria, 60,000 dead.

1757, Earthquake in Calabria, 10,000 killed.

3/11/1706, A severe earthquake hit Abruzzi, Italy, destroying the town and killing 15,000 of its inhabitants.

14/2/1703, An earthquake hit Norcia, Italy.

2/2/1703, An earthquake hit the town of L�Aquila, Italy.

11/1693, Earthquake in Catania, Italy, killed 40,000.

11/1/1693, Mount Etna erupted; a large earthquake affected Sicily and Malta; with 60,000 dead.

11/3/1669, Mount Etna, Sicily, erupted, killing 20,000.

16/12/1631, Major eruption of Vesuvius killed 18,000 people.

1538, At Tripergole, a town near Pozzouli and Vesuvius, in the previous few years the ground having risen seven metres, exposing ancientRoman ruins from the Pompeii era; a new offshore volcano called Monte Nuovo appeared, reaching a height of 140 metres.

4/2/1169, An earthquake with an estimated magnitude of around 7 struck the eastern coast of Sicily, causing an estimated 15,000 deaths.

472, Vesuvius erupted.

25/8/79, Pliny the Elder, naturalist, died, in the eruption of Vesuvius.

24/8/79. Vesuvius erupted, destroying the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum and killing 2,000 people.

3/44 BCE, Mount Etna began a series of eruptions, lasting from March until May. Dust emitted by the volcano hung in the atmosphere, causing three years of crop failures in China.


Earthquakes � Albania, Greece, Cyprus, Turkey

30/10/2020, A magnitude 7.0 earthquake hit Izmir, western Turkey, killing 12, also 2 died in nearby Samos, Greece.

26/11/2019, A magnitude 6.4 quake hit Albania, killing at least 21 and injuring 600. There had been an earlier magnitude 5.6 quake in Albania in September.

21/7/2017, A magnitude 6.7 earthquake struck Bodrum, SW Turkey.

23/10/2011, A magnitude 7.2 earthquake hit the city of Van, eastern Turkey.

14/8/2003, A magnitude 6.4 earthquake hit the Greek Ionian island of Lefkada, injuring 24.

12/11/1999, A 7.2 magnitude earthquake hit Duzce, north-west Turkey, killing 845 and injuring 4,948.

7/9/1999, A magnitude 5.9 earthquake hit Athens, killing 143 people and injuring over 2,000.

17/8/1999. 17,800 killed as an earthquake hit the Turkish cities of Izmit and Istanbul. The quake measured 7.4 on the Richter Scale.17,000 were killed and 44,000 injured.

13/5/1995, A magnitude 6.6 earthquake hit the Greek Macedonian city of Kozani; nobody was injured.

13/3/1992. A major quake in eastern Turkey, 6.8 on the Richter scale, killed an estimated 1,000 people.

24/2/1981, Just before 11am local time, a magnitude 6.7 earthquake hit Athens. 16 people died, mainly due to heart attacks. The epicentre was in the eastern Corinthian Gulf, near the Alkyonides Islands, 60 km west of Athens. A further aftershock, magnitude 6.4, hit that afternoon, causing further damage in nearby towns.

20/6/1978, A magnitude 6.5 earthquake hit Thessaloniki, Greece�s second-largest city. An apartment block in the central district of Ippodrome collapsed, killing over 40 people.

24/11/1976. The Turkish province of Van was devastated by an earthquake, and 3,700 people were killed.

6/9/1975. A major earthquake in Lice, Turkey, killed nearly 3,000 people.

4/4/1970, A series of earthquakes in western Turkey killed 1,000 and left 90,000 homless, mainly around the town of Gediz.

19/8/1966, Earthquake in eastern Turkey killed 2,000.

1956, Earthquake struck Thira, killing over 40 and leaving thousands homeless.

26/12/1939, 40,000 killed in Erzincan, Turkey, by a magnitude 8.0 quake.

22/4/1928. Earthquake in Corinth left 50,000 homeless.

9/8/1912. Earthquake in Constantinople, Turkey, killed 6,000.

28/5/1903. Earthquake in Constantinople killed 2,000 people.

29/4/1903. Earthquake in Van, Turkey, killed 860.

21/2/1858, Corinth, Greece, was destroyed by an earthquake.

10/9/1509, Istanbul earthquake destroyed 109 mosques and killed an estimated 10,000 people.

1273, Durazzo, Albania, was destroyed by an earthquake.

1268, Earthquake in Cilicia, southern Turkey, killed an estimated 60,000.

11/5/1222, Earthquake in Cyprus.

7/1201, Severe earthquake hit the eastern Mediterranean, killing an estimated 1.1 million people.

26/10/740, An earthquake struck Constantinople.

7/5/558, In Constantinople, the dome of the Hagia Sophia collapsed due to an earthquake. Emperor Justinian I ordered the dome to be rebuilt.

551, Major earthquake in Beirut; 250,000 dead.

29/11/539, Antioch was struck by an earthquake.

6/11/447, The walls of Constantinople were severely damaged by an earthquake, destroying large parts of the wall, including 57 towers. The population was threatened by a plaque. Emperor Theodosius II ordered Constantine, praetorian prefect of the East, to supervise the repairs. He employed the city's demoi ("Circus factions") in the work and rebuilt the walls within 60 days.

21/7/365, An earthquake and tsunami devastated Crete and Alexandria and affected Italy, Greece, and Palestine.

358, Large earthquake in Asia Minor.


Earthquakes - Syria, :Lebanon, Israel, Egypt

22/11/1995, A magnitude 7.2 quake hit Israel, Egypt, and was felt over much of the Mediterranean and North Africa.

12/10/1992. Earthquake hit Cairo. It was 5.9 on the Richter scale, with an epicentre 19 miles from Cairo, tremors were felt in Jerusalem 250 miles away. There was panic as at least 160 buildings collapsed and many were trampled to death in the ensuing chaos. Fortunately the Aswan Dam was not breached.

1822, Earthquake at Aleppo, Syria, 22,000 dead.

8/8/1303, An earthquake destroyed the Lighthouse of Alexandria in Egypt, one of the seven wonders of the world.

20/5/1202, An earthquake in Syria.

11/10/1138, An earthquake in Aleppo, Syria, killed about 230,000 people.

9/3/757, A major earthquake struck Palestine and Syria.

18/1/749, A severe earthquake hit Palestine.

24/12/717, An earthquake shook many places in northern Syria, and destroyed the Old Church of Edessa.

28/2/714, An earthquake struck Syria.


Earthquakes � North Africa (Algeria, Morocco)

24/2/2004, A magnitude 6.5 earthquake hit the Rif Mountains in northern Morocco, near the city of Al Hoceima, killing over 400 there. A further 500 were killed in Ait Kamara.

21/5/2003, A major earthquake hit Algeria, killing over 2,000.

11/10/1980,The Algerian city of El Asnam (formerly Orleansville) was hit by a major earthquake; 80% of the city was destroyed and 20,000 died. The magnitude 7.5 quake was felt as far away as Spain, where it cracked houses in Valencia. The last previous quake here was in 1954.

28/2/1960. Agadir, Morocco, was devastated by an earthquake, killing 12,000.

9/9/1954. Earthquake in Algeria killed 1,500 in the city of Orleansville.


Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions � Sub-Saharan Africa

17/1/2002, Mount Nyiragongo in the Congo erupted, displacing some 400,000 people.

28/5/2000. The volcano Mount Cameroon erupted.

21/8/1986, Volcanic activity around Lake Nyos, Africa, caused nearly 2,000 people to die from CO2 poisoning.


Earthquakes � Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan

12/11/2017, A magnitude 7.3 earthquake struck just after midnight close to Halabja near the Iran-Iraq border. At least 530 people were killed and 8,000 injured.

