Peru: key historical events (and Inca) (Chavin) (Moche)

Page last modified 30/3/2020

 

 

2003, Beatriz Merino was appointed Peru’s first woman Prime Minister.

2001, Presidential elections were won by Alejandro Toledo, of the Peru Possible Party. Toledo was the country’s first Amerindian President,

11/2000, Fujimori fled to Japan, taking US$ 600 million with him, from where he sent a fax submitting his resignation as President. Japan granted him citizenship, permitting him to evade prosecution in Peru.

9/2000, Fujimori suffered a political setback when his right hand man, Montesinos, was caught on video attempting to bribe an opposition politician. Montesinos sought asylum in Panama but was refused; he returned to Peru and went into hiding, with an estimated US$ 2 billion having been siphoned off the economy by him.

4/2000, Fujimori faced strong opposition for the Presidency from Alejandro Toledo, a US-trained economist. Toledo refused to participate in the run-off elections, believing they woiuld be rigged; Fujimori went ahead with his 3rd 5-year term as President, but faced strong criticism from previous allies such as the USA and the Organisation of American States.

22/4/1997, The siege of the Japanese Embassy in Peru by Tupac Amaru guerrillas was ended violently by government troops. 14 guerrillas and one Japanese citizen were killed; the remaining 71 hostages were rescued. The guerrillas wanted the release of 440 of their comrades.

1996, Fujimori got a compliant Congress to amend the Constitution so he could stand for a third 5-year term as President. Judges who objected were dismissed. Newspapers also had to report favourably on Fujimori or risk being shut down.

12/1996, Tupac Amaru, a Leftist guerrilla group whom Fujimori believed he had defeated, resurfaced and took 400 hostages at a party at hosted by the  Japanese Ambassador. The siege was drawn-out because Japan insisted on aiming for a negotiated settlement.

1994, Fujimori was re-elected as President. However his economic policies, whilst satisfying the IMF, had impoverished many Peruvians; two thirds remained below the poverty line, and real wages had fallen by 10%.

6/1/1993, President Alberto Fujimori restored constitutional government in Peru.

7/10/1992, In Peru, the Sendero Luminoso (‘Shining Path’) Marxist leader and former Philosphy professor Abimael Guzman Reynoso was convicted of treason and sentenced to life in prison. He had been captured in Lima oin 12/9/1992.. The war on the Shining Path had cost the Peruvian economy some US$22 billion, and 69,000 Peruvians had been killed or had ‘disappeared’; many of these being impoverished Quecha indigenous peoples. Hi9s captutre was a severe blow to the Shining Path, which graduially declined thereafter, and allowed Peru to promote tourism,

14/2/1991, The Peruvian Cabinet resigned over splits caused by an economic crisis.

1990, Peru was suffering over 3,000 political murders a year

28/7/1990, Alberto Fujimori became President of Peru. Elected on an anti-corruption platform, he inherited an economy where payments on US$ 23 billion foreign debts had not been made for 2 years, the inflation rate was 40% per month, and central government control did not extend to the remote rural areas where guerrillas held sway. He got inflation down within 6 months. In April 1992 he then formed an alliance with the military and suspended the Constitution, assuming Emergency Powers. He was strongly allied to the USA, and his headquarters was known as ‘The Little Pentagon’.

11/6/1990, Right wing politician Mario Vargas Llosa lost the second round of the Peruvian elections.

1987, Peru went bankrupt; plans to nationalise the banks were blocked by the new Libertad Movement, led by novelist Mario Vargas Llosa.

1985, The APRA scored its first ever electoral victory.

1982, The Peruvian Army stepped up an anti-drugs campaign, cracking down on guerrillas; dxeaths and ‘disappearances’ escalated.

1981, Peru fought a border war (until 1990) with Ecuador over the El Oro region, an Amazonian region given to Peru by a 1942 treaty,which Ecuador wanted as it would give it access to the Amazon basin.

1980, The Sendero Luminoso (‘Shining Path’) began an armed struggle.

27/7/1980, President Fernando Belaunde Terry of Peru was inaugurated, ending 12 years of military rule.

1975, A new right-wing military junta took control of government.

1968, A left-wing military junta took over government, and started a programme of widespread nationalisation.

10/1968, President Belaunde’s government resigned after his decision to pay Standard Oil compensation for handing their installations over to Peru. Juan Velasco Alvarado seized power in a military coup, and nationalised entire industries, including fishing, mining, power and telecommunications. He also instituted extensive land reform, redistributing some 100,000 square kilometres; about 72% of Peru’s arable land. He held power until 1975; his economic reforms suffered from the oil price rise in 1973/4.

1963, Fernando Belaunde Terry, a moderate Conservative, was elected President, He began a programme of land reform, redistriubuting land to peassants, but also used tye military to suppress a Communist-backed insurgency.

1962, A military coup in Periu, followed by a further such coup in 1963.

1956, Civilian Government returned to Chile.

1948, General Manuel Odria took power, and APRA was banned again.

1945, Peru remained a very unequal country, with 80% of the land owned by 1% of the landowners; the wealthiest owned over 4,000 square kilometres each; most lay uncultivated. Occasional revolts by the landless peasants were crushed by the Peruvian Army.

1939-45, A moderate pro-US government ruled Peru.

1931, APRA was banned, until 1945.

