European Union & International Organisations; key historical events

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1) Graphic of Crude Birth / Death rates, selected countries, evolution over time.

2) Choropleth map of world fertility rates by country 1970 & 2005

3) Choropleth map of world population % growth by country 1950-2009

4) Choropleth map of world life expectancy by country, 1960 & 2010

5) Chart of changing global age structure 1950 - 2100

6) Choropleth map of world literacy rate by country, 1960 & 2005

7) Male-Female Literacy Differential Map Choropleth map of male-female differential literacy rates (% male compared to % female literacy)

8) Choropleth map of world % agricultural employment by country, 1960 & 2005

9) Choropleth map of world GDP by country, relative to USA, national and per capita, 1960-2005


Local regional level population within countries,

Socio-demographic world clocks,


See Appendix 1 below for Europe and European Union

See Appendix 2 below for NATO

See Appendix 3 below for United Nations and League of Nations


Colour key:




League of Nations


International Trade


International Financial


International Environmental Organisations

International Humanitarian and Justice Organisations

International military organisations


31/10/2011, The global population officially reached 7 billion.

2/7/2005, Live8 Concerts, to raise funds for Africa, were held in Berlin, Edinburgh, London, Moscow, Paris, Philadelphia, Rome, and other cities.

2002, The International Criminal Court (ICC) was established. Replacing earlier ad-hoc United Nations tribunals, the ICC was set up to try individuals accused of crimes against humanity, genocide or war crimes. It is located in The Hague, Netherlands.

9/7/2002, The African Union (AU) was founded, as a successor to the Organisation of African Unity(founded 1963, dissolved 2002).  The AU was idealistically modelled upon the European Union, with plans for a supranational government, administration, a Court of Justice, financial institutions and a peace and security council. There was also to be a pan-African Parliament, based in South Africa. However the required co-operation between African states has not so far been achieved,

30/11/2000, Major demonstrations in Seattle against the World Trade Organisation meeting there.

8/9/2000, Albania officially joined the WTO.

30/4/1999, Cambodia joined the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), bringing the total number of members to ten.

12/10/1999, According to the UN, the world population reached 6 billion.

18/6/1999, Anti-Globalisation protests in many cities around the world, some of which became riots.

1/1/1995, The World Trade Organisation was created to replace GATT.

8/12/1994, US President Clinton signed for the USA to agree to the Uruguay Round of the GATT trade liberalisation agreement, This replaced GATT by the WTO in 1995.

1993, NAFTA, North American Free Trade Association, was founded.

15/12/1993. Completion of the GATT Uruguay Round (began 1986 in Punta del Este, Uruguay). 117 countries signed the economic liberalisation agreement in Marrakesh, Morocco.

9/11/1993. The UN said the number of refugees worldwide rose from 2.5 million in 1973 to 19.7 million today

21/3/1992, The US Census Bureau officially estimated the world population to be 5.4 billion, of whom 1.2 billion were Chinese. It projected a world population of over 8 billion by 2020.

1989, APEC, Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operation, was founded.

1989, The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) was set up, following a G7 Summit. It is an inter-governmental organisation aimed at preventing money-laundering. After the 9-11 attacks of 2001, the FATF also took on the role of preventing funds reaching terrorist groups.

11/7/1987, The world population was officially stated to have attained 5 billion.

21/9/1986. The Stockholm Accord was signed, at a 35-nation conference. Advance warning of troop movements by NATO or the Warsaw pact was agreed.

25/12/1985, Comic Relief, a global poverty relief charity, was founded.

7/7/1982, Hungary became a member of the World Bank.

6/5/1982, Hungary joined the International Monetary Fund.

1981, World population reached 4.5 billion, of whom 960 million were Chinese.

1975, The ‘G7’ was founded. A group of seven countries, later to become 8 with the addition of Russia, who met to decide economic policy and sometimes to co-ordinate strategy.

28/5/1975, 15 West African states signed the Treaty of Lagos, setting up the Economic Community of West African States.

1974, World population reached 4 billion.

1972, The UK charity Action Aid was founded, to help improve living conditions in Global South countries.

8/8/1967, ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) was founded. The original members were Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Brunei joined in 1984, Vietnam in 1995, Laos and Myanmar in 1997,  and Cambodia in 1999. East Timor attempted to join, post-independence, but was blocked by Indonesia.

