Historical events from I January 1200 to 31 December 1599

Page last modified 25/8/2020

 

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(-9999) = Day count to end of World War Two in Europe (day zero = Tuesday). Easter Sundays derived from https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/easter/easter_text2b.htm

Dates checked at 1/1/xxxx.

 

For dates from 1/1/1600 click here

 

1/1/1600, Tuesday (-126,126) Scotland adopted 1st January as New Year’s Day.

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1599, Oliver Cromwell was born, England’s ‘Lord Protector’ during the Civil War.

10/12/1599, Monday (-126,148) The Assembly of the Convention of States at Edinburgh.

10/11/1599, Saturday (-126,178)

31/10/1599, Wednesday (-126,188) Denzil Holles, English writer, was born (died 17/2/1680).

20/9/1599, Thursday (-126,229) Christian of Brunswick, Dutch General, was born (died 16/6/1626).

14/8/1599, Tuesday (-126,266) Florence Casaubon, English scholarly writer, was born (died 14/7/1671).

13/8/1599, Monday (-126,267) (Jewish) Johannes Buxtorf, Hebrew scholar, was born (died 1664).

10/7/1599, Tuesday (-126,301)

6/6/1599, Wednesday (-126,335) Diego Velasquez, Spanish painter, was born in Seville.

22/5/1599. Tuesday (-126,350)

25/4/1599.  Wednesday (-126,377) Oliver Cromwell was born in Huntingdon. He became Lord Protector of England, Britain’s first and only dictator.

10/4/1599, Tuesday (-126,392) Gabrielle d’Estrees, mistress of King Henry IV of France, died (born 1573).

8/4/1599, Sunday (-126,394) Easter Sunday.

22/3/1599, Thursday (-126,411) Sir Anthony van Dyck, Flemish artist and court painter to Charles I of England, was born in Antwerp, son of a cloth manufacturer.

28/2/1599, Wednesday (-126,433)

31/1/1599, Wednesday (-126,461)

1599, Oliver Cromwell was born, England’s ‘Lord Protector’ during the Civil War.

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1598, English heavily defeated in Ireland. Spain, once Europe’s wealthiest nation, was now in decline.

31/12/1598, Sunday (-126,492)

11/10/1598, Wednesday (-126,573) (Biology) Joachim Camerarius, botanist, died (born 6/11/1534).

18/9/1598, Monday (-126,596) Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Japanese statesman (born 6/2/1537) died. A feudal lord of peasant origin, he completed the unification of Japan under Oda Nobunaga. This was accomplished by the defeat of the feudal barons (daimyo). He instituted a rigid system of class divisions, having farmers, merchants, monks and warriors living in different quarters of Japanese towns. In 1592 he attempted to take the Korean Peninsula from China, but his army was too small for this task. In 1597 he tried again, also unsuccessfully. He even harboured ambitions of much wider conquests, including China, the Philippines and India. His death left a power vacuum that plunged Japan into civil war.

13/9/1598, Wednesday (-126,601) King Philip II of Spain died after a reign of over 40 years, aged 71. Spain had acquired great wealth from its conquest of South America, but had squandered it in a series of wars, and had suffered the defeat of the Great Armada. He was succeeded by his fourth wife’s fourth son, Philip III.

14/8/1598, Monday (-126,631) (Ireland) The English were heavily defeated at the Battle of Yellow Ford, River Blackwater, County Armagh. In 1597 the English had built a fort on the River Blackwater, 8 km northwest of the garrison town of Armagh, to support military expeditions into neighbouring Tyrone, where the Earl of Tyrone had raised a well-trained army against the English. Soon afterwards, the Earl of Tyrone besieged this fort. The English attempted a relief operation but became bogged down in the local terrain, and their gunpowder store exploded. Cut down by cavalry and infantry, the English retreated to Armagh.

4/8/1598, Friday (-126,641) William Cecil, Baron Burghley, chief advisor to Queen Elizabeth I, died.

30/5/1599, Tuesday (-126,707) Samuel Bochart, French scholarly writer, was born in Rouen (died in Caen 16/.5/1667).

2/5/1598, Tuesday (-126,735) (France, Spain) The Treaty of Vervins ended the Franco-Spanish War. Spanish troops withdrew from Picardy.

23/4/1598, Sunday (-126,744) Maarten Tromp, Dutch Admiral, was born.

16/4/1598, Sunday (-126,751) Easter Sunday.

13/4/1598. Thursday (-126,754) Henry IV of France issued the Edict of Nantes, giving Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. See 24/8/1572, and 18/10/1685.

13/3/1598, Monday (-126,785)

21/2/1598, Tuesday (-126,805) (Russia) On the death of Tsar Fyodor, Boris Godunov was elected Tsar.

17/1/1598, Tuesday (-126,840) Death of Tsar Fyodor I (born 31/5/1557).

1598, English heavily defeated in Ireland. Spain, once Europe’s wealthiest nation, was now in decline.

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1597, France captured Amiens from the Spanish (Netherlands). Dutch brough back spices from Java.

31/12/1597, Saturday (-126,857)

29/10/1597, Saturday (-126,920)

25/9/1597, Sunday (-126,954) (France) King Henry IV of France captured Amiens from the Spanish.

20/8/1597, Saturday (-126,990) Dutch seafarers brought back spice cargo from Java, see 2/4/1595 and 20/3/1602.

20/6/1597, Monday (-127,051) Dutch navigator Willem Barents who led a team of three to find the North West Passage, and who discovered Spitsbergen on his last voyage, died at sea.

29/4/1597, Friday (-127,103)

18/4/1597, Monday (-127,114)

27/3/1597, Sunday (-127,136) Easter Sunday.

5/2/1597, Saturday (-127,186) In Japan, Toyotomi Hideyoshi crucified 26 Christians in Nagasaki, then told all remaining missionaries to leave the country. When most defied the order, Hideyoshi took no action for fear of alienating Portuguese traders.

24/1/1597, Monday (-127,198) Battle of Turnhout, Netherlands. A Spanish force of 4,500 was routed by Maurice with sccarcely any loss to the Dutch.

1/1/1597, Saturday (-127,221)

1597, France captured Amiens from the Spanish (Netherlands). Dutch brough back spices from Java.

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1596, Spain was now bankrupt, having squandered its wealth on wars.

31/12/1596, Friday (-127,222)

1/12/1596, Wednesday (-127,252)

29/11/1596, Monday (-127,254) Spain admitted that the Royal Treasury was bankrupt, drained by a series of wars and especially the attempt to invade England. Revolts against Spanish rule in the Americas were also costly. See 24/3/1603.

29/10/1596, Friday (-127,285)

3/10/1596, Sunday (-127,311) Florent Chrestien, French poet, died (born 26/1/1541).

3/9/1596, Friday (-127,341)

9/8/1596, Monday (-127,366)

23/6/1596, Wednesday (-127,413) (Sweden) Johan Baner, Swedish soldier during the Thirty Years War, was born in Djursholm Castle (died in Halberstadt 10/5/1641).

9/6/1596, Wednesday (-127,427)

29/4/1596, Thursday (-127,468)

11/4/1596, Sunday (-127,486) Easter Sunday.

2/4/1596, Friday (-127,495)

31/3/1596, Wednesday (-127,497) Rene Descartes, French philosopher, was born.

28/1/1596, Wednesday (-127,560) Sir Francis Drake died of dysentery and was buried at sea off Porto Bello, Panama.

24/1/1596, Saturday (-127,564)

13/1/1596, Tuesday (-127,575) Jan Goyen, Dutch painter, was born (died 1656).

1/1/1596, Thursday (-127,587)

1596, Spain was now bankrupt, having squandered its wealth on wars.

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1595, The Dutch opened a sea route to the spice islands, SE Asia, independent of Spain.

25/12/1596, Thursday (-127,594)

13/12/1595, Saturday (-127,606)

11/12/1595, Thursday (-127,608)

4/12/1595, Thursday (-127,615) Jean Chapelain, French poet, was born (died 22/2/1674).

12/11/1595, Wednesday (-127,637) Sir John Hawkins, Briotish Admiral, died (born 1532)

30/10/1595, Thursday (-127,650)

26/10/1595, Sunday (-127,654) (East Europe, Turkey) Hungary defeated Ottoman Turkey at Giurgiu, Wallachia (modern-day Romania).

17/10/1595, Friday (-127,663)

3/10/1595, Friday (-127,677)

3/9/1595, Wednesday (-127,707)

21/8/1595, Thursday (-127,720)

9/8/1595, Saturday (-127,732)

21/7/1595, Monday (-127,751) Alvaro Mendana discovered the Marquesas Islands.

10/7/1595, Thursday (-127,762) Charles Drelincourt, French religious writer, was born (died 3/11/1669).

9/6/1595, Monday (-127,793) Battle of Fontaine-Francaise; Huguenot victory.

27/5/1595, Tuesday (-127,806) Benedikt Carpzov, scholarly writer, was born (died 30/8/1666).

25/5/1595, Sunday (-127,808) (Germany) German scholar Valens Acidalius died in Neisse.

20/5/1595, Tuesday (-127,813)

29/4/1595, Tuesday (-127,834)

20/4/1595, Sunday (-127,843) Easter Sunday.

2/4/1595, Wednesday (-127,861) The Dutch launched an expedition to try and open up a trade route to the East Indies, or Spice Islands, independent from the Spanish.  Before the Union of Spain and Portugal in 1580/81, the Dutch commanded most of the spice trade between Lisbon and northern Europe.  After this date, the Spanish shut the Dutch out from this trade.  This voyage was marred by losses, but the survivors who reached Texel on 20/8/1597 brought back valuable cargo, plus a treaty with the Sultan of Bantam, in Java.  See 20/3/1602.

21/3/1595, Friday (-127,873)

21/2/1595. Friday (-127,901) Robert Southwell, English poet and Jesuit martyr, was hanged, drawn, and quartered at Tyburn.

1/2/1595, Saturday (-127,921)

1/1/1595, Wednesday (-127,952)

1595, The Dutch opened a sea route to the spice islands, SE Asia, independent of Spain.

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1594, Composer Palestrine died in Rome. Mercator, Flemish cartographer, died in Duisberg aged 82.

9/12/1594, Monday (-127,975) Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, was born.

5/12/1594, Thursday (-127,979) Gerard Mercator, Flemish geographer and cartographer, died in Duisberg, aged 82. He projected the world map onto a flat surface using lines of longitude and latitude.

30/11/1594, Saturday (-127,984) John Cosin, English religious writer, was born (died 15/1/1672).

22/11/1594, Friday (-127,992) English explorer Sir Martin Frobisher died this day in Plymouth.

3/9/1594, Tuesday (-128,072)

9/8/1594, Friday (-128,097)

31/5/1594, Friday (-128,167) Tintoretto, his real name being Jacopo Robusti, one of the great Italian painters, died in Venice, aged 76.

29/4/1594, Monday (-128,199) Thomas Cooper, English author, died in Winchester.

31/3/1594, Sunday (-128,228) Easter Sunday.

22/3/1594, Friday (-128,237) (France) Henry IV entered Paris.

2/2/1594, Saturday (-128,285) Composer Palestrina died in Rome (born ca. 1525).

31/1/1594, Thursday (-128,287)

1594, Composer Palestrine died in Rome. Mercator, Flemish cartographer, died in Duisberg aged 82.

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1593, Shakespeare’s first published work.

30/12/1593, Sunday (-128,319)

14/10/1593, Sunday (-128,396) Arthur Grey, English statesman, died (born 1536).

3/9/1593, Monday (-128,437)

9/8/1593, Thursday (-128,462) Author Izaak Walton was born at Stafford.

25/7/1593, Wednesday (-128,477) (France) In a shrewd move, King Henry IV of France declared himself a Catholic, although still at heart a Huguenot sympathiser, in order to fend off the threat of Catholics attacks upon him and to secure his rulership of Paris.

20/5/1593, Sunday (-182,543) Salomo Glassius, religious writer, was born (died 27/7/1656).

24/4/1593, Tuesday (-128,569) William Harrison, English writer, died (born 18/4/1534).

18/4/1593, Wednesday (-128,575) Shakespeare’s first published work, the poem Venus and Adonis, was entered into the Stationer’s Register.

15/4/1593, Sunday (-128,578) Easter Sunday.

6/4/1593, Friday (-128,587) John Greenwood, English religious activist, was hanged.

3/4/1593, Tuesday (-128,590) George Herbert, English poet, was born (died 1633).

6/2/1593, Tuesday (-128,646) Jacques Amyot, French writer, died (born 30/10/1513 in Melun).

31/1/1593, Wednesday (-128, 652)

1593, Shakespeare’s first published work.

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1592, Catholic-Protestant conflict in northern France. Japan launched a failed invasion of Korea.

3/12/1592, Sunday (-128,711) Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma, Governor-General of The Netherlands under King Philip II of Spain, died (born 27/8/1545).

29/10/1592, Sunday (-128,746)

3/9/1592, Sunday (-128,802) Robert Greene, dramatist, died.

9/8/1592, Wednesday (-128,827)

10/7/1592, Monday (-128,857) Pierre d’Hozier, French writer, was born  (died 1/12/1660).

23/5/1592, Tuesday (-128,905) (Japan) Hideyoshi started an invasion of Korea; he failed, and also failed on a subsequent invasion attempt in 1597.

21/5/1592, Sunday (-128,907) Parma escaped Protestant forces at Coudebec and marched south east to resupply forces at Paris.

17/5/1592, Wednesday (-128,911) The Duke of Parma withdrew from besieging Coudebec. His forces had been reduced to 15,000, and the Dutch Protestants were able to resupply Coudebec by sea, sailing up the River Seine.

21/4/1592, Friday (-128,937) The Duke of Parma raised the siege by Protestants of Catholics holding out at Rouen.

27/3/1592, Monday (-128,962) Henry of Navarre, Protestant, restarted the siege of Catholics holding Rouen.

26/3/1592, Sunday  (-128,963) Easter Sunday.

24/3/1592, Friday (-128,965) The Duke of Parma, Catholic, began a siege of Protestants holding the town of Coudebec, on the lower Seine.

5/3/1592, Sunday (-128,984) Michael Coxcie, Flemish painter, died (born 1499).

9/2/1592, Wednesday (-129,009) Parma attacked Protestants at Neufchatel.

4/2/1592, Friday (-129,014) Military skirmish at Aumale, west of Amiens, between Catholics and Huguenot Protestants.

22/1/1592, Saturday (-129,027) Pierre Gassendi, French scientific writer, was born (died 24/10/1655).

16/1/1592, Sunday (-129,033) The Catholic Duke of Parma marched south west from Amiens with 30,000 men.

1592, Catholic-Protestant conflict in northern France. Japan launched a failed invasion of Korea.

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1591, Morocco defeated the Soinghai Empire. England assisted Protestants against Catholics in France. First known insurance policy.

30/12/1591, Thursday (-129,050) Pope Innocent IX died.

3/12/1591. Friday (-129,077) The earliest recorded fire insurance policy. 101 persons, mainly brewers, agreed to pay out a maximum of 10 thalers to any fellow member  whose property was damaged by fire.

29/10/1591, Friday (-129,112) Pope Innocent IX became the 230th Pope.

21/10/1591, Thursday (-129,120) Dutch forces captured Nijmegen.

16/10/1591, Saturday (-129,125) Pope Gregory XIV died.

16/9/1591, Thursday (-129,155)

27/8/1591, Friday (-129,175)

20/6/1591, Sunday (-129,243) Dutch forces captured Deventer.

24/5/1591, Monday (-129,270) Sir John Norreys, leading an expeditionary force sent by Queen Elizabeth I, took the town of Guincamp after a brief siege, to assist the Protestant King Henry of Navarre, in his fight against Catholics in France.

20/5/1591, Thursday (-129,274) Dutch forces captured Zutphen.

4/4/1591, Sunday (-129,320) Easter Sunday.

13/3/1591, Saturday (-129,342) At the Battle of Tondibi, Moroccan forces under the Saadi Dynasty, led by Judar Pasha, defeated the Songhai Empire, despite being outnumbered at least 5 to 1.

20/2/1591, Saturday (-129,363)

1/1/1591, Friday (-129,413)

1591, Morocco defeated the Soinghai Empire. England assisted Protestants against Catholics in France. First known insurance policy.

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1590, Ottoman Empire gained territory. Roanoke Island colony found deserted. Ambrpoise Pare, ‘Father of modern surgery’, died in Paris.

20/12/1590, Sunday (-129,425) Ambroise Pare, known as the father of modern surgery, died in Paris.

5/12/1590, Saturday (-129,440) Pope Gregory XIV (229th Pope), formerly Cardinal Niccolo Sfomdrato, acceded (died 1591).

29/11/1590, Sunday (-129,446) Philipp Frischlin, German poet, died (born 22/9/1547).

29/10/1590, Thursday (-129,477) Dirck Coonhert, Dutch politician, died (born 1522).

27/8/1590, Thursday (-129,540) Pope Sixtus V (227th Pope) died.

17/8/1590, Monday (-129,550) John White, Governor of Roanoke Island, returned to find the British colony deserted and the first European child born in America vanished. The word ‘Croatoan’ was left behind. See 18/8/1587.

13/7/1590, Monday (-129,585) Pope Clement X was born in Rome.

6/6/1590, Saturday (-129,622)

21/5/1590, Thursday (-129,638) (Turkey) The Ottoman-Safavid Peace Treaty extended the borders of the Ottoman Empire to the Caucasus and the Caspian.

19/4/1590, Sunday (-129,670) Easter Sunday.

6/4/1590, Monday (-129,683) Sir Francis Walsingham, diplomat and creator of Elizabeth I’s secret service, died.

18/3/1590, Wednesday (-129,702) Manuel de Faria y Sousa, Portugiuese poet, was born (died 3/6/1649).

14/3/1590, Saturday (-129,706) Battle of Ivry; Huguenot victory.

8/3/1590, Sunday (-129,712) Dutch forces under Maurice made a surprise attack on Breda and captured it from the Spanish.

12/2/1590, Thursday (-129,736) Francois Hotman, French writer, died (born 23/8/1524).

3/1/1590, Saturday (-129,776) Robert Boyd, Scottish statesman, died.

1590, Ottoman Empire gained territory. Roanoke Island colony found deserted. Ambrpoise Pare, ‘Father of modern surgery’, died in Paris.

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1589, Huguenot victory in France against Catholics.

31/12/1589, Wednesday (-129,779)

29/10/1589, Wednesday (-129,842)

21/9/1589, Sunday (-129,880) The Battle of Arques, NW France; Huguenot victory.

15/8/1589, Friday (-129,917) Diego Duque de Estrada, Spanish writer, was born.

1/8/1589, Friday (-129,931) (France) Henry III, King of France, murdered by a mad Dominican monk. On his deathbed he nominated the Protestant-sympathising Henry of Navarre as his successor.

1/7/1589, Tuesday (-129,962) Christopher Plantin, printer, died.

1/5/1589, Thursday (-130,023)

30/3/1589, Sunday (-130,055) Easter Sunday.

28/2/1589, Friday (-130,085)

5/1/1589, Sunday (-130,139) Catherine di Medici, Italian wife of King Henry II of France, died.

1589, Huguenot victory in France against Catholics.

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1588, Spanish Armada defeated off England. Polish postal service created.

23/12/1588, Monday (-130,152) (France) Henry of Lorraine, 3rd Duke of Guise, (born 31/12/1550) was murdered, for being too presumptive and acting as the ‘effective King of France’.

1/11/1588, Friday (-130,204) Jean Dorat, French poet, died (born 1508).

18/10/1588, Friday (-130,218) The Polish postal service was created, when King Zygmunt August established a permanent postal route from Krakow to Venice.

15/9/1588, Sunday (-130,251) The remnants of the Spanish Armada limped back into Spanish ports.

4/9/1588. Wednesday (-130,262) The death of Queen Elizabeth’s favourite, Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester.

8/8/1588, Thursday (-130,289) Queen Elizabeth I reviewed her troops at Tilbury.

31/12/1588, Tuesday (-130,144)

29/7/1588. Monday (-130,299) The Spanish Armada under Medina Sidonia was defeated. (See 19/5/1588). On the night of the 28 July the English sent fireships amongst the 130 ships of the Armada sent by Philip II to invade England, as they were anchored off Calais. This caused panic amongst the Spanish, who cut anchor, one ship running aground. By now the Spanish had lost several of their best ships and, whilst maintaining good order, were demoralised. The Spanish sent a signal to Parma to put his ships to sea from Dunkirk but he could not as he was closely blockaded by the British. On 29 July the English decimated the Spanish with broadside fire, preventing the Spanish closing and boarding, which would have been their only chance of success. The Spanish soldiers were outgunned and had inferior seamanship to the English sailors. The Spanish were nearly driven aground off The Netherlands on 30 July but a sudden change of wind saved them, with only 6 fathoms below them, and they were able to sail northwest into the North Sea. The English, running low on food and ammunition, followed them as far as the Firth of Forth, then returned south, satisfied that the Spanish would not return via the Straits of Dover. The Armada, short of both food and fresh water, encountered further problems with strong westerly winds as they attempted to sail around the north of Scotland and south to Spain. Many ships were wrecked at open sea or off the coasts of Scotland and Ireland. Only half the ships that left Spain returned home; death and sickness took a great toll of the crews. The failure of the Armada checked the naval growth of Spain and assisted the Netherlands to gain independence. Two further Armadas prepared by Spain, in 1596 and 1597, were disrupted by bad weather.

21/7/1588, Sunday (-130,307)

18/6/1588, Tuesday (-130,340) Robert Crowley, English religious writer, died.

19/5/1588. Sunday (-130,370) The Spanish Armada set sail from Lisbon. The Armada consisted of 130 vessels, containing 7,000 sailors and 17,000 soldiers, commended by the Duke of Medina, sent by King Philip II. It arrived off the Lizard, Cornwall, on 19/7/1588, and off Plymouth on 20/7/1588. The English Navy was only just able to get out to sea and avoid being blockaded in Plymouth harbour. On 23 July the English and Spanish fleets clashed off Portland, and again on 25 July off the Isle of Wight. The defeat of the Armada was on 29 July, see 29/7/1588.

12/5/1588, Sunday (-130,377) Day of the Barricades in Paris; popular uprising against King Henry III.

20/4/1588, Saturday (-130,399) (Germany) Johann Bugenhagen, German Protestant reformer, died (born 24/6/1485).

7/4/1588, Sunday (-130,412) Easter Sunday

5/4/1588, Friday (-130,414) Thomas Hobbes, philosopher, was born.

4/4/1588, Thursday (-130,415) Frederick II, King of Denmark, died, aged 53. He was succeeded by his 10-year old son, Christian IV (1577-1648)

8/1/1588, Monday (-130,502) Ivan Gundulich, Serbian poet, was born (died 8/12/1638).

1588, Spanish Armada defeated off England. Polish postal service created.

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1587, Mary Queen of Scots executed. Francis Drake attacked Spanish fleet. First English child born in America.

31/12/1587, Sunday (-130,510)

28/10/1587, Saturday (-130,574) (France) Non-French Protestants coming to help the Huguenots free King Henry III from the influence of the Catholics were defeated by Guise at Montargis. Henry III was now compelled to sign the ‘Edict of Union’, nominating the Cardinal of Bourbon as his successor.

20/10/1587, Friday (-130,582) (France) Battle of Coutras; Huguenot victory. However see 28/10/1587.

17/10/1587, Tuesday (-130,585) Nathan Field, English dramatist, was born (died 20/2/1633).

13/9/1587, Wednesday (-130,619) Jacques Godefroy, legal writer, was born (died 23/6/1652).

18/8/1587, Friday (-130,645) Virginia Dare became the first child born of English parents in America. She was born on Roanoke Island, North Carolina, seven days after Sir Walter Raleigh’s second expedition landed. The parents were called Ananias and Ellinor Dare, and named the child Virginia in honour of the virgin Queen of England and the fledgling colony. See17/8/1590.

6/8/1587, Sunday (-130,657) The Earl of Leicester, who had been leading English forces helping the Dutch to resist the Spanish, returned to England after failing to prevent Spanish forces capturing the port of Sluis.

25/7/1587. Tuesday (-130,669) (1) The Japanese Emperor Hideyoshi banned Christianity, and ordered the Jesuits to leave within 20 days. The Jesuits were accused of selling the Japanese as slaves.

(2) The Spanish Armada and the English navy engaged off the Isle of Wight. There were fears that the Spanish planned to seize the island as a base.

21/6/1587, Wednesday (-130,703) Kaspar von Barth, German writer, was born (died 1658).

25/5/1587, Thursday (-130,730)

19/4/1587, Wednesday (-130,766) Sir Francis Drake led his convoy of ships into Cadiz, where the Spanish Armada was being prepared to attack England, and, taking the Spanish completely by surprise, looted, burnt, and sank many ships. He also looted the harbour stores and managed to escape with no casualties. This adventure became known as ‘the singeing of the King of Spain’s beard’. Sir Francis Drake also brought back 2,900 barrels of ‘sack’, a wine made in the Jerez region of Spain, so named from the Spanish word ‘sacar’, meaning ‘to take out, or export’. This was the forerunner of today’s sherry drink. Sack had been popular abroad since a Spanish law passed in 1492 exempting wine made for export from taxes; it was a robust wine that did not go off easily.

18/4/1587, Tuesday (-130,767) John Foxe, preacher and author, died.

16/4/1587, Sunday (-130,769) Easter Sunday.

16/3/1587, Thursday (-130,800)

8/2/1587. Wednesday (-130,836) Mary Queen of Scots was beheaded in the Great Hall of Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire, after nearly 19 years in prison. She had been implicated in a Catholic plot to overthrow her cousin Queen Elizabeth I. The leader of the plot, Anthony Babington, had planned to free Mary, and rally support amongst English Roman Catholics for a Spanish invasion force. Mary married the French Dauphin in her teens and was Queen of France for a year until he died. Her second marriage was to Lord Darnley. After Darnley’s murder, in which Mary may have been implicated, she married the Earl of Bothwell. Mary was defeated in battle in Scotland and fled to England, but her cousin Elizabeth I had her imprisoned. Elizabeth had been reluctant to execute Mary, because this might bring reprisals from Catholic Europe, and might legitimate her own execution at some future point; however Francis Walsingham persuaded Elizabeth to order the execution.

2/2/1587, Thursday (-130,842) (France) Francois des Adrets, French Protestant leader, died.

1/1/1587, Sunday (-130,874)

1587, Mary Queen of Scots executed. Francis Drake attacked Spanish fleet. First English child born in America.

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1586, First potatoes arrived in Britain. Catholic plotter against Elizabeth I executed.

31/12/1586, Saturday (-130,875)

12/12/1586, Monday (-130,894) Stephen Bathory of Poland died suddenly, aged 53. He was succeeded by the 12-year old son of the Swedish King  as Sigismund II.

22/11/1586, Tuesday (-130,914)

22/9/1586, Thursday (-130,975) The Battle of Zutphen. British and Dutch forces defeated by the Spanish.

20/9/1586, Tuesday (-130,977) Chidiock Tichborne, one of the conspirators in the Catholic Babington Plot to murder Queen Elizabeth I, was executed at the Tower of London.

28/8/1586, Sunday (-131,000)

28/7/1586, Thursday (-131,031) The first potatoes arrived in Britain, brought from Colombia by Sir Thomas Harriott. They were to be used to feed livestock.

26/5/1586, Thursday (-131,094)

17/4/1586, Sunday (-131,133) John Ford, English dramatist, was born.

8/4/1586, Friday (-131,142) Martin Chemnitz, German religious writer, died (born 9/11/1522).

3/4/1586, Sunday (-131,147) Easter Sunday.

21/1/1586, Friday (-131,219) (Germany) Augustus I, Elector of Saxony, died in Dresden (born 31/7/1526 in Freiberg).

1/1/1586, Saturday (-131,239)

1586, First potatoes arrived in Britain. Catholic plotter against Elizabeth I executed.

====================================================================================

1585, Elizabeth I supported Protestant Netherlands rebels against Spain.

13/12/1585, Monday (-131,258) William Drummond, Scottish poet, was born (died 4/12/1649).

4/12/1585, Saturday (-131,267) John Cotton, religious writer, was born (died 23/12/1652).

29/10/1585, Friday (-131,303)

17/9/1585, Friday (-131,345) Heinrich Bullinger, Swiss religious writer and reformer, died (born 18/7/1504).

9/9/1585, Thursday (-131,353) Cardinal Richelieu French politician and chief minister of King Louis XIII from 1624, who was ruthless at crushing all opposition to the monarchy, was born near Chinon.

17/8/1585, Tuesday (-131,376) The city of Antwerp, besieged by the Spanish for 13 months, surrendered to them.

10/8/1585, Tuesday (-131,383) Elizabeth I of England signed the Treaty of Nonsuch, promising 64,000 foot soldiers, 1,000 cavalry, and 600,000 florins a year to support Protestant rebels in The Netherlands against Spain. Although Elizabeth disliked involvement in foreign European wars, the Spanish presence in The Netherlands was too close to England to ignore. King Philip II of Spain, who had laid siege to Antwerp in 1584, saw this Treaty as a declaration of war.

28/7/1585, Wednesday (-131,396)

7/7/1585, Wednesday (-131,417) King Henry III of France bowed to Catholic pressure and revoked the tolerance allowed to Hugenots.

25/5/1585, Tuesday (-131,460)

11/4/1585, Sunday  (-131,504) Easter Sunday.