1930, Salcedo was ousted from power, and the APRA came to Peru as its first political Party.

1924, Peruvian Dr Victor Raul founded the nationalist and radical Americasn Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA) whiulst in exile in Mexico.

8/8/1912, The Pope issued an encyclical about abuse of the indigenous tribes in the Putumayo region of Peru.

7/1911, The lost city of Machu Picchu, Peru, was rediscovered by Hiram Bingham.

20/1/1911, Ecuador refused to allow the Hague Tribunal to arbitrate in its boundary dispute with Peru.

3/6/1910, Ecuador and Peru withdrew their troops from the border between the two nations as the first step in the mediation of their dispute.

1908, Augusto Leguia y Salcedo became dictator, ruling until 1912, and again from 1919-30.

1879, The War of the Pacific broke out. When it ended in 1884, Chile had taken Bolivia’s entire coatline, and the southern province of Peru.

1872, Manuel Pardo became Peru’s first democratically-elected President.

1866, The Peruvian-Spanish war; Spain tried to regain control of Peru again.

1864, Spain occupied the Peruvian island of Central Chinch, rich in guano, in an attempt to regain Peru.

1844, General Ramon Castilla became President, serving until 1851, and again from1855-62. Under his administration, Peru enjoyed stability and economic prosperity. Its guanoi and niyrate deposits were mined for the first time, and transport links improved.

26/1/1827 Peru ended its union with Chile and declared independence.

1824, Spain finally lost Peru after the Battles of Junin and Ayacucho, led by Simon Bolivar and Antonio Jose de Sucre.

10/9/1823. Simon Bolivar became dictator of Peru.

28/7/1821, Peru proclaimed its independence from Spain, after the capoital Lima was captured by Argentine liberator Jose de San Martin, who had alsoliberated Chile from the Spanish.

1780, Tupac Amaru II led an unscusseful revolt against Spanish rule.

1543, A South American Indian, Diego Gualpa, discovered a rich seam of silver ore in the mountains of Peru. This gave rise to the silver boom town of Potosi and ultimately had a major impact on world finances. Between 1556 and 1783 the mountain of Cerro Rico, or ‘rich hill’, yielded 45,000 tons of pure silver.

1572, The last Inca resistance under Tupac Amaru ended as their leader was executed.

1542, The ViceRoiyalty of Peru was established.

1539, Although the Inca State had fallen to Spain in 1532, a relict Inca State was recreated by a minor Inca noble, Manco Inca Yupanqi, at the remote settlement of Vilcabamba. From here intermittent warfare was waged on the Spanish.

1539, Pizarro founded the town of Ayacucho, Peru.

18/1/1535, Lima, Peru, was founded by Francisco Pizarro.

16/11/1532, Atuahalpa met Pizarro at his mountain fortress of Cajamarca. The Spanish handed Atahualpa a Bible and demanded that he convert to Christianity. Atahualpa refused, and was taken hostage by the Spanish. The Inca offered the Spanish a ‘roomful of gold’ to release Atahualpa; the ransom was paid, but Pizarro did not keep his side of the bargain. Instead he had Atahualpa garrotted in the main square in July 1533.

13/5/1532, Francisco Pizarro landed on the northern coast of Peru.

19/1/1530, Francisco Pizarro sailed from Spain, with a commission to conquer Peru. He sailed to Panama, and from there to Peru in 12/1530.

1528, Spanish explorer Francisco Pizarro sailed along the South Amrican coast as far up as the present day frontier between Peru and Ecuador.

1525, In Peru, Huanaya Capac, 11th Inca King, died at Quito. His empire was divided between his two sons, Huascar and Atahualpa.

1493, Accession of Inca ruler, Huayna Capac. He ruled until 1525.

1476, Inca conquest of the south coast of Peru.

1471, Topa became the 10th Sapa Inca, and began a road building programme to connect all parts of his empire. He ruled until 1493.

1470, The Incas captured the city of Quito from local Amerindian tribes; even then it was a major settlement.

1438, The Inca dynasty that ruled Peru until 1553 was founded by Pachacutec. He ruled until 1471.

1300s, The Incas, whio now ruled the Peru area, began to expand into neighbouring areas, reaching what is now central Chile by 1500. The Inca language, Quecha, was imposed on all their subjects.

1219, Traditional date for the founding of the Inca civilisation in Peru by Manco Capac.

100 AD, The Moche culture began in what is now northern coastal Peru. It lasted until ca. 700.

350 BCE, Emergence of the Nazca Culture in Peru. Huge line drawings were made in the desert, too large to appreciate except from the air. They developed large-scale irrigation systems.

850 BCE, Peak of Chavin culture in Peru.

800 BCE, The Chavin city of Chavin de Huantar was founded. It was primarily a religious centre.

1200 BCE, Emergence of the Chavin culture in Peru.

 

Appendix 14 – Peru

17/4/2019, Former President of Peru, Alan Garcia, 69, shot himself dead as police arrived to arrest him on corruption charges, connected with the construction of the Lime metro system. The Brazilian construction company Odebrecht had admitted paying government officials across 12 countries a total of almost US$800 million to obtain contracts. Garcia had been President 1985-90 and 2006-11.

17/5/1980, The Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) Maoist rebel group, founded by Abimael Guzman in the 1970s, began an armed uprising in Peru.

 

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