11/1966, The Asian Development Bank was set up.

1963, The African Development Bank was founded. Based in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire, its function was to make loans at preferential rates for African development schemes. Funded by both individual countries and other multinational organisations, it began operations in 1966.

25/5/1963, The OAU (Organisation of African Unity) was founded at Addis Ababa.

30/9/1961, The OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) was founded in Paris.

28/5/1961. Amnesty International was founded in London.

14/9/1960, OPEC  was set up by Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela.

supply to Tunisia by the USSR; France feared Tunisian support for Algerian Nationalists.

26/10/1956, The United Nations approved the creation of the International Atomic Energy Agency.

1955, CENTO (Central Treaty Organisation) was formed. It was a political/military alliance, comprising the UK along with Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Pakistan, whose purpose was to defend against any possible aggression from the USSR. Iraq withdrew in 1958 and CENTO ceased to exist when Iran also withdrew after the 1979 Revolution.

27/4/1955, The First Bandung Conference ended (started 18/4/1955). This was a meeting of 29 newly-independent African and Asian countries who were keen to distance themselves from the USA/USSR superpower rivalry. Nations in attendance included China (Zhou Enlai), India (Nehru), Cambodia (Sihanouk), Burma (U Nu), and Egypt (Gamal Abd-al-Nasser). The presence of China signalled that country’s determination to pursue its own brand of Communism, independent of Russia, The Summit, held in Bandung, Indonesia, was a major foreign policy triumph for Indonesian President Sukharno.

8/9/1954, The Treaty setting up SEATO (South East Asia Treaty Organisation) was signed at Manila.

18/5/1954. The European Convention on Human Rights came into force.

31/12/1951, The Organisation of American States was founded in Washington DC.

1/7/1951. The Colombo Plan was founded in Sri Lanka, to aid the development of south east Asia.

6/6/1950, Trygve Lie was appointed to a new term as United Nations Secretary General. He announced a 20-year peace programme, more meetings with foreign ministers, creation of a permanent UN military force, admission of new members, and more aid for poorer countries.

27/4/1949, The Commonwealth was founded in London.

25/1/1949. COMECON (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance) was founded in Moscow.

2/9/1947, The Organisation of American States (OAS) was set up.

1945, Christian Aid was set up, to provide relief operations in developing countries.

1945, The International Monetary Fund was founded. The World Bank was founded. The OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) was founded.

11/1939, The Nobel Peace Prize Committee decided that the annual Nobel Peace Prize would not be awarded this year.

1930, The Bank for International Settlements was founded.

17/6/1925, Geneva arms Conference closed.

4/5/1925, Geneva Conference on arms traffic and the use of poison gas in  war opened.

15/2/1922. The first session of the Permanent Court of International Justice was held in The Hague, Netherlands.

16/12/1920. Permanent Court of International Justice established at The Hague.

11//4/1919. The International Labour Organisation was established.

1913, Plans were drawn up for a worldwide map at a scale of 1:1,100,000. The project was interrupted by World War One, but the United Nations revived the project in 1953. The entire map series was never completed.

30/10/1910. Henri Durant, Swiss founder of the Red Cross in 1863, died.

18/10/1907, Plans were announced for an International Court of Justice, to be set up in The Hague.

29/7/1899. At The Hague, a conference of 26 countries established a permanent international court of arbitration.

2/10/1889, The first Pan-American Congress met, in Washington. Its aim was to create closer relations between the States of the Americas.

6/6/1882, The three-mile limit for territorial waters was established by the Hague Convention.

5/8/1870, At a public meeting in London, a resolution was passed calling for the formation of a British National Society for Aid to the Sick and Wounded in War. This was the forerunner to the British Red Cross. This was seven years after the founding of the International Red Cross.

29/10/1863. Swiss philanthropist Henri Dunant founded the International Red Cross after witnessing the tending of the wounded at the Battle of Solferino, near Mantua, north Italy.

17/2/1863, Swiss philanthropist Jean Henri Dunant proposed the International Red Cross in Geneva.