10/4/1585, Saturday (-131,505) Pope Gregory XIII died.

1/1/1585, Friday (-131,604)  

1585, Elizabeth I supported Protestant Netherlands rebels against Spain.

===================================================================================

1584, William Prince of Orange murdered by Catholic fanatic. Ivan the Terrible of Russia died.

31/12/1584, Thursday (-131,605)

16/10/1584, Friday (-131,681) John Feckenham, English ecclesiastic, died.

17/9/1584, Thursday (-131,710) John Finch, English Judge, was born (died 27/11/1660).

11/9/1584, Friday (-131,716) Thomas Erpenius, Dutch writer on the Orient, was born (died 13/11/1624).

12/7/1584, Sunday (-131,777) William the Silent, Prince of Orange, was assassinated, shot by a fanatical Catholic, Balthazar Gerard (see 15/3/1581). His youngest son, Maurice of Nassau, was elected stadtholder of Zeeland and Holland in his place, subsequently also of Utrecht, Overyssel and Gelderland also. Maurice became Commander of the Netherlands Army and succeeded in driving the Spanish entirely out of the United Provinces (Netherlands). A 12-year truce with Spain was concluded in 1609, whereby Spain acknowledged the independence of the United Provinces. However in 1621 Spain again attempted to reassert control over the United Provinces, only to be evicted later on.

10/6/1584, Wednesday (-131,809) (France) The Duke of Anjou died, and French Huguenot-Catholic tensions heightened. Catholics were alarmed that on the death of King Henry III of France, the Crown would pass to Henry of Navarre, who was sympathetic to the Protestant cause.

12/5/1584, Tuesday (-131,838)

19/4/1584, Sunday (-131,861) Easter Sunday. John Hales, English writer, was born (died 19/5/1656).

29/3/1584, Sunday (-131,882) Fairfax of Cameron, British Parliamentary General, was born (died 14/3/`1648).

18/3/1584. Wednesday (-131,893) Czar Ivan IV, Ivan the Terrible, died aged 54, whilst about to play a game of chess. He may have died of grief for his son, whom he had killed in a mad fit of rage three years previously.

1/1/1584, Wednesday (-131,970)

1584, William Prince of Orange murdered by Catholic fanatic. Ivan the Terrible of Russia died.

===================================================================================

1583, First life insurance policy sold in London. British landed on and claimed Newfoundland.

31/12/1583, Tuesday (-131,971) Thomas Erastus, religious writer, died (born 7/9/1524).

29/10/1583, Tuesday (-132,034)

9/9/1583, Monday (-132,084) Sir Humphrey Gilbert (see 5/8/1583) was drowned when his ship, The Squirrel, sank off The Azores drowning all on board.

5/8/1583. Monday (-132,119) Sir Humphrey Gilbert landed on Newfoundland and claimed it for Britain.  He founded the colony of St Johns there.

6/7/1583, Saturday (-132,149) Edmund Grindal, English Archbishop, died.

18/6/1583. Tuesday (-132,167) The first life insurance policy was sold in London. William Gibbons took out a policy whereby his relatives would be paid £383 if he died within 12 months of the policy date; the policy was underwritten by 16 individuals. Gibbons did indeed die in May 1584, and Richard Martin then disputed the policy and refused to pay out. The courts decided he had to pay. Many more such life policies were issued but it was not until 1923 that the Life Insurance Companies Act was passed.

11/6/1583, Tuesday (-132,174) Sir Humphrey Gilbert sailed from Plymouth, with the approval of Queen Elizabeth I, to found a British colony in America.

10/4/1583, Wednesday (-132,236) Hugo Grotius (De Groot), jurist, was born (died 29/8/1645).

31/3/1583, Sunday (-132,246) Easter Sunday.

17/3/1583, Sunday (-132,260) The Duke of Anjou attempted to gain more power in the United Provinces, by a surprise attack on Antwerp, but was successfully resisted by the citizenry. This was the ‘French Fury’.

18/2/1583, Monday (-132,287) Antonio Grazzini, Italian author, died (born 22/3/1503).

26/1/1583, Saturday (-132,310) John Herries, Scottish politician, died.

1/1/1583, Tuesday (-132,335) (Christian) Simon Episcopius, Dutch theologian, was born (died 1643)

1583, First life insurance policy sold in London. British landed on and claimed Newfoundland.

===================================================================================

1582, The Pope reformed the calendar. Easter was on the wrong date. Britain did nit change till 1753.

9/12/1582, Sunday (-132,358) France adopted the Gregorian calendar; the day after 9/12/1582 was 20/12/1582.

27/11/1582, Tuesday  (-132,370) William Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway at the age of 18.

17/10/1582, Wednesday (-132,411) Johann Gerhard, religious writer,k was born (died 20/8/1637).

5/10/1582. Friday (-132,423) (see also 3/9/1752 when Britain adopted the Gregorian calendar). Pope Gregory XIII cancelled 10 days from the 5th to the 15th October 1582 to bring back the Spring Equinox to the 21st March and ensure that Easter fell on the proper date. Under the old Julian calendar, established in 46 BC, the calendar gained a whole day every 128 years. The new system cut out three leap years every 400 years to maintain accuracy.

10/8/1582. Friday (-132,479) After 25 years of conflict, Russia made peace with Poland and gave up its claim on the Baltic state of Livonia.

21/6/1582, Thursday (-132,529) General Toyotomi Hideyoshi  became leader following the ritual suicide of Oda Nobunaga. Although born a peasant, within a decade Hideyoshi  managed to unify Japan. He disarmed all non-Samurai, to prevent another rebellion against him, and reformed the tax system and land holdings to create a stable tax base.

15/4/1582, Sunday (-132,596) Easter Sunday.

8/4/1582, Sunday (-132,603) (Hungary) Miklos Esterhazy was born (died 11/9/1645)

18/3/1852, Sunday (-132,624) (Netherlands) A youth named Jean Jaureguy attempted tassassinate the Duke of Anjou. He fired a bullet which badly wounded him but was not fatal.

15/3/1582, Thursday (-132,627) Daniel Featley, English religious writer, was born (died 17/4/1645).

24/2/1582, Saturday (-132,646) Pope Gregory XIII announced a change from the Julian calendar to the new Gregorian calendar, entailing a forward move of 11 days, see 5/10/1582.

28/1/1582, Sunday (-123,673) John Barclay, Scottish poet, was born (died in Rome 15/8/1621).

1/1/1582, Monday (-132,700)

1582, The Pope reformed the calendar. Easter was on the wrong date. Britain did not change till 1753.

=====================================================================================

1581, Francis Drake knighted by Elizabeth I. The Netherlands declared independence from Spain.

1/12/1581. Friday (-132,731) Jesuit martyr Edmund Campion was hanged at Tyburn, for distributing an anti-Anglican pamphlet in Oxford.

7/11/1581, Tuesday (-132,755) Richard Davies, Welsh religious writer, died.

21/10/1581, Saturday (-132,772) Il Domenichino, Italian painter (died 15/4/1641 in Naples) was born in Bologna, Italy.

26/9/1581, Tuesday (-132,797)

26/7/1581. Wednesday (-132,859) (see 8/11/1576). The Estates General (Parliament) of The Hague deposed Philip II of Spain as the ruler of the Seven Provinces of the Union of Utrecht; effectively declaring UDI against Spain.

24/7/1581, Monday (-132,861) William of Orange agreed to become Count of the provinces of Holland and Zeeland (see 23/1/1581).

22/7/1581, Saturday (-132,863) (Britain) Richard Cox, Dean of Westminster and Bishop of Ely, died.

26/5/1581, Friday (-132,920)

4/4/1581. Tuesday (-132,972) Queen Elizabeth I knighted Francis Drake on his ship The Golden Hind at Deptford, London, after he completed his circumnavigation of the world. See 26/9/1580. En route, Drake had captured and plundered several Spanish galleons; Spain demanded that Elizabeth I hang Drake for piracy, but Drake was a hero in England.

26/3/1581, Sunday  (-132,981) Easter Sunday.

16/3/1581, Thursday (-132,991) Pieter Hooft, Dutch writer, was born (died 21/5/1647).

15/3/1581, Wednesday (-132,992) Philip II of Spain declared William of Orange a traitor (the’Ban’) and a reward was offered to anyne who would assassinate him.

23/1/1581, Monday (-132,043) To gain an ally in order to withstand the power of Philip II of Spain, sovereignty of the Northern Provinces was offered to the Duke of Anjou, thereby gaining the support of France. However the Duke of Anjou was a Catholic, which initially raised suspicions of betrayal amongst some citizens of the Northern Provinces. William of Orange mainiained that the instal;lation of the Duke of Anjou was a necessity and persisted with this policy.

1/1/1581, Sunday (-132,065)

1581, Francis Drake knighted by Elizabeth I. The Netherlands declared independence from Spain.

==================================================================================

1580, Francis Drake returned from his world circumnavigation, first Englishman to accomplish this.

31/12/1580, Saturday (-133,066)

21/11/1580, Monday (-133,106)

26/9/1580, Monday (-133,162)  Sir Francis Drake arrived back in Plymouth in the 100 ton Golden Hind (originally The Pelican) after 33 months, the first Englishman to circumnavigate the world. See 13/12/1577 and 4/4/1581.

30/8/1580, Tuesday (-133,189) Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, died (born 8.7.1528).

1/8/1579, Monday (-133,218) Luis Guevara, Spanish novelist, was born (died 10/11/1644).

14/7/1580, Thursday (-133,236) Theodore Godefroy, French writer, was born (died 1649)

25/6/1580, Saturday (-133,255) (Christian) Publication of the Lutheran Book of Concord. This set out the essential foundations of the Lutheran faith.

9/6/1580, Thursday (-123,247) Daniel Heinsius, scholarly writer, was born (died 25/2/1655).

6/4/1580, Wednesday (-133,335) An earth tremor damaged several old London churches, including the old St Paul’s Cathedral.

3/4/1580, Sunday (-133,338) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1580, Friday (-133,431)

1580, Francis Drake returned from his world circumnavigation, first Englishman to accomplish this.

===================================================================================

1579, Northern Netherlands united. Southern Netherlands resisted the Protestant North’s attempt at secession from Spain. Francis Drake claimed what is now San Francisco for Britain.

31/12/1579, Thursday (-133,432)

21/11/1579, Saturday (-133,472) Sir Thomas Gresham, who founded the Royal Exchange, died.

17/6/1579. Wednesday (-133,629) Sir Francis Drake anchored the Golden Hind just north of what was to become San Francisco Bay; he named the area New Albion, claiming it for Britain.

19/5/1579, Tuesday (-133,658) Treaty of the Malcontents, between Catholic nobles in The Netherlands and the Prince of Parma.

19/4/1579, Sunday (-133,688) Easter Sunday.

19/3/1579, Thursday (-133,719)

29/1/1579, Thursday (-133,768) (Netherlands) Under the Treaty of Utrecht, the Northern Provinces were united to form what is now The Netherlands. This was largely due to the efforts of John of Nassau.

6/1/1579, Tuesday (-133,791) Union of Arras. The southern Netherlands principalities of Artois, Hainault and Douai signed a Union in opposition to the northern Netherlands, with the intention of returning to the Catholic rule of Philip II of Spain. Later in January 1579 the northern Netherlands provinces, opposed to Catholic Spain, formed the Union of Utrecht.

1/1/1579, Thursday (-133,796)

1579, Northern Netherlands united. Southern Netherlands resisted the Protestant North’s attempt at secession from Spain. Francis Drake claimed what os now San Francisco for Britain.

====================================================================================

1578, Portuguese King killed fighting in Morocco. Spain claimed the throne.

31/12/1578, Wednesday (-133,797)

6/11/1578, Thursday (-133,852)

6/9/1578, Saturday (-133,913)

5/8/1579, Tuesday (-133,945) Stanislaus Hosius, Polish Cardinal, died (born 5/5/1504).

4/8/1578, Monday (-133,946) Sebastian, King of Portugal, was killed in the Battle of Al Kasr al Kebir in Morocco, where Portuguese forces were annihilated by a larger Muslim army. 7,000 Portuguese soldiers were killed and a further 8,000 were taken prisoner. The Portuguese throne was left without an her, enabling Philip II of Spain to claim it in 1580.

9/7/1578, Wednesday (-133,972) Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, was born (died 15/2/1637).

4/6/1578, Wednesday (-134,007)

16/5/1578, Friday (-134,026) Sir Everard Digby, Gunpowder Plot conspirator, was born (executed 31/1/1606).

14/4/1578, Monday (-134,058) Philip III, King of Spain, was born.

1/4/1578, Tuesday (-134,071) William Harvey, British anatomist who discovered the circulation of the blood, was born at Folkestone.

31/3/1578, Monday (-134,072) Juan de Escovedo, Spanish politician, was killed.

30/3/1578, Sunday (-134,073) Easter Sunday

31/1/1578, Friday (-134,131) Battle of Gemblours. Farnese attacked and defeated a Dutch force.

13/1/1578,  Monday (-134,149)

1/1/1578, Wednesday (-134,161)

1578, Portuguese King killed fighting in Morocco. Spain claimed the throne.

=====================================================================================

1577, Francis Drake left Plymouth on his global circumnavigation.

31/12/1577, Tuesday (-134,162)

13/12/1577. Friday (-134,180) Sir Francis Drake left Plymouth on his voyage round the world. See 26/9/1580.

10/11/1577, Sunday (-134,213) Jacob Cats, Dutch poet, was born (died 12/9/1660).

13/10/1577, Sunday (-134,241)

17/9/1577, Tuesday (-134,267) The Peace of Bergerac was signed between King Henry III of France and the Hugenots.

13/8/1577, Tuesday (-134,302)

28/6/1577, Friday (-134,348) Peter Van Rubens, Flemish painter, was born in Siegen, Westphalia, the son of a lawyer.

7/4/1577, Sunday (-134,430) Easter Sunday.

1/4/1577, Monday (-134,436)

1/3/1577, Friday (-134,467)

24/2/1577, Sunday (-134,472) Former Swedish King Eric XIV died at Orbyhus prison, allegedly poisoned by the prison Governor, Johan Henriksen.

7/1/1577, Monday (-134,520) Ferdinand, Elector of Cologne, was born (died 13/9/1650).

1/1/1577, Tuesday (-134,526)

1577, Francis Drake left Plymouth on his global circumnavigation.

=====================================================================================

1576, Frobisher explored Canadian Arctic. Spanish troops sacked Antwerp, after a tax rebellion.

13/12/1576, Thursday (-134,545)

8/11/1576. Thursday (-134,580) Spanish soldiers rampaged through Antwerp, killing some 7,000 people, and looting, in response to a rebellion against the tax imposed by the Spanish governor, the Duke of Alba. This caused a brutal repression, in 1572, against this rebellion, and some Spanish soldiers mutinied; some soldiers had also not been paid. Now leaders of the Catholic and Protestant Hapsburg Netherlands agreed to sink their differences and unite against the Spanish. See 26/7/1581.

12/10/1576, Friday (-134,607) The Holy Roman Emperor Maximillian II died, aged 49. He was succeeded by his son Rudolf.

21/9/1576, Friday (-134,628) Girolamo Cardan, Italian physician, died (born 24/9/1501)..

27/8/1576. Monday (-134,653) Titian (Tiziano Vecelli) died, of bubonic plague, in Venice. His age was uncertain, but was believed to be over 90.

11/8/1576, Saturday (-134.669) Martin Frobisher entered ‘Frobisher Strait’, Baffin Island. Now known as Frobisher Bay, the long inlet was then thought to be a strait separating two islands.

8/8/1576, Wednesday (-134,672) The first purpose-built observatory was constructed in Denmark.

22/6/1576, Friday (-134,719) Queen Elizabeth’s Prayer Book was issued.

6/6/1576, Wednesday (-134,735) Giovanni Diodati, Swiss religious writer, was born (died 3/10/1649).

5/5/1576, Saturday (-134,767) (France) Peace of Monsieur was signed between Huguenots and Catholics. However hostilities soon recommenced, see 10/6/1584.

2/5/1576, Wednesday (-134,770) (Christian) Bartolome Carranza, Spanish theologian, died (born 1503).

22/4/1576, Sunday (-134,780) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1576, Sunday (-134,892)

1576, Frobisher explored Canadian Arctic. Spanish troops sacked Antwerp, after a tax rebellion.

====================================================================================

1575, Catholic vs Protestant conflict in France.

16/12/1575, Friday (-134,908) A large earthquake at Valdivia.

15/12/1575, Thursday (-134,909) Stephen Bathory became King of Poland.

4/11/1575, Friday (-134,950) Reni Guido, Italian painter, was born (died 18/8/1642).

10/10/1575, Monday (-134,975) The Battle of Dormans.  Catholic forces under Duke Henry of Guise defeated the Protestants, capturing Philippe de Mornay amongst others.

8/8/1575, Monday (-135,038)

8/7/1575, Friday (-135,069)

28/6/1575, Tuesday (-135,079) At the Battle of Nagashino, Nobunaga armed his 3,000 foot soldiers with muskets. They succeeded in defeating the mounted Samurai.

17/5/1575, Tuesday (-135,121) Matthew Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury, died.

3/4/1575, Sunday (-135,165) Easter Sunday.

11/3/1575, Friday (-135,188) Matthius Flacius, religious reformer and writer, died (born 3/3/1520).

10/3/1575, Thursday (-135,189) The former Swedish King Eric XIV had become a source of troubke for the State, with three rebellions hoping to reinstate him having to be suppressed since his deposition for insanity in 1568. This day a formal sentence of death was passed upon him.

5/3/1575, Saturday (-135,194)

14/2/1575, Monday (-135,213) Henry III of France married Louise de Lorraine-Vaudemont.

13/2/1575, Sunday (-135,214) Henry III of France was crowned at Reims.

4/2/1575, Friday (-135,223) Pierre de Berulle, French statesman, was born near Troyes (died 2/10/1629).

1/1/1575, Saturday (-135,257)

1575, Catholic vs Protestant conflict in France.

==================================================================================

1574, Spanish killed English in America, for ‘Lutheran heresy’.

31/12/1574, Friday (-135,258)

12/12/1574, Sunday (-135,277) Selim II, Sultan of Turkey, died, aged 50. He was succeeded by his eldest son, 27-year old Murad III, who had his brothers strangled in his presence.

12/11/1574, Friday (-135,307)

3/10/1574, Sunday (-135,347) The relief of Leyden. William of Orange broke a dyke to flood the polders and then sailed his ships right up to the besieged city of Leyden to bring relief food, bread and herrings.

17/9/1574, Friday (-135,363) (Spain) Pedro Aviles, Spanish naval adventurer, died (born 15/2/1519 in Aviles, Asturia).

1/7/1574, Thursday (-135,441) Joseph Hall, English writer, was born (died 8/9/1656).

13/6/1574, Sunday (-135,459) Richard Barnfield, English poet, was born in Norbury, Staffordshire (died in Stone 6/3/1627).

6/5/1574, Thursday (-135,497) Pope Innocent X was born.

17/4/1574, Saturday (-135,516) Joachim Camerarius, German scholarly writer, died (born 12/4/1500).

14/4/1574, Wednesday (-135,519) Battle of Mookerheyde, Netherlands.

11/4/1574, Sunday (-135,522) Easter Sunday.

5/3/1574, Friday (-135,559) (Mathematics) William Oughtred was born in Eton. Around 1621 he invented the slide rule.

28/2/1574, Sunday (-135,564) The Spanish Inquisition burnt at the stake two Englishmen and an Irishman for ‘Lutheran heresy’. These were the first European victims of the Inquisition in the New World; previously only native Indians had been burnt, for ‘Aztec paganism’. A further 68 Englishmen were publically lashed and given long terms as galley-slaves. These men were from a fleet headed by Sir John Hawkins and Sir Francis Drake that had brought slaves from Africa to sell in the Caribbean, in defiance of a Spanish ban; Drake and Hawkins escaped but had to abandon two ships and crew.

30/1/1574, Saturday (-135,593) Damiao de Goes, Portuguese writer, died (born 1502).

1574, Spanish killed English in America, for ‘Lutheran heresy’.

===================================================================================

1573, Venice recognised Turkish sovereignty over Cyprus.

31/12/1573, Thursday (-135,623)

7/10/1573, Wednesday (-135,708) William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, was born.

7/8/1573, Friday (-135,769)

16/7/1573, Thursday (-135,791) (France) The Edict of Boulogne limited Huguenot worship to the cities of La Rochelle, Momtauiban and Nimes. However neither Catholics nor Huguenots were satisfied and tensions remained.

15/7/1573, Wednesday (-135,792) The architect Inigo Jones was born in London.  He was the son of a clothmaker.

13/7/1573, Monday (-135,794) (Netherlands) The Spanish captured Haarlem after a 7-month siege.

7/71573, Tuesday (-135,800) Giacomo Barocchio, Italian architect, died in Rome (born in Vignola 1/10/1507).

11/6/1573, Thursday (-135,826) In Britain, a Puritan pamphlet calling for the abolition of episcopacy was suppressed by Parliament.

28/4/1573, Tuesday (-135,870) (France) Charles de Valois Angoulmeme was born in Fayet Castle (died 24/9/1650).

26/4/1573, Sunday (-135,872) Marie de Medici, Queen of France, was born.

22/3/1573, Sunday (-135,907) Easter Sunday.

10/3/1573, Tuesday (-135,919) Dudley Dorchester, English statesman, was born (died 15/2/1632).

7/3/1573. Saturday (-135,,922) Venice concluded a peace with the Turks by which Venice recognised Turkey’s sovereignty over Cyprus.

20/1/1573, Tuesday (-135,968) (Space exploration) Simon Marius was born in Gunzenhausen, Germany. He was the first astronomer to mention Andromeda.

1/1/1573, Thursday (-135,987)

1573, Venice recognised Turkish sovereignty over Cyprus.

==================================================================================

1572, Nethrlands revolt against Spain. St Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, of Huguenots in Paris. Astronomer Tycho Brahe saw a ‘new star’, a supernova, challenging Church ideas about the unchanging heavens.

22/12/1572, Monday (-135,997) Francois Clouet, French miniature painter, died.

24/11/1572. Monday (-136,025) John Knox, father of the Scottish reformation, died in Edinburgh. He had returned to Scotland after the rebellion against the Catholic Mary Queen of Scots.

23/11/1572, Sunday (-136,026) The painter Bronzino died in Florence, aged 69.

11/11/1572. Tuesday (-136,038) The astronomer Tycho Brahe saw a ‘new star’, a supernova, in the constellation of Cassiopeia. The fixed stars were meant to be eternal, unchanging. Along with Copernicus’ assertion that the Sun, not the earth, is the centre of the Universe, this undermined traditional church cosmology.

29/10/1572, Wednesday (-136,051) (France) Francois Briquemault, French Huguenot, was executed.

24/10/1572, Friday (-136,056) Edward Stanley 3rd Earl of Derby died (born 1508).

11/9/1572, Thursday (-136,099)

24/8/1572. Sunday (-136,117) The St Bartholomew’s Day Massacre took place in Paris. Thousands of French Huguenots were killed by order of the Catholic French court. See 13/4/1592.  Gaspard de Coligny, Huguenot leader, was killed. This was 6 days after the marriage of Catholic Marguerite de Valois, daughter of Henry II of France, also known as Catherine de Medici, to the Protestant Henri de Bourbon, King of Navarre. The bride’s mother , Catherine was anxious over the influence of Protestants on the couple.

20/7/1572, Sunday (-136,152) (Denmark) Frederick II, King of Denmark and Norway, married his cousin Sophuia of Mecklenburg.

6/7/1572, Sunday (-136,166) Sigismund II, King of Poland, died.

15/6/1572, Thursday (-136,218) Jeanne III, Queen of Navarre, died.

1/5/1572, Thursday (-136,232) Pope Pius V died.

6/4/1572, Sunday (-136,257) Easter Sunday.

1/4/1572, Tuesday (-136,262) Resistance fighters (the ‘Beggars’) against the Spanish rule of King Philip II over the Netherlands took the Dutch port of Brill and environs. This encouraged the spread of the anti-Spanish revolt across the Netherlands.

1/3/1572, Saturday (-136,293)

1/1/1572, Tuesday (-136,353)

1572, Nethrlands revolt against Spain. St Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, of Huguenots in Paris. Astronomer Tycho Brahe saw a ‘new star’, a supernova, challenging Church ideas about the unchanging heavens.

====================================================================================

1571, Ottoman fleet defeated by Christians at Lepanto. Ottoman expansion checked but they retained Cyorus.

31/12/1571, Monday (-136,354)

27/12/1571, Thursday (-136,358) Johannes Kepler, astronomer, was born. He discovered that planets have elliptical orbits

7/10/1571. Sunday (-136,439) The Ottoman Turkish fleet under Ali Pasha was defeated by the navies of Spain, Venice, and the Pope at the Battle of Lepanto, in the Gulf of Corinth. Christendom was concerned at the fall of Cyprus to Turkey, under Selim II, Suleiman the Great’s successor. This was the last battle fought between galleys. The Turks used ramming tactics, but allied ships used firepower to defeat the Turks. Although Ottoman Turkey retained control of Cyprus, its western expansion in the Mediterranean was halted. The Ottomans lost 230 galleys to the Christian’s 17.

17/7/1571, Tuesday (-136,521) Georg Fabricius, German poet, died (born 23/5/1516).

31/5/1571, Thursday (-136,568) Thomas Crawford, acting for the young King James VI, captured Dumbarton Castle.

15/4/1571, Sunday (-136,614) Easter Sunday.

6/4/1571, Friday (-136,623) John Hamilton, Scottish political activist, was hanged.

15/3/1571, Thursday (-136,645)

25/2/1571, Sunday (-136,663)

23/1/1571. Tuesday (-136,696) The Royal Exchange, founded by financier Sir Thomas Gresham, was opened by Queen Elizabeth I as a bankers meeting house. Its foundation stone was laid on 7/6/1566.

22/1/1571, Monday (-136,697) Sir Robert Cotton, writer, was born (died 6/5/1631).

1/1/1571, Monday (-136,718)

1571, Ottoman fleet defeated by Christians at Lepanto. Ottoman expansion checked but they retained Cyorus.

===================================================================================

1570, Catholic rebellion in northern England crushed; Pope excommunicated Queen Elizaabeth I. Peace of Stettin confirmed Swedish independence from Denmark.

31/12/1570, Sunday (-136,719)

13/12/1570, Wednesday (-136,737) The Peace of Stettin ended the war between Sweden and Denmark, recognising Swedish independence.

5/12/1570, Tuesday (-136,745) Johan Friis, Danish statesman, died (born 1494).

2/11/1570. Thursday (-136,778) A tidal wave in the North Sea destroyed sea walls from Holland to Jutland; over a thousand were killed.

7/10/1570, Saturday (-136,804)

11/9/1570, Monday (-136,830) Johann Brenz, scholarly writer, died (born 24/6/1499).

8/8/1570, Tuesday (-136,864) (France) Peace of St Germain ended the Third French War of Religion. However this peace was broken two years later by the plan of Catherine de Medici, King Charles IX and the Duke of Anou to massacre the Huguenots (24/8/1572).

25/7/1570, Tuesday (-136,878) Ivan the Terrible had many of his advisers and ministers publicly executed in Moscow.

20/5/1570, Saturday (-136,944) (Cartography) Flemish cartographer Abraham Ortelius produced the first modern-style atlas, entitled ‘Theatre of the World’.

26/3/1570, Sunday  (-136,999) Easter Sunday.

25/2/1570. Saturday (-137,028) Queen Elizabeth I was excommunicated by Pope Pius V who declared her a usurper.

20/2/1570, Monday (-137, 033) The Northern Rebellion ended. In November 1569 the Catholic Earls of Northumberland and Westmoreland had started the rebellion against Queen Elizabeth I, motivated by the flight of (Catholic) Mary Queen of Scots to England, also by the arrest of Thomas Howard, 9th Duke of Norfolk, in October 1569. In November 1569 Northumberland had seized Durham Cathedral to celebrate Catholic Mass. The Earls now marched south to fight Thomas Radcliffe, Earl of Sussex, at York. However their elevated social position, and religious fervour, failed to inspire enough foot soldiers to follow them and their march petered out. After a battle at Naworth, Cumbria, this day, 20/2/1570, the Earls fled to Scotland. Government reprisals against Catholics were harsh and Protestantism became more firmly established in England.

8/1/1570, Sunday (-137,076) Philibert Delorme, French architect, died.

1570, Catholic rebellion in northern England crushed; Pope excommunicated Queen Elizaabeth I. Peace of Stettin confirmed Swedish independence from Denmark.

===================================================================================

1569, Huguentot vs. French conflict. Poland and Lithuania united, against Russia.

31/12/1569, Saturday (-137,084)

10/12/1569, Saturday (-137,105) Paul Eber, German religious writer, died (born 1511).

29/10/1569, Saturday (-137,147)

3/10/1569, Monday (-137,173) At the Battle of Moncountour, Royalist forces of Tavannaes and Anjou defeated Coligny’s Huguenots.

5/9/1569, Monday (-137,201) (Britain) Edmond Bonner, Bishop of London, died in the Marshalsea Prison.

24/8/1569, Wednesday (-137,213) At the Battle of Orthez, Huguenot forces under Gabriel de Montgomery defeated Royalist forces under General Terride in French Navarre.  Catholics surrendered on condition that their lives would be saved.  The Huguenots agreed but then massacred them anyway.