26/10/2015, A magnitude 7.5 earthquake hit eastern Afghanistan, killing over 200 people.

11/8/2013, Two magnitude 6.4 earthquakes hit Tabriz and Ahar, Iran, killing 153 people.

16/4/2013, Earthquake in Khash province, Iran, magnitude 7.8, killed 38.

9/4/2013, Magnitude 6.1 earthquake hit Iran, killing 37 people.

22/2/2005, A magnitude 6.4 earthquake hit the Zarand region of Kermand Province, southern Iran, killing 50 and injuring 1,000.

26/12/2003. Earthquake measuring 6.7 on the Richter scale hit Bam, SE Iran. Over 25,000 killed and 30,000 injured.

25/3/2002, A major earthquake hit Afghanistan, killing 1,800.

30/5/1998, A magnitude 6.6 earthquake hit northern Afghanistan, killing 5,000 people.

14/3/1998, A magnitude 6.9 earthquake hit south eastern Iran.

4/2/1998, A 6.1 magnitude earthquake hit north-east Afghanistan, killing over 5,000 people.

10/5/1997, An earthquake near Ardekul, north east Iran, killed over 2,400 people.

21/6/1990. Earthquake hit Iran, 7.7 on the Richter scale, destroyed towns across 100 square miles of Gilan Province, NW Iran. Over 40,000 died and 100,000 were injured.

16/9/1978. 25,000 died in a quake in Iran measuring 7.7 on the Richter scale around the town of Tabas.

10/4/1972. Earthquakes in Iran killed over 3,000 people.

31/8/1968. A major earthquake in Iran killed over 20,000 people.

1/9/1962, Severe earthquake hit Iran, killing 20,000.

15/6/1923. Earthquake in Iran killed 20,000.

7/7/1855, Earthquake in Shiraz, northern Iran killed 40,000 people.

1824, Earthquake in Shiraz, Iran, killede 4,000 people.

1812, Much of Shiraz, Iran, was destroyed by an earthquake.

7/6/1755, Earthquake hit northern Persia, killing 40,000.

15/2/1549, Major earthquake hit Qayin, Iran, killing 3,000.

22/12/856, Earthquake in Danghan, Iran, killed 200,000.


Earthquakes �India, Nepal, Pakistan

12/5/2015, A second powerful earthquake hit Nepal. The 7.3 magnitude tremor struck 80 kilometres north east of Kathmandu, inuring over 1,000 people.

25/4/2015, Earthquake in Nepal killed 7,500 and injured 14,000. The magnitude 7.9 quake struck 80 kilometres north west of Kathmandu.

29/10/2008, A 6.4 magnitude earthquake hit Quetta, Pakistan

4/11/2005, Severe aftershocks, up to 6.3 on the Richter Scale, hit northern Pakistan.

8/10/2005, A 7.6 magnitude earthquake hit Kashmir, killing around 74,000.

26/1/2001, 25,000 were killed and one million left homeless by a magnitude 6.7 earthquake in the western Indian city of Gujerat.

30/9/1993. Earthquake in southwest India killed 10,000.

1/2/1991. An earthquake in Pakistan killed 1,500 people.

28/12/1974, An earthquake in northern Pakistan killed over 5,000 people.

30/5/1935. More than 50,000 died in a magnitude 7.6 quake in Quetta (then India, now Pakistan).

4/4/1905. An earthquake in Lahore, India, killed 12,000 people.

12/6/1897, A magnitude 8.8 earthquake hit Assam, NE India. 1,542 were killed as a plateau in Shillong district suddenly rose 15 metres, throwing boulders, gravestones and even people into the air.

10/1/1869, Severe earthquake at Cachar, Assam, India.

11/10/1737, An earthquake killed 300,000 in Calcutta.

1505, The last recorded earthquake before modern times in western Nepal.


Earthquakes � China, Taiwan

8/8/2017, A magnitude 7.0 earthquake hit Sichuan province, China, killing 19 and injuring 247.

6/2/2016, A shallow magnitude 6.4 quake hit Taiwan; 38 people died.

13/4/2010, A 6.9 magnitude earthquake in Qinghai, China, killed over 2,000.

12/5/2008, A magnitude 7.9 earthquake hit Sichuan Province, central China, killing 156,000 people, and injuring 290,000.5 million were made homeless.

10/1/1998, An earthquake in China killed 50 and injured 10,000.

24/1/1981, A 6.8 magnitude earthquake in Sichuan, China, killed 150 people and injured 300.

28/7/1976. One of the greatest natural disasters of the 20th century occurred when an earthquake, magnitude 7.8, hit Tangshan in China, killing 255,000 � 750,000 people. At least 164,000 were injured.

11/5/1974. Big earthquake killed 20,000 in Sichuan, China.

26/12/1932, Earthquake in China killed 70,000.

22/5/1927, Earthquake in China killed 200,000.

16/12/1920. Earthquake in Kamsu, China, killed 180,000.

12/2/1906, Earthquake in Taiwan, 1,228 killed.

23/1/1556. An earthquake in China�s Shanxi province killed an estimated 830,000 people.

27/9/1290, An earthquake in the Gulf of Chili, province of Hebei, China, killed an estimated 100,000.


Earthquakes � Korea

5/12/2012, A magnitude 5.8 earthquake in South Korea killed 6.


Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions � Japan

16/4/2016, The second of two earthquakes hit Japan; the first was on 14/4/2016, magnitude 6.2, on the southern island of Kyushu; 44 died. The second quake was magnitude 7.0.

11/3/2011, Japan was hit by a magnitude 9.1 earthquake and tsunami.15,340 people were killed, and a further 3,926 were missing.The nuclear plant at Fukushima was badly damaged.

14/6/2008, A 6.9 magnitude earthquake in Iwate, Japan, killed 12 and injured 400.

20/4/2005, A magnitude 5.8 earthquake hit Fukuoka and Kasuga, in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan�� 56 people were injured.

20/3/2005, A magnitude 7 earthquake struck west of Kyushu Island, Japan. 250 were injured and at least one died.

21/9/1999, Central Japan was hit by an earthquake; 2,400 were killed.

17/1/1995. 5.46 am, local time, earthquake in Kobe, southern Japan, killed 6,433, and injured 27,000. The quake measured 7.2 on the Richter Scale and made 300,000 homeless. Cost of damage was estimated at �63 billion. It was the worst quake to hit Japan since Tokyo, 1923.

12/7/1993, A magnitude 7.8 earthquake off Hokkaido caused a major tsunami to hit Okushuri island, killing 202 people.

1/9/1923. An earthquake magnitude 7.9 in Japan left the cities of Tokyo and Yokohama in ruins and killed over 300,000 people. The epicentre was just outside Tokyo. Half of Tokyo�s houses were destroyed, a million of its people made homeless, and 132,807 killed in Tokyo alone. Altogether 143,000 died and 2.5 million were made homeless.

31/8/1896, Earthquake in Ugo and Rikuchu areas of Japan, 209 killed.

15/6/1896, A tsunami created a 100 foot wave that struck Sanriku, Japan, killing 26,000 along 170 miles of coastline. Earthquake in Sanriku, Japan, killed 27,100.

22/10/1894, Earthquake in Shonai, Japan, killed 726.

28/10/1891, A severe earthquake hit Osaka, Japan; 10,000 were killed.

21/3/1857, Earthquake in Japan killed 107,000.

11/11/1855, Earthquake hit Edo (now Tokyo), Japan. 6,700 were killed.

23/12/1854, Earthquake in Shikoku, Japan, 3,000 killed.

6/7/1854, Earthquake in Yamato, Iga, Ise, area of Japan killed 2,400.