1859, Henri Dunant travelled through the site of the Battle of Solferino, a few days after the actual battle in June; 15,000 lay dead and wounded, and many of the wounded lay for days before anyone came to care for them. Many of these died of their wounds before medical attention arrived. This sight led him to establish the Red Cross.

16/4/1855, The Declaration of Paris was signed.

8/5/1828. Jean Henri Dumont, Swiss philanthropist and founder of the International Red Cross, was born in Geneva.


Appendix 1 – Europe and European Union

Brexit Polls,

European Central Bank,



31/12/2020, The UK formally left the European Union, at 11.00pm UK time.

31/1/2020, The UK began to leave the European Union. A period of transition, scheduled to end 31/12/2020, began during which trade relations would be sorted out. Many people suspected this was too little time to complete these negotiations.

20/12/2019, Boris Johnson, British PM, won a huge majority of 358 to 234 against for his Bill to complete Brexit on 31/1/2020; larger than his overall Commons majority of 78. From end January, a transition period is due to begin, for 11 months until 31/12/2020; however many believed this was too short and might have to be extended.

24/9/2019, Britain’s Supreme Court ruled that PM Boris Johnson had acted unlawfully when he prorogued (suspended) Parliament, ostensibly because of upcoming Party Conferences, but in reality to avert further debate on Brexit. Parliament returned to sitting the next day.

3/9/2019, UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson lost significant Parliamentary votes. MPs voted to force him to ask Brussels for an extension on the Brexit process from 31/10/2019, and not to hold a General election before this date. 21 Tory MPs rebelled and were expelled from the Conservative Party by Mr Johnson, who now led a Government with a minority of 47. Mr Johnson said if he were compelled by law to ask for an extension (something he earlier said he would never do), he would also threaten to be so disruptive to the EU that in fact they would not grant one. Calling an early General Election in October would, under the Fixed Term Parliaments Act, have required two thirds of MPs to vote for, which Boris Johnson did not get; it would also have ensured that Parliament was not operating in full at the end of October so even if Labour won they could not have voted to extend the Brexit deadline or avert No Deal. However it was possible that the EU, despairing of the never-ending Brexit process, would decline to offer an extension anyway, with President Macron of France taking this position.

28/8/2019, UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson took the highly controversial move of announcing that the UK Parliament would be prorogued from 10 September for a crucial 5-week period until 14 October just before the planned Brexit of 31/10/2019. Opponents of Brexit claimed that this was a move to suppress any debate in parliament of the Brexit process, and prevent the passing of a Bill to block a Brexit without a deal being made with the European Union.

24/5/2019, Mrs Theresa May, UK Prime Minister, announced her resignation, having failed to secure a Brexit deal that could get through the UK Parliament.

21/3/2019, After lengthy talks between Mrs May, UK Prime Minister, and the EU, the EU set new dates for Brexit. If Mrs May managed to get her deal with the EU accepted at a third vote in Parliament, Brexit would take place on 22 May 2019. This would give the UK Parliament time to pass the necessary legislation. However it was possible that the Speaker, Mr Bercow, would debar a 3rd vote unless the proposal was ‘significantly different from the proposal that was heavily defeated two times already; possibly the new schedule would constitute a ‘difference’. If, however, Mrs May could not get her Deal passed, the UK was to have until 12 April to ‘say what it wanted’ – which could be anything from No Deal to postponing or even cancelling Brexit, revoking Article 50.

11/12/2018, UK Prime Minister Theresa May postponed a Parliamentary vote on her Brexit Deal, which many had derided as giving up too much to Europe, and quickly met European leaders to try and renegotiate terms. She failed.

10/12/2018, The European Court of Justice ruled that a country could unilaterally reverse its exit from the EU by cancelling its use of Article 50; so long as this had been done democratically within the country, by a Parliamentary vote or a second referendum.

28/3/2017, Late this evening, UK Prime Minister Theresa May signed Article 50, triggering the exit process of the UK from the EU. The letter was delivered to Donald Tusk (Poland), President of the European Council, on 29/3/2017. The two-year negotiation process was started; however after the inconclusive UK General Election of 8/6/2017 this timetable was looking tight.