1/7/1569, Friday (-137,267) The Union of Lublin united the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Treaty was signed at Lublin Castle. This strengthened Poland against possible attacks from Russia.

10/6/1569, Friday (-137,288) German Protestant troops reinforced Gaspard de Coligny, near Limoges.

10/5/1569, Tuesday (-137,319)

16/4/1569, Saturday (-137,343) Sir John Davies, English poet, was born (died 8/12/1626).

10/4/1569, Sunday (-137,349) Easter Sunday.

13/3/1569, Sunday (-137,377) At the Battle of Jarnac, Royalist troops under Marshal Gaspard de Tavannes defeated the Huguenots under the Prince of Conde, who was captured and murdered.  A large number of Huguenot troops escaped, under Gaspard de Coligny.

13/2/1569, Sunday (-137,405)

25/1/1569, Tuesday (-137,424) The Swedish Riksdag confirmed the choice of new King and formally deposed Eric XIV.

11/1/1569, Tuesday (-137,438) The first State Lottery was held in England. 40,000 lots at 10 shillings each were available from the west door of St Paul’s Cathedral.  Proceeds were used to repair harbours and for other public works.

1569, Huguentot vs. French conflict. Poland and Lithuania united, against Russia.

=====================================================================================

1568, Spanish Inquisition condemened the entire Netherlands to death, and began carrying out the sentence. Mary Queen of Scots escaped Scotland to England.

31/12/1568, Friday (-137,449)

30/11/1568, Tuesday (-137,480)

30/9/1568, Thursday (-137,541) King Eric XIV of Sweden was deposed  by the Swedish army and nobility after several years of worsening insanity. He was succeeded by his 31-year-old brother who reiged until 1592 as John III.

28/9/1568, Tuesday (-137,543) The French monarchy declared the Huguenots outside the law.

24/7/1568, Saturday (-137,609) (Spain) Don Carlos, Prince of Asturias, died (born 8/7/1545).

21/7/1568, Wednesday (-137,612) Battle of Jemmingen, Netherlands. Spanish soldiers under the Duke of Alba lured Dutch rebels into an open position, then massacred them.

4/7/1568, Sunday (-137,629) King Eric XIV of Sweden, having recovered his sanity somewhat, married Karin at Stockholm.

5/6/1568, Saturday (-137,658) Philip Horn, Netherrlands statesman, was executed by the Spanish.

4/6/1568, Friday (-137,659) Leaders of the Flemish opposition to the Inquisition were executed as traitors in Brussels. This sparked revolt in The Netherlands.

23/5/1568, Sunday (-137,671) Battle of Heiligerlee, Netherlands.

16/5/1568. Sunday (-137,678) Mary Queen of Scots escaped from Loch Leven Castle. She had been imprisoned there on 16/6/1567. She sailed from Point Mary, crossing the Firth of Forth to begin her exile in England. See 8/2/1587, 24/7/1567, and 29/7/1565.

18/4/1568, Sunday (-137,706) Easter Sunday.

23/3/1568, Tuesday (-137,732) Peace between the French Huguenots and Catholics was concluded at Longjumeau. However this truce only lasted a few weeks. Pope Pius V was still demanding the total suppressiom of the Huguenots.

20/3/1568, Saturday (-137,735) (Germany) Albert, 1st Duke of Prussia, died in Tapiau (born 16/5/1490 in Ansbach).

16/2/1568. Monday (-137,768) The death sentence was passed on an entire country when the Spanish Inquisition condemned The Netherlands for heresy. During the first week of the plan to kill 3 million people, 800 were hanged, burnt, or killed by other means.

16/1/1568, Friday (-137,799)

2/1/1568, Friday (-137,813) (Britain) Luisa de Carvajal, Catholic missionary in England, was born (died 2/1/1614).

1568, Spanish Inquisition condemened the entire Netherlands to death, and began carrying out the sentence. Mary Queen of Scots escaped Scotland to England.

=====================================================================================

1567, Lord Darnley, 2nd husband of Mary Queen of Scots, murdered at Edinburgh.

31/12/1567, Wednesday (-137,815)

10/11/1567, Friday (-137,866) Huguenots were defeated at St Denis.

29/10/1567, Wednesday (-137,878)

1/10/1567, Wednesday (-137,906) (Christian) Pietro Carnesecchi, religious reformer, was executed (born 1508).

27/8/1567, Wednesday (-137,941)

29/7/1567, Tuesday (-137,970) James VI, then 12 months old, was crowned King at Stirling.

24/7/1567, Thursday (-137,975) Mary Queen of Scots abdicated, after being defeated by Protestants at Carberry Hill.

15/5/1567, Thursday (-137,045) Mary Queen of Scots was married to the Earl of Bothwell.

18/4/1567, Friday (-138,072) Wilhelm von Grumbach, German adventurer, was executed (born 1/6/1503).

30/3/1567, Sunday (-138,091) Easter Sunday

12/2/1567, Wednesday (-138,137) Thomas Campion, English poet, was born (died 1620).

9/2/1567, Sunday (-138,140) Lord Darnley, second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, and father of James IV of Scotland and I of England, was murdered at his house near Edinburgh.

16/1/1567, Thursday (-138,164) King Eric XIV of Sweden, already showing signs of incipient insanity, arrived at the Riksdag in Upsala where he delivered a speech condemning the treachery of the nobility.

1567, Lord Darnley, 2nd husband of Mary Queen of Scots, murdered at Edinburgh.

=====================================================================================

1566, Sulieman the Magnificent, Ottoman leader for 46 years, died; Ottoman Empire at its peak.

9/12/1566, Monday (-138,202)

19/11/1566, Tuesday (-118,222) Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, was born (died 25/2/1601).

3/10/1566, Thursday (-138,269) Richard Cork, Irish statesman, was born (died 15/9/1643).

22/9/1566, Sunday (-138,280) Johannes Agricola, German Protestant reformer (born 20/4/1494) died.

6/9/1566. Friday (-138,296) Suleiman the Magnificent, leader of the Ottoman Empire for 46 years, died. He had brought the Ottoman  Empire to the peak of its power, ruling an area from Hungary to Mesopotamia, and promoting justice and culture. His eldest surviving son, the incompetent drunkard Selim, succeeded him. All other potential rivals had been eliminated by intrigue and murder.

4/9/1566, Wednesday (-138,298) Queen Elizabeth I visited Oxford, to consolidate her acceptance by the University and Town as Supreme Head of the Church.

1/9/1566, Sunday (-138,301) (Education, Schools) Edward Alleyn, English actor, was born (died 21/11/1626). He also founded Dulwich College on 21/6/1619.

3/8/1566, Saturday (-138,330)

13/7/1566, Saturday (-138,351) Sir Thomas Hoby, English diplomat, died (born 1530).

2/7/1566, Tuesday (-138,362) Nostradamus died – did he foresee this?

19/6/1566. Wednesday (-138,375) James VI of Scotland, later James I of England, the first Stuart King, was born in Edinburgh Castle.  He was the only son of Mary, Queen of Scots, and Lord Darnley.

15/6/1566, Saturday (-138,379) In Sweden, Count Nils was ritually humiliated by King Eric XIV, who was fearful that the power of the Swedish aristocracy might supersede that of the monarchy.

7/6/1566, Friday (-138,387) Sir Thomas Gresham laid the foundation stone of the first Royal Exchange in London.

9/5/1566, Thursday (-138,416)

14/4/1566, Sunday (-138,441) Easter Sunday

9/3/1566, Saturday (-138,477) Lord Darnley killed the secretary of Mary Queen of Scots, David Riccio (born 1531?). Mary I, six months pregnant with the future James VI of Scotland, witnessed the murder. Mary had romantic feelings for Riccio, and the nobility feared the rising influence of Riccio upon the royal court.

3/2/1566, Sunday (-138,511) George Cassander, Flemish religious writer, died (born 1513).

8/1/1566, Tuesday  (-138,537) Pope Pius V acceded. Formerly Cardinal Michaele Ghisleri (1504 – 1572).

7/1/1566, Monday (-138,538) Louis de Blois, Flemish mystical writer, died (born 10/1506).

1566, Sulieman the Magnificent, Ottoman leader for 46 years, died; Ottoman Empire at its peak.

==================================================================================

1565, Portuguese colony at Rio de Janeiro. Ottomans failed to capture Malta. Spanish colonised Florida and Philippines.

13/12/1565, Thursday (-138,563) Konrad von Gesner, Swiss scholarly writer, died (born 26/3/1516).

9/12/1565, Sunday (-138,567) Pope Pius IV died.

22/10/1565, Monday (-138,615) Benedict Carpzov, scholarly writer, was born (died 26/11/1624).

14/10/1565, Sunday (-138,623) Sir Thomas Chaloner, English poet, died (born 1521).

13/9/1565, Thursday (-138,654) (France) Guillaume Farel, French religious reformer, died (born 1489).

8/9/1565, Saturday (-138,659) The Great Siege of Malta was raised.

28/8/1565, Tuesday (-138,670) (USA) The Spanish established the settlement of St Augustine, Florida.

29/7/1565. Sunday (-138,700) Mary Queen of Scots married her cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, in the Old Abbey Chapel at Holyrood, Edinburgh.

28/6/1565, Thursday (-138,731)

18/5/1565. Friday (-138,772) The Ottoman Turks arrived at Malta to try and capture it, see 21/12/1522. However the island held out until relieved by a Christian fleet from Sicily arrived in September 1565. Casualties had been heavy for both the Turks and the Maltese; however the Turks had been riven by disputes between their naval and army commanders. The Turks returned to Istanbul, their hopes of dominating the western Mediterranean dashed.

14/5/1565, Monday (-138,776) (Christian) Nicolaus von Amsdorf, German Protestant reformer, died in Eisenach (born 3/12/1483 in Torgau).

22/4/1565, Sunday (-138,798) Easter Sunday.

17/3/1565, Saturday (-138,834) (Britain) Alexander Ales, Scottish clergyman, died in Leipzig (born 23/4/1500 in Edinburgh).

1/3/1565, Thursday (-138,850) (Brazil) The Portuguese established a colony at Rio de Janeiro.

13/2/1565, Tuesday (-138,866) (Philippines) Spain began the colonisation of the Philippines, initially claiming the central island of Cebu. However they shifted focus to Luzon, making Manila the capital in 1571.

13/1/1565, Saturday (-138,897)

1565, Portuguese colony at Rio de Janeiro. Ottomans failed to capture Malta. Spanish colonised Florida and Philippines.

===================================================================================

1564, William Shakespeare born.

25/12/1564, Monday (-138,916) (Jewish) Johannes Buxtorf, German Jewish scholar, was born (died 1629).

13/11/1564, Monday (-138,958) The Tridentine Creed was promulgated.

25/7/1564, Tuesday (-139,069) Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, died.

22/6/1564, Thursday (-139,102) (USA) The French settlement of Fort Caroline was founded in Florida.

27/5/1564, Saturday (-139,128) John Calvin, French theologian who helped spread the Protestant revolution, died.

23/4/1564, Sunday (-139,162) William Shakespeare was born in Stratford on Avon. He was the third of eight children.  His father, John Shakespeare, was a glove maker and alderman, and his mother, Mary Arden, was a daughter of the gentry.

2/4/1564, Sunday (-139,183) Easter Sunday.

18/2/1564. Friday (-139,227) Michelangelo Buonarotti died in Rome, aged 89.

15/2/1564, Tuesday (-139,230) Galileo Galilei was born in Pisa, Italy.

6/2/1564, Sunday (-139,239) Christopher Marlowe, English poet, was born in Canterbury, son of a shoe maker.

26/1/1564, Wednesday (-139,250) Pope Pius IV confirmed the declarations of the Council of Trent.

1564, William Shakespeare born.

===================================================================================

1653, Nordic Seven Year War began, Denmark vs. Sweden. Council of Trent confirmed Catholic doctrine.

31/12/1563, Friday (-139,276)

4/12/1563, Saturday (-139,303) The Council of Trent was dissolved. It reaffirmed all major Catholic doctrines and declared the Apocrypha to be canonical along with the rest of the Bible.

1/6/1563, Tuesday (-139,489) Robert Cecil, English statesman, was born.

30/5/1563, Sunday (-139,491) (Scandinavia) The Nordic Seven Years War began between Denmark and Sweden.

23/4/1563, Friday (-139,528) King Philip II of Spain began construction of El Escorial.

13/4/1563, Tuesday (-139,538)

11/4/1563, Sunday (-139,540) Easter Sunday.

5/3/1563, Friday (-139,577) Sir John Coke, English politician, was born (died 8/9/1644).

18/2/1563, Thursday (-139,592) Francis, Duke of Guise, was assassinated whilst besieging Orleans.

1/2/1563, Monday (-139,609) Sarsa Dengel succeeded his father Menas as Emperor of Ethiopia.

30/1/1563, Saturday (-139,611) Franz Gomarus, Dutch religious writer, was born (died 11/1/1641).

1653, Nordic Seven Year War began, Denmark vs. Sweden. Council of Trent confirmed Catholic doctrine.

====================================================================================

1562, Council of Trent reconvened. Catholics defeated Huguenots in France.

19/12/1562, Saturday (-139,653) The Battle of Dreux; Catholics defeated the Huguenots.

19/10/1562, Monday (-139,714) George Abbot, Archbishop of Canterbury, was born (died 5/8/1633).

9/10/1562, Friday (-129,724) Fallopius Gabriello, anatomist, died.

4/10/1562, Sunday (-139,729) Duke John of Sweden married Catherine, daughter of King Sigismund I of Poland. He also pledged to help Poland conquer Livonia. This was a breach of the Arboga Articles (drawn up by King Eric XIV on 15/4/1561 at Arboga) which proscribed the royal dukes from making any political treaties without Royal assent.

20/9/1562, Sunday (-139,743) The Treaty of Hampton Court was signed.

20/7/1562, Monday (-139,805)

27/5/1562, Wednesday (-139,859) Jean Ribaut, leading an expedition to found a Huguenot colony in New France, founded Port Royal, South Carolina, USA.

11/4/1562, Friday (-139,906) Huguenot leaders issued a statement, at Orleans, declaring that, whilst they remained loyal subjects of the French Crown,, they must take up arms to preserve their freedom of worship.

29/3/1562, Sunday (-139,918) Easter Sunday.

9/3/1562. Monday (-139,938) Kissing in public was banned in Naples, contravention being punishable by death. This was an attempt to halt the spread of the plague.

1/3/1562, Sunday (-139,946) (France) The Guises slaughtered a group of Huguenots who were worshipping at a barn in Vassy. Armed c9nflict between Catholics and Huguenots was now inevitable.

1/2/1562, Sunday (-139,974)

18/1/1562, Sunday (-139,988) The Council of Trent reconvened, after a suspension of ten years.

1562, Council of Trent reconvened. Catholics defeated Huguenots in France.

=====================================================================================

1561, Mary Queen of Scots returned from France. Francis Bacon was born.

31/12/1561, Wednesday (-140,006)

18/11/1561, Tuesday (-140,049)

9/10/1561, Thursday (-140,089) The Colloquy of Poissy broke up.This was an attempt to find a working agreement between the Catholics and the Huguenot Protestants, which nearly succeeded.

19/8/1561, Tuesday (-140,140) Mary Queen of Scots returned from France. She arrived at Leith, near Edinburgh, in thick fog; this may have saved her life, because her half-brother, James Stuart Earl of Moray, wanted to rule Scotland and was waiting for her in English ships.

11/7/1561, Friday (-140,179) Luis de Gongora, Spanish poet, was born (died 24/5/1627).

15/4/1561, Tuesday (-140,266) King Eric XIV of Sweden summoned a Riksdag at Arboga which drew up the Arboga Articles this day, proscribing the power of the royal dukes, John and Charles.

6/4/1561, Sunday (-140,275) Easter Sunday.

22/3/1561, Saturday (-140,290)

22/2/1561, Saturday (-140,318)

22/1/1561, Wednesday (-140,349) Francis Bacon, author, philosopher, and statesman, was born at York House in The Strand, London.

1561, Mary Queen of Scots returned from France. Francis Bacon was born.

=====================================================================================

1560, Treaty of Edinburgh, ended French interference in Scottish affairs.

31/12/1560, Tuesday (-140,371)

20/12/1560, Friday (-140,382) The first assembly of the Church of Scotland.

5/12/1560, Thursday (-140,397) Francis II, King of France, died, aged 16, he was succeeded by his brother, 10-year old Charles IX.

3/12/1560, Tuesday (-140,399) Jan Gruter, Dutch scholarly writer, was born (died 20/9/1627).

12/11/1560, Tuesday (-140,420) (Christian) Caspar Aquila, German religious reformer, died (born in Augsburg 7/8/1488).

10/10/1560, Thursday (-140,453) (Christian) Jacobus Arminius, Dutch religious reformer, was born in Oudewater, south Holland (died in Leiden 19/10/1609).

30/9/1560, Monday (-140,463) Melchior Cano, Spanish theologian (born 1525) died.

29/9/1560, Sunday (-140,464) Gustavus Vasa, King of Sweden, died.

6/7/1560, Saturday (-140,549) The Treaty of Edinburgh was signed. This ended French interference in Scottish affairs. French troops in Scotland had tried to support Mary Queen of Scots claim to the throne.

25/6/1560, Sunday (-140,562) Gustavus I of Sweden abdicated, aged 64. He was succeeded by his son, Charles IX.

23/4/1560, Sunday (-140,625)

1/1/1560, Monday (-140,736)

1560, Treaty of Edinburgh, ended French interference in Scottish affairs.

===================================================================================

1559, Elizabeth I became Queen of England. Ensured supremacy of Protestantism in England. Peace of Catteau-Cambrensis; Italy in Spanish sphere of influence, and French territorial gains.

31/12/1559, Sunday (-140,737)

25/12/1559, Monday (-140,743) Pope Pius IV (born 31/3/1499), acceded (died 1565).

14/12/1559, Thursday (-140,754) Lupercio Argensola, Spanish poet, was born (baptised) in Barbastro (died in Saragossa  4/2/1631).

10/11/1559, Friday (-140,788) Queen Elizabeth I confirmed the Charter of the Stationer’s company.

10/9/1559, Sunday (-140,849)

18/8/1559, Friday (-140,872) Pope Paul IV died, aged 83. In Rome his statue was torn down, the prisoners of the Inquisition freed, and Inquisition records destroyed.

10/7/1559, Monday (-140,911) Henry II, King of France, died aged 40. He was succeeded by his 14-year old son, Francois II. The Duc de Guise and the Cardinal of Lorraine were Regents.

1/7/1559, Saturday (-140,920) Missing Church in Britain incurred a fine of one shilling (5p). However by 1581 this penalty had been raised to a swingeing £20 a month.

8/5/1559, Monday (-140,974) The Act of Uniformity was signed by Queen Elizabeth I. This enshrined the monarch as head of the Church in England, ensuring the supremacy of Protestantism under Queen Elizabeth I.

17/4/1559, Monday (-140,995) The Act of Supremacy was partly re-enacted in England.

2/4/1559, Sunday (-141,010) (France-Germany, Spain) The Peace of Cateau-Cambresis, ending the wars of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in Europe. Italy was recognised as a Spanish sphere of influence, and Franche Comte was to be part of the Spanish monarchy. French possession of Metz, Toul and Verdun was confirmed. A strategic marriage was arranged between King Philip II of Spain and Elizabeth Valois, daughter of King Henry II of France.

26/3/1559, Sunday  (-141,017) Easter Sunday.

18/2/1559, Saturday (-141,053) Isaac Casaubon, scholarly writer, was born (died 1/7/1614).

15/1/1559. Sunday (-141,087) Queen Elizabeth I crowned. She was born on 7/9/1533 at Greenwich Palace. Daughter of King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, she ruled from 1558 to 1603 and was one of England’s greatest rulers, succeeding her Catholic  half-sister Mary Tudor. She cleverly preserved England’s independence from Catholic Europe whilst also outflanking the more radical Puritans, and her reign saw the emergence of England as a major sea power through Drake and others.  This was also a time when the arts thrived. She died on 24/3/1603.

1/1/1559, Sunday (-141,101) Christian III, King of Denmark and Norway, died aged 55 after a reign of nearly 24 years. He was succeeded by his 24-year-old son as Frederick II, who reigned for 29 years.

1559, Elizabeth I became Queen of England. Ensured supremacy of Protestantism in England. Peace of Catteau-Cambrensis; Italy in Spanish sphere of influence, and French territorial gains.

=====================================================================================

 

31/12/1558, Saturday (-141,102)

14/12/1558, Wednesday (-141,119) Funeral of Queen Mary of England.

17/11/1558. Thursday (-141,146) Queen Mary of England (Bloody Mary), daughter of Henry VIII, died in St James Palace London at the age of 42.  Born in 1516 to Catharine of Aragon, she outmanoeuvred Lord Dudley’s attempt to put Lady Jane Grey on the throne, on the death of her half-brother King Edward VI. Mary’s marriage to Philip II of Spain dragged England into the war between France and Spain, and caused the loss to England of Calais, an English outpost since the reign of Edward III. Under her five-year reign Catholicism was restored and Protestants persecuted.  On Mary’s death, her half-sister Elizabeth, daughter of Anne Boleyn, became Queen Elizabeth I.

21/9/1558. Wednesday (-141,203) Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor from 1519 to 1556, died. His reign was marked by almost constant wars with France, through which he gained control of Italy in 1529 at the Peace of Cambrai.

7/8/1558, Sunday (-141,248)

24/4/1558, Sunday (-141,353) Mary Queen of Scots, aged 16, married the Dauphin of France.

10/4/1558, Sunday (-141,367) Easter Sunday.

27/2/1558, Sunday (-141,409) Russia’s first trade mission to England reached London.

7/1/1558. Friday (-141,460) Calais, the last English possession on mainland France, was taken by the French under the Duke of Guise. The English had captured Calais in 1346 after a year besieging it.

1/1/1558, Saturday (-141,466)

31/12/1557, Friday (-141,467)

7/11/1557, Sunday (-141,521)

13/9/1557, Monday (-141,576) Sir John Cheke, English scholarly writer, died (born 1514).

1/9/1557, Wednesday (-141,588) Jacques Cartier, French explorer of the North American coast and the St Lawrence river (born 1491), died in St Malo.

10/8/1557, Tuesday (-141,610) (France, Italy, Spain) The Battle of St Quentin. Spanish forces under the Duke of Savoy defeated the French under the Constable of Montmorency. The French were driven out of Italy.

16/7/1557, Friday (-141,635) Anne of Cleves, 4th wife of King Henry VIII, died.

19/6/1557, Saturday (-141,662)

6/6/1557, Sunday (-141,675) John III, King of Portugal, died on his 55th birthday. He was succeeded by his 3-year old grandson, Sebastian.

18/4/1557, Sunday (-141,724) Easter Sunday.

6/4/1557, Tuesday (-141,736)

6/3/1557, Saturday (-141,767)

27/2/1557, Saturday (-141,774) The first Russian Embassy in London opened.

8/1/1557, Friday (-141,824) (Germany) Albert, Prince of Bayreuth, died in Pforzheim (born 28/3/1522 in Ansbach).

1/1/1557, Friday (-141,831)

27/12/1556, Sunday (-141,836)

31/12/1556, Thursday (-141,832)

1/12/1556, Tuesday (-141,862)

15/11/1556, Sunday (-141,878) (France) Jacques Duperron, French cardinal, was born (died 6/9/1618).

5/11/1556, Thursday (-141,888) Jalal-ud-Din, Moghul Emperor Akbar, defeated a Hindu army at the Battle of Panipat in the Punjab. He regained the Hindustani Empire.

25/10/1556, Sunday (-141,899) Charles V, King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor, retired to a Spanish monastery, dividing his possessions between his son and his brother.

16/10/1556, Friday (-141,908)

1/10/1556, Thursday (-141,923)

1/9/1556, Tuesday (-141,953)

1/8/1556, Saturday (-141,984)

31/7/1556, Friday (-141,985) Ignatius Loyola, Spanish soldier and priest, and founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), died.

1/7/1556, Wednesday (-142,015) In Winchester, England, a pound of beef cost 4d. A pound of candles cost 4d. A pound of butter cost 4d. A pound of cheese cost 4d. 2 eggs cost 1d. A whole sheep cost £1.

19/6/1556, Friday (-142,027) King James I of England, son of Mary Queen of Scots and Lord Darnley, the first Stuart King of England and Ireland, also King James VI of Scotland, was born.

10/5/1566, Sunday (-142,067) Leonhard Fuchs, German physician, died (born 17/1/1501).

18/4/1556, Saturday (-142,089) (Arts) Luigi Alamanni, Italian poet, died in Amboise (born in Florence, 1495).

5/4/1556, Sunday (-142,102) Easter Sunday.

21/3/1556, Saturday (-142,117) (Britain) Thomas Cranmer, first Protestant Archbishop of Canterbury, was burnt at the stake in Oxford as a heretic and a traitor, under the Catholic rule of Queen ‘Bloody’ Mary. He had been deprived of his office on 11/12/1555. He had assisted in having the marriage of Mary’s parents, King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, annulled.

7/3/1556, Saturday (-142,131) Guillaume du Vair, French author, was born (died 3/8/1621).

29/2/1556, Saturday (-142,138)

21/2/1556, Friday (-1142,146) Sethus Calvisius, German scholarly writer, was born (died 24/11/1615).

27/1/1556, Monday (-142,171) The Moghul Emperor Humayun died after falling from his library roof in Delhi. He was succeeded by his 14-year old son, Jalal-ud-Din, who returned from exile.

23/1/1556. Thursday (-142,175) An earthquake in China’s Shanxi province killed an estimated 830,000 people.

16/1/1556, Thursday (-142,182) Emperor Charles V abdicated.

=====================================================================================

1555, Nostradamus published his predictions. Jewish ghetto in Rome created. Peace of Augsburg, split Germany.

31/12/1555, Tuesday (-142,198)

16/11/1555, Saturday (-142,243)

16/10/1555. Wednesday (-142,274) Bishops Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley, British Protestant martyrs and Oxford reformers, were burnt at the stake for heresy.

25/9/1555, Wednesday (-142,295) (Christian, Germany) The Peace of Augsburg was signed between Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and the Schmalkaldic League, at the city of Augsburg. It cemented the division within Christendom between Catholicism and Protestantism, and allowed German states to choose either Roman Catholicism or Lutheranism as their State Religion.

1/8/1555, Thursday (-142,350)

17/7/1555, Wednesday (-142,365) Richard Carew, poet, was born (died 6/11/1620).

12/7/1555, Friday (-142,370) The Jewish Ghetto in Rome was created, on the orders of Pope Paul IV.

25/5/1555, Saturday (-142,418) King Henry II of Navarre died (born 1503).

30/4/1555, Tuesday (-142,443) Pope Marcellus II (formerly Cardinal Marcello Cervino) died, aged 54. He was succeeded by Pope Paul IV. Paul ordered that the Jewish quarter in Rome be walled, creating the Ghetto of Rome. Palestrina was appointed a member of the Pontifical Choir by Paul IV without examination creating resentment amongst the other choir members.

14/4/1555, Sunday (-142,459) Easter Sunday

10/4/1555, Wednesday (-142,463) Pope Marcellus II was elected Pope.

23/3/1555, Saturday (-142,481) Pope Julius III died, aged 67. He was succeeded by Pope Marcellus II,

1/3/1555, Friday (-142,503) Nostradamus published his famous book of predictions.

9/2/1555, Saturday (-142,523) John Hooper, English religious writer and martyr, died.

1/1/1555, Tuesday (-142,562)

1555, Nostradamus published his predictions. Jewish ghetto in Rome created. Peace of Augsburg, split Germany.

======================================================================================

 

14/12/1554, Friday (-142,580)

30/11/1554, Friday (-142,594) Cardinal Pole pardoned England for its Protestant heresy and welcomed the country back into the Roman Catholic Church.

28/9/1554, Friday (-142,657)

25/7/1554. Wednesday (-142,722) Mary I, Bloody Mary, married Philip II of Spain, son and heir of Charles V, in Winchester. This was her second marriage; the first had been when, aged three, she was married to the King of France, then nine months old. Catholicism returned to England. See 17/11/1558.

20/7/1554, Friday (-142,727) Philip II of Spain arrived in Southampton, having crossed the Channel during a terrible storm.

19/5/1554, Saturday (-142,789) Queen Elizabeth was released from the Tower of London.

10/5/1554, Thursday (-142,798) (Britain) Thomas Goodrich, English ecclesiastic, died.

17/4/1554, Tuesday (-142,821) Stephen Gosson, English satirical writer, was born (died 13/2/1624).

25/3/1554, Sunday (-142,844) Easter Sunday.

18/3/1554, Sunday (-142,851) Elizabeth was imprisoned in the Tower of London for alleged complicity in a plot against Mary led by Sir Thomas Wyatt; she was released on 19/5/1554.

11/2/1554, Sunday (-142,886) Lady Jane Grey and her husband Lord Guildford Dudley were executed on Tower Green, Tower of London, for high treason; she was aged 16. Lady Grey became Queen on 10/7/1553 but was deposed nine days later by her cousin Mary Tudor who then became Queen of England. The Protestant King Edward VI had proclaimed Jane Queen above her half sister Mary because that kept England away from Catholic Spain. Mary delayed executing Jane but changed her mind when Jane’s father attempted a revolution.

9/1/1554, Tuesday (-142,919) Pope Gregory XV born.