8/5/1844, Earthquake hit Echigo, Japan, 12,000 killed.

28/12/1828, Earthquake at Echigo, Japan, killed 30,000.

18/2/1828, Earthquake hit Echigo, Japan, 1,400 killed.

10/2/1792, Earthquake in Hizen and Higo, Japan, 15,000 killed.

8/3/1766, Earthquake in Hirosaki, Japan, 1,300 killed.

8/3/1751, Earthquake in Echigo, Japan, 1,700 killed.

16/12/1707, Mount Fuji, Japan, underwent its last eruption before 2000. This was also its biggest recorded eruption, and continued for 16 days, emitting 850 million cubic metres of material.

28/10/1707, Earthquake hit coastal areas of Kyushu and Shikoku, Japan, 4,900 killed.

30/12/1703, In Japan, an earthquake and the resultant fires killed 200,000 people in Edo.

19/2/1694, Earthquake in Ugo,Japan,390 killed.

2/2/1666, Earthquake in Echigo, Japan, 1,500 killed.

16/6/1662, Earthquake in Kyoto, Japan, 500 killed.

2/12/1614, Earthquake in NE Japan, 1,700 killed.

27/9/1611, Earthquake in Aizu,Japan, killed 3,700.

31/1/1605, Earthquake on Pacific coast of Japan killed 5,000.

1596, Earthquake in Kyoto,Japan, killed 2,000.

1569, Earthquake in Bungo, Japan, killed 700.

1498, Earthquake in Tokaido, Japan, formed Hamana lagoon.

1361, Earthquake in Kyoto,Japan.

26/5/1293, An earthquake in Kamakura, Japan killed an estimated 30,000.

26/5/869, An earthquake and tsunami devastated a large part of the Sanrikucoast near Sendai, Japan.

26/11/684, A great earthquake struck Japan. 5,000 square kilometres of land were reputedly swallowed up by the sea at this event.


Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions � Indo-China, Indonesia, Philipines

28/9/2018, An earthquake and tsunami in Sulawesi, Indonesia, killed over 1,640 people.

5/8/2018, A magnitude 6.9 earthquake hit Lombok Island, Philippines. 321 people were killed, 1,033 seriously injured and 270,000 left homeless. Earlier, on 29/7/2018, a magnitude 6.4 quake had also hit Lombok.

11/11/2012, A magnitude 6.8 earthquake killed 12 people in Myanmar.

11/4/2012, A magnitude 8.6 earthquake struck off the coast of Indonesia.

6/2/2012, A magnitude 6.9 earthquake hit the Philippines, killing 43 people.

26/10/2010, Mount Merapi volcano in Indonesia began erupting.

25/10/2010, Earthquake off Sumatra killed 400 and caused a tsunami.

27/5/2006, A magnitude 6.3 earthquake hit central Java, killing over 6,000, injuring 36,000, leaving 1.5 million homeless.

28/3/2005, A magnitude 8.7 earthquake hit Sumatra, 3 months after the 2004 Indian Ocean quake.It was the second largest quake since 1965.

26/12/2004, A very large earthquake struck the floor of the Indian Ocean just off Aceh Province, Indonesia. It was estimated as magnitude 9.3 on the Richter Scale, and shifted parts of the sea bed vertically by ten metres. It caused a very large tsunami to sweep across the Indian Ocean, causing at least 165,000 casualties. In January 2005 the Indonesian government raised its death toll to 166,320, bringing the total estimated number of casualties to 232,010. The confirmed death toll on 18/1/05 stood at 162,705, including 115,229 from Indonesia, 30,920 from Sri Lanka, 10,714 from India, 5,291 from Thailand, 298 from Somalia, 82 from the Maldives, 68 from Malaysia, 10 from Tanzania, 2 from Bangladesh, and 1 from Kenya. The secretive military regime in Burma reported just 90 deaths, a suspiciously low figure. Many tourists from Europe, who had been on winter holidays, died, including at least 400 Britons (possibly 2,000 Britons).

12/12/1993, An earthquake hit Flores, Indonesia, killing 2,200.

12/12/1992. An earthquake measuring 6.8 on the Richter scale hit just offshore from Flores Island, Indonesia. At least 1,500 were killed as 80% of the buildings in the island�s capital, Maumere, were destroyed.

17/6/1991. Mount Pinatubo continued to erupt. On 24/6/1991 Mount Didicas, 280 miles north-east of Mount Pinatubo, also erupted, killing 343 people.

9/6/1991. Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines erupted. 500,000 people had to be evacuated as the USA�s biggest overseas air base, Clark Naval Base, was threatened. Manila was covered 30 cm deep in volcanic ash.

16/7/1990. A major earthquake hit the Philippines. Measuring 7.7 on the Richter scale, it was the worst for 14 years. It hit 60 miles north of the capital, Manila. 1,600 people were killed.

19/8/1977, Earthquake and tsunami in Indonesia.

17/8/1976. In the Philippines a severe earthquake followed by tidal waves killed over 3,000 people.

17/3/1963. A volcano erupted in Bali, killing 11,000.

27/8/1883. Krakatoa, a volcanic island in the Sunda Strait between Sumatra and Java, erupted. Thousands were killed by the resulting tsunamis. In all over 50,000 died as noon turned to darkness and a tidal wave flooded 120 feet high. The eruption was allegedly heard 2,200 miles away in Australia. The eruption caused spectacular red sunsets in Britain for several weeks afterwards.

1880, Earthquake hit Manila, Philippines, 3,000 died.

3/2/1864, Severe earthquake in Mindanao, Philippines.

10/4/1815, After five days of volcanic eruptions, Mount Tambora exploded. The top 500 metres of the mountain vanished, and a 6 kilometre wide crater appeared. By July 1815 60,000 had died from the effects of the eruption, and summer 1816 was very cool, bringing starvation, riots and disease.

1814, Mount Mayon volcano, Philippines, erupted, killing 1200 and destroying the town of Cagsaua, now replaced by Albay.


Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions � Oceania and Pacific Islands,

3/5/2018, Hawaii�s Kilauea volcano began an intensive eruption, which continued throughout May.

17/4/2016, A magnitude 6.1 earthquake hit Tonga.

22/2/2011, Christchurch, New Zealand, was hit by a magnitude 6.3 earthquake; 185 people died.

4/9/2010, Magnitude 7.1 earthquake near Christchurch, New Zealand.

29/9/2009, An 8.3 magnitude earthquake hit Samoa.

2/4/2007, An 8.1 magnitude earthquake hit the Solomon Islands.52 died and 6,000 were left homeless.

25/3/1998, A magnitude 8.1 earthquake was recorded in Antarctica, near Balleny Island. This was not attributable to fault activity and may have been caused by glacial rebound.

28/12/1989, A magnitude 5.6 earthquake hit Newcastle, New South Wales, killing 13 people and injuring 100.

21/1/1951, Mount Lamington, Papua New Guinea, erupted; at the time it was not realised that it was an extinct volcano. 3,000 died as hot ash clouds smothered the area.

3/2/1932. A severe earthquake hit New Zealand killing 256 people around Hawke�s Bay. Napier�s Bluff Hill, a substantial suburban peninsula, crumbled into the sea. A wide stretch of seabed, Ahuriri Lagoon, was raised in the quake and became 9,000 acres of dry land in a day.

3/2/1931, An earthquake devastated the Hawke's Bay region of New Zealand killing at least 256.

13/3/1888, Volcanic eruption on Ritter Island (New Guinea), causing a large tsunami and obliterating most of the island itself.

1855, Earthquake hit New Zealand.


Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions � Alaska, Aleutians

27/3/1964, Powerful earthquake, magnitude 9.2, hit southern Alaska, 300 died.