3/11/2016, Britain’s High Court ruled that the Prime Minister, Theresa May, could not trigger Article 50 to leave the EU without Parliamentary approval. This ruling was later upheld by the Supreme Court. This opened up the possibility of Parliament severely delaying or even thwarting the Brexit process.

26/6/2016 The fallout from the Brexit vote continued. David Cameron delayed invoking Chapter 50, which would kickstart a 2-year procedure to negotiate the UK’s withdrawal from the EU. Cameron expressed a preference for his successor as Tory leader to undertake these negotiations. Meanwhile EU leaders were pressuring the UK to invoke Chapter 50 soon. The EU leaders feared further ‘Exit’ referenda in countries like France, The Netherlands, Denmark, possibly Sweden, in Spain, Greece, and even Germany and the Czech republic. The Labour leader, Jeremy Corbyn’s, position seemed precarious as ten of his Cabinet resigned, over his lacklustre support for the Remain campaign. There was debate within the UK as to whether the Referendum result was actually binding, especially if a UK General Election ensued within a few months, which itself would require legislation to amend the five year rule for such elections. Also by this afternoon, nearly 3.4 million people had signed a petition asking for a second Brexit Referendum; some signatures were suspected of coming from outside the UK.

23/6/2016 The UK voted 51.9% to leave the European Union in the so-called Brexit referendum. David Cameron resigned as Conservative Prime Minister. The actual figures were, OUT, 17,410,742, IN, 16,141,241, Turnout = 72.2%.

19/2/2016, UK Prime Minister David Cameron concluded negotiations for a deal redefining the relationship between the UK and the EU. This was a preliminary move before a UK referendum to be held on whether the UK should leave the EU. On 20/2/2016 the date for this referendum was set for 23/6/2016.

4/1/2016, Sweden introduced border controls on the Oresund Bridge border with Denmark to try and slow the influx of migrants. In response Denmark introduced border controls on its German border. The Schengen ideal appeared to be unravelling.

30/6/2015, Europe’s refugee crisis continued To this day, illegal arrivals from 1/1/2015 totalled over 340,000. 102,342 refugees from the Middle East and Kosovo had arrived via Hungary; 132,340 from the Middle East, Pakistan and Afghanistan areas had arrived via Turkey and Greece; 91,302 from Africa had arrived via Libya and Italy, and 6,698 from Syria and west Africa had arrived via Spain.

19/4/2015, The heaviest casualty incident to date of the ongoing unofficial migrant sailings across the Mediterranean to Europe occurred this day, when 770 drowned as their boat sank off the Libyan coast. In September 2014 500 drowned off Malta, on 12/4/2015 400 died as their boat capsized off Libya and on 3/10/2013 368 migrants drowned off Lampedusa. Between January and end-July 2015 187,000 migrants had arrived in the EU; 96,971 arrived in Italy, 88,695 to Greece and 1,674 had arrived in Spain.

14/11/2012, Protests in Greece, Portugal and Spain against European austerity measures.

1/1/2012, The Caribbean island of Saint Barthelemy seceded from Guadeloupe; thereby leaving the European Union.

1/1/2011, Estonia became the 17th country to adopt the Euro currency.

1/1/2009, Slovakia adopted the Euro, replacing the Koruna.

1/1/2007, Bulgaria and Romania joined the European Union.

29/10/2004, EU heads of State in Rome signed the Treaty and Final Act establishing a European Constitution.

1/5/2004. Ten more countries joined the existing 15 EU members. These ten were Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Malta, Cyprus, Slovakia, The Czech Republic, Hungary, and Slovenia.

14/9/2003, In a referendum, Estonia approved joining the EU.

1/1/2002, The majority of countries within the EU abolished their national currencies in favour of the Euro. Only Britain, Denmark, and Sweden retained the Pound Sterling and Kroner.

26/2/2001, The Treaty of Nice was signed by the 15 members of the EU, to enable the bloc to function smoothly after the 2004 enlargement to 25 member states. The scope of the national veto was reduced, and Parliamentary seat allocation for a 25-member bloc was agreed.

25/3/1999, The European Union adopted the Common Agricultural Policy, at a meeting in Berlin.

1998, The European Central Bank was founded.

1/11/1998, The European Court of Human Rights was instituted.

10/2/1998, Maurice Schumann, European statesman, died.