1/1/1554, Monday (-142,927)

======================================================================================

1553, Jane Grey Queen of England; deposed by Mary; Protestants persecuted. Henry IV of France born.

20/12/1553, Wednesday (-142,939) In England, Protestant Church services were ruled illegal.

14/12/1553, Thursday (-142,945) Henry IV, King of France, was born.

27/10/1553, Friday (-142,993) Michael Servetus, theologian, was burnt at the stake.

1/10/1553, Sunday (-143,019) Mary Tudor was crowned Queen of England.

1/9/1553, Friday (-143,049)

2/8/1553, Wednesday (-143,079) Battle of Marciano. A French army invading Tuscany was defeated.

19/7/1553. Wednesday (-143,093) Lady Jane Grey, a Protestant, was deposed, aged 16, after a reign of only nine days. She was sent to the Tower of London and beheaded on 12/2/1554. Mary Tudor (Bloody Mary), a Catholic, half sister of Edward VI, was proclaimed Queen, but died on 17/11/1558.

10/7/1553. Monday (-143,102) Following the death of Edward VI, Lady Jane Grey was proclaimed Queen of England.

6/7/1553, Thursday (-143,106) King Edward VI died in Greenwich of tuberculosis.

26/6/1553, Monday (-143,116) Christ’s Hospital London was founded on the site of the former Greyfriars Monastery by King Edward VI, as a hospital for poor children.

21/5/1553, Sunday (-143,152) Lady Jane Grey was forced to marry Lord Guildford Dudley; Dudley had ambitions to be King of England.

14/5/1553, Sunday (-143,159) Marguerite de Valois, Queen of Navarre, was born.

5/5/1553, Friday (-143,168) (Arts) Erasmus Albertus, German writer, died in Mecklenburg.

2/4/1553, Sunday (-143,201) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1553, Sunday (-143,292)

1553, Jane Grey Queen of England; deposed by Mary; Protestants persecuted. Henry IV of France born.

=====================================================================================

1552, Russia took Kazan from the Tatars.

3/12/1552. Saturday (-143,321) (Christian) Death of Francis Xavier, Basque Jesuit missionary, called ‘the apostle of the Indies’, who helped Ignatius Loyola found the Jesuits.  He died near Canton, China.

6/10/1552, Thursday (-143,379) Birth of Matteo Ricci, pioneering Jesuit missionary to China.

2/10/1552, Sunday (-143,383) Ivan the Terrible took the Tartar city of Kazan, using artillery to break down the city walls. The Volga became a Russian river.

17/9/1552, Saturday (-143,398) Pope Paul V was born.

20/8/1552, Saturday (-143,426) Ivan IV (The Terrible) began an attack on Kazan with an army of 150,000 men, after a faction in Kazan promised him the Khanate.

15/8/1552, Monday (-143,431) Hermann, Elector of Cologne, died (born 14/1/1477).

18/7/1552, Monday (-143,459) The Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolf II, was born.

14/5/1552, Saturday (-143,524)

17/4/1552, Sunday (-143,551) Easter Sunday.

14/3/1552, Monday (-143,585)

8/2/1552, Monday (-143,620) Theodore Aubigne, French poet, was born in St Maury, Pons (died 29/4/1630 in Geneva).

1/2/1552, Monday (-143,627) Sir Edward Coke, English lawyer, was born (died 3/9/1634).

14/1/1552, Thursday (-143,645) Alberico Gentili, Italian legal writer, was born (died 19/6/1608).

10/1/1552, Sunday (-143,649) Johann Cochlaeus, German religious writer, died (born 1479).

1552, Russia took Kazan from the Tatars.

=====================================================================================

1551, Jesuit missionary work in Japan. King Henry III of France was born.

28/12/1551, Monday (-143,662) Vicente Espinel, Spanish poet, was born (died 1624).

21/11/1551, Saturday (-143,699) Papal Legate Francis Xavier and fellow Jesuits returned from a two-year missionary trip to Japan. The Mikado was at first unimpressed with Xavier’s humble dress, but when he returned in more suitable attire, with gifts, he was even granted a disused Buddhist monastery for his work. Xavier left behind a community of 2,000 Christians, and was impressed with Japanese society.

2/10/1551, Friday (-143,749)

21/9/1551, Monday (-143,760) (Education, Schools) The King Edward VI Grammar School, Louth, received its charter. However a school here may date back to the 8th century (see 1276). After the religious guilds were dissolved in 1548 a petition was made to secure the school’s future, leading to the Charter.

19/9/1551, Saturday (-143,762) Henry III, King of France, was born.

20/8/1551, Thursday (-143,792)

14/7/1551, Tuesday (-143,829)

14/5/1551, Thursday (-143,890)

2/5/1551, Saturday (-143,902) William Camden, English historian (died 1623) was born.

21/4/1551, Tuesday (-143,913) (Japan) Death of Japanese warlord Oda Nobuhide (born 1510).

29/3/1551, Sunday (-143,935) Easter Sunday.

11/1/1551, Sunday (-144,013) Ketumati, Burma, was conquered by Bayinnaung.

1551, Jesuit missionary work in Japan. King Henry III of France was born.

====================================================================================

 

31/12/1550, Wednesday (-144,024) Henry of Lorraine, 3rd Duke of Guise, was born (died 25/12/1588).

21/7/1550, Monday (-144,187) The Society of Jesus, or Jesuits, was approved by Pope Julius III.

28/6/1550, Saturday (-144,210) Johannes Drusius, religious writer, was born (died 2/1616).

27/6/1550, Friday (-144,211) Charles IX, French monarch who ordered the massacre of the Hugenots on St Bartholomew’s Day in 1572, was born.

14/5/1550, Wednesday (-144,255)

4/5/1550, Sunday (-144,265)

6/4/1550, Sunday (-144,293) Easter Sunday.

6/3/1550, Thursday (-144,324)

6/2/1550,  Thursday (-144,352)

6/1/1550, Monday (-144,383)

1/1/1550, Wednesday (-144,388)

31/12/1549, Tuesday (-144,389)

7/12/1549, Saturday (-144,413) Robert Kett, rebel leader, was hanged.

10/11/1549, Sunday (-144,440) Pope Paul III died.

17/10/1549, Thursday (-144,464) Denis Godefroy, French jurist, was born (died 7/9/1622).

21/9/1549, Saturday (-144,490) Marguerite d’Angoulmeme, Queen of Navarre, died.

15/8/1549, Thursday (-144,527) (Christian, Japan) Francis Xavier entered the Japanese port of Kagoshima to begin a conversion work.

9/8/1549. Friday (-144,533) England declared war on France.

12/7/1549, Friday (-144,561) Robert Kett, with 16,000 men, camped on Mousehold Heath outside Norwich and demanded an audience with Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, who was Protector of England during the minority years of King Edward VI. Kett’s demands concerned rising rents, rising food prices and the increase in sheep farming (which demanded enclosure whereas crop farming did not). Somerset ordered Kett’s mob to disperse, with a pardon for any crimes committed up to that point; Kett refused. Somerset now ordered William Parr, Marquis of Northampton, to defeat Kett. Parr marched into Norwich with 1,800 men, unopposed, but a surprise night attack by Kett’s men routed Parr’s force. Parr retreated to London and Kett was unable to follow, as his men had no wish to extend the dispute out of their native Norfolk. Somerset now ordered John Dudley, Earl of Warwick, south from Scotland, with 6,000 foot soldiers and 1,500 cavalry. Dudley surrounded Kett in Norwich, and the two leaders began negotiations. However some of Kett’s hotheads opened a fight with Dudley; Kett’s men were massacred with nearly 50 hanged.

20/6/1549, Thursday (-144,583) Kett’s Rebellion against enclosure of common land began when a group of men led by Robert Kett, a smallholder and tanner, tore down the new hedges and fences at Attleborough near Norwich. Copycat mobs sprang up all across Suffolk and Norfolk. In particular they resented the enclosure activities of landowner Edward Flowerdew.

9/6/1549. Sunday (-144,594) The Church of England adopted the Book of Common Prayer, compiled by Thomas Cranmer. In Devon, where the abolition of the chantries had caused economic hardship, there was considerable opposition.

20/5/1549, Monday (-144,614) From this date, only the new Book of Prayer was allowed to be used in English churches.

21/4/1549, Sunday (-144,643) Easter Sunday

8/4/1549, Monday (-144,656)

20/3/1549. Wednesday (-144,675) Death of Thomas Seymour, Lord High Admiral of England. He married King Henry VIII’s widow, Catherine Parr. When she died, he planned to marry Queen Elizabeth I, but was arrested for treason and executed.

15/2/1549, Friday (-144,708) Major earthquake hit Qayin, Iran, killing 3,000.

11/1/1549, Friday (-144,743)

1/1/1549, Tuesday (-144,753)

31/12/1548, Monday (-144,754)

10/12/1548, Monday (-144,775)

24/11/1548, Saturday (-144,791) The English Parliament voted to allow clergymen to marry.

10/11/1548, Saturday (-144,805)

5/9/1548, Wednesday (-144,871) Catherine Parr, 6th wife of Henry VIII, died in childbirth.  By then she was the wife of Lord Seymour, at Sudeley castle, near Cheltenham, Gloucestershire.

4/7/1548, Wednesday (-144,934)

30/6/1548, Saturday (-144,938) The Interim of Augsburg. A solution devised at the Diet of Augsburg by Charles V to solve the religious divisions of the Holy Roman Empire by devising a loosely-defined Catholicism that was acceptable to the Protestant Princes. It allowed the laity to receive the Communion cup and for Protestant Ministers to keep their wives. However the Catholics were unenthusiastic and most of the Protestant princes rejected it. Pope Paul refused to endorse it until August 1549.

1/4/1548, Sunday (-145,028) Easter Sunday. Sigismund I, King of Poland, died aged 81, after a reign of 42 years. He was succeeded by his 28-year old son, Sigismund II who ruled for 24 years.

11/2/1548, Saturday (-145,078) English churches were ordered to remove all images of saints, as the Reformation proceeded.

1/1/1548, Sunday (-145,119)

====================================================================================

1547, King Henry VIII of England died. Ivan the Terrible acceded in Russia.

5/12/1547, Monday (-145,146) Ubbo Emmius, Dutch historical writer, was born (died 9/12/1625).

2/12/1547, Friday (-145,149) Hernando Cortez, Spanish conqueror of Mexico in 1521, died near Seville.

2/10/1547, Sunday (-145,210)

22/9/1547, Thursday (-145,220) Philipp Frischlin, German poet, was born (died 29/11/1590).

10/9/1547. Saturday (-145,232) The English won a major victory over the Scots at Pinkie.

21/6/1547, Tuesday (-145,313) Moscow was destroyed by a fire which consumed 25,000 of the city’s wooden houses. 1,700 people died and 80,000 were made homeless.

23/5/1547,  Monday (-145,342)

23/4/1547, Saturday (-145,372) Battle of Muhlberg. Charles (1500-58), who became King of Spain in 1516 and Holy Roman Emperor in 1519, was opposed to the growth of Lutheranism (Protestantism).  At Muhlberg, Charles defeated the Protestant princes, allowing him to impose the Interim of Augsburg (1548) which was a temporary compromise making minimal concessions to these Protestants. Many German Protestants who felt these concessions were inadequate fled to England, assisting the Reformation there.

10/4/1547, Sunday (-145,385) Easter Sunday.

31/3/1547, Thursday (-145,395) King Francis I of France died aged 52.

20/2/1547, Sunday (-145,434) King Edward VI, aged 9, crowned as King at Westminster Abbey.

16/2/1547, Wednesday (-145,438) King Henry VIII was buried at Windsor.

28/1/1547. Friday (-145,457) King Henry VIII, born 28/6/1491, died aged 56, probably of kidney and liver failure. King Edward VI, the only son of Henry VIII, by Jane Seymour, born 12/10/1537 and now aged 9, ascended the throne on 20/2/1547. However he died on 9/7/1553 at the age of 15. He was succeeded by Lady Jane Grey, see 19/7/1553.

19/1/1547, Wednesday (-145,466) Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, was beheaded at the Tower of London for treason.

18/1/1547, Tuesday (-145,467) Pietro Bembo, Italian writer, died (born in Venice 20/5/1470).

16/1/1547. Sunday (-145,469) Ivan the Terrible, first Russian to assume the title of Tsar, was crowned.

1547, King Henry VIII of England died. Ivan the Terrible acceded in Russia.

====================================================================================

 

31/12/1546, Friday (-145,485)

14/12/1546, Tuesday (-145,502) Tycho Brahe, Danish astronomer and mathematician, was born in Knudstrup.

4/10/1546, Monday (-145,573)

3/8/1546, Tuesday (-145,635) In Paris the printer Etienne Dolet was hanged and burned for heresy, after printing the works of humanists such as Erasmus.

16/7/1546, Friday (-145,653) (Britain) Protestant martyr Anne Askew was burnt at the stake.

10/7/1546, Saturday (-145,659) (Germany) The Schmalkaldic War began between Charles V and the Schmalkaldic League.

4/7/1546, Sunday (-145,665) (Turkey) Death of Ottoman Admiral Khair el Din, better known as Barbarossa (born ca. 1478).

25/4/1546, Sunday (-145,735) Easter Sunday.

8/4/1546, Thursday (-145,752) At the Council of Trent, the Roman Catholic Church declared the Apocrypha to be part of the Bible.

26/3/1546, Friday (-145,765) Sir Thomas Elyot, English scholarly writer, died.

18/2/1546. Thursday (-145,801) Martin Luther, Augustinian friar and instigator of the Reformation, died (see 31/10/1517), at his birthplace of Eisleben, Germany, at the age of 63, apparently of overwork.

1/1/1546, Friday (-145,849)

31/12/1545, Thursday (-145,850)

13/12/1545, Sunday (-145,868) The Council of Trent began.

7/12/1545, Monday (-145,874) Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, was born.

6/12/1545, Sunday (-145,875) Janus Dousa, Dutch writer, was born (died 8/10/1604).

13/10/1545, Tuesday (-145,929)

24/9/1545, Thursday (-145,948) (Germany) Albert, Archbishop of Mainz, died.

27/8/1545, Thursday (-145,976) (Netherlands) Alexander Farnese, Governor-General of The Netherlands under King Philip II of Spain, was born (died 3/12/1592).

19/7/1545, Sunday (-146,015) The Mary Rose, pride of Henry VIII’s battle fleet, keeled over and sank in the Solent with the loss of 700 lives. It was raised on 11/10/1982 and taken to Portsmouth Dockyard.

8/7/1545, Wednesday (-146,026) (Spain) Don Carlos, Prince of Asturias, was born (died 24/7/1568).

26/6/1545, Friday (-146,038) A botanical garden was established in Padua. This, or the garden in Pisa, is the oldest such garden in Europe.

20/4/1545, Monday (-146,105) The Waldensians were massacred in Provence.

5/4/1545, Sunday (-146,120) Easter Sunday.

2/3/1545, Monday (-146,154) (Britain) Sir Thomas Bodley, founder of the Bodleian Library, Oxford, was born in Exeter (died in London 28/1/1613).

25/2/1545, Wednesday (-146,159) The English were defeated by the Scots at Ancrum Moor. See 24/11/1542. In September 1545 the English again invaded Scotland.

1/1/1545, Thursday (-146,214)

31/12/1544, Wednesday (-146,215)

9/12/1544, Tuesday (-146,237) Teofilo Folengo, Italian poet, died (born 8/11/1491).

25/10/1544, Saturday (-146,282)

22/9/1543, Monday (-146,315) Josse Clichtove, Belgian religious writer, died.

14/9/1544, Sunday (-146,323) Henry VIII of England captured Boulogne. On 7/6/1546 the English and French signed the Peace of Ardres. This said Boulogne was to remain in English hands for another eight years.

19/7/1544, Saturday (-146,380) Henry VIII laid siege to the French town of Boulogne, in revenge for French military assistance to Scotland.

24/5/1544, Saturday (-146,437) (Britain) William Gilbert, physician to Queen Elizabeth I, was born (died 30/11/1603).

13/4/1544, Sunday (-146,478) Easter Sunday

19/1/1544, Saturday (-146,562) Francis II, King of France, was born.

1/1/1544, Tuesday (-146,580)

14/12/1543, Friday (-146,598)

12/7/1543. Thursday (-146,753) King Henry VIII married his sixth wife, Katherine Parr.

24/5/1543. Thursday (-146,802) Polish astronomer, Nicolas Copernicus died of apoplexy.  Born on 19/2/1473, in Torun, Poland, Copernicus is regarded as the founder of modern astronomy.  When his father died, Copernicus’ uncle Lucas Waczenrode became his guardian.  In 1491 Copernicus went to the University of Krakow to study Latin, mathematics, astronomy, geography, and philosophy.  He returned home after 4 years without a degree, and studied Canon Law at the University of Bologna so as to have a church career. From a turret on the walls of Bologna Cathedral, Copernicus studied the stars, and in 1530 produced a 400 page treatise, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium (On the revolutions of the celestial spheres). This put forward the idea that the earth rotated on its own axis daily and annually around the Sun. It was published in the year of his death, 1543, and greeted with a hostile reception as it challenged the ancient teaching that the earth was the centre of the Universe.

24/4/1543, Tuesday (-146,832)

25/3/1543, Sunday (-146,862) Easter Sunday.

16/3/1453, Friday (-146,871) Gonzalo Cordoba, Spanish statesman, was born (died 2/12/1515).

10/2/1543, Saturday (-146,905) (Christian) Johann Maier Eck, opponent of the reforms of Martin Luther, died (born 13/11/1486).

1/1/1543, Monday (-146,945)

31/12/1542, Sunday (-146,946)

21/12/1542, Thursday (-146,956) (Mathematics) Thomas Allen, English mathematician, was born in Uttoxeter, Staffordshire (died 30/9/1632 at Gloucester Hall).

14/12/1542, Thursday (-146,963) James V, King of Scotland, died, aged 30. He was succeeded by his baby daughter, Mary Queen of Scots.

7/12/1542, Thursday (-146,970) Mary Queen of Scots, cousin of Queen Elizabeth I, was born in Llinlithgow Palace, daughter of King James V of Scotland.

24/11/1542. Friday (-146,983) The English defeated the Scots at Solway Moss as Henry VIII fought to gain control of Scotland. On 1/7/1543 England and Scotland signed the Peace of Greenwich, but this was repudiated by the Scottish Parliament on 11/12/1543. England invaded Scotland again in 1544, pillaging Edinburgh, but failed to gain a surrender from Scotland. See 25/2/1545.

4/10/1542, Wednesday (-147,034) (Christian) Roberto Bellarmine, Italian Cardinal, was born in Tuscany (died in Rome 17/9/1621).

16/9/1542, Saturday (-147,052) The French King, Francois I, was prescribed a new food by his Ottoman Turkish doctor. This food was yoghurt.

24/8/1542, Thursday (-147,075) Spanish explorers from Quito, Peru, pushed on over the Andes and explored the river they called the Amazon, after the women warriors they met there. However this territory was claimed by Portugal under the Treaty of Tordesillas.

30/7/1542, Sunday (-147,100)

21/7/1542, Friday (-147,109) Pope Paul III established the Universal Inquisition in order to halt the Reformation by repression.

21/5/1542, Sunday (-147,170) Hernando de Soto, the first European to cross the Mississippi, died on the return journey.

6/5/1542, Saturday (-147,185) (Christian, India) Francis Xavier arrived at the Portuguese colony of Goa, India, to begin his work of converting the indigenous inhabitants to Christianity.

15/4/1542, Monday (-147,206) Leonardo da Vinci was born.  His father, Piero da Vinci, was a notary and his mother, Caterina da Vinci, was a peasant.

9/4/1542, Sunday (-147,212) Easter Sunday.

28/3/1542, Tuesday (-147,224) In England, Margaret Davy was boiled to death. This rare punishment was inflicted for her committing murder by poisoning.

13/2/1542. Monday (-147,267) Catherine Howard, the fifth wife of Henry VIII, was beheaded. She stood accused of adultery. Her last words were ‘I die a queen but I would rather have died the wife of Culpepper’.

1/2/1542, Wednesday (-147,279) (Italy) Girolamo Aleandro, Italian Cardinal, died in Rome (born 13/2/1480 in Motta, near Venice).

1/1/1542, Sunday (-147,310)

31/12/1541, Saturday (-147,311)

24/12/1541, Saturday (-147,318) (Christian) Carlstadt, German religious reformer, died (born 1480).

18/10/1541, Tuesday (-147,385) Margaret, Queen of Scotland, died.

11/10/1541, Tuesday (-147,392)

18/8/1541, Thursday (-147,446)

1/8/1541, Monday (-147,463) Simon Grynaeus, German scholarly writer, died (born 1493).

26/6/1541, Sunday (-147,499) Francisco Pizarro, Conquistador, was assassinated in Lima, by followers of a rival explorer, Almagro. The two had disputed over the area each was to control.

21/5/1541, Saturday (-147,535) Johann Faber, German religious writer, died (born 1478).

8/5/1541, Sunday (-147,548) The River Mississippi was first seen by Europeans. The Spanish Conquistador, Hernando de Soto, reached the River in the area where Arkansas City is now sited.

22/4/1541, Friday (-147,564)

17/4/1541, Sunday (-147,569) Easter Sunday.

12/2/1541, Saturday (-147,633) The Spaniards founded Santiago, Chile.

26/1/1541, Wednesday (-147, 650) Florent Chrestien, French poet, was born (died 3/10/1596).

====================================================================================

1540, Henry VIII married Anne of Cleves. 1st British horse racing meeting. Last great monastery seized in England. Henry VIII married Catherine Howard.

31/12/1540, Friday (-147,676)

5/10/1540, Tuesday (-147,763) Helius Hessus, German poet, died (born 6/1/1488).

1/10/1540, Friday (-147,767) Johann Grynaeus, Swiss religious writer, was born (died 13/8/1617).

2/9/1540, Thursday (-147,796) Dawit II, Emperor of Ethiopia, died.

30/7/1540, Friday (-147,830) (Britain) Thomas Abel, English priest, was executed for denying the Royal supremacy in the Church.

28/7/1540. Wednesday (-147,832) Thomas Cromwell, Chancellor to Henry VIII, was beheaded on Tower Hill for promoting the King’s failed marriage to Anne of Cleves. (See 6/1/1540). On the same day Henry VIII married his fifth wife, Catherine Howard. She was beheaded on 13/2/1542.

9/7/1540. Friday (147,851) Henry VIII divorced his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves. She was his fourth wife; nicknamed ‘The Flanders Mare’, she at least kept her head.

11/6/1540, Friday (-147,879) Barmabe Googe, English poet, was born (died 2/1594)

9/5/1540, Sunday (-147,912)

28/3/1540, Sunday (-147,954) Easter Sunday

23/3/1540. Tuesday (-147,959) The Crown seized Waltham Abbey. It was the last of the great monasteries to be seized by Henry VIII, bringing to an end a four-year campaign that had seen some 550 church properties, with their gold and jewels, pass to the King. The total income from these properties was around £132,000 a year and Henry VIII gave some of this to his supporters.

9/2/1540. Monday (-148,002) The first recorded horse-racing meeting in Britain took place on Roodeye Field (now Roodee), Chester.

6/1/1540. Tuesday (-148,036) King Henry VIII’s ill-fated marriage to his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves (see 28/7/1540). Anne was born on 22/9/1515; her father was leader of the German Protestants and so Anne was regarded as a suitable wife for Henry VIII by Cromwell. However she had no looks, spoke only her own language, and had no dowry. Her only recommendations were her proficiency in needlework and her meek and mild temper. The marriage contract was signed on 24/9/1539; she landed at Deal on 27/12/1539, and Henry VIII met her at Rochester on 1/1/1540. On 2/1/1540 Henry VIII openly said about her looks, “She is no better than a Flanders mare”. On the wedding morning, 6/1/1540, he said nothing would have persuaded him to marry her but the fear of driving the Duke of Cleves into the arms of the Holy Roman Emperor. Soon after Henry regretted identifying so closely with the German Protestants. Henry then declared the marriage non-consummated and so null and void, on 9/7/1540. Anne lived the rest of her life happily in retirement in England, dying on 28/7/1557; she was buried at Westminster Abbey.

1540, Henry VIII married Anne of Cleves. 1st British horse racing meeting. Last great monastery seized in England. Henry VIII married Catherine Howard.

====================================================================================

 

31/12/1539, Wednesday (-148,042)

6/11/1539, Thursday (-148,097)

7/9/1539, Sunday (-148,157) Guru Angad Dev became the second Guru of the Sikhs.

4/9/1539, Thursday (-148,160) King Henry VIII contracted to marry Anne of Cleves.

10/8/1539. Sunday (-148,185) King Francis of France orders that all legal documents are henceforth to be drawn up in French, not Latin. He also ordered all priests to keep records of baptisms and deaths.

10/6/1539, Tuesday (-148,246)

30/5/1539, Friday (-148,257) Hernando de Soto landed in Florida, with 600 soldiers, in search of gold.  He also introduced pigs into North America.

6/4/1439, Sunday (-143,311) Easter Sunday

30/3/1539, Sunday (-148,318)

12/1/1539, Sunday (-148,395) The Treaty of Toledo was signed by Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor, and King of Spain), and Francis I (King of France).  Each agreed to make no further alliances with England.  The origin of this Treaty was the dispute between King Henry VIII of England and Pope Paul III.

1/1/1539, Wednesday (-148,406)

31/12/1538, Tuesday (-148,407)

30/11/1538, Saturday (-148,438) (1) In England, Byland Abbey was dissolved.

(2) Sucre, Bolivia, was founded under the name of Ciudad de la Plata de la Nueva Toledo.

28/10/1538, Monday (-148,471) The first University in the Americas, the Universidad Santo Tomas de Aquino, was founded.

28/9/1538, Saturday (-148,501) At the Battle of Preveza, the Turkish fleet under Suleiman the Magnificent, commanded by Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha, defeated the Holy League forces of Charles V, commanded by Andrea Doria.

6/8/1538, Tuesday (-148,554) Bogota, Colombia, was founded by Gonzalo Jimenez de Quesada.

25/7/1539, Thursday (-148,566) (Christian) Lorenzo Campeggio, Italian Cardinal, died (born 1464).

18/6/1538, Tuesday (-148,603) The Truce of Nice; peace was declared between Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and King Francis I of France.

8/5/1538, Thursday (-148,643) (Britain) Edward Fox, Bishop of Hereford, died.

26/4/1538, Friday (-148,656) At the Battle of Los Salinas, Almagro was defeated by Francisco Pizarro, who then seized Cuzco.

21/4/1538, Sunday (-148,661) Easter Sunday.

24/2/1538, Sunday (-148,717) The Treaty of Nagyvarad; peace was declared between King Ferdinand and the Turks.  John Zapolya was recognised as King of Hungary, whilst Ferdinand retained northern and western Hungary and was recognised as heir to the Hungarian throne.

1/1/1538, Tuesday (-148,771) German and Swiss states introduced the Gregorian Calendar.

24/12/1537, Monday (-148,779)

10/12/1537, Monday (-148,793) Giovanni Guarini, Italian poet, was born (died 1612).

24/10/1537.Wednesday (-148,840)  Jane Seymour, third wife of Henry VIII, died, of the all-too-common childbed fever.

12/10/1537. Friday (-148,852) Edward VI, son of Henry VIII and his third wife Jane Seymour, was born at Hampton Court Palace, London. He succeeded his father at the age of 9 but died aged 15. Henry intended him to marry Mary, daughter of King James V of Scotland. In 1543 the Treaty of Greenwich provided for this marriage when Edward reached the age of 10; however the Scottish Parliament rejected this Treaty.

2/9/1537, Sunday (-148,892) Protestant ‘superintendents’ were appointed in Denmark to replace the former Catholic Bishops (see 27/9/1536).

25/8/1537, Saturday (-148,900) The Honourable Artillery Company, the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army and the second most senior, was founded.

15/8/1537, Wednesday (-148,910) Asunción was founded by Juan de Salazar y Espinoza.

25/7/1537. Wednesday (-148,931)

20/6/1537, Wednesday (-148,966) Thomas Darcy, English soldier died (born 1467).

2/6/1537, Saturday (-148,984) (Christian, Race Equality) A Papal Bull issued by Pope Paul III prohibited enslavement of American Indians, contrary to King Charles V’s policies. Paul excommunicated Catholic slave traders.

25/5/1537, Friday (-148,992)

1/4/1537, Sunday (-149,046) Easter Sunday.

12/3/1537, Monday (-149,066) The Portuguese founded the city of Recife, Brazil

6/2/1537, Tuesday (-149,100) Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Japanese statesman, was born (see 18/8/1598).

6/1/1537, Saturday (-149,131) Alessandro de Medici was assassinated.

1/1/1537, Monday (-149,136)

31/12/1536, Sunday (-149,137)

6/12/1536, Wednesday (-149,162)

6/11/1536, Monday (-149,192)

16/10/1536, Monday (-149,213) (Britain, Christian) York was occupied by rebels against the takeover of the Church by King Henry VIII. This was the Pilgrimage of Grace. Much of northern England, from Lincolnshire to north Yorkshire, was in uproar at this takeover, the valuation of Church property, the suppression of smaller monasteries, and the cancellation of some Saints day holidays. Led by Robert Aske, rebels seized northern towns. Henry VIII made peace with the rebels and issued a pardon, only to go back on this on a pretext in January 1537 and execute the leaders of the Pilgrimage of Grace, including Aske.