1/4/1946, Major earthquake in the Aleutian Islands.

6/6/1912, A huge volcanic eruption began at Mount Katmai, Alaska, creating the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes. Two cubic miles of rock was turned into dust and ash, and the volcvano�s height was reduced by 1,500 feet.


Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions � Canada, USA

5/7/2019, A magnitude 7.1 earthquake hit California, the day after a magnitude 6.4 tremor in the same area.

23/8/2011, A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 23, 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was reportedly felt as far away as Toronto, Canada, Atlanta, Georgia and Florida.

17/6/2005, A magnitude 6.7 earthquake, following on from a 5.3 quake the previous day, became the fourth quake since 12/6/2005 in California.

28/2/2001, A magnitude 6.9 earthquake hit the Nisqually Valley area of Washington State. One elderly person died of a heart attack.

25/1/1999, A magnitude 6.0 earthquake hit western California, killing over 1,000 people.

17/1/1994. A magnitude 6.7 earthquake hit Northridge in the San Fernando Valley, Los Angeles.

28/6/1992. California had its strongest earthquake for 40 years. Measuring 7.4 on the Richter scale, the epicentre was in a sparsely-populated area of the Mojave Desert, 100 miles from Los Angeles, and the only casualty was a child killed by a falling chimney.

18/10/1989. San Francisco was hit by the Loma Prieta earthquake measuring 7.1 on the Richter scale. At least 273 people were killed and 650 injured. Many of the deaths occurred when the top deck of the Nimitz Freeway collapsed onto a lower road deck, crushing motorists.

1/10/1987, A 20-second earthquake hit Los Angeles, killing 7 and injuring 100. The 6.1 magnitude quake hit the morning rush hour at 7.40 am, and was the strongest in the area since 1971.

18/5/1980. Mount St Helens volcano erupted in the USA state of Washington, killing 100 people and causing US$ 3 billion in damage. A cloud of ash 2,500 miles long and 1,000 miles wide was created.

10/2/1971, An earthquake, 6.6 on the Richter Scale, hit Los Angeles, killing 64 people.

17/8/1959, Hebgen Lake earthquake, Yellowstone National Park, USA, 7.2 magnitude; 28 died in landslides.

22/3/1957. San Francisco was hit by the worst earthquake since the 1906 disaster.

2/10/1934, A magnitude 6 earthquake hit San Francisco, USA.

11/10/1911. Earthquake in California killed 700.

18/4/1906. Major earthquake hit San Francisco. Over 1,000 people were killed and large fires threatened upmarket homes on Nob Hill, after the water mains were destroyed in the quake. Overall, 3,000 acres of the city were devastated. The fire did more damage than the quake, it took 3 days to bring the blaze under control and 490 blocks were destroyed.

31/8/1886, Earthquake hit Charleston, USA. .27 were killed and 90% of the city�s buildings were damaged, with US$5 million incurred. However the city soon recovered.

21/10/1868, San Francisco was devastated by an earthquake, causing US$3million damage.

6/12/1811, A severe earthquake hit the Mississippi Valley. This was a geological animaly,being far from any known plate boundary.

26/1/1700, The Cascadia Earthquake, North America.


Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions � Mexico

19/9/2017, A magnitude 7.1 earthquake hit central Mexico, killing 248.

7/9/2017, The most powerful earthquake for more than a century struck Tapachula, southern Mexico. The magnitude 8.2 quake killed at least 96 people.

19/9/1985, Major earthquake in Mexico resulted in 4,700 dead and 30,000 injured.The quake measured 8.1 on the Richter Scale, killing 9,000 people and injuring a further 30,000. 95,000 were made homeless. A second quake the following day hampered rescue operations.

24/10/1980, A magnitude 6.4 earthqquake in Oaxaca, Mexico, killed 300.

28/8/1973. 500 killed in Mexican earthquake magnitude 6.2.

6/7/1964, Magnitude 7.4 earthquake struck Guerrero, Mexico, killing 78.

28/7/1957, Magnitude 7.9 earthquake struck Guerrero, Mexico, killing 65.

2/1943, A new volcano appeared at Paracutin, Mexico, erupting through cornfields and growing to a height of 820 feet.

3/6/1932, Magnitude 8.1 earthquake in Jalisco, Mexico, killed 400.

3/1/1920, Earthquake magnitude 7.8 in Vera Cruz, Mexico, killed 648.

7/6/1911. A severe earthquake shook Mexico City, killing over 100.

30/7/1909, Earthquake in Mexico; Acapulco destroyed.

17/1/1902. Earthquake in Mexico City killed 300.


Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions � Guatemala to Panama

3/6/2018, The Fuego volcano in Guatemala began erupting. After two days, mudslides had killed 25 and injured 250.

14/10/2014, A magnitude 7.3 earthquake hit El Salvador and Nicaragua.

7/11/2012, Magnitude 7.3 earthquake in Guatemala killed 48 people.

13/2/2001, A magnitude 6.6 earthquake hit El Salvador, killing at least 400.

13/1/2001, A magnitude 7.6 earthquake hit El Salvador.

10/10/1986, An earthquake measuring 7.5 on the Richter Scale hit San Salvador, killing some 1,500 people.

4/2/1976. A major earthquake devastated parts of Guatemala and Honduras, killing over 23,000 people.

25/12/1972. In Managua, Nicaragua, over 10,000 people were killed in an earthquake.

3/5/1965, Major earthquake hit San Salvador City, El Salvador.

29/12/1917, Earthquake in Guatemala City made 125,000 homeless.

5/5/1910. Earthquake in Nicaragua killed 500.

24/10/1902, The Santa Maria volcano in Guatemala began a 2-day eruption.

7/6/1773, Guatemala City was destroyed by an earthquake.

23/2/1770, Izalco Volcano, El Salvador, began an eruption that lasted for several decades.


Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions � Caribbean islands

12/1/2010, A 7.0 magnitude earthquake, the most severe in 200 years, hit Haiti, killing over 316,000 and destroying the capital, Port au Prince. Over 1,000,000 were left homeless.

8/7/1995, Volcanic eruption began on the island of Montserrat.

11/10/1918, In Puerto Rico a major earthquake had an estimated magnitude of 7.5 on the Richter scale.

14/1/1907. Major quake hit Kingston, Jamaica. Most of the city was destroyed and over 1,000 died. On 22/1/1907 the islands British Governor rejected an offer of food and medical aid from the US navy.

8/5/1902. Mount Pelee on Martinique erupted, destroying the city of St Pierre and killing 30,000 people in just three minutes.

25/4/1902, A heavy fall of ash from Mont Pelee, Martinique, occurred.This was a prelude to the major eruption of 8/5/1902.

1843, Earthquake hit Guadeloupe.

7/6/1692, Earthquake in Jamaica. 3,000 killed, as Port Royal subsided into the sea.


Volcanic eruptions � Atlantic islands

10/10/1961, A volcanic eruption on the southern Atlantic island of Tristan da Cunha forced the evacuation of the entire population to Britain.


Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions � South America (Colombia to Tierra del Fuego)

21/8/2018, A magnitude 7.3 earthquake hit northern Venezuela.

4/2016, 400 dead and 2,500 injured in a 7.8 magnitude earthquake affecting the coastal region of Ecuador.

16/4/2016, The most powerful quake for 70 years hit Ecuador, magnitude 7.8, killing over 500 and injuring 4,000.

2/4/2014, A magnitude 8.2 earthquake hit just off the coast of northern Chile. Casualties were few as the resultant tsunami was small.

4/6/2011, Puyehue Volcano in Chile erupted, causing major flight chaos as far as Australia.