2/10/1997, The Treaty of Amsterdam was signed, further integrating the European Union.

1/1/1995, Austria, Finland, and Sweden joined the European Union.

1/11/1993. The European Union (formerly EC) came into existence as the Maastricht Treaty came into effect for its 12 members.

2/8/1993. The UK ratified the Maastricht Treaty.

18/6/1993, In a second referendum, Denmark narrowly approved the Maastricht Treaty.

1/2/1993. The EC began formal talks on admitting Austria, Sweden, and Finland by 1995.

1/1/1993. The European Single Market came into operation. Apart from the UK, Ireland, Denmark, and Greece, passports would not be needed at frontiers within the EU. British shoppers began to take advantage of more much relaxed limits on the amount of alcohol and tobacco they could bring back from France.

11/12/1992, An Edinburgh Summit of EC heads of State discussed Denmark’s’ rejection of the Maastricht Treaty.

20/9/1992. The Maastricht issue split the EC, with France voting narrowly for it but Denmark voting narrowly against it. The idea was to further integrate Europe. British politics was also split with ‘Euro-sceptics’ on the Conservative back benches harassing John Major, Prime Minister.

7/2/1992, The Maastricht Treaty was signed, founding the European Union.

18/12/1989, The EC signed a 10-year trade pact with the USSR.

2/3/1989, All 12 EC nations agreed to ban the production of CFCs by 2000.

1/7/1987, The EC passed the Single European Act.

26/5/1986, The EC adopted a starred flag.

1/1/1986. Spain and Portugal became the 11th and 12th members of the EC.

19/7/1984, Jacques Delors was nominated as President of the European Commission from January 1985.

4/1983, The start of the European Round Table (ERT). The Chief executive of Volvo organised a meeting with the heads of 15 other large European corporations, including ICI, Fiat, Nestle, Philips and Unilever, to seek ways to ‘harmonise trade rules in Europe’. This was to enable these companies to reach the economies of scale necessary to compete with non-European companies. The ERT presented its proposals to the European Commission in January 1985. The ERT’s proposals included the Channel Tunnel and the Denmark-Sweden Bridge, and a Europe-wide system of high speed trains and road highways. The ERT also wanted, and got, monetary integration and enlargement of the European Union.

23/2/1982. Greenland, a Danish territory, with home rule, voted to leave the EC.

1/1/1981, Greece joined the EC.

30/5/1980, EC Foreign Ministers agreed to reduce Britain’s annual contribution to the EC by around 25%.

7/6/1979, First direct elections to the European Parliament.

1/1/1979. The European Monetary System (EMS) was formed.

6/12/1978, James Callaghan announced that Britain would not be joining the new European Monetary System (EMS).

30/10/1976, The EEC agreed to introduce a 200-mile fishing zone from 1/1/1977.

13/7/1976, Roy Jenkins became President of the European Commission.

1/2/1973, The Common Agricultural Policy of the EEC came into operation.

1/1/1973. Britain, Denmark, and Ireland joined the EEC, enlarging it from 6 to 9 countries.

21/10/1972, An EC Summit in Paris approved the principle of economic and monetary union by 1980.

17/10/1972. European Communities Bill received Royal Assent.

31/7/1972, Paul Spaak died, aged 73. He had been one of the chief architects of the European Community (EC).

22/1/1972. Britain, Denmark, Norway, and Ireland signed the EEC Treaty – to join January 1973. Norway later withdrew after a referendum showed a majority of Norwegians were against membership. See 1/1/1973. As the British Conservative Prime Minister Edward Heath signed the Treaty of Brussels, he had ink thrown over him by protestors against the redevelopment of Covent Garden Market.

21/5/1971. French President Pompidou said the UK could join the EEC.

See also Great Britain for events relating to UK-Europe relations

23/7/1970. Membership negotiations opened in Brussels between the EEC and the UK, Denmark, Ireland, and Norway. See 22/1/1972.

30/6/1970. Britain began negotiations to join the EEC, following De Gaulle’s resignation in May 1969. Ireland, Denmark and Norway also began negotiations to join.

19/12/1967. Second French veto by De Gaulle on British membership of the E.E.C. The pound was devalued, and Harold Wilson made his ‘pound in your pocket’ television speech.