6/10/1536, Friday (-149,223) William Tyndale, English religious reformer and translator of the Bible, was burned at the stake as a heretic in Vilvarde, Brussels, on the orders of King Henry VIII.

6/9/1536, Wednesday (-149,253)

6/8/1536, Sunday (-149,284)

29/7/1536, Saturday (-149,292) End of the Count’s War in Denmark (began 1534). Count  Christopher of Oldenburg, great nephew of King Christian I, Catholic, contested with Frederick’s son, Christian III. The poorer people supported the Catholics. Forces loyal to Protestant Christian III, backed by the Holstein Dukes and Gustavus Vasa of Sweden, captured Copenhagen this day, This ensured the primacy of Lutheranism over Roman Catholicism in Denmark. The property of the Catholic Bishops was now confiscated by the Danish State.

12/7/1536, Wednesday (-149,309) Desiderus Erasmus, Renaissance philosopher, died.

16/6/1536, Friday (-149,335) The St Lawrence River was named by explorer Jacques Cartier.

30/5/1536. Tuesday (-149,352) King Henry VIII married Jane Seymour, his third wife, in the Queen’s Chapel, Whitehall, eleven days after the execution of Anne Boleyn.

19/5/1536. Friday (-149,363) Anne Boleyn, the second wife of Henry VIII, mother of Queen Elizabeth I, was beheaded at Tower Green, in the Tower of London, aged 29.  She was accused of adultery – Henry VIII was already flirting with his third wife Jane. Elizabeth was declared illegitimate and lost her right of succession to the English throne.

6/5/1536, Saturday (-149,376) King Henry VIII ordered a copy of The Bible to be placed in every English church.

2/5/1536, Tuesday (-149,380) Anne Boleyn was charged with incest and adultery, and taken to the Tower of London.

30/4/1536, Sunday (-149,382) The Inquisition was implemented in Portugal.

16/4/1536, Sunday (-149,396) Easter Sunday.

2/3/1536, Thursday (-149,441)

25/2/1536, Friday (-149,447) (Christian) Berthold Haller, Swiss religious reformer, died (born 1492).

7/1/1536, Friday (-149,496) Catharine of Aragon died at Kimbolton Palace, Huntingdonshire. She was the first of Henry VIII’s six wives, and the mother of Queen Mary I.

1/1/1536, Saturday (-149,502)

31/12/1535, Friday (-149,503)

7/11/1536, Friday (-149,559)

24/10/1535, Sunday (-149,571) Francesco Sforza II, Duke of Milan, died aged 45 without a successor. Milan became a suzerainty of Charles V.

4/10/1535, Monday (-149,591) The first English Bible was printed, translated and published by Miles Coverdale.

4/8/1535, Wednesday (-149,652)

9/7/1535, Friday (-149,678) Antoine du Prat, Chancellor of France, died (born 17/1/1463).

6/7/1535, Tuesday (-149,681) (UK, Russia) Sir Thomas Moore was beheaded in London, for refusing to accept Henry VIII as head of the Church of England. Thomas More was born in 1477 in London. He published Utopia in 1515 which described a pagan, communist, city state in which the institutions and policies are governed entirely by reason. His ideas contrasted with the self-interest and greed for power seen in Europe’s Christian states.

1/6/1535, Monday (-149,717) Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, captured Tunis.

6/5/1535, Thursday (-149,742)

28/4/1535, Wednesday (-149,750)

28/3/1535, Sunday (-149,781) Easter Sunday

6/3/1535, Saturday (-149,803)

18/2/1535, Thursday (-149,819) Henry Agrippa von Nettesheim, German writer, died in Grenoble (born in Cologne, 14/9/1486)

11/2/1535, Thursday (-149, 826) Pope Gregory XIV was born.

21/1/1535, Thursday (-149,847) Henry VIII appointed Cromwell as vice-regent in spiritual or vicar-general. Cromwell now set about assessing the value of England’s monasteries.

18/1/1535, Monday (-149,850) Lima, Peru, was founded by Francisco Pizarro.

15/1/1535, Friday (-149,853) The Act of Supremacy was passed in England. This made King Henry VIII head of the Church.

====================================================================================

1534, Ottomans advanced, capturing Tabriz (Persia) and Baghdad. Jesuits founded. Jacques cartier claimed Newfoundland for France.

31/12/1534, Thursday (-149,868) The Ottoman army captured Baghdad. By 1546 they controlled Yemen, gateway to the Red Sea.

6/11/1534, Friday (-149,923) (Biology) Joachim Camerarius, botanist, was born (died 11/10/1598).

30/10/1534, Friday (-149,930)

25/9/1534, Friday (-149,965) Pope Clement VII (219th Pope) died after eating poisonous mushrooms (born 1475). Pope Paul III (220th Pope), formerly Cardinal Alessandro Farnese (1468-1549) acceded.

15/8/1534, Saturday (-150,006) (Christian) The Jesuits (Society of Jesus) was founded by Ignatius Loyola. They became the main counter-Reformation movement in the Catholic Church.

9/8/1534, Sunday (-150,012) (Christian) Cardinal Cajetan (Tommaso de Vio) died (born 1470). He was a staunch defender of papal privilege, in the face of Protestant reform.

24/7/1534, Friday (-150,028) Jacques Cartier landed in Canada, claiming the territory for France.

13/7/1534, Monday (-150,039) Ottoman armies captured Tabriz in north western Persia.

1/7/1534, Wednesday (-150,051) Frederick II, King of Denmark, was born.

10/5/1534, Sunday (-150,103) Jacques Cartier explored Newfoundland while searching for the Northwest Passage.

20/4/1534, Monday (-150,123) Jacques Cartier sailed from St Malo, to explore the Canadian coast.

18/4/1534, Saturday (-150,125) William Harrison, English writer, was born (died 24/4/1593).

5/4/1534, Sunday (-150,138) Easter Sunday.

1/3/1534, Sunday (-150,173)

2/2/1534, Monday (-150,200) The Great Swabian League was dissolved.

2/1/1534, Friday (-150,231)

1534, Ottomans advanced, capturing Tabriz (Persia) and Baghdad. Jesuits founded. Jacques cartier claimed Newfoundland for France.

====================================================================================

 

31/12/1533, Wednesday (-150,233)

2/12/1533, Tuesday (-150,262)

15/11/1533, Saturday (-150,279) Pizarro entered Cuzco.

15/10/1533, Wednesday (-150,310)

2/10/1533, Thursday (-150,323)

7/9/1533, Sunday (-150,348) Queen Elizabeth I was born at Greenwich Palace in London, the daughter of Henry VIII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn (married 25/1/1533). Elizabeth was recognised as heir to the English throne ahead of her half sister Mary, daughter of Henry VIII’s first wife Catherine of Aragon. See 19/5/1536.

29/8/1533, Friday (-150,357) The end of the Inca Empire. Francisco Pizarro arranged for Atahualpa to be tried on charges of murder, sedition and idolatry. Found guilty this day, Atahualpa was executed by strangulation.

7/8/1533, Thursday (-150,379) Alonso de Ercilla y Zuniga, Spanish poet, was born (died 1595).

29/7/1533, Tuesday (-150,388)

11/7/1533, Friday (-150,406) Henry VIII was excommunicated by Pope Clement VII.

4/7/1533, Friday (-150,413) John Frith, English religious writer ad reformer, was executed.

6/6/1533, Friday (-150,441) Ludovico Ariosto, Italian poet, died.

23/5/1533, Friday (-150,455) The marriage of Henry VIII and Catharine of Aragon was annulled.

11/5/1533, Sunday (-150,467)

24/4/1533, Thursday (-150,484) William the Silent, Prince of Orange, was born at Dillenburg Castle, Nassau, Germany.

13/4/1533, Sunday (-150,495) Easter Sunday

24/3/1533, Monday (-150,515)

23/2/1533, Sunday (-150,544)

25/1/1533, Saturday (-150,573) King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn were secretly married by the Bishop of Lichfield, and became the future parents of Queen Elizabeth I on 7/9/1533. Anne Boleyn was crowned at Westminster on 1/6/1533, shortly after Thomas Cranmer (who was appointed as Archbishop of Canterbury on 30/3/1533) had declared Henry VIII’s marriage to Catherine of Aragon null and void. On 23/5/1533 Henry VIII actually divorced Catherine of Aragon, resulting in a break between England and the Church of Rome.

1/1/1533, Wednesday (-150,597)

31/12/1532, Tuesday (-150,598)

17/12/1532, Tuesday (-150,612)

25/11/1532, Monday (-150,634)

16/11/1532, Saturday (-150,643) (Peru) Atuahalpa met Pizarro at his mountain fortress of Cajamarca. The Spanish handed Atahualpa a Bible and demanded that he convert to Christianity. Atahualpa refused, and was taken hostage by the Spanish. The Inca offered the Spanish a ‘roomful of gold’ to release Atahualpa; the ransom was paid, but Pizarro did not keep his side of the bargain. Instead he had Atahualpa garrotted in the main square in July 1533.

16/10/1532, Wednesday (-150,674)

1/9/1532, Sunday (-150,719) Lady Anne Boleyn was created Marquess of Pembroke by her fiancé, King Henry VIII.

13/8/1532, Tuesday (-150,738) Union of Brittany and France: The Duchy of Brittany was absorbed into the Kingdom of France.

13/7/1532, Saturday (-150,769)

25/6/1532, Tuesday (-150,787) Suleiman I attempted another invasion of Hungary, but failed.

25/5/1532, Saturday (-150,818)

16/5/1532, Thursday (-150,827) Sir Thomas More resigned as Lord Chancellor of England. This was in protest at King Henry VIII’s break with Rome.

13/5/1532, Monday (-150,830) Francisco Pizarro landed on the northern coast of Peru.

13/4/1532, Saturday (-150,860)

31/3/1532, Sunday (-150,873) Easter Sunday.

13/3/1532, Wednesday (-150,891)

13/2/1532, Tuesday (-150,920)

18/1/1532, Monday (-150,956) English Parliament banned payment by English churches to Rome.

1/1/1532, Monday (-150,963)

31/12/1531, Sunday (-150,964)

17/12/1531. Sunday (-150,978)

17/11/1531, Friday (-151,008)

11/10/1531, Wednesday (-151,045) Ulrich Zwingli, Swiss Church reformer, was killed in a fight with soldiers from the Catholic-supporting Forest Cantons at Kappel, near Zurich. Zwingli was Chaplain to the Protestant troops from Zurich.

11/9/1531, Monday (-151,075)

11/8/1531, Friday (-151,106)

11/7/1531, Tuesday (-151,137)

25/6/1531, Sunday (-151,153)

25/5/1531, Thursday (-151,184)

25/4/1531, Tuesday (-151,214)

9/4/1531, Sunday (-151,230) Easter Sunday.

13/3/1531, Monday (-151,257)

27/2/1531, Monday (-151,271) (Germany) German Protestants formed the Schmalkaldic League, to resist Charles V.

25/2/1531. Saturday (-151,273) A severe earthquake killed an estimated 20,000 people in Lisbon.

11/2/1531, Saturday (-151,287) King Henry VIII was recognised as official head of the Church of England.

27/1/1531, Friday (-151,302)

1/1/1531, Sunday (-151,328)

31/12/1530, Saturday (-151,329)

27/12/1530, Tuesday (-151,333) Spanish ships under Pizarro set sail from Panama into the Pacific to capture the gold and silver of the Inca Empire.

26/12/1530, Monday (-151,334) (India) Death of Babur, founder of the Mughal Empire (born 1483).

23/12/1530, Friday (-151,337)

11/12/1530, Sunday (-151,349)

29/11/1530. Tuesday (-151,361) Cardinal Wolsey died after being arrested as a traitor. He died at Market Harborough whilst being taken from York to London.

26/10/1530, Wednesday (-151,395) The Knights of Malta were formed when the Knights Hospitaller were given Malta by Charles V.

29/9/1530, Thursday (-151,422)

23/9/1530, Friday (-151,428)

25/8/1530, Thursday (-151,457) Ivan the Terrible of Russia was born. As Ivan IV, he killed over 3,000, including the royal heir.

3/7/1530, Sunday (-151,510) Claude Fauchet, French historical writer, was born (died 1601).

25/6/1530, Saturday (-151,518) The Confession of Augsburg was read to the Diet.

22/5/1530, Sunday (-151,552)

17/4/1530, Sunday (-151,587) Easter Sunday.

22/3/1530, Tuesday (-151,613)

23/2/1530, Wednesday (-151,640) (Spain, Italy, Germany) Carlos I of Spain was crowned Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire and King of Italy by Pope Clement V.

19/1/1530, Wednesday (-151,675) Francisco Pizarro sailed from Spain, with a commission to conquer Peru. He sailed to Panama, and from there to Peru in 12/1530.

1/1/1530, Saturday (-151,693)

31/12/1529, Friday (-151,694)

23/12/1529, Thursday (-151,702)

23/11/1529, Tuesday (-151,732)

17/10/1529, Sunday (-151,769) Henry VIII of England dismissed Cardinal Wolsey as Lord Chancellor, replacing him with Thomas Moore.

15/10/1529. Friday (-151,771) The Ottoman Turks withdrew from their siege of Vienna, as winter approached.

23/9/1529, Thursday (-151,793) Turkish forces began a siege of Vienna.

8/9/1529, Wednesday (-151,808) (1) The city of Maracaibo, Venezuela, was founded by Ambrosius Ehinger.

(2) Invading Turkish forces captured the city of Buda.

25/8/1529, Wednesday (-151,822)

5/8/1529, Thursday (-151,842) The Treaty of Cambrai was signed, between Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and King Francis I of France.  France abandoned its claims in Italy, but kept Burgundy.

21/7/1529, Wednesday (-151,857)

21/6/1529, Monday (-151,887) John Skelton, tutor to the King Henry VIII as a boy, died.

27/5/1529, Thursday (-151,912) Ad-Din Barbarossa completed his conquest of Algeria, bringing the Ottoman Empire to its peak.

10/5/1529, Monday (-151,929) The Turkish Army under Suleiman I left Constantinople to invade Hungary.

5/5/1529, Wednesday (-150,934) (Italy) Paulus Aemilius, Italian historian, died in Paris (born in Verona).

22/4/1529, Thursday (-151,947) The Treaty of Saragossa divided the eastern hemisphere between Spain and Portugal, along a north-south line 17 degrees 9297.5 leagues) east of the Moluccas.

19/4/1529, Monday (-151,950) At the Diet of Speyer, an alliance of German principalities and city states protested against the reinstatement of the Diet of Worms, so beginning the Protestant movement.

28/3/1529, Sunday (-151,972) Easter Sunday.

7/3/1529, Sunday (-151,993) At the Battle of Shimbra Kure, Imam Ahmad Ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi defeated the forces of Lebna Dengel, Emperor of Ethiopia.

1/1/1529, Friday (-152,058)

31/12/1528, Thursday (-152,059)

5/10/1528, Monday (-155,146) Richard Fox, Emglish statesman, died.

29/8/1528, Saturday (-152,183)

20/8/1528, Thursday (-153,192) Georg von Frundsberg, German soldier, died (born 24/9/1473).

15/8/1528, Saturday (-152,197) (France) Odet de Foix, Vicomte de Lautrec, French military leader (born 1485) died.

8/7/1528, Wednesday (-152,235) Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, was born (died 30/8/1580).

12/4/1528, Sunday (-152,322) Easter Sunday

6/4/1528. Monday (-152,328) Albrecht Durer, German artist and engraver, died in Nuremberg, aged 57.

29/2/1528, Saturday (-152,365) Patrick Hamilton, Scottish martyr, was burnt at the stake.

1/1/1528, Wednesday (-152,424)

31/12/1527, Tuesday (-152,425)

8/11/1527, Friday (-152,478) (Christian) Jerome Emser, opponent of Martin Luther’s reforms, died (born 20/3/1477)

29/10/1527, Tuesday (-152,488)

29/8/1527, Thursday (-152,549)

31/7/1527, Wednesday (-152,578) Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II was born.

26/7/1527, Friday (152,583) The (Spanish) Council of the Indies granted Francisco Pizarro, 54, the right to conquer and take riches from the Panama area.

13/7/1527, Saturday (152,596) John Dee, English mathematician, was born (died 1608).

22/6/1527. Saturday (-152,617) Nicolo Macchiavelli died in Florence, Italy, aged 58.

17/6/1527, Monday (-152,622) The Protestant Reformation began in Sweden.

6/5/1527, Monday (-152,664) German mercenaries sacked the city of Rome, an event considered by many to mark the end of the Renaissance. This occurred during warfare between the Holy League and the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V.

21/4/1527, Sunday (-152,679) Easter Sunday.

14/4/1527, Sunday (-152,686) King Philip of Spain was born; in 1588 he sent an Armada against England but was defeated.

21/3/1527, Thursday (-152,710) Hermann Finck, German composer, was born (died 1558).

16/3/1527, Saturday (-152,715) The Battle of Khanwa. Barbur continued his conquest of northern India.

1/1/1527, Tuesday (-152,789)

31/12/1526, Monday (-152,790)

18/10/1526, Thursday (-152,864) (Spain) Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon, Spanish adventurer, died.

29/8/1526, Wednesday (-152,914) (Turkey, East Europe) The Battle of Mohacs.  The Turkish army under Suleiman I defeated the Hungarians under King Louis II, who was killed whilst retreating.  Suleiman took Buda, whilst Archduke Ferdinand of Austria and John Zapolya, Prince of Transylvania, disputed over the succession.  As a result of this dispute, Dubrovnik achieved independence, although it recognised Turkish overlordship. The Hapsburgs now ruled Bohemia and Hungary.

31/7/1526, Tuesday (-152,943) (Germany) Augustus I, Elector of Saxony, was born in Freiberg (died 21/1/1586 in Dresden).

24/7/1526, Tuesday (-152,950) The Spanish captured Milan.

9/6/1526, Saturday (-152,995) Emperor No-Gara became ruler of Japan.

22/5/1526, Tuesday (-153,013) France repudiated the Treaty of Madrid, and formed the League of Cognac, against Charles V.  This League included the Pope, Milan, Venice, and Florence.

21/4/1526, Saturday (-153,044) The First Battle of Panipat.  Barbur became first Moghul (Mughal) Emperor of India.  He captured Delhi, and northern India, beginning the Moghul Empire, which lasted until 1857.

1/4/1526, Sunday (-153,064) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1526, Tuesday (153,104)

14/1/1526, Sunday (-153,141) The Peace of Madrid; Francis I of France agreed to cede Burgundy to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.  France also abandoned all claims to Flanders, Artois, Naples, and Milan.

1/1/1526, Monday (-153,154)

31/12/1525, Sunday (-153,155)

29/10/1525, Sunday (-153,218)

25/9/1525, Monday (-153,252) Steven Borough, English navigator, was born in Northam, Devon (died 12/7/1584).

12/8/1525, Saturday (-153,296)

13/7/1525, Thursday (-153,326) Christ Church College, Oxford, founded by Thomas Wolsey.

15/5/1525, Monday (-153,385) The Battle of Frankenhausen.

7/5/1525. Sunday (-153,393) The Peasant’s Revolt in Germany was defeated. It had begun in 1524 when the peasants demanded abolition of feudal dues, serfdom, and tithes.

16/4/1525, Sunday (-153,414) Easter Sunday.

7/3/1525, Tuesday (-153,454)

28/2/1525, Tuesday (-153, 461) (Mexico) Aztec Emperor Cuahtemoc was executed by Hernando Cortez.

24/2/1525. Friday (-153,465) (France-Germany, Italy, Spain,  Science-Tech) The Battle of Pavia. Pavia, held by the French, had been under siege by Spanish forces since October 1524. Italy itself was a territory being fought over by the rival powers of France, Germany, Turkey and Spain. The French under King Charles VIII defended Pavia with cavalry and cannon, but the Spanish had adopted the arquebus or hackenbushe, an early version of the handgun; this weapon replaced the Spanish crossbow. The arquebus meant an unskilled infantryman could kill a skilled knight and Pavia was the start of the dominance of the handgun as a military weapon.

23/1/1525, Monday (-153,497)

1/1/1525, Sunday (-153,519)

==================================================================================

1524, Vasco da Gama died. Spanish sailed into what is now New York.

31/12/1524, Saturday (-153,520)

24/12/1524. Saturday (-153,527) The Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama, who discovered the sea route from Europe to the East, died on his second voyage after landing in Cochin, on the Malabar coast of India. See 22/11/1497.

19/11/1524, Saturday (-153,562)

20/10/1524, Thursday (-153,592) Thomas Linacre, physician to King Henry VII and VIII and founder of the Royal College of Physicians in 1518, died.

7/9/1524, Wednesday (-153,635) Thomas Erastus, religious writer, was born (died 31/12/1583).

23/8/1524, Tuesday (-153,650) Francois Hotman, French writer, was born (died 12/2/1590).

8/7/1524, Friday (-153,696) Verrazzano's expedition returned to Dieppe.

23/5/1524, Monday (-153,742) Shah Ismail of Persia died aged 38. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Tahmasp, aged 10.

17/4/1524, Sunday (-153,778) Verrazzano's expedition makes the first European entry into New York Bay and sighted the island of Manhattan.

27/3/1524, Sunday (-153,799) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1524, Friday (-153,885)

==================================================================================

 

31/12/1523, Thursday (-153,886)

19/11/1523, Thursday (-153,928) Pope Clement VII succeeded Pope Adrian VI as the 219th Pope.

2/10/1523, Friday (-153,976) (Italy) Alessandro Alessandri, Italian jurist, died in Rome.

14/9/1523, Monday (-153,994), Pope Adrian VI, Adrian Dedel, Dutch, (218th Pope) died, aged 64. The last non-Italian Pope until John Paul II (acceded 1978), he allied with the Holy Roman Emperor, Venice and England against France. This split the forces of Christendom, resulting in the loss of Rhodes to the Ottoman Turks.

14/7/1523, Tuesday (-154,056)

6/6/1523, Saturday (-154,094) Gustav Vasa, aged 27, was elected King of Sweden, finally established full independence from Denmark.

1/6/1523, Monday (-154,099) Two followers of Martin Luther were burnt alive in Brussels.

12/5/1523, Tuesday (-154,119) (France) Imbert de Batarnay, French statesman, died.

23/4/1523, Thursday (-154,138) Henry Clifford, supporter of King Henry VII of England, died.

5/4/1523, Sunday (-154,156) Easter Sunday.

19/3/1523, Thursday (-154,173)

19/1/1523, Monday (-154,232) Huldreich Zwingli published his 67 Articles in Zurich. They attacked the authority of the Pope, and the concept of Transubstantiation.

1/1/1523, Thursday (-154,250)

31/12/1522, Wednesday (-154,251)

21/12/1522. Sunday (-154,261) Rhodes, formerly the base of the Knights of St John, was conquered by the Ottoman Turks, led by Suleiman, after a six-month siege.  The Knights of St John, driven out of Rhodes, were given permission by Emperor Charles V in 1530 to settle in Malta.  See 18/5/1565.

18/12/1522, Thursday (-154,264) The Turks finally broke into Rhodes, but the Knights continued fierce resistance in the streets.

9/11/1522, Sunday (-154,303) Martin Chemnitz, German religious writer, was born (died 8/4/1586).

15/10/1522, Wednesday (-154,328) Spanish Emperor Charles V promoted Herman Cortes to Governor-General of the new colony of Mexico, founded in 1521.

11/9/1522, Thursday (-154,362) (Biology) Ulissi Aldrovandi, Italian naturalist, was born in Bologna (died 10/5/1605 in Bologna).

6/9/1522, Saturday (-154,367) Ferdinand Magellan’s ship, the Vittoria, under the command of Juan Sebastian Del Cano, arrived in San Lucar, Spain, after completing the first circumnavigation of the world.  Magellan himself was killed on the Philippine island of Mactan.

13/8/1522, Wednesday (-154,391) Emperor Cuauhtemotzin surrendered Mexico City to the Spanish under Cortezs.

28/7/1522, Monday (-154,407) Ottoman Sultan Suleiman I began a siege of the Knights of St. John in Rhodes.

19/7/1522, Saturday (-154,416)

19/5/1522, Monday (-154,477)

27/4/1522, Sunday (-154,499) (Italy) France was forced to surrender control over Milan after defeat at the Battle of Bicocca. France was again fighting in Italy to counter the potential hegemony of Charles V as Holy Roman Emperor.

20/4/1522, Sunday (-154,506) Easter Sunday.

28/3/1522, Friday (-154,529) (Germany) Albert, Prince of Bayreuth, was born in Ansbach (died 8/1/1557 in Pforzheim).

19/3/1522, Wednesday (-154,538)

19/2/1522, Wednesday (-154,566)

9/1/1522, Thursday (-154,607) Pope Adrian VI (218th Pope) acceded (died 1523).

1/1/1522, Wednesday (-154,615)

13/12/1521, Friday (-154,634) Manuel I, 14th King of Portugal, died aged 52 (born 3/5/1469). He was succeeded by his son, Joao III.

1/12/1521, Sunday (-154,646) Pope Leo X died.

1/11/1521, Friday (-154,676)

11/10/1521, Friday (-154,697) Pope Leo X conferred the title of Defender of the faith on King Henry VIII.  Twelve years later Henry VIII broke with Rome to marry Anne Boleyn.

13/9/1521, Friday (-154,725) (Britain) William Burghley, English statesman, was born (died 4/8/1598).

31/8/1521, Saturday (-154,738) The major city of Tenochtitlan in Central America was conquered by Cortez after an 85-day battle.

27/8/1521, Tuesday (-154,742) Josquin des Pres, French composer, died.

15/8/1521, Thursday (-154,754) King Henry VIII of England and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V signed the Treaty of Bruges against France, in contrast to the Anglo-French friendship at the Field of the Cloth of Gold (6/6/1520). This Treaty involved English forces in long campaigns in northern Europe.

30/7/1521, Tuesday (-154,770)

19/7/1521, Friday (-154,781)

19/6/1521, Wednesday (-154,811)

19/5/1521, Sunday (-154,842)

27/4/1521. Saturday (-154,864) Inhabitants of the island of Mactan, Philippines, killed the Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan. He was on a voyage around the world.

20/4/1521, Saturday (-154,871)

18/4/1521, Thursday (-154,873) Martin Luther ended his defence at the Imperial Diet of Worms with the words “I cannot and will not recant anything.  God help me.  Amen”.

17/4/1521, Wednesday (-154,874) Martin Luther, 38 years old, was excommunicated at the Diet of Worms.

16/4/1521, Tuesday (-154,875) Martin Luther arrived at the Diet of Worms.

7/4/1521, Sunday (-154,884) Ferdinand Magellan arrived at Cebu.

31/3/1521, Sunday (-154,891) Easter Sunday

16/3/1521, Saturday (-154,906) Ferdinand Magellan sighted the Philippine Islands.

11/3/1521, Monday (-154,911) (Britain) Andrew Forman, Scottish ecclesiastic, died.

15/2/1521, Friday (-154,935)

28/1/1521, Monday (-154,953) The Diet of Worms began.

3/1/1521, Thursday (-154,978) Pope Leo X issued a Papal Bull excommunicating Martin Luther, after a deadline by which Luther had been ordered to recant his ‘heretical’ views expired. Martin Luther had condemned the sale of Indulgences (Papal forgiveness for sins) to raise funds for the Papacy.

1/1/1521, Tuesday (-154,980)

28/12/1520, Friday (-154,984) (Mexico) Cortes returned to attack Tenochtitlan with a Tlaxacalan army, who were sworn enemies of the Aztecs. He laid siege to the city, and destroyed the aqueduct that brought in fresh water.

28/11/1520, Wednesday (-155,014) After navigating through the South American strait, three ships under the command of Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan reached the Pacific Ocean, becoming the first Europeans to sail from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific (the strait was later named the Strait of Magellan).

4/11/1520, Sunday (-155,038) Christian was crowned King of Sweden.

21/10/1520, Sunday (-155,052) The islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon were discovered by Portuguese explorer João Álvares Fagundes off Newfoundland. He named them "Islands of the 11,000 Virgins" in honour of Saint Ursula.

21/9/1520, Friday (-155,082) Ottoman Sultan Selim died, aged 53. He was succeeded by his 24-year old son, Suleiman I (The Magnificent).

13/9/1520, Thursday (-155,090) William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, Lord High Treasurer to Queen Elizabeth 1st, was born in Bourne Lincolnshire.

30/8/1520 Thursday (-155,104)

10/7/1520, Tuesday (-155,155) In Mexico, Cortez was driven out of Tenochtitlan by the Aztec leader, Cuauhtemoc. Cortez retreated to Tlaxcala.

30/6/1520. Saturday (-155,165) Montezuma II, the last Aztec ruler, was killed by his own people in Mexico City during the Spanish conquest of Mexico under Cortez.

6/6/1520. Wednesday (-155,189) Henry VIII and Francis I of France met in a glittering ceremony at The Field Of The Cloth Of Gold near Calais. However see 15/8/1521.

6/5/1520, Sunday (-155,220)

8/4/1520, Sunday (-155,248) Easter Sunday.

6/4/1520. Friday (-155,250) The painter Raphael died on his 37th birthday.  He was born in Urbino, Italy, on 6/4/1483.

3/3/1520, Saturday (-155,284) Matthius Flacius, religious reformer and writer, was born (died 11/3/1575).