27/2/2010, A magnitude 8.8 earthquake hit Chile, killing 525.

14/11/2007, A magnitude 8.2 earthquake hit Tocopilla, northern Chile

15/8/2007, A magnitude 8.0 earthquake hit Peru, killing 512 and injuring over 1,500.

13/11/1985. Nevado del Ruiz, a volcano in Colombia, dormant since 1845, erupted, sending mudflows down into the town of Armero, killing almost all the population of 25,000.

31/5/1970. A major earthquake, magnitude 7.5, at Mount Huascaran in Peru, killed 70,000 people.

29/7/1967,An earthquake in Caracas, Venezuela killed 240.

28/3/1965. Major earthquake in Chile.

21/5/1960, Conception, Chile, was hit by an earthquake that killed 1,000 people and damaged 145,000 buildings,

15/1/1944, Major earthquake hit San Juan province, Argentina.

24/1/1939. In Chile, a major earthquake killed 30,000 in two cities.

20/5/1918, Severe earthquake in Chile.

16/8/1906. Severe earthquake killed 3,000 in Valparaiso, Chile. 100,000 were left homeless.

31/1/1906, Magnitude 8.9 earthquake hit the Colombia and Ecuador coasts.

16/5/1875, Earthquake affected Colombia and Venezuela; 16,000 killed.

13/8/1868, A major earthquake killed over 25,000 people and devastated four cities in Peru and Ecuador.

20/3/1861, The city of Mendoza, Argentina, was destroyed in an earthquake; 12,000 died.

22/3/1859. Major earthquake at Quito,5,000 killed.

26/12/1812, A severe earthquake hit Barquismeto, a city in western Venezuela.

12/3/1812, A severe earthquake hit Caracas, capital of Venezuela.

4/2/1797, Major earthquake hit Riobamba, Ecuador, 41,000 dead.

28/10/1746, An earthquake destroyed the towns of Lima and Callao in Peru.

1724, Earthquake at Lima, 18,000 dead.

19/2/1600, The volcano Huaynaputina in South America underwent a violent eruption, the most severe recorded in South America.

16/12/1575, A large earthquake at Valdivia, Chile.


Mining and oil extraction. See also Companies for mining and oil industry specific corporate events

1968, Oil was discovered on the North Slope, Alaska.

1967, Mining of the Athabasca Tar Sands in northern Alberta began, but exploitation was slow and expesnsive,

10/1/1962, 11 coal miners were killed in an explosion at a mine near Carterville, Illinois.

1913, Global crude oil production reached 407.5 million barrels, up from 5.7 million barrels in 1870.

1901, The Baku oilfields still accounted for over half the world�s annual crude oil production,

1894, Oil was discovered in Texas, at a well being drilled for water suddenly produced oil.

1873, Oil production at Baku increased with investment by Alfred Nobel.

1869, Pennsylvania oil wells were now producing 4.8 million barrels per annum of crude oil.

27/8/1859. The world�s first oil well was drilled at Titusville, Pennsylvania, by Edwin Drake of Seneca Oil. Oil had been known in this area for 300 years. It used to seep from the ground and was used for curing many ailments from blindness to rheumatism, colds, coughs, sprains, and baldness. It was also skimmed from creeks and used for lighting, although it gave off a foul smell when burned. Chemists turned the oil into a better lighting fuel. Drake drilled down 69 feet and got a steady flow of 25 barrels a day from his well. By the end of the year the well once called �Drake�s Folly� had produced 2,000 barrels, and other prospectors joined in the search for more oil.

1854, The first fractional distillation of crude oil was performed, by Yale chemistry professor Benjamin Silliman Junior, aged 38. He had been asked by George Henry Bissell, aged 33, to analyse a sample of Pennsylvania �rock oil�, which burnt better than coal oil obtained from asphalt.

29/3/1819, Edward Laurentine Drake was born in Greenville, New York, USA. On 28/8/1859 he drilled the world�s first oil well.


30/12/1986, The use of canaries in UK coal mines was discontinued.

1906, The UK Coal Mines Regulation Act limited coal miners working day to 8 hoiurs.

1887, In Britain the Mines Act regulated blasting procedures and stipulated the provision of first aid and ambulance facilities for mines.

1872, In Britain the Coal Mines Regulation Act made compulsory the use of fan ventilators, stronger timbering, wire ropes, improved winding machinery and better safety lamps.

1862, Mining legislation in Britain stipulated that every mine must have at least two shafts, to increase the chances of escape in an accident.

1851, In Britain the Royal School of Mines opened. By the 1860s it was also training mine inspectors and raising safety standards in the mining industry.

1850, In Britain, the Coal Mines Inspection Act provided for increased inspectors to report on safety and work conditions in mines. The Mines Regulation and Inspection Act 1860 increased further the number of inspectors and forbade children aged under 12 from working underground. See Child Welfare for more legislation curbing childrens� work in mines and factories.

29/5/1829, Sir Humphrey Davy, born 17/12/1778, inventor of the safety lamp (see 9/1/1816) died in Geneva.

9/1/1816. Sir Humphrey Davy�s safety lamp used in a coal mine for the first time.

31/10/1815, Sir Humphrey Davy patented the miner�s safety lamp. The metal gauze surrounding the flame dissipated heat and prevented the ignition of inflammable gases.

1/10/1813, Following the explosion at Brandling Main colliery (15/5/1812) the Sunderland Society was formed, to promote mine safety.

15/5/1812, Mine explosion at Brandling Main (Felling) colliery, Sunderland. See 1/10/1813.

17/12/1778, Sir Humphrey Davy, inventor of the miner�s safety lamp, was born in Penzance (died 1829).He was the son of a woodcarver. He also discovered the elements sodium, calcium, barium, magnesium, potassium and strontium by passing electricity through molten metal compounds.

1775, A mining academy was set up in Clausthal, Germany.

1765, A mining academy was established at Freiberg, Germany.

15/5/1765, James Watt invented the condenser, effectively trebling the energy output of the existing Newcomen steam pumps. The earlier Newcomen steam engine pumped steam into a cylinder, forcing back a piston; the cylinder was then sprayed with cool water, condensing the steam and creating a vacuum that pulled the piston back. Alternately heating and cooling the cylinder was inefficient. Watt�s idea was to attach a separate chamber off the main cylinder into which the steam could be allowed to enter, and cooled there by water, again creating the vacuum that pulled the piston back again. The main cylinder could be kept hot, saving considerable energy. The energy content of Britain�s coal reserves was effectively trebled.

1712, The Newcomen steam engine began to be used to pump water out of mines (see 1698, 15/5/1765).

1700, To manufacture 1 tonne of iron, in pre-industrial times, required 10 hectares of forest to produce enough charcoal. The same amount of iron could be made with 5 tonnes of coal.

1698, An early steam pump, known as the �miner�s friend�, was designed by Thomas Newcomen to pump water out of mines. See 1712.

1/7/1507, The earliest records of coal-mining at Nailsea, near Bristol. Coal was being transported to Yatton for household fireplaces. By the late 19th century coal mining had died out south of Bristol as the industry migrated to the richer seams of south Wales.


Famous geologists, geological societies, geological theories

30/9/1985, Charles Richter, the US seismologist who devised the Richter Scale, died.

21/6/1977, Bruce Charles Heezen, US oceanographer and geologist, died near Reykjanes, Iceland.

1967, US and British geologists William Morgan, Dan McKenzie and Robert Parker combined Wegener�s 1912 theory of continental drift and the 1961 theory of ocean spreading to create a theory of plate tectonics, explaining mountain ranges, volcanoes, and earthquakes. The theory gained universal acceptance in the 1970s.