27/11/1967, De Gaulle vetoed Britain’s entry into the EEC.

6/10/1966, The EEC published an adverse report on the UK economy; the UK was trying to join the EEC.

10/11/1966, The UK held discussions about entry to the EEC.

31/12/1965, The executives of the European Economic Community, Euratom, and the European Coal and Steel Community were merged into one executive authority.

8/4/1965, Members of the European Coal and Steel Community, the Economic Community and Euratom signed a treaty providing for the merger of these institutions’ functions into a single Commission and Council of Ministers.

14/1/1963. De Gaulle vetoed Britain’s membership of the EEC. He said the UK was too close to the Commonwealth and the USA, and not ‘sufficiently European’.

18/12/1962, PM Harold MacMillan of the UK and President Kennedy of the USA concluded the Nassau Agreement, at Nassau, Bahamas.  This allowed the US navy to provide Polaris missiles for the Royal Navy, normally operating under NATO command.  This Anglo-US collaboration was resented by General De Gaulle of France, who saw it as proof that Britain was not sufficiently European.  Within a month De Gaulle had vetoed UK membership of the EEC, see 14/1/1963.

14/11/1962. Britain resumed negotiations to join the EEC. Macmillan and De Gaulle talked at Rambouillet on 15-16/12/1962. However De Gaulle was intransigent, fearing the UK would import US influence into Europe. De Gaulle resigned in May 1969.

3/7/1962. France recognised Algerian independence, after a referendum; this also entailed the departure of Algeria from the EU. 

2/3/1962. The UK applied to join the European Coal and Steel Community. On 5/3/1962 the UK applied to join the European Atomic Energy Community.

14/1/1962. The European Economic Community agreed on a Common Agricultural Policy.

8/11/1961. Negotiations with Britain began in Brussels to join the Common Market.

10/8/1961. Britain first applied for membership of the EEC.

18/7/1961. The six Common Market countries issued the Bonn Declaration aimed at political union.

3/5/1960, The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) was founded in Geneva. It had seven members; Norway, Sweden, Denmark, the UK, Switzerland, Austria, and Portugal.

23/2/1959. The European Court of Human Rights sat for the first time.

16/4/1958. The EEC, the European Economic Community, was set up. The original six countries were France, Italy, West Germany, Holland, Belgium, and Luxembourg. See 10/8/1952.

1/1/1958. The European Economic Community came into effect. It then comprised 6 countries; France, West Germany, Italy, and the Benelux countries.

25/3/1957. Six nations signed the Treaty of Rome to create the Common Market (EEC) and Euratom. These were Italy, West Germany, France, and the three Benelux countries. The founding nations foresaw a union of some 160 million people, to be developed over 15 years. There was also a shared atomic energy programme, Euratom. Britain was notably absent, preferring to create a wider but looser trading network involving the Common Market, the Commonwealth, and others. Britain feared a supra-national authority that would erode its sovereignty over domestic affairs. However the PM, Harold MacMillan, privately believed that the UK should have sought Common market membership and now began to create the European Free trading Area, EFTA, which included all of western Europe, and involved less loss of sovereignty for the participating nations. A stand-alone Britain faced greater threats to its trade and industry from a developing Common Market.

7/5/1956. The inaugural meeting of the Western European Union Council.

5/8/1955, European Monetary Agreement signed.

5/7/1955, The first meeting of the Assembly of the Western European Union, at Strasbourg, France.

1954, The European Labour Card was instituted. This enabled any citizen of the six participating nations to work anywhere within the Community.

31/5/1954, The first Bilderberg Group meeting concluded (opened 29/5/1954). The group, of politicians, royalty and industrialists, was named after the hotel where this initial meeting, now held annually, first met; the Hotel Bilderberg, Oosterbeek, The Netherlands.

23/4/1954, The US made a loan of US$ 100 million to the European Coal and Steel Community to modernise its collieries and power stations. A smaller loan by the French Government facilitated the relocation of miners to the most productive pits.

10/1/1953. First meeting of the European Coal and Steel Community.

10/8/1952. Inauguration of the European Coal and Steel Community. See 28/4/1949 and 16/4/1958.

25/7/1952, The European Coal and Steel Community came into force.