6/2/1520, Monday (-155,310)

1/1/1520, Sunday (-155,346)

31/12/1519, Saturday (-155,347)

6/12/1519, Tuesday (-155,372)

8/11/1519, Tuesday (-155,400) (Mexico) Hernán Cortés entered Tenochtitlan and the court of Aztec ruler Montezuma. The Spanish band of about 400 men became alarmed at the obvious signs of human sacrifice and realised they were heavily outnumbered by the 250,000 Aztecs. They feared they were being led into a trap; in order to escape, Cortes ordered his men to seize Montezuma as a hostage. Montezuma, to avert a rebellion amongst his own people, went along and pretended he was accompanying the Spanish voluntarily.

8/10/1519, Saturday (-155,431)

20/9/1519. Tuesday (-155,449) The Portuguese-born navigator Ferdinand Magellan started on a voyage to cross the Pacific Ocean and circumnavigate the world. He had a fleet of five small ships; Trinidad, San Antonio, Concepcion, Vittoria, and Santiago. On 28/11/1520 Magellan discovered a strait at the southern tip of South America and entered the Pacific. Magellan was killed on 27/4/1521 by natives of the Philippines. Magellan’s ship, the Vittoria, arrived alone in San Lucar, Spain, on 6/9/1522 under the command of Del Cano, to become the first ship to circumnavigate the world.

16/9/1519, Friday (-155,453) Death of John Colet, who founded the modern St Pauls School.

15/8/1519, Monday (-155,485) Panama City was founded.

11/8/1519, Thursday (-155,489) Johann Tetzel died in Leipzig Priory, aged 54. He defended the Church practice of selling indulgences (forgiveness), promoted by the Archbishop of Mainz as a  way of raising money for rebuilding St Peters in Rome.

11/7/1519, Monday (-155,520)

28/6/1519, Tuesday (-155,533) Charles V was elected as Holy Roman Emperor. He was already the ruler of several territories across Europe,in Italy, Austria, Spain and the Low Countries. He had ambitions to establish a wealthy Catholic pan-European State which would push back the ottoman threat, In practice the varied peoples he ruled were disinclined to surrender power to a remote central authority, or to pay taxes to him, and religious differences between his lands persisted. Other European powers were suspicious of his pan-European aims. This resulted in his reign being one of almost continual warfare.

24/6/1519, Friday (-155,537) Lucrezia Borgia, Italian noblewoman from a corrupt family, illegitimate daughter of Pope Alexander VII, died.

2/5/1519. Monday (-155,590) (Science) Leonardo Da Vinci died, at the Chateaux Cloux near Amboise, aged 67.

24/4/1519, Sunday (-155,598) Easter Sunday. Montezuma II, the Aztec Emperor, sent envoys to attend the first Easter Mass to be celebrated in the Americas.

22/4/1519, Friday (-155,600)

6/4/1519 Wednesday (-155,616)

12/3/1519, Saturday (-155,641)

15/2/1519, Tuesday (-155,666) (Spain) Pedro Aviles, Spanish naval adventurer, was born in Aviles, Asturia (died 17/9/1574).

12/1/1519, Wednesday (-155,700) Holy Roman Emperor, Maximillian I, died aged 59. He had been King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor from 1493. He was succeeded by Spain’s Carlos I, elected Holy Roman Emperor as Charles V.

1/1/1519, Saturday (-155,711)

31/12/1518, Friday (-155,712)

30/11/1518, Tuesday (-155,743) Andrea Palladio, Italian architect, was born.

27/11/1518, Saturday (-155,746) Daniel Bomberg completed the Rabbinical Bible.

29/9/1518, Wednesday (-155,805) Tintoretto, Venetian painter, was born as Jabobi Robusti, the son of a dyer.

20/9/1518, Monday (-155,814)

4/4/1518, Sunday (-155,983) Easter Sunday.

4/3/1517, Thursday (-156,014)

1/1/1518, Friday (-156,076)

31/12/1517, Thursday (-156,077)

31/10/1517. Martin Luther, born 10/11/1483 in Eisleben, Germany, nailed his 95 Theses to the church  door at Wittenburg, so starting the Reformation. He died on 18/2/1546. These theses condemned the sale of indulgences granting forgiveness of sin. On 15/6/1520 Pope Leo X condemned Luther’s theses as ‘heretical and scandalous’.

12/4/1517, Sunday (-155,340) Easter Sunday

16/3/1517, Monday (-155,367) The Fifth Lateran Council ended.

20/1/1517, Tuesday (-156,422) The Ottomans conquered Cairo, Egypt.

31/12/1516, Wednesday (-156,442)

23/5/1516, Friday (-156,664) Georg Fabricius, German poet, was born (died 17/7/1571).

6/4/1516, Sunday (-156,711)

26/3/1516, Wednesday (-156,722) Konrad von Gesner, Swiss scholarly writer, was born (died 13/12/1565).

23/3/1516, Sunday (-156,725) Easter Sunday.

18/2/1516, Monday (-156,759) Queen Mary I, Mary Tudor (Bloody Mary), was born at Greenwich Palace, the daughter of Henry VIII and Catharine of Aragon. She was known as Bloody Mary due to her relentless persecution of the Protestants.

23/1/1516, Wednesday (-156,785) Ferdinand V, King of Castile and Leon, also Ferdinand II of Aragon, died aged 63. He was succeeded by his 16-year old grandson, Carlos I, then a student in Flanders.

1/1/1516, Tuesday (-156,807)

16/12/1515, Sunday (-156,823) (Portugal) Alphonso D’Albuquerque, Portuguese naval military expert, died at sea.

2/12/1515, Sunday (-156,837) Gonzalo Cordoba., Spanish military commander, died (born 16/3/1453).

15/11/1515, Thursday (-156,854) Thomas Wolsey was invested as a Cardinal.

22/9/1515, Saturday (-156,908) Anne of Cleves, one of King Henry VIII’s wives, was born.

13/9/1515, Thursday (-156,917) The French defeated the Swiss at the Battle of Marengo (Marignano).

12/7/1515, Thursday (-156,980)

5/7/1515. Thursday (-156,987) The Ottoman Turks, led by Sultan Selim, invaded Egypt. The Mameluke dynasty was destroyed.

16/4/1515, Monday (-157,067) Roman Catholic Mass was banned in Zurich as the Lutheran Revolution spread across Europe.

8/4/1515, Sunday (-157,075) Easter Sunday.

28/3/1515, Wednesday (-157,086) St Teresa of Avila was born. A Spanish noblewoman, she joined the Carmelite nuns in 1533, and reformed the order.

6/2/1515, Tuesday (-157,136) Death of Aldus Manutius, the first publisher of paperbacks and inventor of italics.

1/1/1515, Monday (-157,172) King Louis XII of France was succeeded by his nephew, Francis, who continued France’s policy of attempting to invade Italy.

25/10/1514, Wednesday (-157,240) William Elphinstone, founder of the University iof Aberdeen in 1498, died (born 1431).

9/10/1514, Monday (-157,256) Louis XII, King of France, married Mary Tudor.

15/9/1514, Friday (-157,280) Thomas Wolsey was appointed Archbishop of York.

8/9/1514, Friday (-157,287) At the Battle of Orsha, a combined force of Poles and Ukrainians defeated the Russians.

23/8/1514, Wednesday (-157,303) (Iran, Turkey) At the Battle of Chaldiran, Selim I , ruler of the Shia Muslim Ottoman Empire, defeated the Sunni Muslim Persians under Shah Ismail I. Drawing on lessons learnt from fighting European armies, the Ottoman Army was well disciplined and equipped with heavy cannon and musket-armed infantry. In contrast the smaller Persian Army relied on the cavalry charge and possessed no artillery. The Safavid capital at Tabriz was taken by the Ottoman Turks, forcing the Persians to move their capital further east. This battle was instrumental in fixing the present day frontier between Turkey and Iran.

16/4/1514, Sunday (-157,432) Easter Sunday.

11/4/1514, Tuesday (-157,437) Italian architect Donate Bramante died whilst still building St Peters in Rome, which he had begun in 1506.

11/3/1514, Saturday (-157,468) Lazzari Bramante, Italian painter and architect, died.

1/1/1514, Sunday (-157,537)

31/12/1513, Saturday (-157,538)

30/10/1513, Friday (-157,539) Jacques Amyot, French writer, was born in Melun (died 6/2/1593).

24/10/1513, Saturday (-157,545) In England, clergymen who committed murder were no longer exempt from punishment.

11/10/1513, Sunday (-157,558) Church reformer Huldrych Zwingli died (born 1/1/1484). He was killed, as Army Chaplain for the forces of Zurich, in battle during the War of Kappel, against the Forest Cantons.

25/9/1513, Friday (-157,574) The Spaniard Vasco Nunez de Balboa became the first European to see the Pacific from the Americas. Leaving his base near Darien he headed west across the Isthmus of Panama in a gruelling 25 day trek across 45 miles of almost impenetrable rainforest. Hostile indigenous people were an added hazard.

9/9/1513, Wednesday (-157,590) Battle of Flodden Field, at Branxton, Northumberland. The Scots were defeated by the English, under Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey, and James IV of Scotland was killed. James IV had abandoned his alliance with Henry VIII and attempted an invasion of England. Margaret, the sister of King Henry VIII, became regent for her one year old son, James V.

16/8/1513, Sunday (-157,614) The Battle of the Spurs. King Henry VIII defeated the French.

8/4/1513, Friday (-157,805) The Spaniard, Juan Ponce de Leon, claimed Florida, which he believed to be an island, for Spain. He called it Florida because of the abundance of wild flowers there and because it was discovered close to the religious festival Pasqua de Flores.

27/3/1513, Sunday (-157,817) Easter Sunday.

28/2/1513, Monday (-157,844) Robert Fabyan, English writer, died

21/2/1513, Monday (-157,851) Pope Julius II died.

9/2/1513, Wednesday (-157,863) Portuguese explorer Pedro Mascarenhas discovered the island of Reunion.

1/1/1513, Saturday (-157,902)

31/12/1512, Friday (-157,903)

27/12/1512, Monday (-157,907) Spain enacted the Laws of Burgos, giving New World natives legal protection against abuse but authorising slavery of Black people.

1/11/1512. Monday (-157,963) Michelangelo unveiled his painting on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.

1/9/1512, Wednesday (-158,024)

2/8/1512, Monday (-158,054) (Biology) Alessandro Achillini, Italian anatomist, (born 29/10/1453 in Bologna) died in Bologna.

3/5/1512, Monday (-158,145) The Fifth Lateran Council began.

11/4/1512, Sunday (-158,167) Easter Sunday.

10/4/1512, Saturday (-158,168) James V, King of Scotland, born.

2/4/1512, Friday (-158,176) At the Battle of Ravenna, French forces defeated a Spanish – Papal army.

5/3/1512, Friday (-158,204) Gerardus Mercator, Flemish cartographer, was born in Flanders, as Gerhard Kremer.

22/2/1512. Sunday (-158,216) The Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci, who gave America his name, died in Seville.

22/1/1512, Thursday (-158,247)

1/1/1512, Thursday (-158,268)

31/12/1511, Wednesday (-158,269)

4/12/1511, Thursday (-158,296) (Race Equality) Antonio de Montesinos, a  Spanish Dominican friar, denounced the cruelty of settlers enslaving indigenous peoples.

4/10/1511, Saturday (-158,357)

4/8/1511, Monday (-158,418) (Portugal, SE Asia) The Portuguese explorer, Alfonso de Aberquerque, captured Malacca, now in Malaysia. This gave Portugal control over the strategic Strait of Malacca, through which all trade between China and India passed.

20/4/1511, Sunday (-158,524) Easter Sunday.

10/4/1511, Thursday (-158,534)

1/1/1511, Wednesday (-158,633)

31/12/1510, Tuesday (-158,634)

10/12/1510, Tuesday (-158,655) (India) The Portuguese seized Goa.

25/10/1510, Friday (-158,701) Giorgione, painter, died.

6/10/1510, Sunday (-158,720) John Caius, founder of Caius College Cambridge, was born.

17/5/1510. Friday (158,862) Death of Florentine painter Sandro Botticelli, 65, whose work included The Birth of Venus.

10/4/1510, Wednesday (-158,899)

31/3/1510, Sunday (-158,909) Easter Sunday

10/3/1510, Sunday (-158,930) Johann Geiler, German religious writer, died (born 16/3/1445)

1/3/1510, Friday (-158,939) Francesco de Almeida, the first Portuguese viceroy to India, died.

1/1/1510, Tuesday (-158,998)

31/12/1509, Monday (-158,999)

29/10/1509, Monday (-159,062)

11/9/1509,  Tuesday (-159,110) Portuguese Fidalgo Diogo Lopes de Sequeira became the first European to reach Malacca, having crossed the Gulf of Bengal.

10/9/1509, Monday (-159,111) Istanbul earthquake destroyed 109 mosques and killed an estimated 10,000 people.

3/8/1509, Sunday (-159,147) Etienne Dolet, French scholarly writer, was born (executed 3/8/1546).

10/7/1509, Thursday (-159,171) John Calvin, French priest who spread the Reformation, was born at Noyon, Picardy.

1/7/1509, Tuesday (-159,180) Because the Queen of England customarily did not breastfeed her children, a ‘wet nurse’ was appointed, a woman who had recently given birth herself, was appointed. The salary for this post in 1509 was £20 a year.

24/6/1509, Tuesday (-159,187) King Henry VIII of England was crowned.

11/6/1509, Wednesday (-159,200) King Henry VIII, aged 18, married his sister in law, the Spanish princess Catharine of Aragon, aged 24. She was the first of his six wives.

14/5/1509, Wednesday (-159,228) (Italy) French victory over Venice at the Battle of Agnadello, near Milan.

21/4/1509. Saturday (-159,253) King Henry VII died in Richmond, Surrey, probably from tuberculosis. His second son, Henry VIII, succeeded him. The coronation of Henry VIII was on 24/6/1509.

8/4/1509, Sunday (-159,266) Easter Sunday.

8/3/1599, Thursday (-159,297)

3/2/1509, Saturday (-159,330) (India, Portugal) Portugal defeated the Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Diu, Indian Ocean. Portugal was moving to dominate the spice trade, which had been lucrative for the Sultan of Gujarat, Mahmud Begada. Begada was supported by other beneficiaries of the established trade; Egypt, the Ottoman Empire and Venice. However the Portuguese ships, built to withstand the rigours of a long voyage, were superior, and Portugal’s victory gave them control of the Indian spice trade for a century.

1/1/1509, Monday (-159,363)

31/12/1508, Sunday (-159,364)

24/12/1508, Sunday (-159,371) London houses received piped water for the first time.

22/10/1508, Sunday (-159,434)

11/9/1508, Monday (-159,475)

8/8/1508, Tuesday (-159,509) Juan Ponce de León, a lieutenant under Columbus, founded the first Spanish settlement on Puerto Rico, Caparra, on August 8, 1508.

23/4/1508, Sunday (-159,616) Easter Sunday.

4/4/1508, Tuesday (-159,635) The first book was printed in Scotland.

4/2/1508, Friday (-159,695) Konrad Celtes, German poet, died (born 1459)

31/1/1508, Monday (-159,699)

1/1/1508, Saturday (-159,729)

31/12/1507, Friday (-159,730)

29/10/1507, Friday (-159,793)

1/10/1507, Friday (-159,821) Giacomo Barocchio, Italian architect, was born in Vignola (died in Rome 7/71573).

11/9/1507, Saturday (-159,841)

20/8/1507, Friday (-159,863) Guru Nanak Dev became the first guru and leader of the Sikh religion.

1/7/1507, Thursday (-159,913) The earliest records of coal-mining at Nailsea, near Bristol. Coal was being transported to Yatton for household fireplaces. By the late 19th century coal mining had died out south of Bristol as the industry migrated to the richer seams of south Wales.

29/4/1507, Thursday (-159,976) Louis XII, King of France, led his troops into Genoa.

25/4/1507, Sunday (-159,980) The name ‘America’ was first used on a map, by German cartographer Martin Waldseemuller, in honour of Italian navigator Amerigo Vespucci.

4/4/1507, Sunday (-160,001) Easter Sunday.

1/4/1507, Thursday (-160,004)

12/3/1507, Friday (-160,024) Cesare Borgia died at the siege of Viana in Navarre.

1/1/1507, Friday (-160,094)

31/12/1506, Thursday (-160,095)

29/10/1506, Thursday (-160,158)

25/9/1506, Friday (-160,192) Philip the Handsome, King of Spain, died suddenly aged 28, at Burgos. His wife went mad after his death. Her father Ferdinand II of Aragon ruled as Regent of Castile, as Ferdinand V.

13/9/1506, Sunday (-160,204) Andrea Mantegna, Italian painter, died in Mantua.

11/9/1506, Friday (-160,206)

5/8/1506, Wednesday (-160,243) Death of King Alexander of Poland. Born in 1461, he succeeded his brother Albert to the Polish throne in 1501.His power was greatly eroded by the Polish nobility and senate. Consequently, because of lack of funds, Alexander was unable to restrain much the expansion of the Muscovy or the Teutonic Order in Prussia.

20/5/1506. Wednesday (-160,320) Christopher Columbus, Italian navigator who discovered the New World in 1492, died aged 55 in Valladolid, Spain. See 3/8/1492. He was virtually penniless. However his discovery of favourable winds in both directions across the Atlantic opened up the way for European exploration of the New World.

12/5/1506, Tuesday (-160,328)

12/4/1506, Sunday (-160,358) Easter Sunday

7/4/1506, Tuesday (-160,363) St Francis Xavier, Spanish Jesuit missionary, was born near Sanguesa.

1/1/1506, Thursday (-160,459)

31/12/1505, Wednesday (-160,460)

27/10/1505.  Monday (-160,525) Ivan the Great (Ivan III), Czar of Russia, died aged 65. He was succeeded by his 26-year-old son who ruled as Basil III Ivanovitch until 1553.

11/9/1505, Thursday (-160,571)

7/4/1505, Monday (-160,728)

23/3/1505, Sunday (-160,743) Easter Sunday.

17/3/1505, Monday (-160,749) Prince Christopher, son of Janos Corvinus of Hungary, died.

1/1/1505, Wednesday (-160,824)

==================================================================================

1504, Michaelangelo unveiled his statue of David.

31/12/1504, Tuesday (-160,825)

24/11/1504, Sunday (-160,862) Isabella, Queen of Castille and Leon, died aged 53. She was succeeded by her daughter Juana and Juana’s husband, Philip. However they remained in Flanders, and Ferdinand ruled instead.

12/10/1504, Saturday (-160,905) Janos Corvinus of Hungary died (born 1473).

8/9/1504. Sunday (-160,939) Michelangelo, 29, unveiled his statue of David in Florence. The 13 foot high marble statue had taken him three years to carve.

6/8/1504. Tuesday (-160,972) Matthew Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury, was born.  He had a very long nose, and was extremely inquisitive, hence the expression ‘nosey parker’.

18/7/1504, Thursday (160,991) Heinrich Bullinger, Swiss religious writer and reformer, was born (died 17/9/1585).

5/5/1504, Sunday (-160,065) Stanislaus Hosius, Polish Cardinal, was born (died 5/8/1579).

7/4/1504, Sunday (-161,093) Easter Sunday.

7/3/1504, Thursday (-161,124)

29/2/1504,  Thursday (-161,131) A total eclipse of the Moon. Christopher Columbus was stranded in Jamaica and needed provisions but the locals were reluctant to help him. Columbus knew the eclipse was due and warned the tribal leaders that his God would turn the Moon blood-red if they did not help him. The locals did not comply but when the Moon turned red as Columbus had foretold they did give him necessary provisions.

17/1/1504, Wednesday (-161,174) Pope Pius V was born.

1/1/1504, Monday (-161,190)

====================================================================================

 

29/12/1503, Friday (-161,193) At the Battle of Garigliano, near Gaeta, Italy, Spanish forces under Gonzalo Fernandez de Cordoba defeated a French-Italian mercenary army under Ludovico II, Marquis of Saluzzo.  French forces withdrew to Gaeta.

14/12/1503. Thursday (-161,208) The French astrologer Nostradamus was born, as Michel de Nostradame.  He wrote his book of prophecies in 1555.

2/11/1503, Thursday (-161,250) Columbus discovered Panama. He also observed the inhabitants playing with a heavy black bouncing ball, made of a substance new to him, rubber.

31/10/1503, Tuesday (-161,252) Pope Julius II succeeded Pope Pius as 216th Pope.

30/10/1503, Monday (-161,253) Queen Isabella of Spain banned violence against native tribes.

18/10/1503, Wednesday (-161,265) Pope  Pius III died.

22/9/1503, Friday (-161,291) Pope Pius III (Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini) succeeded Pope Alexander VI as 215th Pope.  However he died on 18/10/1503.

11/9/1503, Monday (-161,302)

18/8/1503, Friday (-161,326) Death of Pope Alexander VI, or Rodrigo Borgia, aged 74. See 10/8/1492.

8/8/1503, Tuesday (-161,336) The marriage of King James IV of Scotland and Margaret Tudor, daughter of King Henry VII, took place at Holyrod Palace, Edinburgh.

1/6/1503, Thursday (-161,404) Wilhelm von Grumbach, German adventurer, was born (executed 18/4/1567).

28/5/1503, Sunday (-161,408) The Treaty of Everlasting Peace between Scotland and England was signed; peace actually lasted ten years.

13/5/1503, Saturday (-161,423) The Spanish captured Naples.

10/5/1503, Wednesday (-161,426) Christopher Columbus discovered the Cayman islands, he called them Las Tortugas, after the numerous sea turtles there.

21/4/1503, Friday (-161,445) (France, Italy, Spain) The Battle of Cerignola, Italy.  The Spanish under Gonzalo Fernandez de Cordoba defeated the French under the Duc de Nemoura, who was killed.  This was the first battle considered to have been won by gunpowder and small arms.

16/4/1503, Sunday (-161,450) Easter Sunday.

22/3/1503, Wednesday (-161,475) Antonio Grazzini, Italian author, was born (died 18/2/1583).

10/3/1503, Friday (-161,487) Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, was born.

23/2/1503, Thursday (-161,502) At the Battle of Ruvo, the Spanish defeated the French.

20/1/1503, Friday (-161,536) Seville, in Castille, was awarded exclusive rights to trade with the New World.

1/1/1503, Sunday (-161,555)

31/12/1502, Saturday (-161,556)

29/10/1502, Saturday (-161,619)

18/9/1502, Sunday (-161,660) Christopher Columbus landed at Costa Rica.

11/9/1502, Sunday (-161,667)

6/6/1502, Monday (-161,764) John III, King of Portugal, was born.

21/5/1502, Saturday (-161,780) The Portuguese explorer Joao de Nova discovered the island of St Helena, in the south Atlantic.

11/5/1502. Wednesday (-161,790) Christopher Columbus left on his fourth voyage of exploration, returning on 7/11/1504.

8/5/1502, Sunday (-161,793)

2/4/1502, Saturday (-161,829) Arthur, eldest son of King Henry VII, died after an illness.

27/3/1502, Sunday (-161,835) Easter Sunday.

12/2/1502. Saturday (-161,878) Spain expelled all Moors who had not been baptised as Christians.  See 30/3/1492.

7/1/1502, Friday (-161,914) Pope Gregory XIII born

1/1/1502, Saturday (-161,920)

31/12/1501, Friday (-161,921)

29/10/1501, Friday (-161,984)

24/9/1501, Friday (-162,019) Girolamo Cardan, Italian physician, was born (died 21/9/1576).

11/9/1501, Saturday -162,032)

21/5/1501, Friday (-162,145) The island of St Helena was first visited by the Portuguese, on St Helena’s Day.

10/5/1501. Monday (-162,156) Amerigo Vespucci set sail for what is now called South America.  On 1/1/1502 his fleet entered the bay of Guanabara, where Rio de Janeiro now stands.

11/4/1501, Sunday (-162,185) Easter Sunday.

25/3/1501, Thursday (-162,202) Ascension Island was first sighted by the Portuguese navigator, Joao de Nova Gallego. He named it Ilha de Nossa Senhora de Conceicoa in honour of the Annunciation. It was rediscovered by Alfonso D’Albuquerque on Ascension Day 1503, and thereby acquired its present name.

17/1/1501, Sunday (-163,269) Leonhard Fuchs, German physician, was born (died 10/5/1566).

1/1/1501, Friday (-162,285)

31/12/1500, Thursday (-162,286)

31/10/1500, Saturday (-162,347)

12/9/1500, Saturday (-162,396) Albert III, Duke of Saxony, died in Emden (born 27/1/1443).

11/9/1500, Friday (-162,397)

29/5/1500, Friday (-162,502) Bartholomew Diaz, the Portuguese explorer who discovered the Cape of Good Hope in 1488, was drowned during a storm at sea.

23/4/1500, Thursday (-162,538) (Britain) Alexander Ales, Scottish clergyman, was born in Edinburgh (died 17/3/1565 in Leipzig).

22/4/1500. Wednesday (-162,539) Portuguese explorer Pedro Alvarez Cabral discovered the coast of Brazil. He claimed this territory for Portugal, which he named Vera Cruz or ‘true cross’ but which was to be called Brazil, after the red-coloured brazil-wood, which grew there.

19/4/1500, Sunday (-162,542) Easter Sunday.

12/4/1500, Sunday (-162,549) Joachim Camerarius, German scholarly writer, was born (died 17/4/1574).

20/2/1500, Thursday (-162,601) Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, was born.

26/1/1500, Sunday (-162,626)

1/1/1500, Wednesday (-162,651)

31/12/1499, Tuesday (-162,652)

23/11/1499, Saturday (-162,690) Perkin Warbeck was executed at the Tower of London.  He was a Flemish impostor, the son of a boatman from Tournai, claiming to be Richard of York, son of Edward II, whom he closely resembled. Initially treated leniently after his attempt on the throne (see 31/7/1495), he then attempted to escape the Royal Palace and team up with another usurper, Edward Earl of Warwick.

22/9/1499, Sunday (-162,752) Under the Treaty of Basel, Maximilian granted the Swiss independence. Formal independence was not achieved for another century.

11/9/1499, Wednesday (-162,763)

8/9/1499, Sunday (-162,766)

29/8/1499, Thursday (-162,776) Alessio Baldovinetti, Florentine painter, died (born 14/10/1427).

25/8/1499, Sunday (-162,780) (Italy, Turkey) The Venetian fleet was defeated at the Battle of Zonchia by the Ottomans. This was the first time cannon had been used in a naval battle. The Venetian-Ottoman War, 1499-1503, started. Venetian sea-power in the Mediterranean was an obstacle to Ottoman expansion. Ottoman Turkey gained the upper hand, and by 1503 Ottoman cavalry raids were reaching into Venetian territory. Venice was forced to recognise Turkish gains.

8/8/1499, Thursday (-162,797)

22/7/1499, Monday (-162,814) The Battle of Dornach. Swiss Confederation forces defeated the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian. This was the last battle between Switzerland and the Holy Roman Empire.

8/7/1499,  Monday (-162,828)

24/6/1499, Monday (-162,842) Johann Brenz, scholarly writer, was born (died 11/9/1570).

8/6/1499, Saturday (-162,858)

23/5/1499, Thursday (-162,874)

8/5/1499, Wednesday (-162,889)

8/4/1499, Monday (-162,919)

31/3/1499, Sunday (-162,927) Easter Sunday. Pope Pius IV was born.

1/1/1499, Tuesday (-163,016)

31/12/1498, Monday (-163,017)

19/12/1498, Wednesday (-163,029) Andreas Osiander, religious reformer, was born.

17/10/1498, Wednesday (-163,092)

16/9/1498, Sunday (-163,123) Tomas de Torquemada, Inquisitor-General, died.

11/9/1498, Tuesday (-163,128)

16/8/1498, Thursday (-163,154)

31/7/1498, Tuesday (-163,170) Christopher Columbus arrived at an island he called Trinidad.

7/6/1498. Thursday (-163,224) Christopher Columbus left on his third journey of exploration.

20/5/1498. Sunday (-163,242) Vasco da Gama (Food, India) arrived at Calicut, southern India, after discovering a route via the tip of southern Africa. , proving the feasibility of a sea route from Portugal to India and the Spice Islands. This meant Europe could buy spices independent from Venetian and Muslim middlemen.

15/5/1498, Tuesday (-163,247)

15/4/1498, Sunday (-163,277) Easter Sunday.

14/4/1498, Saturday (-163,278) Vasco da Gama arrived at the trading city of Malindi, east Africa, after putting in at Kilwa and Monbasa.

8/4/1498, Sunday (-163,284) Charles VIII of France died suddenly, aged 27. He was succeeded by his cousin, the Duc d’Orleans, as Louis XII

31/3/1498, Saturday (-163, 292)

25/1/1498, Thursday (-163,357) Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama visited Quelimane and Mozambique in south-eastern Africa.

1/1/1498, Monday (-163,381)

31/12/1497, Sunday (-163,382)

25/12/1497, Monday (-163,388) The Portuguese explorer Vasco Da Gama reached the part of South Africa which he called Natal.

5/12/1497, Tuesday (-163,408) King Manuel I of Portugal proclaimed an edict in which he demanded that Jews convert to Christianity or leave the country.

22/11/1497. Wednesday (-163,421) The Portuguese explorer Vasco Da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope in his search for a route to India. His fleet comprised the St Gabriel, the St Raphael, the Berrio, and a store ship. See 24/12/1524. He had set sail from Lisbon on 8/7/1497.