20/9/1965, Arthur Holmes, English geologist, died in London.

1961, US geologists Robert Dietz and Harry Hess independently theorised that sea floors spread apart as magma oozed up at central ridges. This went some way to explaining Wegener�s 1912 theory of continental drift. See 1967.

18/12/1936, Andrija Mohorovicic, Croatian geologist, died in Zagreb.

1935, The Richter Scale for measuring the intensity of earhbquakes was devised by US geologist Charles Richter.

16/10/1927, The first remnant of Peking Man, a tooth, was found by paleontologist Anders Birger Bohlin at Chou K'ou Tien (Zhoukoudian), under sponsorship of Davidson Black, who gave it the scientific name Sinanthropus pekinensis. More remains would be discovered over the next ten years, and reclassified as Homo erectus pekinensis, estimated to be more than 300,000 years old.

1916, A Michelson, US scientist, determined that the Earth has a molten core.

1915, In Germany, Alfred Wegener published his theory of drifting continental plates. Initially, nobody else believed an entire continent could move. Evidence for Wegener�s theory emerged in the 1950s and 60s when fossil magnetism was observed in rocks, with a different alignment to today.

30/6/1915, Elso Sterrenberg Barghoorn was born in New York City, USA. In 1954 he discovered, with Stanley A Tyler, very ancient fossils in Gunflint chert in the Canadian shield. These fossils of bacteria and algae were estimated at 2 billion years old.

26/4/1914, Eduard Suess, Austrian geologist, died in Marz, Burgenland.

12/5/1913, William Maurice Ewing was born in Lockney, Texas. In 1935 he began a seismic study of the seabed using refractions of waves from explosions.

1912, German scientist Alfred Wegener proposed that all of the earth�s continents once formed one giant landmass. He based this on how they seemed to fit together like a jigsaw puzzle, and how similar fossil species could be observed on land,masses now far apart.however no-one could explain how the continents could actiually move.See 1961.

4/1/1912, Clarence Edward Dutton, US geologist, died in Eaglewood, New Jersey.

5/5/1908, Albert Lapparent, French geologist died.

19/4/1904, Sir Clement Foster, English geologist, died (born 23/3/1841).

7/3/1904, Ferdinand Fouque, French geologist, died (born 21/6/1828)

14/2/1904, Charles Beecher, US palaeontologist, died (born in Dunkirk, New York 9/10/1856).

18/12/1903, Robert Etheridge, English geologist, died (born 3/12/1819).

17/4/1898, Jules Marcou, Swiss-US geologist, died.

1/10/1893, Henry Crosskey, English geologist, died (born 7/12/1826).

12/9/1903, Maxwell Close, Irish geologist, died (born 1822).

1/6/1903, Peter Lesley, US geologist, died (born 17/9/1819).

23/9/1902, John Wesley Powell, US geologist (born 24/3/1834) died.

16/5/1901, Gustaf Lindstrom, Swedish palaeontologist, died (born 27/8/1829).

2/3/1901, Sir John Dawson, Canadian geologist, died (born 30/10/1820).

26/4/1900, Charles Richter, seismologist who created the earthquake scale, was born.

18/11/1899, Henry Hicks, British geologist, died (born 26/5/1837).

16/5/1899, Sir Frederick McCoy, British palaeontologist, died.

1/11/1897, Peter Brodie, English geologist, died (born 1815).

7/7/1897, Samuel Allport, English petrologist, died in Cheltenham (born 23/1/1816 in Birmingham).

12/4/1897, Edward Cope, US palaeontologist, died (born 28/7/1840).

7/3/1897, Gustav Kenncott, mineralogist, died (born 6/1/1818)

19/8/1896, Alexander Green, English geologist, died (born 10/10/1832).

9/7/1896, Heinrich Beyrich, German geologist, died (born in Berlin 31/8/1815).

29/5/1896, Gabriel Daubree, French geologist, died (born 25/6/1814).

14/4/1895, Easter Sunday; James Dana, US geologist, died (born 12/2/1813).

19/2/1895, John Hulke, British geologist, died (born 6/11/1830).

3/1/1893, Nikolai Koksharov, Russian geologist, died (born 5/12/1818).

12/2/1892, Thomas Hunt, US geologist, died (born 5/9/1826)

9/12/1891, Sir Andrew Crombie Ramsay, British geologist (born 31/1/1814) died.

22/4/1891, Harold Jeffreys, geologist, was born at Fatfield, England. In 1940 he published research on the travel of seismic waves through the Earth.

4/4/1890, Edmond Hebert, French geologist, died (born 12/6/1812).

14/6/1889, Henry William Bristow, English geologist, died (born 17/5/1817).

4/6/1889, German-US geologist Beno Gutenberg was born in Darmstadt, Germany. In 1914 he discovered a discontinuity in the behaviour of earthquake waves at 3,000 km below the earth�s surface. This is the Gutenberg discontinuity, between the mantle and the outer core.

3/5/1889, Charles Lory, French geologist, died (born 30/7/1823).

15/2/1889, Ernst Dechen, German geologist, died (born 25/3/1800).

21/7/1888, Henry Lewis, US geologist, died (born 16/11/1853).

15/8/1887, Sir Johann Haast, British-German geologist, died (born 1/5/1824).

1/7/1886, Otto Abich, German mineralogist (born 11/12/1806) died in Vienna.

14/10/1885, Thomas Davidson, British palaeontologist, died (born 17/5/1817).

3/2/1885, Gregor Helmersen, Russian geologist, died (born 29/9/1803).

18/7/1884, Ferdinand Hochstetter, Austrian geologist, died (born 30/4/1829).

5/10/1883, Joachim Barrande, Austrian geologist,died in Frohsdorf (born in Saugues, Haute Loire 11/8/1799).

5/5/1883, Henry Boase, English geologist, died (born in London 2/9/1799).

23/2/1882, Pierre Desor, Swiss geologist, died (born 13/2/1811).

21/11/1881, Ami Bourg, Austrian geologist, died (born in Hamburg 16/3/1794).

5/11/1881, Robert Mallet, Irish geologist, died (born 3/6/1810).

6/4/1881, Sir Philip Egerton, British palaeontologist, died (born 13/11/1806)

24/3/1881, Louis Delescluze, French geologist, died (born 3/2/1817).

10/2/1881, John Bigsby, English geologist, died in London (born in Nottingham 14/8/1792).

1880, The Seismological Society of Japan was founded.

1/11/1880, Alfred Lothar Wegener was born in Berlin, Germany. In 1912 he proposed a theory of continental drift, and the supercontinent of Pangea.

13/5/1880, David Ansted, geologist, died in Melton, near Woodbridge (born 5/2/1814 in London).

14/9/1879, Bernhard Cotta, German geologist, died (born 24/10/1808).

21/9/1878, Thomas Belt, English geologist, died in Denver, USA (born in Newcastle on Tyne 1832).

17/6/1878, William Clarke, British geologist, died (born 2/6/1798).

25/7/1877, Robert Fox, English geologist, died (born 26/4/1789)

28/9/1876, Carl Credner, German geologist, died (born 13/3/1809).

22/6/1875, Sir William Logan, British geologist, died (born 20/4/1798).

9/6/1875, Gerard Deshayes, French geologist, died (born 13/5/1797).

14/12/1873, Louis Agassiz, who developed the theory of Ice Ages, died �see 28/5/1807, when born.

11/11/1871, William Lonsdale, English geologist, died (born 9/9/1794).

29/7/1869, Joseph Jukes, Engliush geologist, died (born 10/10/1811).

24/12/1868, Etienne Archiac, French geologist, died (born 24/9/1802 in Reims).

4/11/1868, Moritz Hornes, Austrian palaeontologist, died (born 14/7/1815).