5/7/1952, The Court of Justice of the European Coal and Steel Community became operational.

27/5/1952, The European Defence Community was set up by France, Germany, Italy, and the Benelux countries.

13/12/1951, The French National Assembly ratified the Schuman Plan. This placed French and German steel iron and coal industries under one common authority, to which other countries could also accede.

18/4/1951. The European Coal and Steel Treaty was signed in Paris. France, West Germany, Italy, and the Benelux countries signed up.

18/11/1950, At a meeting of the Consultative Assembly of the Council of Europe, Robert Schuman, French foreign Minister, made a speech supporting the Pleven Plan for establishing a European Army.

19/9/1950, The European Payments Union was established.

11/8/1950, In Strasbourg, France, at the meeting of the Consultative Assembly of the Council of Europe, Winston Churchill called for the creation of a European Army. The motion was passed by 89 votes to 5.

9/5/1950. The Schuman Plan lead to the establishment of the European Coal and Steel Community.

7/11/1949, The first meeting of the Council of Europe; Spaak was the Chairman.

3/8/1949, The Council of Europe came into being.

3/5/1949. The Council of Europe was established, after a ten-state conference in London.

16/4/1948. The Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC) was set up, see 14/12/1960.

17/3/1948. Britain, France, and the Benelux countries signed the Brussels Treaty, a pact of economic, military, political, and cultural alliance. The Treaty came into effect on 25/7/1948.

19/9/1946. Winston Churchill, in Zurich, urged Franco-German reconciliation and a ‘kind of United States of Europe.

5/9/1929. Aristide Briand, the French Prime Minister, proposed a United States of Europe.


Appendix 2 – NATO

1/4/2009, Albania and Croatia were admitted to NATO.

29/3/2004, NATO was expanded to include Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia.

12/3/1999, Hungary, Poland, and the Czech Republic joined NATO.

8/7/1997, NATO invited the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland to join the alliance in 1999.

22/5/1990, NATO Ministers cut defence spending, the so-called ‘Peace Dividend’.

31/3/1967, The Supreme Headquarters of NATO moved from France to Casteau, Belgium.

28/9/1960, NATO introduced a unified system of air command.

3/10/1954, A Nine-Power conference in London agreed that in the interests of European unity, Germany could join NATO.

4/4/1949, The North Atlantic Treaty was signed in Washington. NATO was set up on 18/3/1949, by Britain and seven other European countries. Denmark had agreed to join on 25/3/1949. Eleven countries signed in total.


Appendix 3 – United Nations and League of Nations

United Nations Statistics,


7/3/2012, The UN presented its report on violations of the human rights of gay people worldwide. Representatives of several African and Arab States walked out.

14/9/2009, The UN adopted the principles of Responsibility to Protect’ or R2P. This says that the sovereignty of States is not absolute in that the UN can choose to intervene when a state fails to protect its citizens from mass atrocities and human rights violations.

26/8/2002. The start of a ten-day ‘Earth Summit’ held by the UN in South Africa. Delegates promised ‘action not words’. The Summit was snubbed by President George Bush, who refused to attend.

1999, Nauru joined the United Nations.

13/12/1996, Kofi Anan became the 7th Secretary General of the UN.

1992, Kazakhstan was admitted to the United Nations.

1992, Armenia was admitted to the United Nations.

1/1/1992, Butros Butros Ghali, a 69-year-old Egyptian, became the 6th General Secretary of the United Nations.

1991, South Korea joined the United Nations.

11/11/1981, Antigua and Barbuda joined the United Nations.

25/11/1974, U Thant, Burmese diplomat and Secretary-General to the UN 1962-71, died.

18/9/1973, The UN admitted East and West Germany.

21/12/1971, Kurt Waldheim succeeded U Thant as Secretary-General to the UN.

23/3/1964, The first United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) opened at Geneva.

14/5/1963, Kuwait was admitted to the United Nations.

25/10/1962, Uganda was admitted to the United Nations, as the 110th member.

3/11/1961, The Burmese diplomat U Thant was elected UN Secretary-General.

27/10/1961, Mauritania and Mongolia were admitted to the United Nations.