20/9/1497, Wednesday (-163,484)

11/9/1497, Monday (-163,493)

11/8/1497, Friday (-163,524)

6/8/1497. Sunday (-163,529) Genoese navigator John Cabot returned from an expedition across the Atlantic. King Henry VII of England financed his travels. Though he was Genoese and had Venetian citizenship, Cabot came to England in 1487 to raise support for a transatlantic voyage and settled in Bristol. He sailed from Bristol on 2/5/1497 and landed on 24/6/1497 on the coast of Labrador. There he planted the Tudor banner, in defiance of the Treaty of Tordesillas, which divided up the western world between Spain and Portugal (see 6/12/1492, Papal backing for gold to finance a war against the Moslems). Under this treaty, signed on 7/6/1494, all land west of a line in the western Atlantic would belong to Spain; any land east of it would be Portuguese. He explored the coastline from Labrador to Cape Breton.

1/8/1497, Tuesday (-163,534)

25/7/1497, Tuesday (-163,541)

18/7/1497, Tuesday (-163,548)

8/7/1497, Saturday (-163,558) Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama set sail from Lisbon to attempt to find a sea passage to India.

1/7/1497, Saturday (-163,565)

24/6/1497, Saturday (-163,572) John Cabot, in his exploration of north America, arrived at Cape Breton Island.

17/6/1497, Saturday (-163,579) (London) Cornish rebels against King Henry VII, having marched to Guildford on 13/6/1497, and skirmished with the Army on Hounslow Heath, now ,marched on London. They failed to gain the support of Kentish men, and therefore marched through Banstead, and this day faced te King’s men at the Battle of Deptford where the rebels were finally crushed.

6/6/1497, Tuesday (-163,590)

3/6/1497, Saturday (-163,593)

1/6/1497, Thursday (-163,595)

30/5/1497, Tuesday (-163,597)

16/5/1497, Tuesday (-163,611)

8/5/1497, Monday (-163,619)

2/5/1497,  Tuesday (-163,625) John Cabot set sail from Bristol.

2/4/1497, Sunday (-163,655)

26/3/1497, Sunday (-163,662) Easter Sunday.

26/2/1497, Sunday (-163,690)

26/1/1497, Thursday (-163,721)

1/1/1497, Sunday (-163,746)

31/12/1496, Saturday (-163,747)

25/12/1496, Sunday (-163,753)

11/12/1496, Sunday (-163,767)

7/12/1496, Wednesday (-163,771)

30/11/1496, Wednesday (-163,778)

17/11/1496, Thursday (-163,791)

25/9/1496, Sunday (-163,844) (Italy) Piero Capponi, Florentine statesman, died.

11/9/1496, Sunday (-163,858)

7/9/1496, Wednesday (-163,862) Ferdinand II, King of Naples, died.

7/8/1496, Sunday (-163,893)

7/7/1496, Thursday (-163,924)

7/6/1496, Tuesday (-163,954)

12/5/1496, Thursday (-163,980) Gustavus Vasa, King of Sweden, was born.

3/4/1496, Sunday (-164,019) Easter Sunday.

3/3/1496, Thursday (-164,050)

25/2/1496, Thursday (-164,057) Eberhard, Duke of Wurttemberg, died (born 1445).

3/1/1496, Sunday (-164,110) Leonardo da Vinci unsuccessfully tested a flying machine.

1/1/1496, Friday (-164,112)

25/12/1495, Friday (-164,119) At the Second Battle of Acentejo, Spanish forces crushed the natives of the island of Tenerife, destroying the last bastion of resistance on the Canary Islands.

18/12/1495, Friday (-164,126) Alfonso II, King of Naples, died.

5/12/1495, Saturday (-164,139) Nicolas Cleynaerts, Belgian writer, was born (died 1542).

21/11/1495, Saturday (-164,153) John Bale, English author, was born in Cove, near Dunwich (died 11/1563).

30/10/1495, Friday (-164,175) An explosion at Vyborg castle deterred Russian forces who were invading Sweden through Karelia.

25/10/1495, Sunday (-164,180) King Manuel I became rule of Portugal, on the death of King Joao II, aged 40.

25/9/1495, Friday (-164,210)

11/9/1495, Friday (-164,224)

6/7/1495, Monday (-164,291) (France, Italy, Spain) At the Battle of Fornovo, near Parma, the French Army secured its retreat from Italy by defeating a combined Milanese-Venetian force under Giobvanni Francesco Gonzaga, Marquis of Mantua. France had contested with Spain over who would control Italy. Charles VIII of France expected support from his one-time allies, the Milanese, but when he arrived in Italy he found they had joined with Venice, the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire to oppose his plans for Italy.

3/7/1495, Friday (-164,294) The Pretender to the English throne, Perkin Warbeck, landed at Deal, Kent, with 150 men. He hoped to gather enough supporters to overthrow King Henry VII. However his force was routed and he went on to Ireland, where he was again unsuccessful at besieging the pro-Henry town of Waterford. Warbeck then fled to Scotland. See 23/11/1499.

28/6/1495, Sunday (-164,299) At the Battle of Seminara, Cordoba and Ferrante were defeated by a French army under Bernard Stewart, Lord of Aubigny.

1/6/1495, Monday (-164,326) Friar John Cor recorded the first known batch of Scotch whisky.

26/5/1495, Tuesday (-164,332) A Spanish army under Gonzalo de Cordoba landed in Calabria, to oust the French and restore Ferrante II to the throne of Naples.

8/5/1495, Friday (-164,350)

19/4/1495, Sunday (-164,369) Easter Sunday.

20/3/1495, Friday (-164,399)

22/2/1495, Sunday (-164,425) King Charles VIII of France entered Naples to claim the city’s throne.  A few months later he returned to France with most of his army, leaving a force under his cousin, Gilbert Count of Montpensier as viceroy.

12/1/1495, Monday (-164,466)

1/1/1495, Thursday (-164.477)

12/12/1494, Friday (-164,497)

5/11/1494, Wednesday (-164,534) Hans Sachs, poet and dramatist, was born.

12/9/1494, Friday (-164,588) Francis I, King of France, was born.

11/9/1494, Thursday (-164,589)

7/6/1494, Saturday (-164,685) (Portugal, Brazil, Race Equality, Food) The Treaty of Tordesillas was signed. On 4/5/1493, Pope Alexander VI had set a line at 100 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands from north to south Pole; Spain had the rights to colonise west of this line, Portugal to the east. The 1494 Treaty moved this line a further 270 leagues to the west. This resulted in Portugal having possession of both Brazil and Africa; in turn this greatly facilitated the expansion of the slave trade, providing cheap labour for the sugar plantations.

8/5/1494, Thursday (-164,715)

4/5/1494, Sunday (-164,719) Christopher Columbus landed on an island he called Santa Gloria, now known as Jamaica.

20/4/1494, Sunday (-164,733) Johannes Agricola, German Protestant reformer (died 22/9/1566) was born.

30/3/1494, Sunday (-164,754) Easter Sunday

28/2/1494, Friday (-164,784)

11/1/1494, Saturday (-164,832) Domenico Ghirlandajo, Florentine painter, died (born 1449).

3/1/1494, Friday (-164,840) (South America) Christopher Columbus established the first European colony in the Americas. It was called Isabella, in Hispaniola.

17/12/1493, Tuesday (-164,857) Paracelsus, scientist and occultist, was born. He died on 24/9/1541.

19/11/1493, Tuesday (-164,885) Christopher Columbus discovered Puerto Rico, and claimed it for Spain.

3/11/1493, Sunday (-164,901) Christopher Columbus, on his second expedition, sighted the island now known as Dominica.

28/9/1493, Saturday (-164,937) Agnolo Firenzuola, Italian poet, was born.

25/9/1493, Wednesday (-164,940) Christopher Columbus left Spain on a second voyage of exploration with a fleet of 20 ships.

11/9/1493, Wednesday (-164,954)

14/6/1493, Friday (-165,043) (Italy) Ermolao Barbaro, Italian scholar, died in Rome (born in Venice 21/5/1454).

8/5/1493, Wednesday (-165,080)

8/4/1493, Monday (-165,110)

7/4/1493, Sunday (-165,111) Easter Sunday.

4/3/1493. Monday (-165,145) Christopher Columbus arrived back in Lisbon, then travelled to Spain.

6/2/1493, Wednesday (-165,171) Maximilian I of Germany became Holy Roman Emperor.

19/1/1493, Saturday (-165,189) (France, Spain) King Charles VIII of France returned Cardagne and Roussillon in the eastern Pyrenees to Spain under the Treaty of Barcelona.

4/1/1493. Friday (-165,204) Christopher Columbus left America on the return voyage to Spain in the Nina.

1/1/1493, Tuesday (-165,207)

31/12/1492, Monday (-165,208) About 100,000 Jews were expelled from Sicily.

6/12/1492. Thursday (-165,233) Christopher Columbus landed on an island he called Hispaniola, now Haiti, in search of gold. He had won backing from Spain for his expedition on condition he found gold to finance another war by Christian Spain against the Moors. Many Christians also believed that Christ’s second coming would not occur until all pagans had been converted to Christianity or at least defeated by Christendom.

5/12/1492, Wednesday (-165,234) Christopher Columbus discovered the island of Santo Domingo.

5/11/1492, Monday (-165,264)

28/10/1492. Sunday (-165,272) Christopher Columbus arrived in Cuba, believing it to be Japan.

12/10/1492. Friday (-165,288) Christopher Columbus first saw land; it was not Asia but the continent of America. He called it San Salvador.  Christopher Columbus landed in the Bahamas.

12/9/1492, Wednesday (-165,318)

11/9/1492, Tuesday (-165,319)

10/8/1492. Friday (-165,351) Pope Innocent VIII was succeeded by Rodrigo de Borgia. He took the name Pope Alexander VI. Rodrigo Borgia had bribed enough cardinals to ensure his election as Pope. See 18/8/1503.

3/8/1492. Friday (-165,358) Christopher Columbus left Palos de la Frontera, Andalusia, south-west Spain, on his first voyage to search for a passage to the Far East via the Atlantic. He actually found the Americas.  He sailed in the Santa Maria, accompanied by the Nina and the Pinta. Columbus had delayed his sailing until after 2/8/1492 as that was the deadline for Jews to leave Spain; therefore Columbus was now departing from a ‘cleansed’ Spain.

24/7/1492, Tuesday (-165,368) Pope Innocent VIII died.

28/6/1492, Thursday (-165,394)

8/5/1492, Tuesday (-165,445)

22/4/1492, Sunday (-165,461) Easter Sunday.

11/4/1492, Wednesday (-165,472) Marguerite d’Angoulmeme, Queen of Navarre, was born.

8/4/1492. Sunday (-165,475) Lorenzo de Medici, patron of learning and the arts, died aged 43, after a 23 year reign of cultural enlightenment.

30/3/1492. Friday (-165,484) The Jews were expelled from Spain by edict of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella unless they agreed to convert to Roman Catholicism. Under the Moslem rule, the Jews had benefited from tolerant Arab rulers. But the last Moslem state was conquered by Christian Spain on 2/1/1492 when Granada fell. On 30/3/1492 the 150,000 strong Jewish community was ordered out by Queen Isabella and her husband Ferdinand. Urban anti-Semitism in Spain had been growing for years, and the Spanish Inquisition, founded in 1487, made things worse. See 12/2/1502.

14/3/1492, Wednesday (-165,500)

14/2/1492, Tuesday (-165,529)

30/1/1492, Monday (-165,544)

12/1/1492, Thursday (-165,562) (Italy) Andrea Alcati, Italian jurist, was born in Alzano, near Milan.

2/1/1492. Monday (-165,572) The Spanish Army under Queen Isabella recaptured Granada from the Moors.  This had been the last remaining Moslem territory in Spain.  See 30/3/1492.

1/1/1492, Sunday (-165,573)

====================================================================================

1491, King Henry VIII of England born. Anglo-Scottish truce. Cartier, French explorer of Canada, born.

31/12/1491, Saturday (-165,574) Jacques Cartier, French explorer of the St Lawrence area of north America, was born in St Malo, northern France.

24/12/1491, Saturday (-165,581) Ignatius Loyola, Spanish priest who founded the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), was born in Azpeitia.

21/12/1491, Wednesday (-165,584) A five-year truce between England and Scotland was declared at Coldstream.

25/11/1491, Friday (-165,610) The siege of Granada, last stronghold of the Moors in Spain, began.

25/9/1491, Sunday (-165,671)

11/9/1491, Sunday (-165,685)

17/8/1491, Wednesday (-165,710)

17/7/1491, Sunday (-165,741)

28/6/1491, Tuesday (165,760) Henry VIII, best known for his six wives and religious split from Rome, was born at Greenwich. He was the son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York.

8/5/1491, Sunday (-165,811)

3/5/1491, Tuesday (-165,816) The ruler of the Kingdom of Kongo, Nkuwu Nzinga, was baptised by Portuguese missionaries, adopting the baptismal name of João I.

3/4/1491, Sunday (-165,846) Easter Sunday.

3/3/1491, Thursday (-165,877)

3/2/1491, Thursday (-165,905)

1/1/1491, Saturday (-165,938)

1491, King Henry VIII of England born. Anglo-Scottish truce. Cartier, French explorer of Canada, born.

====================================================================================

 

19/12/1490, Sunday (-165,951) Anne of Brittany married Maximillian I, Holy Roman Emperor, by proxy.

8/11/1491, Monday (-165,992) Teofilo Folengo, Italian poet, was born (died 9/12/1544).

19/10/1490, Tuesday (-166,012)

19/9/1490, Sunday (-166,042) Vladislas II, King of Bohemia, became King of Hungary.

11/9/1490, Saturday (-166,050)

17/8/1490, Tuesday (-166,075)

17/7/1490, Saturday (-166,106) Lightning struck an old Greek church in Constantinople in which the Ottoman Turks were storing gunpowder; the ensuing explosion killed 5,000.

28/6/1490, Monday (-166,125) Albert, Archbishop of Mainz (died 24/9/1545) was born.

16/5/1490, Sunday (-166,168) (Germany) Albert, 1st Duke of Prussia, was born in Ansbach (died 20/3/1568 in Tapiau).

11/4/1490, Sunday (-166,203) Easter Sunday.

6/4/1490, Tuesday (-166,208) Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary, died suddenly, aged 50. He was succeeded by Ladislas II of Bohemia.

3/4/1490, Saturday (-166,211)

3/3/1490, Wednesday (-166,242)

17/2/1490, Wednesday (-166,256) Charles Bourbon, Constable of France, was born (died 6/5/1527).

3/1/1490, Sunday (-166,301)

=====================================================================================

1489, Spain took Baza from the Muslims. Cyprus sold to Venice. Thomas Cranmer born.

4/12/1489, Friday (-166,331) The fall of Baza, in southern Spain. The Catholic Spanish army had besieged this town, held by the Muslims; both siege and defence were financed by the sale of the jewels of the ladies on both sides. Baza had been a bishopric since before 302, when its bishop was recorded as attending the Council of Elvira.

10/11/1489, Tuesday (-166,355) Henry II, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel, was born (died 1568).

2/10/1489, Friday (-166,394)

11/9/1489, Friday (-166,415)

2/7/1489, Thursday (-166,486) Thomas Cranmer, Henry VIII’s first reformed Archbishop of Canterbury, was born at Aslockton, Nottinghamshire. He produced the Book of Common Prayer in 1549.

8/6/1489, Monday (-166,510)

8/5/1489, Friday (-166,541)

19/4/1489, Sunday (-166,560) Easter Sunday.

14/4/1489, Tuesday (-166,565) (Italy, Cyprus) The Queen of Cyprus, Catherine Cornaro, sold her kingdom to Venice.

1/1/1489, Thursday (-166,668)

1489, Spain took Baza from the Muslims. Cyprus sold to Venice. Thomas Cranmer born.

====================================================================================

1488, Netherlands Navy founded. Diaz 1st European to round Cape of Good Hope.

11/9/1488, Thursday (-166,780)

9/9/1488, Tuesday (-166,782) Anne of Brittany became Duchess of Brittany at the age of 11.  Her marriage to King Charles VIII in 1491 effectively ended Breton independence from France.

7/8/1488, Thursday (-166,815) (Christian) Caspar Aquila, German religious reformer, was born in Augsburg (died 12/11/1560).

28/7/1488, Monday (-166,825) At the Battle of Saint Aubin du Cornier, troops loyal to King Charles VIII of France defeated forces led by the rebel Duke of Orleans and Duke of Brittany  in the main engagement of the Mad War.

30/6/1488, Monday (-166,853)

11/6/1488, Wednesday (-166,872) James III, King of Scotland, was assassinated.  He was succeeded by his son, James IV.

11/5/1488, Sunday (-166,903)

6/4/1488, Sunday (-166.938) Easter Sunday

6/3/1488, Thursday (-166,969)

14/2/1488, Thursday (-166,990) The Great Swabian league was formed.

3/2/1488, Sunday (-167,001) Bartholomew Diaz of Portugal landed in Mossel Bay, after rounding the Cape of Good Hope.  He was the first known European to travel this far south.

8/1/1488, Tuesday (-167,027) The present Netherlands Royal Navy was founded, by decree of Maximillian I of Austria.

6/1/1488, Sunday (-167,029) Helius Hessus, German poet, was born (died 5/10/1540).

1488, Netherlands Navy founded. Diaz 1st European to round Cape of Good Hope.

=====================================================================================

 

6/11/1487, Tuesday (-167,090)

6/10/1487, Saturday (-167,121)

30/9/1497,  Sunday (-167,127)

10/9/1487, Monday (-167,147) Pope Julius III was born.

10/8/1487, Friday (-167,178)

10/7/1487, Tuesday (-167,209)

16/6/1487, Saturday (-167,233) The Battle of Stoke Field.  The rebellion of the Pretender Lambert Simnel to the English throne, led by John de la Pole, earl of Lincoln, and Francis Lovell, 1st Viscount Lovell, was crushed by troops loyal to Henry VII.

24/5/1487, Thursday (-167,256) Lambert Simnel was crowned ‘King Edward VI of England’ in Christchurch cathedral.  He claimed to be Edward, Earl of Warwick, and challenged Henry VII for the throne of England. He was actually the son of a carpenter from Oxford who went to France and won the backing of one of Warwick’s aunts, who had never actually met the real Warwick. He then went to Ireland where he was welcomed, and from where he planned to invade England.

16/5/1487, Wednesday (-167,264)

15/4/1487, Sunday (-167,295) Easter Sunday.

29/1/1487, Monday (-167,371) Richard Foxe became Bishop of Exeter.

1/1/1478, Monday (-167,399)

13/11/1486, Monday (-167,448) (Christian) Johann Maier Eck, opponent of the reforms of Martin Luther, was born (died 10/2/1543).

19/10/1486, Thursday (-167,473)

19/9/1486, Tuesday (-167,503) King Henry VII’s son Arthur was born.

14/9/1486, Thursday (-167,508) Henry Agrippa von Nettesheim, German writer, (died 18/2/1535 in Grenoble) was born in Cologne.

11/9/1486, Monday (-167,511)

31/8/1486, Thursday (-167,522) The Portuguese explorer Bartholomew Diaz set sail for India.

11/7/1486, Tuesday (-167,573)

9/5/1486,  Tuesday (-167,636)

1/5/1486. Monday (-167,644) Christopher Columbus persuaded Queen Isabella of Spain to grant him funds to find a western sea passage to the Indies.

30/4/1486, Tuesday (

1/4/1486, Saturday (-167,674)

26/3/1486, Sunday  (-167,680) Easter Sunday.

11/3/1486, Saturday (-167,695) (Germany) Albert III, Elector of Brandenburg, died 11/3/1486 in Frankfort (born 9/11/1414 in Tangermunde).

18/2/1486, Saturday (-167,716)

18/1/1486, Wednesday (-167,747) In England, the houses of York and Lancaster were united by the marriage of King Henry VII to Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Edward IV.

1/1/1486, Sunday (-167,764)

16/12/1485, Friday (-167,780) Catherine of Aragon, first wife of King Henry VIII, was born, the fourth daughter of Ferdinand Isabella.

16/11/1485, Wednesday (-167,810)

30/10/1485. Sunday (-167,827) (1) Coronation of King Henry VII, aged 28

(2) King Henry VII established the Yeoman of the Guard.

28/10/1485, Friday (-167,829) Rodolphus Agricola, Dutch scholar (born 23/8/1443) died.

22/9/1485, Thursday (-167,865)

22/8/1485. Monday (-167,896) Battle of Bosworth Field, 12 miles west of Leicester. The two sides met at White Moor, on the slopes of Ambien Hill, some two miles from the market town of Market Bosworth. Richard had a force twice the size of Henry’s, but the Stanleys, the Earl of Derby and his brother, defected to Henry’s side. King Richard III, (White Rose, Yorkist) the last Plantagenet king, born 2/10/1452 at Fotheringay, was killed as he tried to reach the usurper to the English throne, Henry Tudor, (Red Rose, Lancastrian) now Henry VII. Henry, exiled to France, had landed at Milford Haven on 7/8/1485 and reached Shrewsbury on 15/8/1485, gathering only moderate support along the way. He then passed through Newport (Shropshire), Stafford, Lichfield, Tamworth, and reached Atherstone on the borders of Leicestershire on 20/8/1485. Here he linked up with the Stanley brothers, both anti-Yorkist. The night of the 21st, Henry encamped at White Moors, south west of what was to be the battlefield. Richard and his army halted three miles away on high ground at Sutton Cheney. Both sides attempted to occupy Ambien Hill, midway between the two armies. The Stanleys moved against the Yorkist flanks , and the Yorkist Duke of Northumberland, at the rear, failed to intervene. Richard was unhorsed and killed, and the Yorkist army melted away, unpursued.

7/8/1485, Sunday (-167,911) Henry Tudor (Henry VII) landed at Milford Haven, Wales.

1/8/1485, Monday (-167,917) Henry Tudor (Henry VII) set sail from France for Wales. He had been advised by Rhys ap Thomas (a powerful Welsh landowner), wrongly as it turned out, that the whole of Wales would rise up in his favour.

1/7/1485, Friday (-167,948)

24/6/1485, Friday (-167,055) (Germany) Johann Bugenhagen, German Protestant reformer, was born (died 20/4/1558).

21/6/1485, Tuesday (-167,958) King Richard III, anticipating a challenge for his rulership, issued a proclamation against ‘Henry Tydder’ and other rebels.

8/6 1485, Wednesday (-167,971)

8/5/1485,  Sunday (-168,002)

3/4/1485, Sunday (-168,037) Easter Sunday.

3/3/1485, Thursday (-168,068)

18/2/1485, Friday (-168,081)

3/2/1485, Thursday (-168,096)

1/1/1485, Saturday (-168,129) The English Parliament set aside £14,000 for the King’s Household Expenses. This eventually became the Civil List, which the present British Royal Family still live on.

25/12/1485, Saturday (-168,136)

5/12/1484, Sunday (-168,156) Pope Innocent VIII issued the Papal bull Summis desiderantes affectibus giving the inquisition a mission to hunt heretics and witches in Germany, led by Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Sprenger.

5/11/1484, Friday (-168,186)

5/10/1484, Tuesday (-168,217)

21/9/1484, Tuesday (-168,231) Treaty of Nottingham: Three-year truce between the kingdoms of England and Scotland signed.

12/8/1484, Thursday (-168,271) Pope Sixtus V died, and was succeeded by Pope Innocent Innocent VIII.

12/7/1484, Monday (-168,302)

12/6/1484, Saturday (-168,332)

12/5/1484, Wednesday (-168,363)

18/4/1484, Sunday (-168,387) Easter Sunday.

18/3/1484, Thursday (-168, 418)

18/2/1484, Wednesday (-168,447)

1/1/1484, Thursday (-168,495) Church reformer Huldrych Zwingli was born in Switzerland (died 11/10/1513).

3/12/1483, Wednesday (-168,524) (Christian) Nicolaus von Amsdorf, German Protestant reformer, was born in Torgau (died 14/5/1565 in Eisenach).

10/11/1483, Monday (-168,547) Martin Luther, German religious reformer, leader of the Protestant Reformation, was born in Eisleben, the son of a miner.

30/8/1483, Saturday (-168,619) Louis XI, King of France, died, aged 60. He unified France after the Hundred Years War. He was succeeded by his 13-year old son, Charles VIII.

17/8/1483. Sunday (-168,632) The date on which the two young princes, the uncrowned Edward V and his brother Richard, Duke of York, are believed to have been murdered by their uncle and successor, Richard III, in the Tower of London. See 9/4/1483.

9/8/1483. Saturday (-168,640) Pope Sixtus IV celebrated the first mass in the Sistine Chapel, which was named after him.

6/7/1483. Sunday (-168,674) The coronation of King Richard III.

28/6/1483, Saturday (-168,682) The Dukedom of Norfolk was created.

26/6/1483, Thursday (-168,684) Richard III became King of England.

8/5/1483, Thursday (-168,733)

29/4/1483, Tuesday (-168,742) Gran Canaria, the main of the Canary Islands was conquered by the Kingdom of Castile, an important step in the expansion of Spain.

9/4/1483. Wednesday (-168,762) King Edward IV died at Windsor. During his second reign he re-established peace after the Wars of the Roses, but his heir, Edward V, was only aged 12. See 17/8/1483.

30/3/1483, Sunday (-168,772) Easter Sunday

28/3/1483, Friday (-168,774) Raphael, Italian painter, was born in Urbino as Raffaello Sanzio or Santi.

14/2/1483, Friday (-168,816) Ridolfo Ghirlandajo, Florentine painter, was born (died 1560).

28/1/1483, Tuesday (-168,833)

1/1/1483, Wednesday (-168,860) Jews were expelled from Andalusia.

23/12/1482. Monday (-168,869) (France, Netherlands) Burgundy and Picardy were absorbed into France by the Treaty of Arras. Meanwhile other Burgundian lands in the Low Countries passed to the Hapsburgs due to the marriage of Charles’ only child, Margaret, to the future Holy Roman Empire, Maximilian I.

21/10/1482, Monday (-168,932)

25/8/1482, Sunday (-168,989) Margaret of Anjou, Queen of England, died.

19/8/1482, Monday (-168,995)

20/7/1482, Saturday (-169,025)

8/6/1482, Saturday (-169,067)

8/5/1482, Wednesday (-169,098)

7/4/1482, Sunday (-169,129) Easter Sunday.

7/2/1482, Thursday (-169,188)

2/1/1482, Wednesday (-169,224)

1/1/1482, Tuesday (-169,225)

26/12/1481, Wednesday (-169,231) At the Battle of Westbroek, Holland defeated the troops of Utrecht.

24/10/1481, Wednesday (-169,294)

10/9/1481, Monday (-169,338) Alphonso II of Naples recaptured the city of Otranto.

29/8/1481, Wednesday (-169,350) John II of Portugal began to rule in his own right.

27/6/1481, Wednesday (-169,413)

21/5/1481, Monday (-169,450) Christian I, King of Denmark and Norway, died aged 49. He was succeeded by his son John (1481-1513).

8/5/1481, Tuesday (-169,463)

3/5/1481, Thursday (-179,468) Mehmed II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, died and was succeeded by his 34-year old son Bayezid II.

22/4/1481, Sunday (-169,479)

1/1/1481, Monday (-169,590)

28/8/1480, Monday (-169,778)

28/7/1480, Friday (-169,747) (1) An Ottoman Army landed near Otranto, Italy.  Pope Sixtus IV called for a crusade to drive them out.

(2) Mohammed II failed in an attempt to take Rhodes from the Knights of Rhodes.

10/7/1480, Monday (-169,765) Rene, Count of Anjou, died without an heir. Louis XI annexed his territory.

8/5/1480, Monday (-169,828)

18/4/1480, Tuesday (-169,848) Lucrezia Borgia, Italian noblewoman, illegitimate daughter of Rodrigo Borgia (later Pope Alexander VI) was born in Rome.

2/4/1480, Sunday (-169,864) Easter Sunday.

6/3/1480, Monday (-169,891) The Treaty of Toledo: Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain recognised the African conquests of Alphonso of Portugal, and he ceded the Canary Islands to Spain.

13/2/1480, Sunday (-169,913) (Italy) Girolamo Aleandro, Italian Cardinal, was born in Motta, near Venice (died 1/2/1542 in Rome).

13/1/1480, Thursday (-169,944)

1/1/1480, Saturday (-169,956)

15/12/1479, Wednesday (-169,973)

13/10/1479, Wednesday (-170,036) The Battle of Kenyermezo.  The Hungarian army under Pal Kinizsi and Istvan Bathori defeated the Ottoman army in Transylvania, Hungary.

4/9/1479, Saturday (-170,075) (Africa, Portugal, Spain) The Treaty of Alcovas between Portugal and Spain confirmed Castile’s claim on the Canary Islands, and Portugal’s claim on the Azores and Madeira, also Portuguese rights in west Africa.

7/8/1479, Saturday (-170,103) The Battle of Guinegatte. A French army attempting to invade The Netherlands was defeated by Maximilian of Austria, with Flemish foot soldiers.

14/6/1479, Monday (-170,157) Giglio Giraldi, Italian poet, was born (died 2/1552).

8/5/1479, Saturday (-170,194)

11/4/1479, Sunday (-170,221) Easter Sunday.

11/2/1479, Thursday (-170.280)

24/1/1479,  Sunday (-170,298) The Republic of Venice and the Ottoman Empire signed a peace treaty.  Venice ceded Argo, Negroponte, Lemnos, and Scutari, and agreed to pay an annual tribute of 10,000 golden ducats.