21/9/1868, Joseph Cumming, English geologist, died (born 15/2/1812).

19/5/1868, John Fillmore Hayford was born in Rouses Point, New York. He used the new science of geodesy to determine the exact shape of the Earth.

17/1/1867, Jacques Deslongchamps, French geologist, died (born 17/1/1794).

13/10/1866, William Hopkins, English geologist, died (born 2/2/1793).

29/4/1865, Abtaham Gesner, Canadian geologist, died (born 1790)

31/1/1865, Hugh Falconer, palaeontologist, died (born 29/2/1808)

5/3/1864, Leonard Horner, Scottish geologist, died (born 17/1/1785)

1/10/1863, Ebenezer Emmons, US geologist, died (born 16/5/1800).

18/12/1862, Lucas Barrett, English geologist, died, drowned, off Jamaica (born in London 14/11/1837).

5/7/1862, Henirich Bronn, German geologist, died (born 3/3/1800).

26/12/1859, Johann Hausmann, German mineralogist, died (born 22/12/1782).

18/5/1859, Geophysicist Harry Reid was born in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. He showed that earthquakes were caused when rocks either side of fault lines moved; previous theories suggested that the earthquakes caused the faults, not the other way round.

3/12/1858, Joseph Durocher, French geologist, died (born 31/5/1817).

12/8/1857, Sir John Coode, geologist, died (born 7/6/1787)

20/3/1857, Ours Dufrenoy, French geologist, died (born 5/9/1792).

23/1/1857, Andrija Mohorovicic was born in Volosko, Yugoslavia. In 1909 he discovered the boundary in the Earth�s crust 30 km down where earthquake waves change. This Mohorovicic Discontinuity is the boundary between the crust and mantle.

9/10/1856, Charles Beecher, UA palaeontologist, was born in Dunkirk, New York (died 14/2/1904).

24/8/1856, William Buckland, geologist, died (born 12/3/1784)

17/8/1856, Constant Prevost, French geologist, born 4/6/1787, died.

2/4/1855, George Greenough, English geologist, died (born 18/1/1778).

1854, Heinrich Ernst identified the Oligocene geological period.

16/11/1853, Henry Lewis, US geologist, was born (died 21/7/1888).

22/8/1853, Karl Karsten, German mineralogist, died (born 26/11/1782).

10/11/1852, Gideon Mantel, English geologist, died.

6/9/1851, Karl Koenig, German geologist, died.

21/4/1851, Charles Barrois, French geologist, was born in Lille.

10/12/1850, Francois Beudant, French geologist, died (born in Paris 5/9/1787).

12/4/1849, Albert Heim, Swiss geologist, was born.

7/10/1847, Alexandre Brogniart, French geologist, died (born 5/2/1770).

11/1/1845, Etheldred Benett, one of the earliest woman geologists, died (born 1776).

7/8/1844, Auguste Levy, French geologist, was born.

6/5/1843, Grove Gilbert, US geologist, was born.

30/9/1842, Charles Lapworth, English geologist, was born.

1841, Sir Roderick Impey Murchison identified the Permian geological period.

1/10/1841, Carl Credner, German geologist, was born.

23/3/1841, Sir Clement Foster, English geologist, was born (died 19/4/1904).

28/7/1840, Edward Cope, US palaeontologist, was born (died 12/4/1897).

16/5/1840, Andre Brochant de Villiers, French geologist, died (born 6.8/1772).

23/3/1840, William MacLure, US geologist, died.

26/12/1838, William Dawkins, English geologist, was born.

14/11/1837, Lucas Barrett, English geologist, was born in London (died, drowned, off Jamaica 18/12/1862).

26/5/1837, Henry Hicks, British geologist, was born (died 18/11/1899).

1835, The theory that huge moving ice sheets had created the long lines of stony rubble found in parts of Europe, as they pushed it ahead of them, began to gain credence; the Theory of Ice Ages. Before this such stony ridges were attributed to the Biblical Flood. It was not for another 50 years that an explanation of how Ice Ages happen was developed.

17/12/1835, Alexander Agassiz, geologist, was born in Neuchatel (died 1910).

21/8/1835, John MacCulloch, Scottish geologist, died.

1/6/1834, Francois Laumont, mineralogist, died (born 38/5/1747).

27/7/1833, Thomas Bonney, English geologist, was born in Rugeley.

10/10/1832, Alexander Green, English geologist, was born (died 19/8/1896).

7/10/1832, William Blanford, English geologist, was born in London (died in London 23/6/1905).

23/6/1832, Sir James Hall, Scottish geologist, died (born 17/1/1761).

20/8/1831, Austrian geologist Edouard Seiss was born in London.

6/11/1830, John Hulke, British geologist, was born (died 19/2/1895).

27/8/1829, Gustaf Lindstrom, Swedish palaeontologist, was born (died 16/5/1901).

30/4/1829, Ferdinand Hochstetter, Austrian geologist, was born (died 18/7/1884).

21/6/1828, Ferdinand Fouque, French geologist, was born (died 7/3/1904)

28/4/1828, Matthew Heddle, Scottish mineralogist, was born (died 19/11/1897).

7/12/1826, Henry Crosskey, English geologist, was born (died 1/10/1893).

25/9/1826, Giovanni Brocchi, Italian geologist, died (born 18/2/1772).

6/1/1826, John Farey, English geologist, died (born 1766).

12/10/1825, Mineralogist Franz Joseph Muller died in Vienna, Austria.

30/3/1825, Theodor Kjerulf, Norwegian geologist, was born (died 25/10/1888).

11/3/1825, Felix Karrer, Austrian geologist, was born (died 19/4/1903).

1/5/1824, Sir Johann Haast, British-German geologist, was born (died 15/8/1887).

20/4/1824, Peter Duncan, English palaeontologist, was born (died 28/5/1891).

30/7/1823, Charles Lory, French geologist, was born (died 3/5/1889).

3/6/1822, Rene Hauy, French mineralogist, died (born 28/2/1743).

9/3/1822, Edward Clarke, English mineralogist, died (born 5/6/1769).

30/10/1820, Sir John Dawson, Canadian geologist, was born (died 2/3/1901).

3/12/1819, Robert Etheridge, English geologist, was born (died 18/12/1903).

1/10/1819, Thomas Jones, English geologist, was born,

17/9/1819, Peter Lesley, US geologist, was born (died 1/6/1903).

8/12/1818, Mineralogist Johann Gottleib Gahn died in Falun, Kopparburg, Sweden.

5/12/1818, Nikolai Koksharov, Russian geologist, was born (died 3/1/1893).

6/1/1818, Gustav Kenncott, mineralogist, was born (died 7/3/1897).

7/11/1817, Jean Deluc, Swiss geologist, died (born 8/2/1727).

17/10/1817, Alfred des Cloizeaux, French mineralogist, was born (died 5/1897).

31/5/1817, Joseph Durocher, French geologist, was born (died 3/12/1858).

17/5/1817, Henry William Bristow, English geologist, was born (died 14/6/.1889).

3/2/1817, Louis Delescluze, French geologist, was born (died 24/3/1881).

28/7/1816, Robert Harkness, English geologist, was born (died 4/10/1878).

23/1/1816, Samuel Allport, English petrologist, was born in Birmingham. He died 7/7/1897 in Cheltenham.

1815, William Smith�s book, The geological map of England, was the first to identify rock strata by the fossils they contain. This enabled geologists far apart to know they were working on the same period rocks.

20/9/1815, Nicolas Desmarest, French geologist, died (born 16/9/1725).

31/8/1815, Heinrich Beyrich, German geologist, was born in Berlin (died 9/7/1896).