18/9/1961, Dag Hammarskjold, Swedish Secretary General of the United Nations and Nobel Prize Winner, was killed a plane crash near Ndola in Northern Rhodesia.  He had been flying from Leopoldville, Congo.

26/9/1957, Dag Hammarskjold of Sweden was re-elected Secretary-General of the United Nations for a further 5 years.

14/12/1955. Ireland joined the United Nations.

7/4/1953, Swedish civil servant Dag Hammarskold succeeded Trygve Lie as secretary of the United Nations.

31/3/1953, Swedish diplomat Dag Hammarskjold was elected Secretary-General of the United Nations.  

4/2/1952, The United Nations Disarmament Commission first met.

28/9/1950, Indonesia was admitted to the UN.

10/12/1948, The United Nations issued the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

30/9/1947, Pakistan and Yemen joined the UN.

1946, Afghanistan joined the United Nations.

11/12/1946, The UN International Children’s Emergency Fund was set up to provide aid to children in war-torn countries.

19/11/1946, The first General Conference of UNESCO was held at Paris.

4/11/1946. UNESCO, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation, was established, with headquarters in Paris.

30/1/1946. UN General Assembly met for the first time, in London.

10/1/1946, The League of Nations was officially dissolved, after 26 years, and replaced by the United Nations.

26/6/1945, The Charter for the United Nations was signed by the US.

25/4/1945, An international conference to establish a world security organisation, the ‘United Nations’, opened in San Francisco.

20/10/1943, The United Nations War Crimes Commission was formed.

18/5/1943, UNRRA was founded.

8/4/1938,  Kofi Annan, UN Secretary-General, was born.

20/2/1937. Paraguay left the League of Nations.

1936, Italy left the League of Nations.

1934, The USSR joined the League of Nations.

11/6/1934, The League of Nations Disarmament Conference at Geneva ended in failure.

1933, Germany left the League of Nations.

27/3/1933, Japan announced it would leave the League of Nations, effective 1935.

16/3/1933, At the League of Nations Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, Britain’s plan for a reduction in the size of national armies failed, because of Germany’s insistence that its Stormtroopers not be included in the totals.

3/10/1932, Iraq joined the League of Nations.

2/2/1932, The World Conference on Disarmament opened in Geneva,

12/9/1931, Mexico was admitted to the League of Nations.

10/2/1926, Germany applied to join the League of Nations, Brazil and Spain blocked Germany’s admission, in protest at the plan to give Germany a seat on the Council, which they thought they should have instead.

10/9/1923. The Irish Free State was admitted to the League of Nations.

22/9/1921. The Baltic states of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia joined the League of Nations.

17/12/1920, Albania joined the League of Nations.

16/12/1920. Bulgaria, Costa Rica, Finland and Latvia joined the League of Nations.

3/12/1920, Austria joined the League of Nations.

13/11/1920. The first full session of the League of Nations opened, attended by 5,000 representatives from 41 countries worldwide.

27/10/1920, The League of Nations headquarters moved to Geneva,

16/6/1920. At The Hague, the League of Nations Permanent Court of Justice opened.

25/5/1920, The Hague was chosen as the permanent seat of the League of Nations.

10/3/1920, The Netherlands joined the League of Nations.

8/3/1920. Denmark joined the League of Nations.

5/3/1920, Norway joined the League of Nations.

1/2/1920, The first full session of the League of Nations opened at St James Palace, London, overseen by the British Prime Minister, Arthur Balfour. Plans were made for an International Court of Justice.

13/2/1920, Switzerland joined the League of Nations.

19/1/1920, Javier Perez de Cuellar, Secretary of the United Nations from 1982, was born.

13/1/1920, Argentina joined the League of Nations.

10/1/1920. The League of Nations, whose function was defined on 28/4/1919, legally came into being at Geneva. It first met in Paris on 16/1/1920, but was boycotted by the USA, partly over the votes given to Britain and the dominions, partly over the obligation by one member to defend another if attacked in war.

25/1/1919. The League of Nations was founded.

22/1/1917, US President Woodrow Wilson delivered a speech to the Senate, ‘Peace Without Victory’, condemning European imperialism and militarism and calling for a League of Nations.

22/1/1909, U Thant, diplomat and Secretary General to the United Nations, was born in Pantanaw, Burma.


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