20/1/1479, Wednesday (-170,302) Ferdinand II took the throne of Aragon and ruled with his wife Isabella, Queen of Castile over most of the Iberian Peninsula.  In 1492 they conquered Granada, ending 700 years of Moorish rule.

1/1/1479, Friday (-170,321)

18/11/1478, Wednesday (-170,365)

16/9/1478, Wednesday (-170,428)

22/7/1478, Wednesday (-170,484) Philip II, King of Spain, was born. Son of Emperor Maximilian I and Mary of Burgundy, he married Joanna the Mad; she inherited the throne of Castile in 1504 but due to her insanity Philip assumed full control in 1506.

15/7/1478, Wednesday (-170,491)

8/6/1478, Monday (-170,528)

8/5/1478, Friday (-170,559)

21/4/1478, Tuesday (-170,576)

22/3/1478, Sunday (-170,606) Easter Sunday

7/3/1478, Saturday (-170,621)

7/2/1478, Saturday (-170,649) Sir Thomas Moore, Lord Chancellor to King Henry VIII, was born in London, the son of a judge. He was executed for refusing to deny the authority of the Pope.

6/1/1478, Tuesday (-170,681) Novgorod was taken by Ivan III.

1/1/1478, Thursday (-170,686)

===================================================================================

1477, First Valantine Card sent. Uppsala, first university in Scandinavia, founded. Austrian Hapsburgs gained the Netherlands through marriage. Caxton, first printed book.

14/11/1477, Friday (-170,734) (Arts, Education-Schools) William Caxton issued the first dated, printed, book from his printing press in Westminster. It was Dictes or Sayengis of The Philosophres.

4/11/1477, Tuesday (-170,744)

2/9/1477, Tuesday (-170, 807)

18/8/1477, Monday (-170,822) The Hapsburgs gained possession of the Netherlands through the marriage of the son of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III, Maximillian, with Mary, daughter of Charles the Bold.

2/7/1477,  Wednesday (-170,869)

8/5/1477, Thursday (-170,924)

6/4/1477, Sunday (-170,956) Easter Sunday.

20/3/1477, Thursday (-170,973) (Christian) Jerome Emser, opponent of Martin Luther’s reforms, was born (died 8/11/1527)

27/2/1477, Thursday (-170,994) The Swedish University of Uppsala was founded, becoming the first university in Sweden and all of Scandinavia.

14/2/1477. Friday (-171,007) A man in Norfolk received the world’s first known Valentine. Margery Brews sent her fiancée John Poston a letter saying ‘To my right welbelovyd Voluntyne’. She explained that she had asked her mother to put pressure on her father to increase her dowry but also said that if he loved her, she would marry him anyway. The Romans, around 600 BC, celebrated a February festival with romantic games and dancing. When the Roman Empire was converted to Christianity, the festival was linked to the martyrdom of St Valentine on 14 February, ca. 270 AD, by the Roman Emperor Claudius. Another possible origin is the medieval belief that birds traditionally pair off on 14 February. Oliver Cromwell’s government banned St Valentine’s day but it was restored when Charles II came to the throne in 1660. See 14/2/1822.

14/1/1477, Tuesday (-171,038) Hermann, Elector of Cologne, was born (died 15/8/1552).

5/1/1477, Sunday (-171,047) Battle of Nancy. Swiss pikemen defeated the Duke of Burgundy’s cavalry. The 43-year old Duke was killed in the battle, and his body was found later, half-eaten by wolves.

1477, First Valantine Card sent. Uppsala, first university in Scandinavia, founded. Austrian Hapsburgs gained the Netherlands through marriage. Caxton, first printed book.

===================================================================================

 

3/11/1477, Sunday (-171,110)

1/9/1477, Sunday (-171,173)

1/7/1477, Monday (-171,235)

28/6/1476, Friday (-171,238) Pope Paul IV born.

22/6/1476, Saturday (-171,244) The Battle of Morat/Murten. The Swiss again defeated the Burgundians.

8/5/1476, Wednesday (-171,289)

14/4/1476, Sunday (-171,313) Easter Sunday

2/3/1476, Saturday (-171,356) (Switzerland) The Swiss defeated a Burgundian Army at Grandson, Switzerland.

2/1/1476, Tuesday (-171,416)

1/1/1476, Monday (-171,417)

11/12/1475, Monday (-171,438) Pope Leo X was born.

9/10/1475, Monday (-171,501)

7/8/1475, Monday (-171,564)

7/7/1475, Friday (-171,595)

8/5/1475, Monday (-171,655)

18/4/1475,Tuesday  (-171,675)

4/4/1475, Tuesday (-171,689)

26/3/1475, Sunday (-171,698) Easter Sunday.

6/3/1475, Monday (-171,718) Michelangelo, Italian painter and sculptor, was born in Capresse, Tiuscany, as Michelagniolo di Lodovico Buonarroti.

6/1/1475, Friday (-171,777)

1/1/1475, Sunday (-171,782)

4/11/1475, Friday (-171,840)

8/9/1474, Thursday (-177,897) Ludovic Ariosto, poet, was born.

2/9/1475, Friday (-171,903)

2/7/1475, Saturday (-171,965)

8/5/1474, Sunday (-172,020)

10/4/1474, Sunday (-172,048) Easter Sunday.

6/2/1474, Sunday (-172,111)

1/1/1474, Saturday (-172,147)

5/12/1473, Sunday (-172,174)

3/10/1473, Sunday (-172,237)

24/9/1473, Friday (-172,246) Georg von Frundsberg, German soldier, was born (died 20/8/1528).

11/8/1473, Wednesday (-172,290) (Turkey) Ottoman Turkey defeated the Turkomans at the Battle of Otlukbeli. The ‘White Sheep Turkomans’, under Uzun Hasan, had comprised the most significant threat to the Ottomans since the Mongols under Timur in the early 1400s. However at Otlukbeli the overwhelming firepower of the Ottoman Army comprehensively defeated the Turkomans.

1/8/1473, Sunday (-172,300)

10/7/1473, Saturday (-172,322)

8/5/1473, Saturday (-172,385)

18/4/1473, Sunday (-172,405) Easter Sunday.

8/4/1473, Thursday (-172,415)

17/3/1473, Wednesday (-172,437) James IV, King of Scotland, was born.

19/2/1473, Friday (-172,463) Nicolaus Copernicus, Polish astronomer, was born in Torun, Poland.

1/1/1473, Friday (-172,512)

8/6/1472, Monday (-172,719)

8/5/1472, Friday (-172,750)

8/4/1472, Wednesday (-172,780)

29/3/1472, Sunday (-172,790) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1472, Thursday (-172,828) Orkney and Shetland were given by Norway to Scotland, due to a defaulted dowry payment. King Christiaan of Norway and Denmark wanted to form an alliance with Scotland by marrying his daughter Margaret to James III. However Christiaan lacked money for a dowry, so Orkney and Shetland were temporarily handed over in lieu. The dowry was never paid so these islands became part of Scotland.

1/1/1472, Wednesday (-172,878)

====================================================================================

1471, King Henry VI of England died. England, Wars of the Roses.

26/9/1471, Thursday (-172,975)

25/7/1471, Thursday  (-173,038) Pope Paul II died, aged 54. He was succeeded by Pope Sixtus IV.

21/5/1471, Tuesday (-173,103) (1) King Henry VI died, in the Tower of London.  He was probably murdered, and was succeeded by Edward IV.

(2) Albrecht Durer, German artist and engraver, was born in Nuremberg. He was the son of a goldsmith.

4/5/1471. Saturday (-173,120) The Yorkists under Edward IV defeated the Lancastrians under Margaret of Anjou at the Battle of Tewkesbury. The Lancastrians were attempting to cross the River Severn to join  with Welsh troops under Jasper Tudor. The death of Margaret’s son, Prince Edward, as he fled the battlefield extinguished the House of Lancaster.

14/4/1471, Sunday (-173,140) Easter Sunday. Yorkists under King Edward IV defeated the Earl of Warwick’s Lancastrians at the Battle of Barnet.

20/2/1471, Wednesday (-173,193)

1/1/1471, Tuesday (-173,243)

1471, King Henry VI of England died. England, Wars of the Roses.

===================================================================================

1470, King Edward V of England born.

2/11/1470, Thursday (-173,304) Edward V, King of England, was born.

9/10/1470. Monday (-173,328) Lancastrian King Henry VI was restored to the English throne after having been deposed nine years earlier. The power behind the throne here was held by Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, a former Yorkist who abandoned the cause when his protégé, Edward IV, strong-willed, secretly married the woman he wanted to, the young widow Elizabeth Woodville, rather than undertake an arranged marriage to a French Princess. Henry VI, a weak character, was accustomed to abdication of political responsibilities so an alliance with power-hungry Warwick suited them both. However Henry VI’s weak reign was blamed for the wars that had split England for the previous 15 years, and the loss of English lands in France, and Henry’s days seemed numbered.

30/9/1470, Saturday (-173,337)

30/7/1470, Monday (-173,398) Hongzhi, Emperor of China, was born.

24/6/1470, Sunday (-173,434)

20/5/1470, Sunday (-173,369) Pietro Bembo, Italian writer, was born in Venice (died 18/1/1547).

15/5/1470, Tuesday (-173,474) Charles VIII, King of Sweden, died

22/4/1470, Sunday (-173,497) Easter Sunday

20/2/1470, Tuesday (-173,558)

1/1/1470, Monday (-173,608)

1470, King Edward V of England born.

=====================================================================================

 

22/11/1469, Tuesday (-173,649) Sir Alexander Boyd, Scottish statesman, was beheaded.

19/10/1469, Wednesday (-173,683) (Spain) The Crowns of Castile and Aragon were joined with the marriage of Prince Ferdinand of Aragon and the Infanta Isabella of Castile. This nominally united almost all of what is now Spain, except for the Kingdom of Navarre in the north and Granada in the south (although the two kingdoms remained politically separate entities). Spain was now the most powerful State in Europe.

8/10/1469, Saturday (-173,694) Fra Filippo Lippi, painter, died.

28/9/1469, Wednesday (-173,704)

26/7/1469, Wednesday (-173,767) Battle of Edgecote, Northamptonshire, Wars of the Roses

10/7/1469, Monday (-173,783)

3/5/1469. Wednesday (-173,851) Niccolo Machiavelli, Italian statesman and historian, was born in Florence.

2/4/1469, Sunday (-173,882) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1469, Monday (-173,923)

1/1/1469, Sunday (-173,973)

24/11/1468, Thursday (174,011) Jean Dunois, French commander who achieved many victories against the English during the Hundred Years War, died (born 1403).

7/11/1468, Monday (-174,028)

7/10/1468, Friday (-174,059) Sigismondo Malatesta, tyrant and soldier, died.

11/9/1468, Sunday (-174,085)

10/7/1468, Sunday (-174,148)

8/5/1468, Sunday (-174,211)

17/4/1468, Sunday (-174,232) Easter Sunday.

28/2/1468, Sunday (-174,281) Pope Paul III was born.

20/2/1468, Saturday (-174,289)

3/2/1468, Wednesday (-174,306) Johann Gutenberg, German inventor of printing from moveable type, died.

1/1/1468, Friday (-174,339)

15/6/1467, Monday (-174,539) Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, died, aged 71, after a 48-year reign. He was succeeded by his son, Charles the Bold, who began a 10-year power struggle with Louis XI of France.

8/5/1467, Friday (-174,577)

29/3/1467, Sunday (-174,617) Easter Sunday.

1/3/1467, Sunday (-174,645)

1/2/1467, Sunday (-174,673)

1/1/1467, Thursday (-174,704)

13/12/1466, Saturday (-174,723) Donatello, sculptor, died.

1/12/1466, Monday (-174,735)

1/11/1466, Saturday (-174,765)

19/10/1466, Friday(-174,768) (Poland, Germany) King Casimir IV signed the Second Peace of Thorn, ending the  warfare which began in 1454 when Casimir IV agreed to help the Prussian Confederation against the Teutonic Knights.

6/4/1466, Sunday (-174,976) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1466, Thursday (-175,019)

1/1/1466, Wednesday (-175,069)

8/5/1465, Wednesday (-175,307)

14/4/1465, Sunday (-175,331) Easter Sunday

8/1/1465, Tuesday (-175,427) (Italy) Lorenzo Giustiniani, Bishop of Venice, died (born 1380).

14/8/1464, Tuesday (-175,574) Pope Pius II died.

12/8/1464, Sunday (-175,576) John Capgrave, English historian, born 21/4/1393, died.

1/8/1464, Wednesday (-175,587) Cosimo de Medici died aged 75 in Florence. He was succeeded as head of the banking family by his son, Piero.

8/7/1464, Sunday (-175,611)

8/5/1464, Tuesday (-175,672)

25/4/1464, Wednesday (-175,885) At Hedgeley Moor, near Alnwick, Northumberland, the Lancastrians in northern England were defeated.

8/4/1464, Sunday (-175,702)

1/4/1464, Sunday (-175,709) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1464, Sunday (-175,800)

=====================================================================================

1463,

1/12/1463, Thursday (-175,831)

1/11/1463, Tuesday (-175,861)

29/10/1463, Saturday (-175,864) (Medical) Alessandro Achillini, Italian anatomist, (died 2/8/1512 in Bologna) was born in Bologna.

10/4/1463, Sunday (-176,066) Easter Sunday.

10/3/1463, Thursday (-176,097)

10/2/1463, Thursday (-176,125)

17/1/1463, Monday (-176,149) Antoine du Prat, Chancellor of France, was born (died 9/7/1535).

1/1/1463, Saturday (-176,165)

=====================================================================================

1462,

8/5/1462, Saturday (-176,403)

18/4/1462, Sunday (-176,423) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1462, Saturday (-176,480)

1/1/1462, Friday (-176,530)

====================================================================================

1461, England, Wars of the Roses; Battle of Towton. Charles VII of France died.

15/8/1461, Saturday (-176,669) The Ottomans took Trebizond.

22/7/1461, Wednesday (-176,693) Charles VII of France died aged 58. He was succeeded by his son, Louis XI.

28/6/1461, Sunday (-176,717) Coronation of Yorkist King Edward IV.

17/6/1461, Wednesday (-176,728) Vlad the Impaler, or Dracula, massacred an Ottoman army, killing 15,000, near Targoviste, capital of Wallachia.

8/5/1461, Friday (-176,768)

5/4/1461, Sunday (-176,801) Easter Sunday.

29/3/1461, Sunday (-176,808) The Battle of Towton (North Yorkshire) took place, during the Wars of the Roses, in a snowstorm. It was the bloodiest battle ever on British soil; over 28,000 died. The Lancastrians were heavily defeated and the position of King Edward IV was secured.

5/3/1461, Thursday (-176,832) Henry VI was deposed as King of England. Edward IV (Duke of York) succeeded him.

17/2/1461, Tuesday (-176,848) The Second Battle of Barnet. Margaret of Anjou’s Lancastrian forces defeated the Yorkist Earl of Warwick. Warwick, defending the Yorkists in London, was taken by surprise and fled in disarray, failing to take King Henry VI with him.

3/2/1461, Tuesday (-176,862) At Mortimer’s Cross, Richard’s son, Edward, Earl of March, defeated the Lancastrian forces.

17/1/1461, Saturday (-176,879)

3/1/1461, Saturday (-176,893)

1/1/1461, Thursday (-176,895)

1461, England, Wars of the Roses; Battle of Towton. Charles VII of France died.

====================================================================================

1460, University of Basle opened. Wars of the Roses in England.

30/12/1460, Tuesday (-176,897)  The Battle of Wakefield. A superior Lancastrian force caught Yorkists, foraging, by surprise, and the Duke of York was killed. This would have ended the Yorkist cause but for the Battle of Mortimer’s Cross, 3/2/1461.

13/11/1460, Thursday (-176,944) Prince Henry the Navigator died, aged 66.

13/10/1460, Monday (-176,975)

13/9/1460, Saturday (-177,005)

3/8/1460. Sunday (-177,046) James II, King of Scotland, killed during the siege of Roxburgh Castle by the English.

10/7/1460. Thursday (-177,070) The Yorkists defeated the Lancastrians in the Wars of the Roses and captured King Henry VI at the Battle of Northampton.

10/6/1460, Tuesday (-177,100)

8/5/1460, Thursday (-177,133)

13/4/1460, Sunday (-177,138) Easter Sunday

4/4/1460, Friday (-177,147) The University of Basle opened.

20/2/1460, Wednesday (-177,211)

1/1/1460, Tuesday (-177,261)

1460, University of Basle opened. Wars of the Roses in England.

====================================================================================

1459, Wars of the Roses in England.

23/9/1459, Sunday (-177,361) The Battle of Blore Heath, during the Wars of the Roses. The Yorkists under Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury, defeated the Lancastrians under Lord Audley. Salisbury was now able to join forces with the Yorkists at Ludlow.

10/7/1459, Tuesday (-177,436)

8/5/1459, Tuesday (-177,499)

25/3/1459, Sunday (-177,543) Easter Sunday.

22/3/1459, Thursday (-177,546) Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian was born.

20/2/1459, Tuesday (-177,576)

1/1/1459, Monday (-177,626)

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14/8/1458, Monday (-177,766)

6/8/1458, Sunday (-177,774) Pope Calistus III died.

12/6/1458. Monday (-177,829) Magdalen College, Oxford, was founded.

8/5/1458, Monday (-177,864)

2/4/1458, Sunday (-177,900) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1458, Monday (-177,941)

20/1/1458, Friday (-177,972) Mathew Corvinas, second son of Janos Hunyadi (the ruler who had successfully defended Belgrade against the Ottomans under Mehmed II in 1456) was elected King of Hungary. He took territory for Hungary from Bohemia, having obtained papal consent for a Crusade against its Hussite ruler, George of Podebrady (ruled 1458-71). However Hungary eventually came under Ottoman rule in 1526.

1/1/1458, Sunday (-177,991)

8/5/1457, Sunday (-178,229)

17/4/1457, Sunday (-178,250) Easter Sunday.

6/3/1457, Sunday (-178,292) King James II of Scotland banned golf, because it distracted men from archery training. There was a constant threat of invasion from England, The ban was reiterated in 1471 and 1491, and was not formally lifted until 1744.

28/2/1457, Monday (-178,298)

28/1/1457, Friday (-178,329) Henry VII born at Pembroke Castle. The start of the Tudor dynasty. He was the son of Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond, and of Margaret Beaufort.

1/1/1457, Saturday (-178,356)

17/12/1456, Friday (-178,371)

25/11/1456, Thursday (-178,393) Jacques Couer, French trader, died.

9/11/1456, Tuesday (-178,409) (Hungary) Ulrich Cilli, Hungarian governor, was assassinated hy Laszlo Hunyadi.

23/10/1456, Saturday (-178,426) (Christian) Giovanni di Capistrano, Italian theologian, died (born 1386).

17/10/1456, Sunday (-178,432) The University of Greifswald was established.

22/9/1456, Wednesday (-178,457)

20/8/1456, Friday (-178,490) Vlad III ‘The Impaler’ became King of Romania. His cruelty gave rise to the legend of Dracula.

22/7/1456, Thursday (-178,519) John Hunyadi, King of the Hungarians, defeated an invading Ottoman Turkish army at Belgrade. This halted the ambitions of Sultan Mahomet II to occupy Vienna and then Rome, which Mahomet regarded as still the ‘capital of Europe’.

8/7/1456, Thursday (-178,533)

8/5/1456, Saturday (-178,594)

8/4/1456, Thursday (-178,624)

28/3/1456, Sunday (-178,635) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1456, Thursday (-178,722)

22/5/1455. Thursday (-178,946) The First Battle of Barnet.  In the Wars of the Roses, Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, Yorkist, fought his way into the Lancastrian camp because Henry VI had refused Richard of York’s demand that Simon Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, be imprisoned. The Yorkists won, killing their principal enemies, Somerset, Northumberland and Clifford.

8/4/1455, Tuesday (-178,990) Pope Callixtus III (born 1378) acceded (died 1458).

6/4/1455, Sunday (-178,992) Easter Sunday

24/3/1455, Monday (-179,005) Pope Nicholas V died.

1/1/1455, Wednesday (-179,087)

21/7/1454, Sunday (-179,251) Juan II of Castile died and was succeeded by his son, Enrique.

21/5/1454, Tuesday (-179,312) (Italy) Ermolao Barbaro, Italian scholar, was born in Venice (died in Rome 14/6/1493).

8/5/1454,  Wednesday (-179,325)

21/4/1454, Sunday (-179,342) Easter Sunday.

9/4/1454. Tuesday (-179,354) Three rival Italian powers – Venice, Milan, and Florence – agreed to unite in an ‘Italian league’. Rome and Milan also seemed likely to join.

9/3/1454, Saturday (-179,385) Amerigo Vespucci, Italian explorer who discovered the mouth of the Amazon and gave his name to America, was born.

20/2/1454, Wednesday (-179,402)

1/1/1454, Tuesday (-179,452)

1/12/1453, Saturday (-179,483)

1/11/1453, Thursday (-179,513)

19/10/1453, Friday (-179,525) (France) France recaptured Bordeaux from the English. Bordeaux had fallen to France in 1451, but the English retook it. 

17/7/1453. Tuesday (--179,620) The end of the Hundred Years War, when the French defeated the English at Chatillon/Castillon. Now only Calais remained in English hands; in 1449 England had occupied nearly a third of France.

29/5/1453.Tuesday (-179,669) (Roman Empire, Turkey)The Turks conquered Constantinople, following a siege of over a year. The end of the Byzantine Empire.

12/5/1453, Saturday (-179,686) The Ottoman Sultan ordered the walls of Constantinople be bombarded with huge cannon balls fired from an 8 metre long, 1.05 metre calibre, cannon.

6/4/1453, Friday (-179,722) The Turkish attack on Constantinople began..

1/4/1453, Sunday (-179,727) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1453, Tuesday (-179,767)

1/1/1453, Monday (-179,817)

2/10/1452, Monday (-179,908) Richard III, King of England, was born.

21/9/1452, Thursday (-179,919) Girolamo Savonarola, Church reformer, was born.

17/7/1452, Monday (-179,985)

8/5/1452, Monday (-180,055)

9/4/1452, Sunday (-180,084) Easter Sunday.

26/4/1452. Wednesday (-180,067) Leonardo Da Vinci, Italian painter, sculptor, architect, musician, engineer, scientist, and inventor, was born into the Renaissance.

19/3/1452, Sunday (-180,105) Frederick, King of Germany, was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Nicholas.

16/3/1452, Thursday (-180,108) Ferdinand V, King of Castile and Leon, was born (died 23/1/1516).

3/2/1452, Thursday (-180,150) The Duke of York accused the Beaufort family, who backed the Lancastrian King Henry VI, of incompetence and ineptitude and of thereby losing the English territories in France.

1/1/1452, Saturday (-180,183)

20/8/1451, Friday (-180,317) The French captured Bayonne, the last English stronghold in Guyenne.

17/7/1451, Saturday (-180,351)

30/6/1451, Wednesday (-180,368) French troops under the Comte de Dunois invaded Guyenne and captured Bordeaux.

25/4/1451, Sunday (-180,434) Easter Sunday.

22/4/1451, Thursday (-180,437) Isabella, Queen of Castile and Leon was born.

20/2/1451, Saturday (-180,498)

7/1/1451, Thursday (-180,542) Glasgow University was founded.

1/1/1451, Friday (-180,548)

3/11/1450, Tuesday (-180,607)

5/10/1450, Monday (-180,636)  Jews were expelled from Lower Bavaria by order of Ludwig IX.

16/9/1450, Wednesday (-180,655) (France) Louis Aleman, French Cardinal, died in Arles.

12/8/1450, Wednesday (-180,690) Cherbourg, the last English territory in Normandy, surrendered to the French.

17/7/1450, Friday (-180,716)

12/7/1450, Sunday (-180,721) Cade had been promised a free pardon and had disbanded his army. However he was then hunted down by Government forces and killed this day.

6/7/1450, Monday (-180,727) Caen surrendered to the French.

4/7/1450, Saturday (-180,729) Jack  Cade entered London. Henry VI had left London for Kenilworth, allowing Cade’s men to enter the capital and execute unpopular courtiers. However Cade proved unable to maintain discipline amongst his followers and Londoners turned against him.

27/6/1450. Saturday (-180,736) Jack Cade, an Irish born physician, led an insurrection march of 40,000 through Kent to London to protest against the high taxes of King Henry VI. The English Government was unpopular after its defeat in the Hundred Years War. Meanwhile Henry VI’s courtiers blamed the Men of Kent for the murder of William de la Pole in May 1450 and wanted reprisals, sparking the Kentish rebellion. Pole had been involved in the disastrous English military campaign in France that culminated with the loss of Normandy to the French; Parliament had him sent to The Tower on charges of treason. King Henry VI, to save Pole from a trial with a foregone conclusion, declared him innocent but banished him from England for five years. As Pole left Dover, his ship was intercepted, and Pole was forcibly dragged into a small boat and beheaded.

28/5/1450, Thursday (-180,766)

15/4/1450, Wednesday (-180,809) The Battle of Formigny. Fought near Caen, the French defeated an English force sent to halt King Charles VII’s reconquest of Normandy.

5/4/1450, Sunday (-180,819) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1450, Friday (-180,863)

1/1/1450, Thursday (-180,913)

1/12/1449, Monday (-180,944)

1/11/1449, Saturday (-180,974)

29/10/1449, Wednesday  (-180,977) The French recaptured Rouen from the English.

13/4/1449, Sunday (-181,176) Easter Sunday

20/2/1449, Thursday (-181,228)

6/1/1449, Monday (-181,273) Constantine XI was crowned Byzantine Emperor at Mistra. He was the last in a line of rulers that can be traced to the founding of Rome.

1/1/1449, Wednesday (-181,278)

4/11/1449, Monday (-181,336)

17/10/1448, Thursday (-181,354) Battle of Kosovo: Hungarian forces under John Hunyadi were defeated by the Turks.

28/8/1448, Wednesday (-181,404) (France) France’s first regular infantry, the Francs-Archers, was formed. By ordinance of Montils les Tours, each parish was to selecte its best archer, who was to practice on Sundays and feast days, and was exempt from the taille. They had to be ready to mobilise instantly when required.

8/5/1448, Wednesday (-181,516)

8/4/1448, Monday (-181,546)

24/3/1448,  Sunday (-181,561) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1448, Tuesday (-181,594)

1/1/1448, Monday (-181,644)

15/6/1447, Monday (-181,875) The Inquisition was revived in Spain.

8/5/1447, Monday (-181,882)

15/4/1447, Saturday (-181,905)

9/4/1447, Sunday (-181,911) Easter Sunday.

6/3/1447, Monday (-181,945) St Colette, founder of the Colettine Poor Clares, died at Ghent (born 13/1/1381). She founded 18 convents.

23/2/1447, Thursday (-181,956) Pope Eugene IV (207th Pope) died.

20/2/1447, Monday (-181,959)

1/1/1447, Sunday (-182,009)

8/5/1446, Sunday (-182,247)

17/4/1446, Sunday (-182,268) Easter Sunday.

16/4/1446, Saturday (-182,269) Filippo Brunelleschi, the Florentine architect and sculptor who designed the city’s cathedral, died.

20/2/1446, Sunday (-182,324)

1/1/1446, Saturday (-182,374)

8/5/1445, Saturday (-182,612)

28/3/1445, Sunday (-182,653) Easter Sunday.

16/3/1445, Tuesday (-183,665) Johann Geiler, German religious writer, was born (died 10/3/1510)

20/2/1445, Saturday (-182,689)

20/1/1445, Wednesday (-182,720)

1/1/1445, Friday (-182,739)

11/12/1444, Friday (-182,760) The earliest mention of the Welsh town of Bridgend, in a legal document, as Bruggen Eynde. The older market town of Kenfig had been abandoned due to coastal flooding and encroachment by sand dunes, and a bridge over the River Ogmore was constructed to the new town site.

10/11/1444, Tuesday (-182,791) (1) (Turkey) Christian forces were heavily defeated at Varna by Ottoman Turks.

(2) Ladislas VI, King of Poland, died.

8/5/1444, Friday (-182,977)

12/4/1444, Sunday (-183,003) Easter Sunday

20/2/1444, Thursday (-183,055)

1/1/1444, Wednesday (-183,105)

23/8/1443, Friday (-183,236) Rodolphus Agricola, Dutch scholar (died 28/10/1485) was born.

10/7/1443, Wednesday (-183,280)

8/5/1443, Wednesday (-183,343)

21/4/1443, Sunday (-183,360) Easter Sunday.

27/3/1443, Wednesday (-183,385) Matthius Corvinus, King of Hungary, second son of John Hunyadi, was born.

20/2/1443, Wednesday (-183,420)

27/1/1443, Sunday (-183,444) (Germany) Albert III, Duke of Saxony, was born (died 12/9/1500 in Emden).

1/1/1443, Tuesday (-183,470)

18/12/1442, Tuesday (-183,484) (France) Pierre Cauchon, French Bishop, died.

27/11/1442, Tuesday (-183,505)

30/9/1442, Sunday (-183,563) Johannes Gutenberg’s Bible became the first book to be printed using moveable metal type.

30/7/1442, Monday (-183,625)

17/6/1442, Sunday (-183,668) Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, was crowned King of Germany a