14/7/1815, Moritz Hornes, Austrian palaeontologist, was born (died 4/11/1868).

25/6/1814, Gabriel Daubree, French geologist, was born (died 29/5/1896).

5/2/1814, David Ansted, geologist, was born in London (died 13/5/1880 in Melton, near Woodbridge).

7/10/1813, Mineralogist Peter Jacob Hjelm died in Stockholm, Sweden.

12/6/1812, Edmond Hebert, French geologist, was born (died 4/4/1890).

10/10/1811, Joseph Jukes, Engliush geologist, was born (died 29/7/1869).

12/9/1811, James Hall, US geologist, was born (died 7/8/1898).

3/6/1810, Robert Mallet, Irish geologist, was born (died 5/11/1881).

31/8/1809, Oswald Heer, Swiss geologist, was born (died 27/9/1883).

24/10/1808, Bernhard Cotta, German geologist, was born (died 14/9/1879).

29/2/1808, Hugh Falconer, palaeontologist, was born (died 31/1/1865)

25/1/1807, William Enniskillen, British palaeontologist, was born (died 21/11/1886).

28/5/1807, Louis Agassiz, who developed the theory of Ice Ages, was born in Motier en Vully, Switzerland. His father, a Christian minister, wanted his son to become a medical doctor, although as a boy he showed a strong interest in zoology. Later, during his travels through the Alps, in 1836, he developed the theory that much of the Earth had once been underneath great ice sheets. He died on 14/12/1873.

11/12/1806, Otto Abich, German mineralogist (died 1/7/1886) was born in Berlin.

13/11/1806, Sir Philip Egerton, British palaeontologist, was born (died 6/4/1881).

29/9/1803, Gregor Helmersen, Russian geologist, was born (died 3/2/1885).

24/9/1802, Etienne Archiac, French geologist, was born in Reims (died 24/12/1868).

26/11/1801, Deodat Dolomieu, French geologist, died (born 24/6/1750).

15/5/1801, Joseph Fournet, French geologist, was born (died 8/1/1869),

6/4/1801, William Hallowes Miller was born in Llandovery, Wales. In 1839 he developed a system for classifying crystals in rocks that is still used today.

8/10/1800, Jules Desnoyers, French geologist, was born (died 1887).

16/5/1800, Ebenezer Emmons, US geologist, was born (died 12/120/1863).

25/3/1800, Ernst Dechen, German geologist, was born (died 15/2/1889).

3/3/1800, Henirich Bronn, German geologist, was born (died 5/7/1862).

1799, Alexander von Humboldt coined the term Jurassic.

11/8/1799, Joachim Barrande, Austrian geologist, was born in Saugues, Haute Loire (died in Frohsdorf 5/10/1883)

2/9/1799, Henry Boase, English geologist, was born in London (died5/5/1883).

22/1/1799, Horace Benedict de Saussure, geologist, died in Geneva, Switzerland.

25/9/1798, Jean Elie de Beaumont, geologist, was born (died 21/9/1874).

2/6/1798, William Clarke, British geologist,was born (died17.6.1878).

20/4/1798, Sir William Logan, British geologist, was born (died 22/6/1875).

14/11/1797, Sir Charles Lyell, British geologist, was born (died 22/2/1875).

13/5/1797, Gerard Deshayes, French geologist, was born (died 9/6/1875).

26/3/1797, James Hutton, Scottish geologist, died (born 3/6/1726).

9/9/1794, William Lonsdale, English geologist, was born (died 11/11/1871).

16/3/1794, Ami Bourg, Austrian geologist, was born in Hamburg (died 21/11/1881).

17/1/1794, Jacques Deslongchamps, French geologist, was born (died 17/1/1867).

21/4/1793, Geologist John Michell died at Thornhill, England.

5/9/1792, Ours Dufrenoy, French geologist, was born (died 20/3/1857).

14/8/1792, John Bigsby, English geologist, was born in Nottingham (died in London 10/2/1881).

19/2/1792, Geologist Roderick Impey Murchison was born in Tarradale, Scotland. He was the first to identify the Silurian Period, in 1835.

26/4/1789, Robert Fox, English geologist, was born (died 25/7/1877).

5/9/1787, Francois Beudant, French geologist, was born in Paris (died 10/12/1850).

7/6/1787, Sir John Coode, geologist, was born (died 12/8/1857).

21/1/1787, Gustavus Brander, English expert in fossils, died (born 1720 in London)

1785, James Hutton (born Edinburgh, Scotland, 3/6/1726),in his work Theory of the Earth, proposed the principle of Uniformitarianism � that all current geological features can be explained by very slow-scale processes.

22/3/1785, Geologist Adam Sedgwick was born in Yorkshire, England. In 1835 he identified the Cambrian Period.

17/1/1785, Leonard Horner, Scottish geologist, was born (died 5/3/1864)

12/3/1784, William Buckland, geologist, was born (died 24/8/1856).

26/11/1782, Karl Karsten, German mineralogist, was born (died 22/8/1853).

22/2/1782, Johann Hausmann, German mineralogist, was born (died 26/12/1859).

1779, Horace de Saussure coined the term �geology� in his work Voyages dan les Alpes.

26/4/1774, Christian Buch, German geologist, was born (died 4/3/1853).

31/8/1772, William Borlase, geologist, died (born in Penden, Cornwall 2/2/1695).

6/8/1772, Andre Brochant de Villiers, French geologist, was born (died 16/5/1840).

5/2/1770, Alexandre Brogniart, French geologist, was born (died 7/10/1847).

5/6/1769, Edward Clarke, English mineralogist, was born (died 9/3/1822).

19/8/1765, Mineralogist Axel Fredrik Cronstedt died in Stockholm, Sweden.

17/1/1761, Sir James Hall, Scottish geologist, was born (died 23/6/1832).

21/3/1753, Franz Bruckmann, German geologist, died (born 27/9/1767). He was the first to use the terms oolite and oolitic for rocks that resembled the roe of a fish in graininess.

25/9/1750, German geologist Abraham Gottlob Werner was born in Wehrau. He pioneered a method of classifying minerals by their physical charatceristics such as colour, hardness,transparency,lustre, and shape.

24/6/1750, Deodat Dolomieu, French geologist, was born (died 26/11/1801).

28/5/1747, Francois Laumont, mineralogist, was born (died 1/6/1834).

1745, Mikhail Vasilievich published a catalogue of 3,030 minerals.

28/2/1743, Rene Hauy, French mineralogist, was born (died 3/6/1822).

26/12/1742, Ignaz Born, Ausstrian mineralogist, was born in Transylvania (died 1791).

21/2/1738, Mineralogist Franz Cancrin was born (died 1812).

8/2/1727, Jean Deluc, Swiss geologist, was born (died 7/11/1817).

3/6/1726, James Hutton, Scottish geologist, was born (died 26/3/1797).

16/9/1725, Nicolas Desmarest, French geologist, was born (died 20/9/1815).

1703, De la Hautefeuille designed the first (Western) seismograph.

27/9/1697, Franz Bruckmann, German geologist, was born (died 21/3/1753).

2/2/1695, William Borlase, geologist, was born in Penden, Cornwall (died 31/8/1771).

1658, Coal production at Newcastle on Tyne reached 529,000 tons a year, up from 33,000 tons in 1564. Much of England had been deforested by the use of wood as fuel, and now coal was the main substitute.

1086, Shen Kuo, Chinese polymath, wrote essays on fossils, erosion, uplift and sedimentation; the foundations of modern geology.

565 BCE, The Greek philosopher Xenophanes theorised that because fossil sea shells can be found on mountaintops, then parts of the Earth�s surface must have risen and sunk over time; an early theory of geology.


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